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Sample records for blood characteristics meat

  1. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  2. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö. Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting the

  3. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting

  4. Effects of dietary recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, blood characteristics, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Jung, S K; Kim, J S; Kim, K-W; Oh, K B; Lee, P-Y; Byun, S J

    2017-03-01

    The use of chlorella as an immune stimulant to enhance nonspecific host defense mechanisms or as an antimicrobial to inhibit bacterial growth has been reported. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, and the blood profile, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers. A total of 375 one-day-old ROSS 308 broilers (male and female) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments using 5 cages with 15 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) NC, basal diet supplemented with 1.0% E. coli fermented liquor (EFL); 2) PC1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella; 3) PC2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella; 4) T1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral); and 5) T2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral). The broilers in the T2 treatment groups showed higher body weight gain (BGW) by 2.55% (P < 0.01) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.75% (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the control NC treatment group. Moreover, the blood contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and IgA in the broilers of the T2 treatment group were significantly increased by 28.12, 23.07, and 29.72%, respectively -more than those found in the broilers of the NC treatment group (P < 0.01). In contrast, the LDL/C in the blood from the animals in the T2 treatment group was significantly decreased by 23.23% - more than that in the blood from the NC broilers (P < 0.05). Based on these results, we suggest that the dietary supplementation of broilers with recombinant chlorella could improve their growth performance, increase the concentration of IgA and apparently metabolizable nitrogen in the blood, and decrease ammonia emissions. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation through increasing the concentration of IgA and the level of metabolizable nitrogen.

  5. Effects of two probiotic additives containing Bacillus spores on carcass characteristics, blood lipids and cecal volatile fatty acids in meat type chickens.

    PubMed

    Novak, R; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Terčič, D; Cervek, M; Gorjanc, G; Holcman, A; Levart, A; Rogelj, I

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two commercially available probiotic additives, containing Bacillus spores, on carcass and meat characteristics, serum lipids and concentration of cecal volatile fatty acids of meat type chickens. Birds were fed regular corn-soy meal based feed (control), supplemented with additive A, containing 1.6 × 10(6) spores per gram of feed of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (group A) or additive B, containing the same concentration of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi spores (group B). One hundred and twenty birds (20 per replicate) were slaughtered at the age of 55 days. Results showed that birds in group B had higher (p < 0.05) final body weight compared to birds from group A and higher carcass weights and yield percentages compared with control. Breasts and whole legs were also heavier in group B, compared to control, but not the yield. Group A had higher yield of wings and lower abdominal fat weight compared to group B (p< 0.05), but not compared with control. Total cholesterol was not affected by the dietary treatment, on contrary both probiotics elevated the LDL (p < 0.05) and lowered HDL cholesterol, thus unfavourably changed animal's blood serum cholesterol profile. Both probiotics influenced the cecal fermentation, which was observed as decrease in cecal concentrations of propionic, butyric, n-butyric and n-valeric acids, but the differences compared to control group were statistically significant for group A only. It was established that probiotic additive B was more effective regarding carcass and meat part weights than additive A, however the animals from group B also had more abdominal fat and their meat had significantly higher conductivity than control group, which is not considered as beneficial.

  6. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain/feed) didn’t differ among treatments through the whole experiment. These pigs fed the PCL diet had the greater (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter than those from PC and NC treatment at the end of the experiment. No differences were observed in white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and lymphocyte concentration among different treatments. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter. The pigs in NCL and PCL treatments had greater (p<0.05) backfat thickness and lower lean percentage. The color value of loin was higher (p<0.05) in NCL treatment compared to PCL treatment. Also, the NCL treatment had higher (p<0.05) marbling value than PC treatment. The drip loss was depressed by PCL and NCL treatment comapared to NC treatments. The water holding capacity (WHC) was higher (p<0.05) in NC and PCL treatment. In conclusion, the low FC can improve digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:25049693

  8. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  9. Sensory characteristics of meat and meat products from entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Dolores Garrido, M; Egea, Macarena; Belén Linares, M; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Rubio, Begoña; Viera, Ceferina; Martínez, Beatriz

    2017-02-14

    The surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practised to prevent the development of boar taint in pork meat, but European rules aim to end this practice on a voluntary basis. This study represents a sensory characterization of the meat and meat products from entire male pigs. Three levels of androstenone concentration in fat were compared: low, 0-0.3mgkg(-1); medium, 0.4-0.9μgkg(-1) and high, 1-2.75μgkg(-1). The use of meat from entire males in meat products lowered the perception of boar taint compared with fresh meat but was insufficient to totally mask it. Androstenone levels seem to influence the intramuscular fat content and hence, on texture. The perception of boar taint in meat products depends on androstenone concentration as well as on the characteristics of the product. It is necessary to develop additional strategies to totally mask androstenone perception in meat and meat products.

  10. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  12. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure

  13. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  14. Influence of probiotics in different energy and nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and blood characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q W; Yan, L; Ao, X; Zhou, T X; Wang, J P; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis endospore and Clostridium butyricum endospore complex) supplementation and different energy and nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 96 pigs with initial BW of 47.50 ± 1.14 kg were used in a 10-wk experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of energy and nutrient density (low and high energy, CP, and Lys) and 0.2% probiotics according to their sex and BW (6 pens, with 2 gilts and 2 barrows/pen). From 0 to 5 wk, ADG and G:F, as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and energy, were improved (P < 0.05) in the probiotic groups and in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density groups. From 6 to 10 wk, ADG and G:F, as well as the ATTD of DM, N, and energy, were increased (P < 0.01) when pigs were fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets. Pigs fed the probiotic supplement or the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had increased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F overall. Moreover, pigs fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had increased (P < 0.05) meat color scores, marbling scores, drip loss values, pH, and LM area (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets, whereas the probiotic treatment groups had increased (P < 0.01) meat color scores, marbling scores, and redness values. The lightness and yellowness values in the low-energy and low-nutrient-density dietary treatments were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density dietary treatments. Interactive effects of dietary energy and nutrient density and probiotics were also observed (P < 0.05) on the digestibility of N at wk 10 and energy at wk 5, as well as on meat firmness at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of probiotics increased growth

  15. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company.

  16. Control of fresh meat quality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Joo, S T; Kim, G D; Hwang, Y H; Ryu, Y C

    2013-12-01

    Variations of fresh meat quality exist because the quality traits are affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Because the meat quality is basically dependent on muscle fiber characteristics, numerous studies have reported the relationship between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research, the relationship is yet to be fully established, however, the present knowledge suggests several potential ways to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics to improve meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of fresh meat quality, meat quality traits and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between fresh meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics. Finally, the present work proposes several potential factors including breed, genotype, sex, hormone, growth performance, diet, muscle location, exercise and ambient temperature that can be used to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics and subsequently meat quality in animals.

  17. WHITE STRIPING AND WOODEN BREAST DEFECTS INFLUENCE MEAT QUALITY AND MUSCLE PROTEIN CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER BREAST MEAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine the effects of the wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies on meat quality and protein characteristics of broiler breast meat. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) from a commercial processing plant were segregated into four groups: normal (neither WS nor W...

  18. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  19. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products.

  20. Blood Levels of Meat-Linked Chemical Tied to Odds of Heart Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A molecule produced in the digestion of red meat, eggs and dairy products is ... Institute. TMAO is produced by gut bacteria during digestion of animal-based food, and accumulates in blood ...

  1. Characteristics of Yeasts Isolated from Pacific Crab Meat

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, M. W.; Spinelli, J.; Miyauchi, D.; Groninger, H.

    1965-01-01

    A total of 202 cultures of yeasts were isolated and characterized from king crab and Dungeness crab meat. A yeastlike organism, resembling Aureobasidium pullulans, and 15 different species distributed among the genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Torulopsis, Candida, and Trichosporon were represented. Nine of the species grew at 5 C or lower. Although two of the species grew at 37 C, none of the isolates had the characteristics of pathogenic species. Members of the Cryptococcus and Candida failed to grow at 37 C. Furthermore, species of the former genus were not pathogenic to mice. The pigmentation of the Rhodotorula cultures decreased in intensity as the incubation temperature was decreased. Biochemical activities of the different species were studied by use of triglycerides, lecithin, and proteins (casein, gelatin, and crab-meat protein) as substrates. Eight of the species could attack triglycerides; eight, lecithin; five, gelatin; one, casein; and one, crab protein. An organism, tentatively identified as Trichosporon sp., was very active in attacking each of the substrates tested and grew well at 0.5 C. PMID:5866045

  2. Characteristics and Applications of Microbial Starters in Meat Fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Fontana, Cecilia

    Fermentation and drying are among the most ancient food preservation techniques used by man. Developed through the years, these processes prolonged the storage time of meats (and meat products) and brought favorable changes to their organoleptic properties, with respect to the original substrate.

  3. Mapping of QTL affecting incidence of blood and meat inclusions in egg layers.

    PubMed

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Ahola, Virpi; Uimari, Pekka; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Cavero, David; Vennerström, Pia; Arango, Jesus; O'Sullivan, Neil; Fulton, Janet; Vilkki, Johanna

    2011-06-13

    Occurrence of blood and meat inclusions is an internal egg quality defect. Mass candling reveals most of the spots, but because brown eggshell hampers selection in brown chicken lines it has not been possible to eliminate the defect by selection. Estimated frequency of blood and meat inclusions in brown layers is about 18% whereas it is 0.5% in white egg layers. Several factors are known to increase the incidence of this fault: genetic background, low level of vitamin A and/or D, stress or infections, for instance. To study the genetic background of the defect, a mapping population of 1599 F2 hens from a cross of White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up. Our histopathological analyses show that blood spots consist of mainly erythrocytes and that meat spots are accumulations of necrotic material. Linkage analysis of 27 chromosomes with 162 microsatellite markers revealed one significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting blood spot and meat spot frequency. We sequenced a fragment of a candidate gene within the region, ZO-2, coding for a tight junction protein. Nine polymorphisms were detected and two of them were included in fine-mapping and association analysis. Fine-mapping defined the QTL result. To further verify the QTL, association analyses were carried out in two independent commercial breeding lines with the marker MCW241 and surrounding SNPs. Association was found mainly in a 0.8 Mb-wide chromosomal area on GGAZ. There was good agreement between the location of the QTL region on chromosome Z and the association results in the commercial breeds analyzed. Variations found in tight junction protein ZO-2 and microRNA gga-mir-1556 may predispose egg layers to blood and meat spot defects. This paper describes the first results of detailed QTL analyses of the blood and meat spots trait(s) in chickens. © 2011 Honkatukia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Biofilm Formation Characteristics of Pseudomonas lundensis Isolated from Meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Yun-Fang; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms formations of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on food or food contact surfaces have attracted increasing attention. These events may lead to a higher risk of food spoilage and foodborne disease transmission. While Pseudomonas lundensis is one of the most important bacteria that cause spoilage in chilled meat, its capability for biofilm formation has been seldom reported. Here, we investigated biofilm formation characteristics of P. lundensis mainly by using crystal violet staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The swarming and swimming motility, biofilm formation in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C) and the protease activity of the target strain were also assessed. The results showed that P. lundensis showed a typical surface-associated motility and was quite capable of forming biofilms in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C). The strain began to adhere to the contact surfaces and form biofilms early in the 4 to 6 h. The biofilms began to be formed in massive amounts after 12 h at 30 °C, and the extracellular polysaccharides increased as the biofilm structure developed. Compared with at 30 °C, more biofilms were formed at 4 and 10 °C even by a low bacterial density. The protease activity in the biofilm was significantly correlated with the biofilm formation. Moreover, the protease activity in biofilm was significantly higher than that of the corresponding planktonic cultures after cultured 12 h at 30 °C.

  5. Effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate and sugar beet pulp in the concentrate for fattening lambs on acid-base status and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bodas, R; Rodríguez, A B; López, S; Fernández, B; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2007-12-01

    Thirty-six young Merino lambs (15.3kg live weight) were allocated into four equal groups to study the effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate ('Bic', 0 vs. 2%) and sugar beet pulp ('SBP', 0 vs. 12%) in the concentrate on meat characteristics. Lambs were fed barley straw and concentrate ad libitum. When they reached 25kg a blood sample was taken and the animal slaughtered. After 24h meat characteristics (pH, colour, water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force, chemical and fatty acid - 'FA' - composition) were measured on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. SBP replacing 24% of the barley in the concentrate caused an increase in shear force (P<0.05) and saturated FA (P<0.05), decreasing meat unsaturated FA (P<0.05). SB increased blood base excess (P<0.05) and meat yellowness (P<0.05) and decreased meat pH (P<0.05), without altering any other meat characteristics.

  6. Effect of Myopathies on Meat Quality and Protein Characteristics of Broiler Breast Meat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) conditions are abnormalities that occur in the breast muscles of modern broilers. Although WB and WS are known to adversely affect meat quality, the underlying effect of these conditions on muscle proteins are not well understood. The objective of this ...

  7. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  8. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  9. Biofilm formation of Salmonella serotypes in simulated meat processing environments and its relationship to cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huhu; Ding, Shijie; Dong, Yang; Ye, Keping; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-10-01

    Salmonella attached to meat contact surfaces encountered in meat processing facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. In this study, the influence of serotypes and media on biofilm formation of Salmonella was investigated in a simulated meat processing environment, and the relationships between biofilm formation and cell characteristics were also determined. All six serotypes (Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Indiana, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) can readily form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces, and the amounts of biofilms were significantly influenced by the serotypes, incubation media, and incubation time used in this study. Significant differences in cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, motility, and growth kinetic parameters were observed between individual serotypes tested. Except for growth kinetic parameters, the cell characteristics were correlated with the ability of biofilm formation incubated in tryptic soy broth, whereas no correlation with biofilm formation incubated in meat thawing-loss broth (an actual meat substrate) was found. Salmonella grown in meat thawing-loss broth showed a "cloud-shaped" morphology in the mature biofilm, whereas when grown in tryptic soy broth it had a "reticulum-shaped" appearance. Our study provides some practical information to understand the process of biofilm formation on meat processing contact surfaces.

  10. Physical distribution and characteristics of meat & bone meal protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is a high-protein commodity produced by the rendering of fat from unmarketable animal tissue. Concerns related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy have progressively restricted MBM’s conventional use as a feed ingredient. Consequently, significant attention has focused on th...

  11. Risk factors for Salmonella infection in fattening pigs - an evaluation of blood and meat juice samples.

    PubMed

    Hotes, S; Kemper, N; Traulsen, I; Rave, G; Krieter, J

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse potential herd-level factors associated with the detection of Salmonella antibodies in fattening pigs. Two independent datasets, consisting of blood and meat juice samples respectively, were used. Additional information about husbandry, management and hygiene conditions was collected by questionnaire for both datasets. The serological analysis showed that 13.8% of the blood samples and 15.7% of the meat juice samples had to be classified as Salmonella-positive. Logistic-regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with a positive sample result. The results of the statistical blood sample analysis showed that the application of antibiotics increased the odds ratio (OR) by a factor of 5.21 (P < 0.001) compared to untreated pigs. A fully slatted floor decreased the prevalence of Salmonella as well as the use of protective clothing or the cleaning of the feed tube (ORs 0.35-0.54, P < 0.001). It was shown that a distance of less than 2 km to other swine herds increased the chance of a positive Salmonella result (OR = 3.76, P < 0.001). The statistical analysis of the meat juice samples revealed the importance of feed aspects. The chance of obtaining a positive meat juice sample increased by a factor of 3.52 (P < 0.001) by using granulated feed instead of flour. It also became clear that liquid feeding should be preferred to dry feeding (OR = 0.33, P < 0.001). A comparison of the blood sample analysis to the meat juice model revealed that the latter was less powerful because data structure was less detailed. The expansion of data acquisition might solve these problems and improve the suitability of QS monitoring data for risk factor analyses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Amino acids in human blood plasma after single meals of meat, oil, sucrose and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Nasset, E S; Heald, F P; Calloway, D H; Margen, S; Schneeman, P

    1979-04-01

    Six healthy men (21 to 38 years; 58 to 80 kg) consumed an adequate diet in a metabolism unit. At 4-day intervals they ingested test meals and venous blood was drawn before and after ingestion at intervals for 8 hours. Test meals were 100, 200, and 300 g of cooked lean meat and quantities of corn oil, sucrose, and whiskey isoenergetic with 200 g of meat. Plasma was analyzed for 20 amino acids. Mean totals of amino acids (micromoles per liter) were maximally elevated at 1 or 2 hours post cibum for all meals and remained above fasting values at 4 hours, with one exception (glucose meal). At 8 hours they were all below fasting values with one exception (whiskey meal). Individual responses varied so much that mean values are misleading. One subject responded well to ingestion of 100 or 200 g of meat but failed to respond to 300 g of meat, oil, or sucrose. Another subject responded well to oil and sucrose, but failed to respond to 100 or 200 g of meat. Mean total fasting amino acid values for all subjects were relatively constant but values for individual subjects ranged from 16% above to 18% below their own fasting means. Ingestion of whiskey invariably resulted in a significant decline in molar ratios for histidine and a significant increase for threonine.

  13. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  14. Carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of dairy suckling kids compared to an indigenous genotype.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Alper; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2010-06-01

    Effects of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality were investigated by using 24 suckling kids from Turkish Saanen, Gokceada and Maltese breeds. Carcass quality characteristics of indigenous kids (Gokceada) were lower than those of dairy type (Turkish Saanen and Maltese) kids. Breed effect on ultimate meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat samples from Turkish Saanen kids had higher redness (at 0, 1 and 24h) and yellowness (at 24h) values than Gokceada kids (P<0.05). Breed had no significant effect on sensory characteristics except flavour intensity. Flavour intensity scores given to meat samples of Maltese kids were higher than those of Turkish Saanen and Gokceada kids (P<0.01). In conclusion, dairy type breeds should be considered for meat production as well, with meat from Maltese kids potentially offering better colour and flavour intensity than that of Turkish Saanen kids. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging, rheological properties, and physicochemical characteristics of meat systems with fibrinogen and thrombin.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Cambero, M I; Ordóñez, J A; Castejón, D; Romero de Avila, M D; de la Hoz, L

    2007-11-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and textural and physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of fibrinogen and thrombin (Fibrimex) addition to meat systems formulated with and without NaCl. For this purpose, different model systems were elaborated: fibrinogen and thrombin (FT), meat emulsion (ME), and meat emulsion with fibrinogen and thrombin (MEFT), with 0, 1, and 2% of NaCl. The addition of fibrinogen-thrombin to meat emulsions results in a gel network with modified physicochemical and textural characteristics, increasing the hardness and springiness. The addition of NaCl at 2% to FT and MEFT systems reduced the gel hardness. MRI parameters (T2, T1, and apparent diffusion coefficient) indicated that systems with fibrinogen and thrombin (FT and MEFT) presented a structure with many and large pores, bulk water, and higher translational motion of water. Significant correlations were found between MRI, texture, and physicochemical parameters.

  16. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  17. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs.

  18. Lifestyle-related characteristics of young low-meat consumers and omnivores in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Klock, Kristin S; Nordrehaug Astrøm, Anne; Haugejorden, Ola; Johansson, Gunnar

    2002-08-01

    To compare the lifestyle-related characteristics of low-meat consumer and omnivore adolescents in Sweden and Norway. A total of 2041 students (578 from Umeå, Sweden; 504 from Stockholm, Sweden; and 959 from Bergen, Norway), with a mean age of 15.5 years, completed a questionnaire. Information was collected about physical characteristics, and health, family situation, social, exercise, alcohol, and tobacco habits. The response rate was 95% in Umeå, 91% in Stockholm, and 83% in Bergen. Statistical analyses included Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no reported difference between low-meat consumers and omnivores with respect to alcohol use, smoking, weight, or amount of exercise. Female low-meat consumers more frequently used smokeless tobacco, reported having more sick days during the last year, attached less importance to "being healthy," and had been depressed more often than female omnivores. Male low-meat consumers reported, to a greater extent than male omnivores, having been tired without reason, having often had headaches and having been depressed. Female low-meat consumers had parents with a higher average level of education than did female omnivores and more often spent time with friends after school. Vegetarianism or low-meat consumption is mainly a female phenomenon among adolescents in this study. The study indicates that the lifestyle of young low-meat consumers differs from the lifestyle found in previous studies of vegetarians with respect to the respondents' exercise habits, their perception of their own health, and their use of alcohol and tobacco. Contrary to findings from other studies, adherence to a low-meat diet may not correlate with other health promotion practices among adolescents in Sweden and Norway.

  19. Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

    2014-03-01

    Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in BC. Total fluid release (TFR), water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher lightness (L) in BC and redness (a) in FP emulsion were observed. Higher firmness, gumminess, chewiness and cohesiveness were observed in BC emulsion. SEM studies revealed a dense and compact protein matrix characteristic of heat induced protein gels. All micrographs showed structures that are compatible with fat globules, muscle fiber, meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products.

  20. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat.

  1. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  2. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-10-02

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  3. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  4. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  5. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P < 0.01) and more eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.02) than pigs fed the 0 or 5% crude glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or

  6. Assessing carcass and meat characteristics of Damara, Dorper and Australian Merino lambs under restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    Almeida, André M; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Araújo, Susana S; Milton, John; Oldham, Chris; Greeff, Johan C

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most pressing constraint in ruminant production systems in tropical climates. SWL is controlled using supplementation, which is costly and difficult to implement in extensive systems, or using breeds adapted to tropical hot dry climates, like the Damara and Dorper. Albeit 15 years in Australia, little is known on how these sheep compare to Australian Merino. Here, the responses of the Damara, Dorper and Merino breeds to nutritional stress were compared. Seventy-two 6-month-old ram lambs, 24 from each breed, were allocated to growth (gaining 100 g/day) or restricted diets (losing 100 g/day, 85% of maintenance needs). Animals were weighed and carcass and meat characteristics determined. Results point out to the existence of important differences between the three genotypes, in particular between the Merino and the Southern African breeds. Additionally, Merino ram lambs seem to have been more influenced by SWL than the other two, with consequences on meat characteristics.

  7. Optimization of emulsion characteristics of beef, chicken and turkey meat mixtures in model system using mixture design.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Omer; Kurt, Sükrü

    2006-08-01

    Emulsion pH (pHe), emulsion capacity (EC), emulsion stability (ES), emulsion density (ED) and apparent yield stress of emulsion (raw emulsion, AYSe) and emulsion gel (cooked emulsion, AYSg) of beef, chicken and turkey meats and their mixtures were studied using a model system. Turkey meat homogenate was found to have higher protein concentration than chicken or beef homogenates. The highest pHe, EC and ES values and the lowest ED and AYSe values were found in chicken meat. However, the highest AYSg value was found in chicken-turkey meat mixture. Generally, the increasing amount of chicken meat in mixtures increased EC and ES, and decreased ED and AYSe values. Also, chicken-turkey meat mixtures had lower ES values than the mixtures containing only chicken or only turkey meat. With beef, the addition of chicken and turkey meats improved emulsion characteristics significantly. Optimum levels of beef, chicken and turkey meats were found to be 0-23%, 9-30% and 53-91% respectively.

  8. Blood characteristics effect on pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Youn; Yoon, Jihyun; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Karimi, Ali; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-01-01

    PWV, a surrogate marker for vascular stiffness, can be also expressed by the Bramwell-Hill equation. The effect of blood density to PWV has been ignored, because variation of blood density is assumed to be negligible. In some clinical situation, blood density could be changed, and blood density as a mechanical property of blood flow might affect to PWV. While the elastic property plays an important role in determining the wave propagation in an elastic tube, our assumption is that there might be some relation between blood flow and vascular wall, and that the characteristics of blood flow might influence PWV. This study was objected to investigate the role of mechanical and hemorheologic parameters on PWV in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We have measured and analyzed the PWV, hemorheologic parameters, and other clinical parameters in 814 patients with coronary arterial disease scheduled for coronary angiography. There is no commercial method for measuring whole blood density. So, we defined the density score, which is sum of hemoglobin and total protein. And the hemorheologic parameters were measured within 4 hours after sampling by automated microfluidic hemorheometer. And the effect of all the clinical and hemorheologic parameter on PWV was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Many clinical parameters including age and blood pressure, high shear WBV and ESR as hemorheologic parameters, and density score were correlated well with ba-PWV. However, many clinical variables, high shear WBV and ESR lost the independent significance on multivariable regression analysis. Only age, SBP, and density score were independent variables (p < 0.001). In conclusion, density score as a mechanical property of blood might be suggested as an independent variable influencing PWV in addition to age and blood pressure, but hemorheologic parameters, such as RBC deformability, aggregation, and whole blood viscosity do not affect PWV independently.

  9. Influence of chestnut tannins on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Zhou, Daowei; Tong, Jianming; Vaddella, Venkata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of chestnut tannins (CT) on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature. Rabbits in one group were raised at 20°C and fed with basal diet (N) and other three groups (33°C) were fed basal diet with 0 (C), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg of diet. Compared with the C group, rabbits in CT10 had higher pH(24) and lower cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance values at 0, 30, and 60 min of forced oxidation. Rabbits in C group had higher cortisol levels, creatine kinase activities, white blood cell counts, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and lower T(3), T(4) levels, lymphocyte percentage than N and CT10 groups. Supplementation of CT seemed to have a positive effect on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of rabbits under high ambient temperature.

  10. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits.

  11. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets.

  12. Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on tenderness of chicken breast meat. These extracts also showed (P < 0.05) antibacterial activity for meat bacteria; values of TPC and PPC (log cfu/gm) at 24 h of marination were also lower than initial values in SMP and MP groups thus SMP and MP may contain some antibacterial substances which have beneficial effect on meat bacterial count. There was better (P < 0.05) cooking and sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups.

  13. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  14. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color (a* 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).

  15. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  16. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  17. Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking characteristics, texture properties, and viscosity of low-fat meat batters were analyzed. The moisture, protein, ash content, uncooked and cooked pH values, b(∗)-value, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and viscosity of meat batters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control. In addition, batters supplemented with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber had lower cooking loss and better emulsion stability. Low-fat meat batters with reduced pork fat content (10%) and 10% vegetable oil plus rice bran fiber had improved characteristics relative to the regular fat control.

  18. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation.

  19. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. M.; Hwang, S.; Lee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs 663.0 μm2, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines. PMID:27383804

  20. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (P<0.05) as a function of palm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P<0.05), except for the neck weight. The weights of the heart, liver, kidney fat, small and large intestine, and gastrointestinal tract decreased. Nevertheless, the gastrointestinal content was greater for animals that were fed increasing levels of cake. For the other organs and viscera, differences were not verified (P>0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (P<0.05), although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  1. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.

  3. Effect of feeding sugarcane press mud on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjan; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the possibilities of feeding unconventional agro-industrial byproduct for livestock production. Sugarcane press-mud (SPM), is a byproduct derived from sugarcane industry, which is rich in protein as well as minerals. The effects of dietary inclusion of SPM at different levels on the carcass characteristics of lambs were evaluated. Materials and Methods: SPM was incorporated in concentrate mixture at different levels 0% (SP0 - concentrate mixture without SPM [Control diet]), 10% (SP10 - concentrate mixture containing 10% SPM) and 20% (SP20 - concentrate mixture containing 20% SPM). The concentrate mixtures were fed along with wheat straw for 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, six lambs per group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass and meat quality characteristics. Results: No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on pre-slaughter weight or empty body weight basis of lambs fed different levels of SPM incorporated diets. Likewise carcass weight, carcass length, and wholesale cuts appeared to have similar values among groups. The yield of visceral organs, chemical composition, and sensory attributes were not statistically affected by inclusion of SPM in the diets except juiciness of control group meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than treatment group (SP20). Conclusion: The SPM can be incorporated in the diet of lambs up to the level of 20% without affecting the carcass characteristics of lambs. PMID:27065649

  4. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  5. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  6. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Ebarb, S M; Houser, T A; Johnson, S E; Gonzalez, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on beef steak color and cooked meat characteristics. Beef steers (n = 64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement and initial body weight serving as the blocking factor. Factor 1 consisted of dietary treatment with cattle either being fed a conventional feedlot diet (CON) or a diet that included Programmed Nutrition Beef Program supplements. Cattle in the Programmed Nutrition (PN) treatments were fed in two-stages: 1) the basal diet with Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver from d 1 to 20 and the basal diet with Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 consisted of the inclusion (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of an exogenous growth promoting program. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were implanted initially with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg · d(-1) · steer(-1) of ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175 of feeding and 1 strip loin was removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. After 14 d of aging, loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks for objective and trained sensory panel measurement of cooked meat characteristics and objective color measurements during 7 d retail display. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between feeding strategy and exogenous growth promotants for all objective measures of color and cooked meat characteristics. Throughout the display period, PN steaks were darker (P = 0.02) than CON steaks, but surface percentages of oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin and metmyoglobin reducing ability were unaffected by feeding strategy (P > 0.10). Loins and steaks from PN cattle possessed decreased moisture loss during aging and cooking (P < 0.01). Trained sensory panel evaluation of cooked meat revealed a dietary program

  7. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  8. Fresh meat quality and further processing characteristics of shoulders from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Petry, D B; Souza, C M; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-12-01

    Our objectives were to characterize the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on fresh meat and further processing characteristics of muscles (serratus ventralis and triceps brachii) from the shoulders of finishing pigs. Two hundred forty shoulders originating from 120 carcasses (60 barrows and 60 gilts) were selected from a commercial population of pigs. A 2 × 2 factorial in a completely randomized design was used, with factors of RAC inclusion in the diet (0 or 7.4 mg/kg, as-fed basis) and sex (barrow or gilt). Paired shoulders (120 rights and 120 lefts) were transported from a federally inspected slaughter facility under refrigeration to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for evaluation. Subsequently, right and left shoulders were separated and designated for 2 separate experiments. Shoulders from right side were used in Exp. 1 to determine further processing characteristics. Cellar trimmed (CT) butts from the Boston butt of the shoulders were cured and dried-cured to manufacture cottage bacon and coppa, respectively. Shoulders from left side were used in Exp. 2 to determine fresh meat characteristics. Pigs fed RAC had greater shoulder weights and increased yields of cuts from the shoulder. Feeding RAC decreased Boston butt fat content (P = 0.01) but had no effect on picnic fat content (P = 0.86). Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.01) iodine values than controls (67.00 vs. 64.95, respectively). Inclusion of RAC in the diet had no effect on cottage bacon cooked yield (P = 0.33), but it decreased (P < 0.01) cottage bacon fat content without having an effect on protein content (P = 0.50). In addition, cottage bacon from RAC shoulders had greater slice total area (P = 0.01) and less seam fat (P = 0.01) than controls. Ractopamine hydrochloride had no detrimental effect on coppa processing characteristics and visual appearance. Cottage bacon and coppa from RAC pigs had sensory characteristics similar to controls. Shoulders from pigs fed RAC might

  9. Carcass yields and meat quality characteristics of adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) transported for 6h before slaughter.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Uttaro, Bethany; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-10-01

    The meat quality characteristics of adult emus transported for 6h before slaughter were determined. Forty-two emus were used in two trials, undertaken under warm and cool weather conditions, respectively. Male emus had significantly higher fat yields than females (12.43kg vs 9.5kg, P=0.002). About 38.1% of the emus had no wounds or bruises, 40.5% had bruises, while 21.4% had small wounds after transport. Meat from injured emus had significantly higher pH45. In warm weather, emus experienced significantly higher loss in body weight than that under cool weather. Drip loss in meat after 24h of storage was higher in emus which had greater live weight loss after transport (r=0.66, P<0.0001), confirming the adverse effects of transport stress on meat quality. Nutrient supplementation did not significantly affect processing yield or meat quality characteristics. This study points to the need for optimizing transport conditions of emus to maintain meat quality.

  10. The effect of meat products enriched with plant sterols and minerals on serum lipids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tapola, Niina S; Lyyra, Mari L; Karvonen, Henna M; Uusitupa, Matti I; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of non-esterified plant sterol-enriched and mineral-enriched low-fat and low-salted meat products compared with control meat products, on serum total and lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure in subjects with mildly to moderately elevated serum cholesterol concentration. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, repeated measure design was used. Altogether 21 volunteers completed the study. The study began with a pre-trial period of 1-2 weeks, which was followed by three different test periods in the following order: meat products enriched with plant sterols (1.2 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP1); meat products with no added plant sterols and minerals (control); and meat products with plant sterols (2.1 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP2). Each test period lasted for 3 weeks. During the MP2 period, the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration decreased 4.9+/-7.5% (P<0.05) and 4.6+/-11.3% (not significant), respectively, compared with the control period. No differences in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglyceride concentrations or in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were found among the test periods. In conclusion, the present study showed that frankfurters and cold cuts enriched with plant sterols from tall oil, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as part of habitual Finnish diet reduced the serum total cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects when the intake of sitosterols was 2.1 g/day, but not with the lower dose.

  11. Qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed different levels of crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Lanna, D P D; Lopes, L S; Teixeira, P D; Ladeira, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed crude glycerin. Forty-four animals with an initial live weight of 368 ± 4 kg were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments: no glycerin or addition of 6, 12 or 18% glycerin. The animals were slaughtered with 519.5 ± 14.9 kg of live weight. The meat characteristics assessed were chemical composition, shear force, fatty acid concentration, color and lipid oxidation. The addition of glycerin increased the content of ether extract (P<0.05) in the muscle. A linear increase was observed (P<0.05) in the oleic acid contents (C18:1 cis 9). The saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents linearly decreased in the muscle as a function of glycerin addition. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) indices increased with the use of crude glycerin (P<0.05). The crude glycerin increased the intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle.

  12. Measuring Meat Texture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  13. Rheological characteristics of fresh and frozen PSE, normal and DFD chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Barbut, S

    2005-12-01

    1. Textural and rheological differences among broiler breast meat ranging from pale, soft and exudative (PSE) to dark, firm and dry (DFD) in their fresh and frozen (and thawed) forms were investigated. 2. The PSE meat showed significantly higher lightness values and lower pH and water holding capacity values than normal and DFD meats; DFD meat was also significantly different from normal meat. 3. During cooking, PSE meat lost significantly more liquid and produced a softer gel than normal or DFD meats; texture profile analysis parameters were lower for the PSE meat. 4. The storage modulus values (G', rigidity of elastic response of the gelling material) showed that DFD meat produced a more rigid gel during cooking (especially above 54 degrees C) and later during cooling (back to 30 degrees C) compared with the PSE meat. 5. Freezing resulted in a trend of lower G' values before, during and after cooking. The results indicated that meat proteins were damaged during freezing and PSE meat was more severely affected, or that more protein denaturation occurred in the PSE meat.

  14. The effects of dietary oregano oil supplementation on pig meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Symeon, G K; Charismiadou, M A; Bizelis, J A; Deligeorgis, S G

    2010-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of dietary oregano essential oil supplementation on finishing pig meat characteristics were investigated in the present study. Thirty-two barrows and thirty-two gilts were divided into four equal groups. During the experimental period, which started when the animals were 5 months old and finished after 35 days, the first group was fed the control diet (group C), whereas the other three groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that the feed was supplemented with oregano essential oil at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 ml/kg of fed diet (groups OR1, OR2 and OR3, respectively). At the end of the experiment, pigs were fasted for 12 h, weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, a 50 cm loin section was removed from the half of the carcasses (8 pigs per nutritional treatment; 4 barrows and 4 gilts) and transported to laboratory for further examination. No significant differences were observed after dietary oregano essential oil supplementation in final body weight (kg), body weight gain (g) and dressing out (%). Tenderness of longissimus muscle, expressed as shear force value, pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, colour parameters and sensory attributes of eating quality were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Moreover, the lipid oxidation results suggested a lack of antioxidant effect for the oregano essential oil. In conclusion, carcass and meat quality attributes were unchanged, indicating that the dietary administration of different levels of oregano essential oil did not exert any effect on pig meat parameters in the present experiment. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  16. Comparison of breast muscle traits and meat quality characteristics in 2 commercial chicken hybrids.

    PubMed

    Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were

  17. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  19. Influence of meat exudates on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the accumulated exudates released from pork loin of itself on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork during cold storage was investigated. Pork loins were divided into four groups (fresh pork with exudates, fresh pork without exudates, freeze-thawed pork with exudates and freeze-thawed pork without exudates) and stored at 1.0°C for 7 days. Exudate amount increased due to freeze-thawing and with storage, and most quality traits such as drip loss, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness, redness, and moisture content were affected by freeze-thawing (p<0.05). Freeze-thaw increased drip loss but decreased moisture content, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness and redness of meat (p<0.05). Microbial growth was solely affected by exudate removal and the removal of initial exudates decreased microbial growth (p<0.05). Exudates were positively correlated with total protein content and total plate count but negatively correlated with pH and cooking loss. Therefore, removing meat exudates and avoiding freeze can slow down the quality deterioration of pork during cold storage.

  20. The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirić, J.; Lukić, M.; Radulović, S.; Janjić, J.; Glamočlija, N.; Marković, R.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef, classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals (60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle) were analysed. The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant. However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle.

  1. Sodium lactate affects sensory and objective characteristics of tray-packed broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Williams, S K; Phillips, K

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of sodium lactate solutions adjusted to various pH values. The effectiveness of sodium lactate increases with increased concentrations; however, there are off-flavor development problems associated with increasing concentrations of sodium lactate above 2.0%. This study evaluated the effects of 2% sodium lactate treatments, adjusted to various pH values, on sensory characteristics, instrumental texture, and microbial populations of tray-packed broiler breast meat. Breast meat was treated with either tap water (pH 7.85) or 2% sodium lactate solutions (pH 7.30, 5.50, 5.00, 4.50, and 4.00) and stored at 2 +/- 1 C for 12 d. Approximately 15% of the panelists reported acidic aftertastes in samples treated with pH 5.00 sodium lactate solutions, and 10% of the panelists reported slight sodium or metallic off-flavor in all samples treated with sodium lactate. Instrumental texture measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments. Sodium lactate (pH 7.30 and 5.50) enhanced (P < 0.05) cooking yields and retarded the growth of spoilage bacteria (pH 5.50 and 5.00). Due to the development of severe discoloration and intense acidic off-odors and -flavors, testing was not conducted on samples treated with pH 4.50 and 4.00 sodium lactate solutions.

  2. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  3. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  4. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  7. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  9. Characteristics of cold-induced dark, firm, dry broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Dadgar, S; Lee, E S; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L; Shand, P J

    2012-01-01

    1. A study was designed to characterise dark, firm, dry (DFD) breast meat resulting from cold exposure of broilers and compare its properties with normal breast meat from cold-stressed and control birds. 2. A total of 140 broilers were selected from 5- and 6-week-old birds exposed to cold temperatures ranging from -18 to -4°C, or a control temperature of +20°C for 3 h in an environmental chamber. Half of these birds were slaughtered immediately following the cold exposure and the other half were given 2 h of lairage. 3. Breast meat samples were categorised based on ultimate pH (pH(u)) and colour L* (lightness) values into normal (5·7 ≤ pH(u)≤ 6·1; 46 ≤ L* ≤ 53) breast meat from control (control-normal) or cold-stressed (cold-normal) birds, and DFD (pH(u) > 6·1; L* < 46) breast meat, which only occurred in cold-stressed birds (cold-DFD). 4. Residual glycogen was not different between cold-DFD and control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration was lower in cold-DFD compared with control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration almost tripled for all the samples by 30 h post-mortem, which resulted in a drop in pH of normal meat, but did not have any effect on pH of DFD breast meat. Glycolytic potential at both 5 min and 30 h post-mortem was lower in DFD breast meat compared with the normal breast meat from both cold-stressed and control birds. 5. Cold-DFD breast meat was significantly darker, with higher pH(u), lower cook loss, higher water-binding capacity and processing cook yield than cold-normal and control-normal breast meat, which were not different from each other.

  10. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Porcine blood used as ingredient in meat productions may serve as a vehicle for hepatitis E virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Jansen, Claudia C C; Hägele, Geke; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Cremer, Jeroen; Vennema, Harry; Tijsma, Aloys S L

    2017-09-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of porcine blood(products) in food could be a risk for a hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. HEV RNA was detected in 33/36 batches of (non-heated) liquid products and in 7/24 spray dried powder products. Contamination levels varied among the products, but were highest in liquid whole blood, plasma and fibrinogen reaching levels of 2.2×10(2) to 2.8×10(2) HEV genome copies per 0.2g. Sequence analyses revealed genotype 3 strains, of which two were 100% (493nt) identical to recently diagnosed HEV cases, although no direct epidemiological link was established. The industry provided information on processing of blood products in (ready-to-eat)-meat. From this, it was concluded that blood products as an ingredient of processed meat may not be sufficiently heated prior to consumption, and therefore could be a vehicle for transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Cattle Breed on Meat Quality, Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acids in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiangxue; Meng, Qingxiang; Cui, Zhenliang; Ren, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to compare meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acids of Limousin (LIM), Simmtental (SIM), Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC) and Jinnan (JN) offered the same diet in China. After finishing, eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughter at 18.5 months old. Longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle was taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Breed had little effect on most of meat and fat color parameters except for Hue and b* in which QC had lower values. LIM showed higher pH (24 h) and better water holding capacity than other breeds. LIM showed the lowest dry matter content but the highest crude protein. LX and LIM had higher percentage and density of red muscle fiber than other breeds. Lipid oxidations were significantly lower in LIM than in QC, with the LX, SIM and JN having the intermediate values. Compared to other four breeds, QC provided the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, LIM scored better on most of meat quality characteristics; however, local breeds such as LX and QC also had better muscle fiber characteristics and better fatty acids composition. PMID:25049633

  13. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hozza, W. A.; Mtenga, L. A.; Kifaro, G. C.; Shija, D. S. N.; Mushi, D. E.; Safari, J. G.; Shirima, E. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  14. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  15. Effect of caponisation on growth and on carcass and meat characteristics in Castellana Negra native Spanish chickens.

    PubMed

    Miguel, J A; Ciria, J; Asenjo, B; Calvo, J L

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of caponisation at 8 weeks on growth and on carcass and meat characteristics of Castellana Negra chickens slaughtered at 29 weeks. Caponisation did not result in weight improvements as compared with uncastrated birds. No changes were observed in the growth rate or in the parameters determining the point of inflection in the growth curve (sexual maturity). Regarding carcass characteristics, castration resulted in a wider breast angle and heavier pectoral muscles in caponised birds than in uncastrated birds, but with no differences in thigh and drumstick weight and length. Capon meat showed a higher fat content than that of cocks, making it juicier and less fibrous. No differences were found in fatty acid content (C 14:0, C 18:0, C 18:1 and C 18:2). Nor were there any differences in colour measurements, pH or water loss from the meat. While cocks' thighs + drumsticks were found to be tougher than their breasts, there were no such differences in capons because after castration, thigh + drumstick meat became more tender.

  16. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  17. Evaluation of Meat Color and Physiochemical Characteristics in Forequarter Muscles of Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2015-01-01

    The beef forequarter muscle comprises approximately 52% of carcass weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical characteristics and meat color from forequarter muscle of Holstein steers. Fifteen forequarter muscles were trimmed of external connective tissue and fat. An experimental group of eight Holstein steers was assessed using meat color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner–Bratzler shear force value at the same quality grade. The M. omotransversarius (0.45 kg) had the highest (p<0.05) lightness (L*) value, whereas the M. teres major (0.4 kg) and M. triceps brachii (caput laterale) (0.52 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05) values. The M. semispanitus capitus (1.48 kg), which is a neck muscle, had the highest values for both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), whereas the lowest (p<0.05) values were for the M. teres major. The M. omotransversarius, M. latissimus dorsi (1.68 kg), and M. rhomboideus (1.2 kg) were ranked high (p<0.05) in water-holding capacity. The drip loss value was the highest for the M. longissimus dorsi thoracis (p<0.05; 1.86 kg), while the M. infraspinatus (2.28 kg), M. supraspinatus (1.38 kg), M. brachiocephalicus (1.01 kg), and M. pectoralis superficialis (1.18 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05). The Warner–Bratzler shear force value indicated that the M. pectoralis profundus (3.39 kg), M. omotransversarius, and M. brachiocephalicus were the toughest (p<0.05), whereas the M. subscapularis (0.86 kg), M. longissimus dorsi thoracis, M. teres major, and M. infraspinatus were the most tender cuts (p<0.05). Here, muscle type explained most of the variability in the forequarter physiochemical characteristics. Thus, our findings suggest that these muscle profile data will allow for more informed decisions when selecting individual muscles to produce value-added products from Holstein steers. PMID:26761893

  18. Partial substitution of barley for corn: effect on "Hamra" lamb growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Kaddour; Khaled, Méghit Boumédiène

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two kinds of given diets on growth, on some carcass characteristics and on the major meat nutrients of local Algerian sheep breed. The investigated sheep breed called "Hamra" is one of the most famous breeds in Algeria. Among one 106 animals, 40 lambs were selected according to their age, similar livestock characteristics and body weight. The samples were divided into two equal groups: control and experimental lambs according to their live weight; 24.63 ± 0.47 and 24.35 ± 0.64 kg, respectively. Both groups were fed with two varieties of concentrate diets: corn diet based for the first group of control lambs (n = 20) and corn substituted by barley (Variety Saïda 183) for the second experimental group lambs (n = 20). Both diets were supplemented with 200 g straw of barley/animal/ration. The chemical analysis of diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. After 59 days of fattening, no significant difference was found among the two studied groups on the growth performance (p > 0.05), showing the same final body weight. In contrast, a significant difference was found (p ≤ 0.001) in relation to the cost of the given diet. This could affect the price of the produced meat. At 37.85 ± 0.78 kg live weight, 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered. The dressing percentage was 46.65 %, with 2.49 % of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73 %) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, Hamra carcass could be considered as the most valuable one economically.

  19. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on physico-chemical characteristics of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerezo, S; Sañudo, C; Panea, B; Medel, I; Delfa, R; Sierra, I; Beltrán, J A; Cepero, R; Olleta, J L

    2005-02-01

    The effects of breed, slaughter weight and ageing time on the meat quality of the three most important Spanish breeds were considered. Two hundred and twenty-five lambs of Rasa Aragonesa-local meat breed-, Churra-local dairy breed- and Spanish Merino were used. Animals (75 of each breed) were slaughtered at three different live weights (10-12, 20-22 or 30-32 kg), and the meat was aged for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 days. The meat pH, colour, amount of haem pigments, intramuscular fat, moisture, hydroxyproline content and sarcomere length were measured at 24 h post-mortem. Meat texture was measured by compression after each ageing time. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.50 to 5.58. Meat colour varied with breed and slaughter weight (P⩽0.01), the M. longissimus thoracis was lighter in the youngest animals and in the Churra breed and redder in Merinos. Intramuscular fat increased and moisture decreased for heavier lambs. Differences in collagen were associated with breed (P⩽0.01); total and insoluble collagen contents were higher in the Churra breed. Sarcomere length was only slightly affected by slaughter weight. Meat from the Churra breed had the highest values at high levels of compression. Suckling lambs (10-12 kg) had greater myofibrillar toughness than heavier lambs and ageing strongly influenced myofibrillar tenderness.

  20. Comparison of Characteristics of Myosin Heavy Chain-based Fiber and Meat Quality among Four Bovine Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gap-Don; Yang, Han-Sul; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fiber characteristics account for meat quality and muscle fibers are mainly classified into three or more types according to their contractile and metabolic properties. However, the majority of previous studies on bovine skeletal muscle are based on myosin ATPase activity. In the present study, the differences in the characteristics of muscle fibers classified by the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) among four bovine skeletal muscles such as longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) and their relationships to beef quality were investigated. MHCs 2x, 2a and slow were identified by LC-MS/MS and IIX, IIA and I fiber types were classified. PM, which had the smallest size and highest density of fibers regardless of type, showed the highest myoglobin content, CIE L*, a*, b* and sarcomere length (p<0.05), whereas ST with the highest composition of IIX, showed high shear force and low sarcomere length (p<0.05). The correlation coefficients between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality showed that type IIX is closely related to poor beef quality and that a high density of small-sized fibers is related to redness and tenderness. Therefore, the differences in meat quality between muscles can be explained by the differences in muscle fiber characteristics, and especially, the muscles with good quality are composed of more small-sized fibers regardless of fiber type. PMID:28115894

  1. Effect of immunocastration with Bopriva on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Linares, C; Bolado-Sarabia, L; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Barreras-Serrano, A; Sánchez-López, E; Tamayo-Sosa, A R; Godina, A A; Ríos-Rincón, F; García, L A; Gallegos, E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of immunocastration on carcass and meat characteristics, Holstein bulls aged between 7 and 8months with a live weight of 232±1.19kg were given two separate treatments, placebo (intact bulls) versus Bopriva, and then slaughtered after approximately 239days of fattening. While the testosterone levels in intact bulls remained at 0.42ng/ml throughout the study, by day 181, differences (P<0.05) were observed in immunized bulls, with values of 0.21ng/ml. The carcasses of animals treated with Bopriva recorded both a higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and a cold carcass weight (CCW), as well as higher dorsal fat density, marbling and KPH (P<0.05); however, no differences (P>0.05) were observed in the Longissimus lumborum area. No significant differences (P>0.05) were recorded between the treatments for pH, L*, a*, b* C* and H*. The carcasses of the animals treated with Bopriva were heavier, with higher dorsal fat density and marbling score.

  2. Slaughter value, meat quality, creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels in the blood serum of growing-finishing pigs slaughtered immediately after transport and after a rest period.

    PubMed

    Smiecińska, K; Denaburski, J; Sobotka, W

    2011-01-01

    The experimental materials comprised 44 hybrid [female (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace) x male Duroc] growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: 24 pigs were slaughtered immediately after transport and 20 pigs were slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period in the lairage. The meat content of pork carcasses, carcass dressing percentage, the proximate chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of meat and shear force values were determined. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were determined in blood samples collected before transport and during carcass bleeding. Pigs slaughtered immediately after transport, compared with those slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, were characterized by a higher meat content of the carcass and a higher carcass dressing percentage. Pre-slaughter handling had no effect on pork quality. The incidence of normal-quality meat, partially PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and PSE meat was similar in both groups. Chemical analysis showed that the content of dry matter, total protein, fat and minerals in meat was comparable in both groups. As regards the functional properties of the pork, samples from the carcasses of pigs that had rested before slaughter had a higher contribution of the red color component. Meat from pigs slaughtered immediately after transport had more desirable sensory properties. Pre-slaughter resting had a significant effect on those analyzed physiological parameters which were found to be good indicators of pre-slaughter stress. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were higher in blood samples collected after transport (during carcass bleeding) than in samples collected before transport, pointing to a strong stress response of animals to pre-slaughter treatment. The decrease in serum cortisol levels in blood samples collected during bleeding from the carcasses of pigs slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, compared with samples

  3. [Comparing the results of the serological detection of Salmonella antibodies in blood serum and meat juice from different muscles from slaughter pigs].

    PubMed

    Nobmann, Juliane Annette; Blaha, Thomas; Beyerbach, Martin; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Meemken, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The German Salmonella Monitoring Programme started by the QS-System in 2002 (Blaha, 2004) is mandatory due to the so-called "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" since 2007 (Anonym, 2007). The Regulation does not clearly prescribe the specific muscle which is to be taken as source of the meat juice. Thus, at different slaughter plants meat samples are also taken from different muscles and several scientific papers describe various muscles as source of the meat juice, too. The objective of this study was to compare the serological results of meat juices from three different locations (diaphragm pillar, neck, belly muscle) to each other and to those of the blood serum from exactly the same animals. All samples were simultaneously tested for Salmonella antibodies by two serological tests (Salmo-type Pig Screen, LDL, Germany; HerdChek Swine Salmonella, IDEXX, Germany). Comparisons were carried out between the various sample kinds per animal and between the two test systems. The analysis of all results of the meat juices revealed in both test systems a clear decline of the OD% values from the diaphragm pillar to the neck to the belly muscle. The average OD% values of all samples were higher when measured by the HerdChek ELISA (IDEXX, Germany) than by the Salmotype ELISA (LDL, Germany), especially in blood serum. Since the results of the meat juice samples gained from the diaphragm pillar were in both test systems by far the closest to the results of the corresponding serum blood samples, it is recommended to amend the "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" by prescribing meat from the diaphragm pillar as the only muscle for gaining meat juice.

  4. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values.

  5. Effect of dietary selenium source (organic vs. mineral) and muscle pH on meat quality characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Luis; Toldrá, Fidel; Rodríguez, Ana I; López-Bote, Clemente; Rey, Ana I

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of organic (Se-enriched yeast; SeY) versus inorganic selenium (sodium selenite; SeS) supplementation and the different response of selenium source according to muscle pH on pork meat quality characteristics. Pigs (n = 30) were fed the Se-supplemented diets (0.3 mg/kg) for 65 days. Neither electric conductivity (EC) nor drip loss were affected by the selenium source. The SeY group had lower TBARS in muscle samples after day 7 of refrigerated storage and higher a* values on days 1 and 7 than the SeS group. The effect of dietary selenium source on some meat quality characteristics was affected by muscle pH. Hence, as the muscle pH increases, the drip loss decreases but this effect is more marked with the dietary organic Se enrichment. Muscle pH seems to modulate the action of selenium in pork, especially some meat characteristics such as drip loss.

  6. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of raw turkey breast meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of quality changes in raw turkey breast meat by irradiation. Raw turkey breast meat was irradiated at 0 kGy, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy, and changes in quality parameters including color, lipid and protein oxidation, and off-odor volatiles were determined. Irradiation accelerated lipid and protein oxidation, and increased redness in raw turkey breast meat. However, irradiation had less effect on the volatile profiles of salt-soluble muscle extract than water-soluble muscle extract because the primary radiolytic product from water (hydroxyl radical) had higher chances to react with the water-soluble molecules nearby. The radiolytic degradation products from sulfur-containing amino acids and aldehydes from lipid oxidation were two major volatile compounds responsible for the off-odor of irradiated raw turkey breast meat. Dimethyl disulfide was found only in irradiated raw turkey breast meat, and the amount of dimethyl disulfide linearly increased as the irradiation dose increased, indicating that this compound can be used as a marker for irradiate meat.

  7. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable.

  8. Virulence characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw meats and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Hoang Minh, Son; Kimura, Etsuko; Hoang Minh, Duc; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are dangerous foodborne pathogens. Foods are considered as important sources for STEC infection in human. In this study, STEC contamination of raw meats was investigated and the virulence factors of 120 clinical STEC strains characterized. STEC was detected in 4.4% of tested samples. Among 25 STEC strains from meats, five strains (20%) were positive for the eae gene, which encodes intimin, an important binding protein of pathogenic STEC. The remaining strains (80%) were eae-negative. However, 28% of them possessed the saa gene, which encodes STEC agglutinating adhesin. The ehxA gene encoding for enterohemolysin was found in 75% of the meat strains and the subAB gene, the product is of which subtilase cytotoxin, was found in 32% of these strains. The stx2a gene, a subtype of Shiga toxin gene (stx), was the most prevalent subtype among the identified meat STEC bacteria. None of the meat STEC was O157:H7 serotype. Nevertheless, 92% of them produced Shiga toxin (Stx). Among 120 clinical STEC strains, 30% and 70% strains harbored single and multiple stx subtypes, respectively. Most clinical STEC bacteria possessed eae (90.8%) and ehxA (96.7%) genes and 92.5% of them showed Stx productivity. Our study shows that some raw meat samples contain non-O157 STEC bacteria and some strains have virulence factors similar to those of clinical strains. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes.

  10. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    PubMed

    Massingue, Armando Abel; Torres Filho, Robledo de Almeida; Fontes, Paulo Rogerio; Ramos, Alcinéia de Souza; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Olalquiaga Perez, Juan Ramon; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0, 30% and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (P < 0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (P < 0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C* and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (P < 0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  11. Effects of sex and inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles on slaughter yield and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adamski, M P; Kowalczyk, A M; Lukaszewicz, E T; Korzeniowska, M

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) dietary inclusion concentration, and sex, on body weight, slaughter efficiency and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, strain P55) were studied. 2. Sexed ducklings (n = 160) were divided randomly into 4 groups (each with 4 replicates). From d 1 to d 21, all the birds received the same commercial feed, then from 22 to 49 d of age the ducks were fed in the following groups: control (commercial feed) and three experimental groups (15%, 25% and 30% inclusion of DDGS). All ducks were weighed individually at d 1, 21 and 49. On the day of slaughter, 5 males and 5 females, of body weight close to the average weight for group and sex, were selected from each group, slaughtered and the following parameters were evaluated: slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of particular elements of carcase, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. 3. The results obtained showed that DDGS included from 22 to 49 d of rearing, at concentrations up to 30%, in a commercial Pekin duck diet did not affect the live body weight, slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of breast and leg muscle, skin with subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat. There were no differences in physical characteristics (pH(15), pH(24,) meat colour values L*, a*and b*, and hygroscopicity) of breast muscle, as well as in cholesterol content. DDGS addition at 30% significantly increased fat content in male, and crude protein in female, breast meat. Sex effect was observed only in a few traits and was diet dependent. Final body weight of females fed 30% DDGS was significantly lower than males; in the control and 15% DDGS group females had higher percentage of skin with subcutaneous fat. 4. The results obtained, and relative costs of feeds produced, allows the recommendation of DDGS addition at up to 30% to commercial Pekin duck diets from 22 d of age.

  12. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat

  13. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  14. [RP-HPLC characteristics of dragon's blood].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Peng-Jiao; Zhang, Min

    2007-10-01

    To study the fingerprint of dragon's blood resina draconis by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples are extracted with methanol and separated on a Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-H2O in gradient mode, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 275 nm and the temperature of column was 40 degrees C. Loureirin B was used as the reference compound. HPLC fingerprint of dragon's blood was established and the similarity of the fingerprint was compared. The method is simple, accurate, and can be used to control the quality of dragon's blood.

  15. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  16. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  17. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W

    2008-11-01

    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  18. Effect of deep litter housing and fermented feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred Hampshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Bora, J R; Sarma, A K; Roychoudhury, R; Borgohain, A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of deep litter housing and fermented feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred Hampshire pigs. Forty-eight weaned crossbred Hampshire piglets of 2 months age (24 males and 24 females) were selected for the experiment. The piglets were randomly assigned into 4 homogenous experimental groups with 6 males and 6 females each: E1; reared on a conventional housing and fed with a fermented diet, E2; reared on a deep litter housing system and fed with a fermented diet, E3; reared on a deep litter housing system and fed with a conventional diet and C; reared on a conventional housing system and fed with a conventional diet. The study was continued up to 32 weeks of age and at the end of this period, 6 animals (3 males and 3 females) from each experimental group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality characteristics. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage were significantly (p<0.01) affected by feeding fermented diet and deep litter housing while carcass traits, i.e., carcass length, backfat thickness, and loin eye area were not affected. The edible offal; liver and heart weight (p<0.05) differed significantly while kidney weight showed no difference. The inedible offal; head weight (p<0.01) and lung weight revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) while spleen and stomach weight showed no difference among the experimental groups. The wholesale cuts and meat: bone ratio of pigs also differed significantly among the groups. Morphometry of small and large intestine also showed a significant difference. Chemical composition of pork viz., moisture and total ash content was influenced by the treatment, while crude protein and ether extract content were not affected. Mineral composition of pork also showed no significant difference. Color characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a significant difference in L* and a* value while parameter b* was not

  19. Comparison of active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of active dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood indexes related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Growth, carcass and meat characteristics of Karayaka growing rams fed sugar beet pulp, partially substituting for grass hay as forage.

    PubMed

    Olfaz, M; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Cam, M A; Garipoglu, A V

    2005-05-01

    Twenty-one growing male Karayaka sheep were divided into three groups of seven at 12 months of age. All groups received a commercial feed (60%) and roughage (40%). One group received grass hay as roughage (control, C), the other two groups received a mixture in which 40 (0.40SBP) or 60% (0.60SBP) sugar beet pulp (SBP) was used in partial replacement of grass hay in the C group during 56 days. Dry matter (DM) intake and DM conversion index (kg DM per kg weight gain) of the C group were higher (P<0.01) than that of the 0.40SBP and 0.60SBP groups. While the 0.60SBP increased (P<0.05) the L* of meat from the Karayaka young rams, the 0.40SBP or 0.60SBP decreased the ultimate pH (P<0.05) and cooking loss (P<0.01) compared to the C group. Means for redness (a*), yellowness (b*), Hue (H*) and Chroma (C*) and sensory characteristics indicated that there were no significant differences between dietary treatments. Inclusion of 60% SBP increased the palmitic (P<0.02) and linoleic (P<0.01) acid contents of the meat, it decreased (P<0.01) stearic, oleic and arachidonic acid contents compared to the C group. The 0.40SBP also increased (P<0.01) the linoleic acid content of the meat, but it decreased (P<0.01) stearic and arachidonic acid contents compared to the control. Although meat from young rams fed 0.60SBP diet had a higher value of lightness and linoleic acid, and a lower value of cooking loss than those from animals fed the C diet, sensory evaluation did not discriminate the meat from young rams fed with control and/or SBP diets. Therefore, grass hay can be replaced by 60% of SBP in the growing diet for Karayaka rams without a reduction in meat quality.

  1. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  2. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Wagyu heifers (Japanese Black cattle).

    PubMed

    Irie, M; Kouda, M; Matono, H

    2011-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is used as a hepatic and digestive medicine in humans and domestic animals, was added to the diet of Wagyu beef cattle to investigate its effects on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. The study involved 20 Japanese Black heifers. Animals were divided into the following 2 groups, a control group and a UDCA group (diet supplemented with UDCA), with each group containing 10 animals. The UDCA was administrated at a dose of 2.5 g/(animal/d) to each heifer 24 times over a period of 7 mo in the finishing period. The heifers were slaughtered at 29 mo of age, and carcass characteristics and meat quality were determined. Both the UDCA group and the control group showed similar (P > 0.1) final BW, fattening periods, and daily BW gain. Supplementation of UDCA significantly increased meat quality grade (P < 0.05) and marbling (P < 0.01) and but did not show a significant (P > 0.1) effect on dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib thickness, or ribeye area. The percentage of ether extract in the LM was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the UDCA group (43.2%) than in the control group (37.8%), whereas the percentage of moisture was significantly less in the former than the latter (P < 0.05).The L* (lightness) values of the muscles were greater (P < 0.05) in the UDCA group than in the control group. No significant differences (P > 0.1) were observed between groups in water-holding capacity, fatty acid composition, and vitamin E content of the LM or in intermuscular fat characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with UDCA can increase marbling without causing growth defects and can improve carcass characteristics in Wagyu cattle.

  3. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  4. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  5. Carcass, meat quality, and sensory characteristics of heavy body weight pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Myers, A J; Scramlin, S M; Parks, C W; Carr, S N; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K

    2008-12-01

    Carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and sensory attributes were evaluated in late-finishing barrows and gilts, weighing between 100 to 130 kg of BW, fed 0, 5, or 7.4 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) for the final 21 to 28 d before slaughter. Carcass data were collected from carcasses from barrows and gilts (n = 168), and all primal cuts from the right sides of these carcasses were fabricated to calculate primal yields as a percentage of the HCW. Subjective (National Pork Producers Council and Japanese) color, firmness, and marbling scores were determined on the LM of each loin and the semimembranosus muscle (SM) of the ham, whereas the moisture, extractable lipid, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory evaluations (juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor) were measured on the LM samples only. Gilts produced heavier (P < 0.05) HCW than barrows, whereas feeding RAC increased (P < 0.05) HCW over pigs fed diets devoid of RAC. Carcasses from gilts also had greater (P < 0.02) primal cut and lean cut (P < 0.01) yields than barrows, and dietary inclusion of 5 mg/kg of RAC increased (P < 0.05) total boneless cut and lean cut yields when compared with carcass from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC. Warner-Bratzler shear forces values were greater (P < 0.05) in the LM of gilts than barrows, but only juiciness scores were greater (P < 0.03) in LM chops from barrows than gilts. The LM from barrows had greater intramuscular lipid (P < 0.001) than the LM from gilts, and even though the LM from pigs fed 5 mg/kg of RAC had greater (P < 0.04) WBSF values than the LM from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC, including RAC in the late-finishing diets for 21 or 28 d did not affect sensory panel rating or percentages of moisture and intramuscular lipid. In summary, addition of RAC in the late-finishing diet improved carcass and primal cut yields when it was fed at 5 and 7.4 mg/kg without altering pork quality traits regardless of whether RAC was fed for 21 or

  6. Effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics of swine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbing; Dong, Baojun; Zhang, Minhong; Yang, Jiajun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental chromium (Cr) in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on swine growth performance, meat quality, and protein deposition in skeletal muscle. Forty-eight piglets were divided into three groups randomly, fed with three different dietary levels of Cr (common basal feedstuff supplemented with a dose of 1.61 μg/g or 3.22 μg/g CrPic, which corresponded to 0.2 and 0.4 μg/g Cr). Results indicated that during the growing period (1-35 days), pigs fed with the diet supplemented with CrPic showed no improvement in body mass, average daily gain (ADG), feed consumption, or feed conversion rate (FCR) (P > 0.05). During the finishing period, a supplementary dose of 0.2 μg Cr/g improved daily weight gain significantly (P < 0.05), while the situation had no significance with 0.4 μg Cr/g (P > 0.05) supplemented. For the entire growing-finishing period, body mass increased by 3.86%, ADG rose by 6.08%, and the FCR decreased by 3.30%; levels of total muscular pigment and that in the ribeye areas significantly improved (P < 0.05) when supplementation with 0.2 μg Cr/g (P < 0.05) was employed. However, there were no significant changes when supplemented with 0.4 μg Cr/g. While there were no changes in yield of carcass, back fat, water holding capacity, or levels of muscular crude protein and fat (P > 0.05) in treatment, the ratio of fat-lean and RNA/DNA increased significantly supplemented with 0.2 μg Cr/g (P < 0.05), but there were no significance with 0.4 μg Cr/g supplementation. In addition, the muscular levels of cholesterol had slightly decreased and the content of DNA in skeletal muscle showed no marked changes with 0.2 or 0.4 μg/g Cr supplementation. In conclusion, the present results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in the dose of 0.2 μg/g could promote the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and protein deposition.

  7. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P < 0.01) with Cu supplementation. Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations than the other treatments. Backfat depth (P < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.01) were also increased with Cu supplementation. However, Cu-supplemented goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P < 0.01), C20:4 (P < 0.01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.03), decreased C18:1 trans (P = 0.04), and tended to decrease C18:0 (P = 0.08) in LM. Other fatty acids detected were not affected by dietary Cu supplementation (P > 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats.

  8. Influence of aging days and age at harvest on the meat quality characteristics of Gannan black yak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, there is evidence that meat from yak is less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n=181) were...

  9. Delivering meat carcasses/cuts to craft-butcher shops: an investigation of work characteristics and manual handling hazards.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Gingell, Alison

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated delivery scenarios of service drivers working in the retail meat industry. The methodology included analysis of accident reports, and field investigations of deliveries at craft-butcher shop premises, including semi-structured interviews with managers and workers. The findings provide greater clarity about the hazards in this job, and suggest for peripatetic delivery activities, four main factors on which decisions about risk and good practice may be made: composition of the orders; characteristics of the delivery vehicle/truck; handling method most often used; and, the road/access conditions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective controlled research on red meat, haem iron, and blood pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent report of Tzoulaki and colleagues (Reference 1) on a large cross-sectional epidemiological international collaborative study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP) indicated that blood pressure was negatively associated with non-haem iron ingestion and positively associate...

  11. Effects of two beta-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Torres-Rodríguez, V; Meraz-Murillo, F J; Pérez-Linares, C; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Robinson, P H

    2006-12-01

    The impact of using 2 beta-adrenergic agonists in feedlot cattle fed finishing diets was evaluated using 54 steers (45 crossbred Charolais and 9 Brangus) initially weighing 424 +/- 26.6 kg in a randomized complete block design with 3 treatments and 6 blocks (i.e., 18 pens with 3 steers per pen). Response variables were feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Treatments were 1) control (no supplement added); 2) zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 60 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)); and 3) ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 300 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)). The beta-agonists were added to the diets during the final 33 d of the experiment. The groups of steers fed ZH or RH improved (P < 0.01) ADG by 26 or 24%, respectively, compared with control steers. Steers supplemented with RH consumed less (P = 0.03) DM (8.37 kg) than control steers (8.51 kg), whereas intake was similar (P = 0.37) for ZH and control steers. Addition of either beta-agonist to the diet considerably improved (P < 0.01) the G:F (ZH, 0.253 and RH, 0.248 vs. control, 0.185). Hot carcass weight and carcass yield were enhanced (P < 0.05) with both beta-agonists. The LM area was increased (P = 0.026) by ZH (75.2 cm(2)), but that of RH (72.2 cm(2)) was similar (P = 0.132) to the control steers (66.8 cm(2)). Meat from the ZH- (P = 0.0007) and RH- (P = 0.0267) supplemented steers had greater shear force values than control steers (ZH = 5.11; RH = 4.83; control = 4.39 kg/cm(2)). Variables related to meat color indicated that both beta-agonists led to a similar redness of the LM area related to the control group. In general, feedlot performance was greatly enhanced by beta-adrenergic agonists, and meat tenderness from treated animals was classified as intermediate. Furthermore, meat color was not altered by beta-agonist supplementation.

  12. Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid to broiler diets: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michiels, J; Maertens, L; Buyse, J; Lemme, A; Rademacher, M; Dierick, N A; De Smet, S

    2012-02-01

    Creatine, (CREA) a central constituent in energy metabolism, is obtained from dietary animal protein or de novo synthesis from guanidinoacetic acid (GAA). Especially in all-vegetable diets, supplemental CREA or GAA may restore the CREA availability in tissues, and hence, improve performance. In this study, 768 one-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: negative control, all-vegetable corn-soybean-based; negative control supplemented with either 0.6 or 1.2 g of GAA per kilogram of feed; and positive control (60, 30, and 30 g/kg of fish meal in the starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively). Each treatment was replicated in 6 pens of 32 birds each. At the end of the grower period (d 26), 2 birds per pen were euthanized for metabolic measurements. Four broilers per pen were selected at slaughter age (d 39) to determine carcass characteristics and meat quality. Compared with the negative control, GAA supplementation resulted in an improved gain:feed ratio (P < 0.05) and ADG (P < 0.05; + 2.7 and + 2.2% for GAA at 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg, respectively) throughout the entire period. Breast meat yield was higher for the GAA diets compared with that of the negative control birds (P < 0.05; 30.6 vs. 29.4%) and was comparable with that of the positive control birds (30.2%). With regard to meat quality, lower ultimate pH values, higher cooking and press fluid losses, and higher color L* values were observed for the GAA diets compared with those of the negative control diet (P < 0.05). These effects were small, however. The GAA and CREA levels in breast meat were lower and higher, respectively, in GAA-fed birds compared with those of the control birds (P < 0.01). The diets did not affect plasma metabolic traits, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentrations were almost twice as high in animals fed 1.2 g/kg of GAA compared with those of all other treatments. The GAA included in all-vegetable diets improved animal performance for the whole

  13. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  14. Influence of drinking water salinity on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniela P V; Yamamoto, Sandra M; Araújo, Gherman G L; Pinheiro, Rafael S B; Queiroz, Mario A A; Albuquerque, Ítalo R R; Moura, José H A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different salinity levels in drinking water on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lamb carcass and meat. Ram lambs (n = 32) were distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels of salinity in the drinking water (640 mg of total dissolved solids (TDS)/L of water, 3188 mg TDS/L water, 5740 mg TDS/L water, and 8326 mg TDS/L water). After slaughter, blending, gutting, and skinning the carcass, hot and biological carcass yields were obtained. Then, the carcasses were cooled at 5 °C for 24 h, and then, the morphometric measurements and the cold carcass yield were determined and the commercial cuts made. In the Longissimus lumborum muscle color, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, and chemical composition were determined. The yields of hot and cold carcass (46.10 and 44.90%), as well as losses to cooling (2.40%) were not affected (P > 0.05) by the salinity levels in the water ingested by the lambs. The meat shear force was 3.47 kg/cm(2) and moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and ash were 73.62, 22.77, 2.5, and 4.3%, respectively. It is possible to supply water with salinity levels of up to 8326 mg TDS/L, because it did not affect the carcass and meat characteristics of Santa Inês lambs.

  15. Rheological characteristics and morphology of dialdehyde starch/meat composites during heating.

    PubMed

    Chiang, P Y; Li, J Y; Chen, M L

    2009-03-01

    Dialdehyde starch (DAS) was added to pork ham batter. The effects of DAS on the meat protein gel during heating were investigated using thermal and rheological analyses. In this study, the degree of DAS oxidation was controlled by the reaction time. The DSC thermogram showed that increasing the degree of oxidation resulted in DAS having a higher gelatinization temperature and lower heat absorption. In dialdehyde starch/meat (DAS/M) composites, meat protein reduced the availability of water to starch and raised the gelatinization temperature and heat absorbed by the composites. The G'(max) of the composites was greater than the linear combination of their components. The rheological properties of DAS were a major factor affecting the properties of its composites. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with the aid of histologic technique revealed the network and distribution of DAS and DAS/M composites. The protein matrix formed the backbone of the network and gelatinized starch was trapped in the protein structure.

  16. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  17. Use of blood-free enrichment broth in the development of a rapid protocol to detect Campylobacter in twenty-five grams of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Kubota-Hayashi, Sayoko; Natori, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Takuya; Miyata, Machiko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Zhang, Jiwei; Kawamoto, Keiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Makino, Souichi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2013-04-15

    A Food Pathogen Enrichment (FPE) broth, which supports the growth of Campylobacter without lysed blood and CO2, was developed. The FPE broth supports the growth of Campylobacter to the same degree as Bolton and Preston broths. Using the FPE broth, we developed a novel rapid protocol to detect small numbers of Campylobacter in 25g of food. The sensitivity of FPE enrichment and PCR to detect Campylobacter spp. from spiked chicken meat was determined. The detection sensitivities for non-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from fresh meat ranged from 5.8 to 1.1×10(1)CFU per 25g of chicken meat, and those for freeze-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from frozen meat ranged from 9.9×10(1) to 2.0×10(2)CFU. The FPE broth enrichment culture (24h) of chicken meat, followed by PCR, resulted in a significantly higher detection score (80% positive) than conventional Bolton enrichment and subsequent colony isolation using mCCDA agar plates (18% positive). Differences between our new protocol and the Bolton enrichment method were due to the overgrowth of many resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in the Bolton enrichment broth.

  18. The use of meat juice or blood serum for the diagnosis of Salmonella infection in pigs and its possible implications on Salmonella control programs.

    PubMed

    Vico, Juan P; Mainar-Jaime, Raúl C

    2011-05-01

    Serology is the method of choice for country-scale Salmonella control programs in pigs and can be carried out both on blood serum or meat juice. However, the diagnostic performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on these sample matrices has not been sufficiently compared. The agreement between the serum ELISA and meat juice ELISA on samples taken from commercial farms was assessed in 2 pig populations (adult sows and finishers). Results of optical density percentage (OD%) from the serum ELISA were consistently higher than those from the meat juice ELISA (38.5 vs. 27.9; P<0.001), and the mean difference between them was significantly different from zero (P<0.0001). The overall correlation coefficient between serum ELISA and meat juice ELISA results was low (r=0.53). These results indicated an important disagreement between ELISA performed on serum and meat juice matrices and suggested that before implementing a control program to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in swine the choice of matrix on which to perform the ELISA should be carefully considered. © 2011 The Author(s)

  19. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P < 0.05), suggesting that cattle learned to mix legumes with tall fescue. Scan samples and assessments of pasture biomass removal revealed greater use of sainfoin than alfalfa when both legumes were abundant in the spring (P < 0.05); that pattern reversed toward the end of the growing season (P < 0.05) as the abundance of sainfoin declined more than that of alfalfa. Intake of forage per kilogram of gain was greater for SAN than for ALF in 2010 (P = 0.0003) and showed a tendency to be greater for SAN than ALF in 2012 (P = 0.19). There were no differences in ADG between SAN and ALF in either year (1 kg/d; P > 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P < 0.05) in 2012. Steaks from cattle finished on SAN were redder in color than steaks from cattle finished on ALF (P < 0.05; 2012). Meat samples from SAN and ALF showed some differences in unsaturated fatty acid profiles and volatiles concentrations (P < 0.05), but

  20. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    PubMed

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P < 0.01) and shear force value (P < 0.001) increased with age. Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat of musculus (M.) semimembranosus increased with age (P < 0.01). The percentage of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was lower (P < 0.001) in the M. longissimus dorsi of the kids slaughtered at 3 months of age than those in the other age groups. The females had higher intramuscular fat than that in males (P < 0.001) and meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P < 0.01). In conclusion, meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  1. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability.

  2. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  3. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    PubMed

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  4. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  5. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  6. Broiler survivors of intravenous micro-particle injections: evaluation of growth, livability, meat quality, and arterial blood gas values during a cyclic heat challenge.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Owens, C M; Devabhaktuni, M K; Cavitt, L C; Wang, W; Erf, G F

    2003-03-01

    When broilers are exposed to high ambient temperatures, their cardiac output can increase by 20 to 50%. Previously, we developed an intravenous micro-particle injection technique to select broilers having a cardiopulmonary capacity capable of accommodating increases in cardiac output associated with fast growth and cool temperatures. In the present study, male broilers were injected at 18 to 20 d of age with cellulose micro-particles sufficient to trigger >50% mortality by 35 d of age. The survivors of micro-particle injections (cellulose survivors) and saline-injected flock mates (control group) were exposed to a moderate cyclic heat challenge (peak temperature of 35 to 37 degrees C) beginning on d 36 and continuing through d 57. We tested the hypothesis that if the cellulose survivors represent the population cohort having the most robust cardiopulmonary capacity, then during a subsequent heat challenge these survivorspotentially may perform better than their unselected flock mates. Based on data combined from two independent experiments, the cellulose survivors exhibited improved livability and body weight gain when compared with their unselected flock mates during the cyclic heat challenge. Meat quality characteristics did not differ between the groups. In a third experiment, cellulose survivors and saline-injected male broilers were reared at thermoneutral temperatures or were exposed to a cyclic heat challenge beginning on d 36. Arterial blood samples were collected from unanesthetized birds at 47 to 49 d of age and were analyzed for pH, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, partial pressure of O2, and saturation of hemoglobin with O2. The blood gas values for the cellulose survivors and saline-injected broilers did not differ within a temperature regimen, regardless of whether the broilers were chronically acclimated to heat or were exposed to an acute heat challenge at the end of the experiment. The cellulose survivors did not differ in susceptibility to

  7. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  8. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  9. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Retail Poultry Meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Teranishi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shioko; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Wada, Eriko; Kumagai, Yuko; Takahashi, Shiho; Konno, Takayuki; Kashio, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Kato, Naoki; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Horikawa, Kazumi; Oishi, Akira; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Yoshiko; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2017-05-24

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.

  11. Characteristics of meat emulsion systems as influenced by different levels of lemon albedo.

    PubMed

    Sarıçoban, C; Ozalp, B; Yılmaz, M T; Ozen, G; Karakaya, M; Akbulut, M

    2008-11-01

    The effect of the addition of lemon albedo on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared by the addition of two types of lemon albedo (raw and dehydrated) at five concentrations (0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10%) to mechanically deboned chicken meat. The emulsion capacity, stability, viscosity and flow properties of the prepared model emulsions were analyzed. In addition, the colour parameters of cooked emulsion gel were determined. The addition of lemon albedo increased the emulsion capacity (EC) and the highest EC value was reached with 5% of albedo added. However, further increase in the albedo concentration caused an inverse trend in the EC values. A similar trend was observed in the emulsion stability (ES) values. Dehydrated albedo (DA) addition caused higher EC and ES values than did raw albedo (RA). DA increased the L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values of the cooked emulsion gels. Emulsion viscosity (EV) values were positively correlated with an increase in albedo concentration and the highest EV value was obtained from the emulsions with 10% albedo. Albedo addition did not change the flow properties of the emulsions and, in addition, increased the pseudoplasticity. As a consequence, the use of lemon albedo might be a potential dietary fiber source to enhance the functional and technological properties for frankfurter-type meat products.

  12. Body weight, meat quality and blood metabolite responses to carbohydrate administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kop-Bozbay, C; Ocak, N

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine weights of body (BW), carcass (CW), gastrointestinal tract (GTW), meat quality and some blood metabolite responses to corn starch, saccharose or glucose administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal (FW) in broilers. On day 42 of age, 200 broilers (Ross 308) were allocated randomly to five treatments with four replicates. During a 10-h FW, control broilers (C) were provided with non-treated water and the standard finisher diet ad libitum, whereas fasted broilers provided with non-treated (NFW) or treated water, 3 g glucose (G), saccharose (S) or corn starch (CS)/L. Eight birds (four males and four females) per treatment were slaughtered. Birds receiving non-treated or treated water had lower BW and higher carcass yield than the full-fed broilers. The full-fed broilers had higher absolute and relative GTW than the fasted birds. Broilers consumed more readily treated water compared with non-treated water. While the a* value of breast meat from CS birds was higher than that from NFW, the b* value of that was higher than S and C birds. The c* values of breast meat from S birds were lower compared with that from the CS treatment. The thigh meat from NFW broilers had higher h* value than that from C and G broilers. The thigh meats of C and CS broilers had higher c* value than that of G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma triglyceride concentration than NFW, S and G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma uric acid and uric acid nitrogen concentrations than S birds. These results show that carbohydrate administration in the drinking water cannot be a good alternative for the FW period before slaughter due to the fact that the carbohydrates do not reduce BW losses and do not lead to increases in meat quality.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P < 0.05). Protein oxidation was increased both in cured and uncured meats (P < 0.05), but more in cured cooked meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P < 0.05), but the redness of cured cooked turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P < 0.05). Irradiated cured cooked turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P < 0.01). High concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents.

  15. Characteristics of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chicken meat and hospitalized dogs in Korea and their epidemiological relatedness.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nam Hoon; Park, Kun Taek; Jung, Woo Kyung; Youn, Hwa Young; Lee, Yeonhee; Kim, So Hyun; Bae, Wonki; Lim, Ji Youn; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jun Man; Hong, Soon Keun; Park, Yong Ho

    2006-10-31

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important pathogens in human and veterinary hospitals. The isolation of MRSA from animals and foodstuffs has been reported with an increased incidence. However, methicillin (oxacillin) is not used in animal husbandry or in animal hospitals in Korea. In this study, three pre-MRSA and one silent mecA-carrying methicillin susceptible S. aureus (smMSSA) were isolated from retail chicken meat, and three MRSA were isolated from hospitalized dogs in Korea. The three pre-MRSA isolates were determined to have a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III, and the smMSSA isolate was not classified. The animal hospital isolates were found to contain SCCmec type II. Seven and 15 S. aureus isolated from hospitalized humans and bovine milk, respectively, were also examined in this study in order to determine the epidemiological origins of MRSA. Multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) revealed that the chicken meat and bovine milk isolates were closely related to the animal hospital isolates. The SCCmec characteristics and MLST analyses indicated the possibility of the human to animal transmission of MRSA. These results highlight the importance of identifying MRSA carriers as well as intercepting MRSA transmission because MRSA is becoming increasingly widespread without any plausible relationship with the use of methicillin (oxacillin).

  16. Blood characteristics for high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Wu, C X; Chamba, Y; Ling, Y

    2007-07-01

    Tibetan chickens, a unique chicken breed native to high altitude, have good adaptation to hypoxia. The experiment was conducted to determine the adaptive blood characteristics in Tibetan chickens. Fertile eggs from Tibetan and Dwarf Recessive White chickens were incubated, and the chicks were reared until 10 wk of age at low altitude (100 m) and high altitude (2,900 m). At 1 d and 2, 6, and 10 wk of age, the hematological characteristics, blood gas value, and blood volume were measured. Tibetan chickens had more red blood cells (RBC), smaller mean cell volume, lower pH and partial pressure of oxygen, and higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide at high altitude and had lower blood volume, erythrocyte volume, and plasma volume at low and high altitude than Dwarf Recessive White chickens. Tibetan chickens reared at high altitude retained a high level of RBC and a stable level of hematocrit from younger to older, but Dwarf Recessive White chickens reared at high altitude presented an increase in RBC and hematocrit values. It was concluded the adaptation was achieved in Tibetan chickens by increase in RBC and blood oxygen affinity, decrease in mean cell volume, and reducing susceptivity to hypocapnia.

  17. The effect of floor type on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality of dairy origin bulls.

    PubMed

    Murphy, V S; Lowe, D E; Lively, F O; Gordon, A W

    2017-10-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (P<0.01). Although bulls accommodated on CS and CS-S were significantly dirtier compared with those accommodated on RS and CS-RS on days 50 (P<0.05) and 151 (P<0.01), there was no effect of floor type on the cleanliness of bulls at the end of the growing and finishing periods. There was also no significant effect of floor type on carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls

  18. Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Mostert, A C; Laubscher, L L

    2009-12-01

    Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic acid, C20:3n-6 and C22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 were higher in impala. The PUFA:SFA ratio for kudu (1.22) was higher than for impala (0.73) while impala had a higher n-6 PUFA's to n-3 PUFA ratio (3.76) than kudu (2.20). Kudu was higher in cholesterol (71.42±2.61mg/100gmuscle) than impala (52.54±2.73mg/100gmuscle). Sensory evaluation showed impala had a more intense game aroma and flavour while the initial juiciness of cooked samples of kudu was higher. The results show kudu and impala can be marketed for their unique flavours and aromas as well as being a healthy substitute for other red meats.

  19. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  20. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (P<0.05), obviously by e-beam irradiation compared to gamma-ray and X-ray (P<0.05). The redness of pork sausages was increased by gamma-ray irradiation, whereas it decreased by e-beam irradiation depending on absorbed dose level. No significant changes in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  1. Adherence characteristics of Listeria strains isolated from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Kalpana; Muriana, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    Over 1,560 non-food contact surface swabs and raw meat ingredient samples were collected from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants (520 from each plant) from 1998 to 1999, resulting in the recovery of 259 isolates of Listeria obtained from postprocess areas including drains, floors, garbage bins, cart wheels, walls, equipment surfaces, tables, brooms, pallet jacks, hoses, ladders, and waste chutes. We further examined 246 of the 259 isolates for adherence phenotype and used PCR to identify those that were Listeria monocytogenes. Adherence was classified as weak, moderate, or strong depending on results obtained with all Listeria isolates by using a fluorescent microplate adherence assay. Among the 246 isolates, there were 61 weakly, 148 moderately, and 37 strongly adherent Listeria, of which 130 (53%) were found to be L. monocytogenes. Plants A and B provided similar recoveries of 39 (7.5%) and 43 (8.3%) Listeria-positive isolates, including 9 (23.1% of Listeria) and 41 (95.3% of Listeria) identified as L. monocytogenes, respectively, that were weakly or moderately adherent. In plant C, we recovered 164 Listeria-positive samples (31.5% isolation rate), which included 80 L. monocytogenes-positive samples (49.8% of Listeria spp.), 52 of which were moderately adherent, as well as all 9 strongly adherent isolates of L. monocytogenes obtained in this study. Adherence properties of Listeria may allow persistence and recurrence in plant environments, potentially increasing the chance of eventual product contamination, and this emphasizes the need for sanitary approaches to prevent colonization by Listeria as well as product antimicrobial interventions should the sanitation barrier be breached.

  2. Chemical and physical characteristics of lamb meat related to crossbreeding of Romanov ewes with Suffolk and Charollais sires.

    PubMed

    Kuchtík, Jan; Zapletal, David; Šustová, Květoslava

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of crossbreeding Romanov (RO) ewes with Suffolk (SF) and Charollais (CH) sires on the chemicophysical characteristics and FA profile of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) in lambs fattened under organic conditions. The experimental animals were male lamb twins of two different crossbreds; CH 50 RO 50 and SF 50 RO 50. Lambs were slaughtered at an average live weight of 31kg. CH 50 RO 50 displayed higher contents of dry matter and intramuscular fat of the QFM. A lower pH value of CH 50 RO 50 was reflected in an increase of WHC. Meat of SF 50 RO 50 lambs had more lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). The CH 50 RO 50 genotype showed a significantly higher proportion of C18:3n-3cis and n-3 PUFA than the SF 50 RO 50 genotype. The genotype also affected the Δ(9)-desaturase (16) index.

  3. Effect of soy protein isolate incorporation on quality characteristics and shelf-life of buffalo meat emulsion sausage.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Rizawi, J A; Srivastava, P K

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of soy protein isolate (SPI) at 0, 15, and 25% levels in buffalo meat was investigated for production, quality and shelf life evaluation of emulsion sausage (ES). Quality of ES was evaluated by pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number, total plate count (TPC), and Yeast and mold count, sensory, characteristics and instrumental colour and texture measurements. It was found that pH and moisture content were slightly affected, TBA number remained unaffected. TPC of ES fresh sample was found in the range 3.7-4.3 log cfu/g. ES was acceptable to the panelists and incorporation of SPI did not affect the acceptability. SPI incorporation increased Hunter L and b values but decreased a value and instrumental hardness. During storage (0°C), L, a, b values fl uctuated irregularly. It was concluded that incorporation of SPI slightly improved texture, juiciness and colour of emulsion sausage.

  4. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  5. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  6. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent.

  7. Effect of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in three genotypes of chicken.

    PubMed

    Jiang, R R; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Zhao, J P; Li, P; Hu, J; Wen, J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid (NA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were investigated in three genotypes of chicken. Fast-growing AA (Arbor Acres) broilers were compared with two genotypes of a slow-growing local breed, Beijing-You, that had undergone selection for and against intramuscular fat content respectively (BJY+IMF and BJY-IMF). The treatments were arranged 3×4 factorial completely randomized design. Day-old females (n=624) were allocated to four treatments with six replicates per treatment and fed diets (basal contained ~25 mg NA/kg) supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg NA/kg. A sample of 72 birds from each genotype was slaughtered at market time (8 weeks of age for AA and 16 weeks of age for BJY). The breast muscles of AA broilers were darker, had less redness and yellowness, lower drip loss and higher shear force as compared to the BJY genotypes (p<0.01). The highest drip loss and the lowest shear force among the three genotypes were apparent in BJY+IMF (p<0.01). Increasing supplementation from 0 to 60 mg NA/kg tended to increase average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake, width of intermuscular fat band, thickness of subcutaneous fat (including skin) and percentage of abdominal fat but, for most variables, values decreased slightly with 120 mg NA/kg. Increasing supplementation to 60 mg NA/kg decreased (quadratic, p<0.001) drip loss, but it increased at 120 mg NA/kg. The present results indicate that (i) the AA broilers fed corn-soybean meal based-diets require approximately 60 mg NA/kg to maximize ADG and meat product yield and decrease the drip loss of breast muscle; (ii) the addition of 30 mg NA/kg meets the requirement of BJY genotypes; and (iii) there seems to be no beneficial effect of NA supplementation on chicken meat quality except for limiting the drip loss. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  9. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ≤ 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet.

  10. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks1

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Yang, G. L.; Liu, G. N.; Wang, J. P.; Bai, S. P.; Ding, X. M.; Luo, Y. H.; Zhang, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks’ dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. PMID:24902707

  11. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  12. Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis. In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose. Methods In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested. Results The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma) taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective. PMID:21106067

  13. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors).

  14. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  15. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Long, L.; Wu, S. G.; Yuan, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Qi, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  16. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  17. Effects of dietary functional ingredients and packaging methods on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of irradiated turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Yan, H J; Lee, E J; Nam, K C; Min, B R; Ahn, D U

    2006-08-01

    Raw and cooked breast patties from turkeys fed 8 different diets [control; 200 IU/kg of vitamin E (VE); 0.3 mg/kg of Se; 2.5% conjugated linoleic acids (CLA); 200 IU/kg of VE + 0.3 mg/kg of Se; 200 IU/kg of VE + 2.5% CLA; 0.3 mg/kg of Se + 2.5% CLA; and 200 IU/kg of VE + 0.3 mg/kg of Se + 2.5% CLA] were treated with 2 irradiation doses (0 and 1.5 kGy) and 2 packaging methods (vacuum and aerobic). Raw and cooked samples from 32 treatments were tested by 8 trained sensory panelists for turkey aroma and irradiation off-aroma. Based on the sensory scores, the 3 dietary treatments producing the most and the least off-aroma were selected and used for a consumer acceptance study. Sensory results of raw meat showed that turkey aroma was intense in aerobically packaged meat, whereas irradiation off-aroma was intense with vacuum packaging. Raw meats from dietary treatments containing CLA (CLA, VE + CLA, Se + CLA, VE + Se + CLA) had greater turkey aroma scores, whereas those containing VE (VE and VE + Se) had lower scores than the control. Dietary treatments containing VE (VE, VE + Se, VE + Se + CLA) significantly lowered (P < 0.05) irradiation off-aroma in raw turkey breast meat, whereas CLA increased it, especially when the meats were packaged aerobically. In cooked meat, however, irradiation and packaging had no effect on turkey meat aroma and irradiation off-aroma. Cooked meat from turkeys supplemented with VE (VE and VE + Se) had less (P < 0.05) irradiation off-odor than other dietary treatments. Dietary CLA increased the irradiation off-aroma in cooked meat, which could not be reduced, even when VE and Se were combined in the diet. Irradiation off-aroma of raw meat was not pleasant for most consumers, and dietary supplementation of VE and VE + Se improved consumer acceptance of irradiated raw meat. For cooked meat samples, consumers preferred both color and flavor of irradiated meat to nonirradiated meat.

  18. Characteristics of compounds that cross the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2009-06-12

    Substances cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by a variety of mechanisms. These include transmembrane diffusion, saturable transporters, adsorptive endocytosis, and the extracellular pathways. Here, we focus on the chief characteristics of two mechanisms especially important in drug delivery: transmembrane diffusion and transporters. Transmembrane diffusion is non-saturable and depends, on first analysis, on the physicochemical characteristics of the substance. However, brain-to-blood efflux systems, enzymatic activity, plasma protein binding, and cerebral blood flow can greatly alter the amount of the substance crossing the BBB. Transport systems increase uptake of ligands by roughly 10-fold and are modified by physiological events and disease states. Most drugs in clinical use to date are small, lipid soluble molecules that cross the BBB by transmembrane diffusion. However, many drug delivery strategies in development target peptides, regulatory proteins, oligonucleotides, glycoproteins, and enzymes for which transporters have been described in recent years. We discuss two examples of drug delivery for newly discovered transporters: that for phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and for enzymes.

  19. Growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in F1 and F2 progenies of somatic cell-cloned pigs.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akiyuki; Miura, Narumi; Sunaga, Seiji; Oishi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Oishi, Takatsugu; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hanada, Hirofumi; Kubo, Masanori; Onishi, Akira

    2014-04-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production.

  20. [Ocular blood flow and characteristics of retinal detachment].

    PubMed

    Roldán Pallarés, M; Ossama, I A; Contreras, E; Hernández, J; Ganado, T; Bravo, C

    2001-06-01

    To determine if ocular blood flow (OBF) changes in retinal detachment (RD) are related with its characteristics (extension, macular involvement, PVR or duration). 60 patients with unilateral rhegmatogenous RD and 20 patients were selected. Color Doppler Ultrasound was used to measure OBF velocities in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and vein (CRV) and posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) of both eyes of each patient. The IOP and RD characteristics were considered. In each case the paired Student's T test (OBF) and Wilcoxon test (IOP) were used for the statistical analysis (p<5%). Peak systolic (PS) and end diastolic (ED) velocities of OA, PS of CRA and PS and ED of PCA were decreased in the RD eyes compared to the normal ones (p<0.05). The PS and ED rates of OA and PS of CRA were also decreased (p<0.05) in the other eyes compared to the normal ones. Both the decrease in velocity and in the IOP were related with 2 or more quadrants of RD (p<0.05), macula detachment (p<0.05), PVR >/=C(2) (p<0.05) and duration of >/=15 days (p<0.05). RD correlates with decreased ocular blood flow velocities and IOP in both the RD as well as in the other eye. The worse the characteristics of the RD, the lower the velocities and the IOP

  1. Effects of inulin or yeast cell-wall extract on nutrient digestibility, fecal fermentative end-product concentrations, and blood metabolite concentrations in adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Duclos, Laura M; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-07-01

    To determine the effects of raw meat-based diets with and without inulin or yeast cell-wall (YCW) extract on macronutrient digestibility, blood cell counts, serum metabolite concentrations, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in healthy adult dogs. 6 healthy adult spayed female dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.5 ± 0.5 years; mean body weight, 8.5 ± 0.5 kg). Dogs were fed each of the following 6 diets for 21 days, the order of which was randomly assigned in a Latin square design: beef control, beef and 1.4% inulin, beef and 1.4% YCW extract, chicken control, chicken and 1.4% inulin, and chicken and 1.4% YCW extract. Each diet trial consisted of a phase for diet adaptation (days 0 to 14) and a phase for measurement of urine and fecal output and content (days 15 to 20). On day 21, food was withheld for blood sample collection. Afterward, the next diet trial began immediately. All dogs maintained desirable fecal quality characteristics and produced low fecal volume. All diets were highly digestible (protein digestibility > 88%; fat digestibility > 97%). Differences in fermentative end-product concentrations among all diets were minor, but a significant increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was evident when dogs were fed beef-based diets with inulin and YCW extract. Fecal spermine concentrations were higher with diets containing inulin and YCW extract than with control diets. Blood cell counts and serum metabolite values were within reference limits after each trial. All diets resulted in maintenance of nitrogen balance. Results suggested the raw meat-based diets evaluated were highly digestible in dogs. The increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations achieved when inulin and YCW extract were included may be beneficial to canine health.

  2. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples.

  3. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p<0.05). The protein content and shear force of the jerkies decreased with increasing amounts of MDCM, whereas the fat, ash content and processing yield showed the opposite tendency (p<0.05). Replacement with up to 10% MDCM had no adverse effects on the sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment II, four levels of pork collagen (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were added to the semi-dried chicken jerky formulated with 90% chicken breast and 10% MDCM. The addition of collagen increased the moisture content, but decreased the ash content of the jerkies produced (p<0.05). The processing yield of the jerkies increased with increasing added amounts of collagen (p<0.05). It was found that the jerkies formulated with 0-2% collagen had significantly higher overall acceptance score than those prepared with 3% collagen (p<0.05). In conclusion, MDCM and collagen could be useful ingredients to reduce the production cost and improve the processing yield of semi-dried chicken jerky. The optimal levels of MDCM and collagen which could be added without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics were up to 10% and 2%, respectively. PMID:26761667

  4. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-09-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed.

  5. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  6. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    from 2.65 to 3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  7. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45−DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9–19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11–13 µm should be used to challenge the system. PMID:23626725

  8. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  9. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  10. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  11. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  12. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  13. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  14. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  15. Fresh meat and further processing characteristics of ham muscles from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; Duncan, D A; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Stites, C R; Petry, D B; Hinson, R B; Allee, G L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-01-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) has consistently led to an advantage in carcass cutting yields of finishing pigs and remains a common feed additive in US finishing pig diets. Less is known about the effect of RAC on further processing characteristics. Some researchers have reported advantages in ultimate pH of the LM in pigs fed RAC. If a greater ultimate pH was also observed in hams, the increased pH could affect further processing characteristics and lead to better protein interaction and improved textural properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if RAC-fed pigs yielded hams with a greater ultimate pH, and if so, whether or not that advantage improves textural properties and water retention of further processed hams. Two hundred hams from barrows and gilts fed RAC or control diets were selected based on HCW. Hams were fabricated into 5 separate pieces to determine cutting yields, and 6 muscles were evaluated for ultimate pH. Hams were processed to make cured and smoked hams. Ractopamine increased cutting yields of the whole ham (P < 0.0001), inside (P < 0.01), outside (P < 0.01), and knuckle (P < 0.01) when expressed as a percentage of chilled side weight. Ultimate pH of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus were all 0.06 pH units greater (P < 0.05), the biceps femoris was 0.04 pH units greater (P = 0.02), and the semimembranosus and adductor muscles were 0.03 pH units greater in pigs fed 7.4 mg/kg of RAC when compared with control pigs. Cured hams from RAC-fed pigs were heavier at all stages of production. No differences were detected in binding strengths (P = 0.88) or protein fat-free values (P = 0.13) between RAC (9.06 kg and 20.37) and control hams (9.01 kg and 20.13). Ractopamine increased cutting yields, total weight of cured hams, and ultimate muscle pH. Ractopamine can be fed to pigs to achieve the desired growth characteristic advantages and cutting yields without affecting further processed ham characteristics.

  16. [Immunophenotypic characteristics of peripheral blood cells in normal elderly men].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Zhe; Chang, Yan; Lu, Dan; Shi, Hong-Xia; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Yan-Rong

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to distinguish abnormal cells and to diagnose hematologic diseases through recognizing antigen expression pattern and percentage of peripheral blood cells in normal elderly men. Antigen expression of blast cells, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, nucleated red blood cells and plasma cells was detected by seven-color flow cytometry in a total of 88 peripheral blood samples from normal elderly men, aged median 82 years old, from 70 to 98 years. Groups were divided according to age, region and underlying diseases, and the percentages of different subgroup cells were examined to confirm whether the differences were significant or not. The results showed that the median proportion of CD34(+) blast cells in peripheral blood from normal elderly men were 0.017% (0.015%-0.020%), with high expression of HLA-DR, CD33, CD13 and CD117, low expression of myeloid antigens, such as CD15, CD11b and CD16, while lymphoid antigens were seldom positive, including CD7, CD19 and CD56. Dim-expression of CD38 was found in peripheral blood blast cells, CD38(dim)+/- cell percentage in blast cells was 61.36% ± 18.26%. In the differentiation and development of granulocytes, CD16(-), CD13(+) CD16(+) (intermediate) and CD16(+) (strong) CD13(+) cells appeared in sequence from immature to mature granulocytes, whose median proportions in nuclear cells were 0.04%, 0.30% and 61.30%, respectively. The percentages of immature monocytes, such as CD64(+) CD14(-) and HLA-DR(+) CD11b(-) cells, were from 0.00% to 0.10% and from 0.07% to 0.68%, separately. No significant differences were found between different subgroups (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the immunophenotypic characteristics and referential percentages of CD34(+) blast cells, granulocytes and monocytes with different development stages in peripheral blood from normal elderly men are recognized, which can help to discriminate abnormal cells.

  17. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Young-Boong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p<0.05), though the redness of the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract only was lower than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). The highest VBN, TBARS, and total viable count values were observed in the control, and these values in the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract were higher than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). E. coli and coliform bacteria were not found in any of the meat emulsions tested. Treatment T2, containing nitrite and ascorbic acid, had the highest overall acceptability score (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the T2 treatment and the T6 treatment, which contained 10% pre-converted nitrite from red beet extract and 0.05% ascorbic acid (p>0.05). The residual nitrite content of the meat emulsions treated with ascorbic acid was lower than in those treated without ascorbic acid (p<0.05). Thus, the combination of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid could be a viable alternative to synthetic nitrite for the stability of color development in meat emulsions.

  18. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p<0.05), though the redness of the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract only was lower than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). The highest VBN, TBARS, and total viable count values were observed in the control, and these values in the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract were higher than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). E. coli and coliform bacteria were not found in any of the meat emulsions tested. Treatment T2, containing nitrite and ascorbic acid, had the highest overall acceptability score (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the T2 treatment and the T6 treatment, which contained 10% pre-converted nitrite from red beet extract and 0.05% ascorbic acid (p>0.05). The residual nitrite content of the meat emulsions treated with ascorbic acid was lower than in those treated without ascorbic acid (p<0.05). Thus, the combination of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid could be a viable alternative to synthetic nitrite for the stability of color development in meat emulsions. PMID:28515652

  19. Prostaglandin E₂ production in mice is reduced by consumption of range-fed sources of red meat.

    PubMed

    Broughton, K Shane; Rule, Daniel C; Handrich, Eldon

    2011-12-01

    Many view bison as a healthful alternative to other red meat sources, and as a way to decrease health risks, they associate it with meat consumption. Using mice as a model for immune function, we hypothesized that consumption of meat from range-fed bison would decrease prostaglandin (PG) E₂ and alter prostacyclin (PGI₂) release upon immune challenge when compared with mice fed meat from grain-finished bison, range-fed beef, feedlot steers, free-ranging elk, or chicken breast. After 2 weeks on an experimental diet and inflammatory stimulation, mouse peritoneal macrophage was isolated and analyzed in 12 animals per diet. Peritoneal cell arachidonic acid increased in response to a chicken-based diet (P < .05), which was likely attributable to higher arachidonic acid intake. Release of PGE₂ was lowest in mice consuming meat of range-fed beef, range-fed bison, and elk but was highest with meat of grain-finished beef and intermediate in mice fed chicken (P < .05). Mice fed elk meat had the greatest PGI₂, whereas PGI₂ was decreased in mice fed meat of either range bison, range beef, or chicken (P < .05) and intermediate in mice fed meat of steers or bison finished in a feedlot. We conclude that consumption of meats characteristic of range-fed ruminants or wild ungulates supports reduced PGE₂ and greater PGI₂ synthesis, indicating potentially greater immune health and lower blood clotting potential than meat from grain-finished cattle or bison in this model system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  1. Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. Methods: Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. Results: Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men

  2. Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Allès, Benjamin; Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Touvier, Mathilde; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-09-15

    There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men and 83.4% in women <55 years of

  3. Marination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Vacuum-aged Duck Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Young, Hae In; Lee, Haelim; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-11-01

    We investigated marinade absorption and physicochemical characteristics of vacuum-aged duck breasts that were halved and individually vacuum-packed for chiller aging at 4°C for 14 d. One half was marinated for 0, 7, or 14 d, while the second half was used as a control. Marinade absorption, cooking loss, cooking yield, texture profile, pH, color, protein solubility, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were evaluated, and protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Marinade absorption and pH did not vary significantly after 14 d of aging. Marination increased the pH, color (a* and b*) values, and cooking yield and reduced cooking loss. TBARS values significantly increased with aging time, but were significantly reduced by marination. Myofibril and total protein solubility increased with aging and marination, while SDS-PAGE showed protein degradation. Hence, aging and marination can be used simultaneously to improve physicochemical quality and cooking yield of vacuum-aged duck breast.

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of biltong, a traditional salted dried meat of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Thomas; Caro, Yanis; Petit, Anne-Sophie; Santchurn, Sunita J; Collignan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of several commercial beef, kudu and springbok biltong samples from South Africa were assessed in this study. Analysis of samples allowed their differentiation into 'dry' and 'moist' samples. Dry biltong showed low moisture content (21.5-25.3 g/100 g), a low water activity (0.65-0.68) and a high salt content (5.5-7.9 g/100 g), while moist biltong showed a higher moisture content (35.1-42.8 g/100 g), a higher water activity (0.85 to 0.89) and a lower salt content (3.8-5.6 g/100 g). The pH value did not vary significantly between both groups (5.00-6.26). The results showed that dry biltong presented a low total plate count (TPC) content, a high level of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a high level of D-lactic acid as compared to moist biltong. These results suggest that dry biltong complies with the standard hygienic quality (TPC<7 log cfu/g in agreement with the Food Standards Agency), while moist biltong samples generally showed a low content of D-lactic acid and a low ratio LAB/TPC.

  5. Marination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Vacuum-aged Duck Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Young, Hae In; Lee, Haelim; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated marinade absorption and physicochemical characteristics of vacuum-aged duck breasts that were halved and individually vacuum-packed for chiller aging at 4°C for 14 d. One half was marinated for 0, 7, or 14 d, while the second half was used as a control. Marinade absorption, cooking loss, cooking yield, texture profile, pH, color, protein solubility, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were evaluated, and protein sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Marinade absorption and pH did not vary significantly after 14 d of aging. Marination increased the pH, color (a* and b*) values, and cooking yield and reduced cooking loss. TBARS values significantly increased with aging time, but were significantly reduced by marination. Myofibril and total protein solubility increased with aging and marination, while SDS-PAGE showed protein degradation. Hence, aging and marination can be used simultaneously to improve physicochemical quality and cooking yield of vacuum-aged duck breast. PMID:26954195

  6. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  7. Quality and sensory characteristics of selected post-rigor, early deboned broiler breast meat tenderized using hydrodynamic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Meek, K I; Claus, J R; Duncan, S E; Marriott, N G; Solomon, M B; Kathman, S J; Marini, M E

    2000-01-01

    Our first objective was to determine the effects of explosive amount and distance of the explosive to the meat surface in the Hydrodyne process on broiler breast tenderness. Early deboned (EB) breasts were removed immediately after initial chill (45 min postmortem), stored for 24 h (4 C), and subjected to one of four Hydrodyne treatments (200 g at 20 cm, 350 g at 23 cm, 275 g at 20 cm, or 350 g at 20 cm). Breasts were water-cooked (78 C internal). Hydrodyne treatment (HYD) of 350 g at 20 cm produced the greatest reduction (28.3%) in Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS, 1.9-cm wide strips). This combination was the only treatment to improve tenderness (peak force 4.3 kg) to a level equivalent (P > 0.05) to aged controls (CA; peak force 3.1 kg). The second objective was to determine the quality and sensory characteristics of Hydrodyne-treated (350 g explosive at 20 cm) broiler breasts as compared with CA and EB. The WBS values (1.0-cm wide and thick strips) for CA (1.56 kg) were different from both HYD (3.7 kg) and EB breasts (4.7 kg). The CA resulted in more tender, flavorful, and juicer breasts than EB and HYD. The EB was higher in initial moisture release than HYD. The EB breasts with tenderness problems can be tenderized by the Hydrodyne process based on WBS results. However, higher levels of explosive may be required to optimize the tenderness improvement of EB breasts that vary significantly in initial tenderness.

  8. Intake, feeding behaviour, digestibility, performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed different levels of semi-purified glycerine in the diet.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Leticia Costa; Heimbach, Natália da Silva; Ferreira Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Morais, Maria da Graça; Brumatti, Ricardo Carneiro; Franco, Gumercindo Loriano; Petit, Hélène Veronique; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; da Silva, Jonilson Araújo; da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves; de Melo, Gleice Kelli Ayardes

    2017-09-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of semi-purified glycerine in the diet of feedlot lambs on feeding behaviour, nutrient intake and digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality and in vitro degradability. Thirty-two Dorper × (Texel × Suffolk) crossbred intact male lambs (22.2 ± 5.51 kg) were fed glycerine (90% purity) at 0, 120, 240 or 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a total mixed ration with a roughage to concentrate ratio of 40:60 for 84 d. In vitro degradability was not affected by glycerine supplementation. Feeding behaviour and digestibility of DM, crude protein and fibre and production performance were similar among treatments. Ether extract digestibility was lower at the highest inclusion level. Glycerine level had no effect on ruminal pH, carcass characteristics and meat quality, except for subcutaneous fat thickness which was lower for lambs fed glycerine at 240 and 360 g/kg DM. Scores for unpleasant taste, unpleasant odour, succulence and softness of meat were not affected by dietary glycerine level. These data suggest that there are no adverse effects on carcass quality and performance when semi-purified glycerine is provided up to 360 g/kg DM in the diet of growing lambs fed a forage to concentrate ratio of 40:60.

  9. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  10. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  11. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl A; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Pachett, Annabelle

    2009-01-01

    Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are base producing but restrict red meat without clear justification. We hypothesized that a vitality diet (VD), a low-sodium DASH-type diet with a low dietary acid load containing 6 servings of 100 g cooked lean red meat per week, would be more effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) compared with a higher acid load reference healthy diet (RHD) based on general dietary guidelines to reduce fat intake and increase intake of breads and cereals. A randomized, parallel dietary intervention study was conducted to compare the BP-lowering effect of these 2 diets in postmenopausal women with high/normal BP. Women were randomly assigned to follow either VD or RHD for 14 weeks. Home BP was measured daily with an automated BP monitor under standard conditions. Of 111 women commencing the study, 95 completed (46 VD, 49 RHD). Systolic BP (SBP) throughout the intervention was lower in the VD group compared to the RHD group (repeated-measures analysis of variance time by diet, P = .04), such that at the end of the study, the VD had a fall of SBP by 5.6 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) compared with a fall of 2.7 +/- 1.0 mm Hg in the RHD (group difference, P = .08). When only those taking antihypertensive medications were assessed, the VD (n = 17) had a significant fall of 6.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg SBP (P = .02) and 4.6 +/- 1.4 mm Hg diastolic BP (P = .005) after 14 weeks, and their BP was lower than that of the RHD group (n = 18) throughout the study (P < .05). We concluded that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications.

  12. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  13. Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in F1 and F2 Progenies of Somatic Cell-Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Noritaka; YAMAGUCHI, Daisuke; WATANABE, Akiyuki; MIURA, Narumi; SUNAGA, Seiji; OISHI, Hitoshi; HASHIMOTO, Michiko; OISHI, Takatsugu; IWAMOTO, Masaki; HANADA, Hirofumi; KUBO, Masanori; ONISHI, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production. PMID:24492641

  14. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  15. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  16. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, Ilse; Willemsen, Ina; Rijnsburger, Martine; Eustace, Andrew; Xu, Li; Hawkey, Peter; Heck, Max; Savelkoul, Paul; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Huijsdens, Xander; Kluytmans, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We determined the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes of Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat and humans in the Netherlands. Raw meat samples were obtained, and simultaneous cross-sectional surveys of fecal carriage were performed in 4 hospitals in the same area. Human blood cultures from these hospitals that contained ESBL genes were included. A high prevalence of ESBL genes was found in chicken meat (79.8%). Genetic analysis showed that the predominant ESBL genes in chicken meat and human rectal swab specimens were identical. These genes were also frequently found in human blood culture isolates. Typing results of Escherichia coli strains showed a high degree of similarity with strains from meat and humans. These findings suggest that the abundant presence of ESBL genes in the food chain may have a profound effect on future treatment options for a wide range of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    PubMed

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2017-07-20

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  18. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  19. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0.001) and the numerically heaviest groups were CA×RX and RX×NZW (1970g, P<0.001) with to some extent better amino acids profile. In conclusion, RX growth performance was improved by crossing CA sire with RX dam and RX sire with NZW dam and to have dual purpose breed with better growth performance without hazard on carcass and meat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P < 0.02) was observed for LM visual color, L*, and a*/b*. In pigs fed RAC, increasing L-carnitine decreased L* and increased visual color scores and a*/b* compared with pigs not fed RAC. Ultimate pH tended to increase (linear, P < 0.07) with increasing L-carnitine. Drip loss decreased (linear, P < 0.04) in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine when not fed RAC, but firmness scores increased and drip losses decreased with increasing L-carnitine when RAC was added to the diet (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.04). Percentage lean was greater (P < 0.01) for pigs fed RAC in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed L-carnitine or RAC, but the responses were not additive (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.03). Furthermore, pigs fed L-carnitine tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased LM drip loss percentage whereas pigs fed RAC had decreased (P < 0.05) 10th rib and average backfat and decreased drip loss than pigs fed diets without RAC. These results suggest that dietary RAC increased carcass

  1. Effect of the administration program of 2 β-adrenergic agonists on growth performance and carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot ram lambs.

    PubMed

    López-Carlos, M A; Ramírez, R G; Aguilera-Soto, J I; Rodríguez, H; Aréchiga, C F; Méndez-Llorente, F; Chavez, J J; Medina, C A; Silva, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 3 feeding dose programs of the β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) or zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for the final 30 d before slaughter on growth performance and carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot ram lambs. Eighty-four Dorper × Katahdin ram lambs (30.0 ± 1.6 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to pens (4 lambs per pen and 3 pens per treatment). Pens within a block were assigned randomly to 1 of 7 dietary treatments: 1) control (CTL) = diet without β-AA; 2) RH constant (RHC) = 20.0 mg/kg of RH, d 1 to 30; 3) RH increasing (RHI) = 10.0 mg/kg, d 1 to 10; 20.0 mg/kg, d 11 to 20; and 30.0 mg/kg, d 21 to 30; 4) RH decreasing (RHD) = 30.0 mg/kg, d 1 to 10; 20.0 mg/kg, d 11 to 20; and 10.0 mg/kg, d 21 to 30; 5) ZH constant (ZHC) = 6.0 mg/kg of ZH, d 1 to 30; 6) ZH increasing (ZHI) = 3.0 mg/kg, d 1 to 10; 6.0 mg/kg, d 11 to 20; and 9.0 mg/kg d 21 to 30; and 7) ZH decreasing (ZHD) = 9.0 mg/kg, d 1 to 10; 6.0 mg/kg, d 11 to 20; and 3.0 mg/kg, d 21 to 30. Overall, β-AA supplementation reduced DMI (P < 0.001) compared with CTL lambs, but lambs fed RHI and ZHI programs had greater (P < 0.05) total BW gain, ADG, and G:F. Carcass weight was improved (P < 0.05) by RHI and ZHI programs, but dressing percentage was enhanced (P < 0.05) by only ZHC or ZHI treatments. Fat thickness and yield grade were reduced (P < 0.05) by ZH or RH regardless of feeding program. Most LM characteristics (pH, moisture loss, and chemical composition) were not different among treatments (P > 0.05), with the exception of fat content that was reduced (P < 0.001) in lambs fed β-AA, and diameter of muscle fibers that was increased (P < 0.05) by ZHI treatment. Constant and increasing doses of ZH reduced (P < 0.05) the a* value of LM and semitendinosus muscles, with no effects on L* or b* values. The mass of liver was reduced (P < 0.05) in ZHI-treated lambs compared with CTL lambs, and plasma urea concentration

  2. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from animals other than ruminants. The importation from regions of controlled risk or undetermined risk for BSE of processed animal protein derived from animals other than ruminants is prohibited... ruminants originating in a BSE controlled- or undetermined-risk region; (c) For blood meal, blood...

  3. Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on meat colour, pH, composition, and water-holding characteristic in broilers under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Gao, F; Xu, X L; Zhang, W H; Song, S X; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on raw breast meat colour, pH, composition and water-holding characteristic of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS). 2. A total of 360 21-d-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 birds per cage). The positive control (PC) broilers were kept in a thermoneutral chamber (22-24°C) and fed on the basal diet. The other 4 groups were kept in a cyclic HS chamber (30-34°C) for 9 h (from 09:00 to 18:00). 3. A significant increase was observed in breast meat lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; and pH values at 28, 35 and 42 d; while a significant decrease was observed in breast meat cooking loss (CL) and contents of moisture, crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF) and crude ash (CA) due to HS. 4. The supplementation with 0·5 g Gln/kg decreased lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; while increasing redness at 28 d, yellowness at 35 d, contents of CP, CF and CA, thawing loss (TL) and drip loss (DL). The addition of 100 mg GABA/kg decreased lightness at 28 and 35 d, pH value at 28, 35 and 42 d, and TL; while increasing redness at 28 d, 35 and 42 d, contents of moisture, CP and CF. 5. The lightness, redness, and pH value; contents of moisture, CP, CF and CA; and TL, DL and CL of breast meat of broilers fed with the mixture of Gln and GABA under cyclic HS were similar to those of the broilers in the PC group. 6. Significant interactions were found between Gln and GABA for yellowness at 28 and 35 d; pH at 28, 35 and 42 d; moisture content, CP content, water-holding capacity and TL. 7. These results demonstrated that dietary Gln and GABA offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent cyclic HS-related depression in broiler meat chemical composition and quality.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  5. Performance characteristics and estimation of measurement uncertainty of three plating procedures for Campylobacter enumeration in chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Habib, I; Sampers, I; Uyttendaele, M; Berkvens, D; De Zutter, L

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present an intra-laboratory study in order to estimate repeatability (r), reproducibility (R), and measurement uncertainty (U) associated with three media for Campylobacter enumeration, named, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA); Karmali agar; and CampyFood ID agar (CFA) a medium by Biomérieux SA. The study was performed at three levels: (1) pure bacterial cultures, using three Campylobacter strains; (2) artificially contaminated samples from three chicken meat matrixes (total n=30), whereby samples were spiked using two contamination levels; ca. 10(3)cfuCampylobacter/g, and ca. 10(4)cfuCampylobacter/g; and (3) pilot testing in naturally contaminated chicken meat samples (n=20). Results from pure culture experiment revealed that enumeration of Campylobacter colonies on Karmali and CFA media was more convenient in comparison with mCCDA using spread and spiral plating techniques. Based on artificially contaminated samples testing, values of repeatability (r) were comparable between the three media, and estimated as 0.15log(10)cfu/g for mCCDA, 0.14log(10)cfu/g for Karmali, and 0.18log(10)cfu/g for CFA. As well, reproducibility performance of the three plating media was comparable. General R values which can be used when testing chicken meat samples are; 0.28log(10), 0.32log(10), and 0.25log(10) for plating on mCCDA, Karmali agar, and CFA, respectively. Measurement uncertainty associated with mCCDA, Karmali agar, and CFA using spread plating, for combination of all meat matrixes, were +/-0.24log(10)cfu/g, +/-0.28log(10)cfu/g, and +/-0.22log(10)cfu/g, respectively. Higher uncertainty was associated with Karmali agar for Campylobacter enumeration in artificially inoculated minced meat (+/-0.48log(10)cfu/g). The general performance of CFA medium was comparable with mCCDA performance at the level of artificially contaminated samples. However, when tested at naturally contaminated samples, non-Campylobacter colonies gave similar deep

  6. Characterizing bovine adipocyte distribution and its relationship with carcass and meat characteristics using a finite mixture model.

    PubMed

    Cruz, G D; Strathe, A B; Rossow, H A; Fadel, J G

    2012-09-01

    The appreciation of adipose tissue complexity has initiated a new era of multifaceted investigations that continue to provide findings in adipocyte biology, but quantitative descriptions of adipocyte distribution are lacking. The first objective was to develop a finite mixture model to model adipocyte bimodal distribution and to correlate these estimates with carcass and meat characteristics. A secondary objective was to demonstrate within-animal observed variability in adipocyte cellularity. Steers were finished on a high-grain diet (n = 14) or grass (n = 16). One 12-cm thick LM steak from each steer was collected during harvest. A probability density function was developed that partitioned the cell diameter population into small and large populations and described the relative proportions of cells for each animal in these 2 distinct populations. Five parameters were estimated through the finite mixture model: the means (μ(1) and μ(2)) and SD (σ(1) and σ(2)) for the small and large adipocyte populations, respectively, and a proportion parameter (p) describing the proportion of the distribution of the smaller adipocyte populations. The proportion parameter for all animals tended to be different (P = 0.07) between groups with the grain presenting a p of 22.5 ± 12.5% and grass 16.2 ± 4.7%. The μ(2) was correlated with yield grade (YG, P = 0.04), and σ(2) with final BW, HCW, dressing percentage, YG, and quality grade score (P = 0.01). When correlating these parameters with the sensory data, μ(2) and σ(2) were correlated with tenderness (P ≤ 0.05), σ(1) and p with juiciness (P ≤ 0.05), and p with overall palatability (P = 0.01). Adipocyte cellularity variability was measured by examining the results from 5 randomly chosen steers from each group (grain and grass). In this subset, the μ(1) and p ranged from 32.1 to 46.1 μm and 1 to 27% for grass-finished steers, and ranged from 33.7 to 41.0 μm and 10 to 48% for grain-finished steers. The μ(2) and (1

  7. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  8. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, yield, conformation score, marbling degree, fat thickness and fatness score than Criollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  9. Effect of diets with different energy concentrations on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of broiler chickens in dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, F; Salinas-Chavira, J; Montaño-Gómez, M F; Manríquez-Nuñez, O M; González-Vizcarra, V M; Guevara-Florentino, O F; Ramírez De León, J A

    2016-01-01

    Diets with increasing levels of energy were fed for 42 days to 200, 1-day old male broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. The study was performed in the subtropical area of northeastern Mexico. Treatments diets (T) for starter and finisher phases had apparent metabolizable energy (AME; kcal/kg) of: 2960 and 3040 (T1); 3000 and 3080 (T2); 3040 and 3120 (T3); 3080 and 3160 (T4), respectively. Within each of the growing phases the four treatment diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude protein, amino acids, and other nutrients. In a completely randomized design, birds were allocated to the four treatments with five replicates (floor pens) of 10 birds each. The trial was divided in two phases (starter and finisher) of 21 days each (42 days total). Weight gain was not influenced by energy level; however, feed conversion efficiency was improved in the diets with 3040 and 3120 kcal/kg AME (T3; P < 0.05). There was no influence of treatment on total carcass weight or carcass cuts (P > 0.05). Meat from breast muscle had similar crude protein percentages among treatments; ether extract was higher in T1 than T4 (P < 0.05). The percentages of water, ether extract, ash and crude protein in thigh meat were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatments. For this study carried out in a dry tropical area, the moderate increase in dietary energy concentration (diet with 3040 and 3120 kcal/kg AME, T3) enhanced feed conversion efficiency of broiler chickens.

  10. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hard clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and the effect of HHP on the physical characteristics of hard clam meat.

    PubMed

    Mootian, Gabriel K; Flimlin, George E; Karwe, Mukund V; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-02-01

    Shellfish may internalize dangerous pathogens during filter feeding. Traditional methods of depuration have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective was to explore high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an alternative to the traditional depuration process. The effect of HHP on the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) and the impact of HHP on physical characteristics of clam meat were investigated. Clams were inoculated with up to 7 log CFU/g of a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains via filter feeding. Clams were processed at pressures ranging from 250 to 552 MPa for hold times ranging between 2 and 6 min. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level (<10(1) CFU/g), achieving >5 log reductions. The volume of clam meat (processed in shell) increased with negligible change in mass after exposure to pressure at 552 MPa for 3 min, while the drip loss was reduced. Clams processed at 552 MPa were softer compared to those processed at 276 MPa. However, all HHP processed clams were found to be harder compared to unprocessed. The lightness (L*) of the meat increased although the redness (a*) decreased with increasing pressure. Although high pressure-processed clams may pose a significantly lower risk from V. parahaemolyticus, the effect of the accompanied physical changes on the consumer's decision to purchase HHP clams remains to be determined. Shellfish may contain dangerous foodborne pathogens. Traditional methods of removing those pathogen have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on V. parahaemolyticus in clams. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level, achieving >5 log reductions. © 2013 Institute of Food

  11. Spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo by therapeutic doses of ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Ulashchik, V. S.; Kalosha, I. I.

    2009-10-01

    The influence of therapeutic doses of UV radiation (λ = 254 nm) on spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo has been studied. A comparative analysis of the electronic and IR absorption spectra of blood and its components before and after irradiation, as well as of the gas composition and concentration of blood hemoglobins, revealed that phototransformations of hemoglobins are primary mechanisms of photoreactions in blood UV irradiated in vivo.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend <0.001). Elevated blood pressure is associated with a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  13. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts: Effect of formulation and freezing storage.

    PubMed

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2015-10-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (-20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content, an increase in lipid oxidation indicators, and an intense browning of nuggets surface. The use of flank up to a 75% of the total meat in the formula led to higher fat contents and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in fried nuggets. This made them more prone to get oxidized during the freezing storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46-3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable prefried frozen lamb nuggets, which constitutes an opportunity for adding value to the whole lamb value chain.

  14. Effect of live weight and sex on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of Merino lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Peña, Ramón E; Andrés, Ana I

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight lamb carcasses were divided into four groups (n=12) according to slaughter weight (24 and 29kg) and sex (male and female). Colour, pH, moisture, and intramuscular fat were not affected (p>0.05) by slaughter weight or sex. With respect to fatty acid composition, slaughter weight had significant effects on C12:0 (p<0.01), C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 (p<0.05) in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 decreased as slaughter weight increased, while C16:0 increased. In Semimembranosus (SM) m., only C18:3 n-3 and C20:2 n-6 were affected (p<0.001) by slaughter weight. Total PUFA in LL m. was greater (p<0.01) in females than in males. Although in general, sensorial quality was not significantly affected by slaughter weight or sex, meat from lighter lambs (24kg) had greater general acceptability than meat from heavier lambs (29kg).

  15. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  16. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  17. Effects of modified tall oil and creatine monohydrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, P R; Andrews, B S; Goodband, R D; Unruh, J A; Nelssen, J L; Woodworth, J C; Tokach, M D; Owen, K Q

    2000-09-01

    The effects of feeding modified tall oil (MTO) and creatine monohydrate (CMH) on growing-finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were determined. Eighty cross-bred barrows (initially 45.4 kg) were allotted randomly to one of four dietary treatments by weight and ancestry. The experiment was arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with two levels of MTO (0 or 0.50%), which were fed throughout the growing-finishing period, and two levels of CMH (0 or 25 g/d), which were fed for the final 10 d before slaughter. The corn-soybean meal diets were fed in two phases (45.4 to 78.9 kg and 78.9 to 117.5 kg BW). When CMH was added to the diet in place of corn, average BW was 107.5 kg. Feeding MTO increased (P < 0.05) ADG and gain:feed ratio (G/F) during the 45.4- to 78.9-kg growth interval and tended to improve (P = 0.10) G/F during the 45.4- to 107.5-kg growth interval. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.15) growth performance during the 78.9- to 107.5-kg growth interval. Modified tall oil increased (P = 0.02) G/F during the 10-d CMH supplementation period, and CMH numerically (P = 0.11) increased ADG and G/F. Supplementation of CMH did not affect (P > 0.20) any measured carcass characteristic or measures of meat quality at 24 h or 14 d postmortem. Feeding MTO reduced average back-fat (P = 0.05) and 10th rib backfat (P = 0.01) but did not affect (P > 0.10) other measured carcass characteristics or measures of meat quality at 24 h postmortem. Modified tall oil increased (P = 0.02) L* values (lightness) and tended to increase (P < 0.10) thawing and cooking losses of longissimus muscle chops at 14 d postmortem. These data demonstrate that MTO improves growth performance and reduces backfat in growing-finishing pigs, but supplementation of CMH, under the conditions of this experiment, was not beneficial for growing-finishing pigs.

  18. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  19. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  20. Factors affecting rabbit meat consumption among Spanish university students.

    PubMed

    González-Redondo, Pedro; Mena, Yolanda; Fernández-Cabanás, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rabbit meat consumption patterns among students. Results of the 342 students surveyed at the University of Seville, Spain showed that more men than women consumed rabbit meat. More students consumed wild rabbit meat than farmed rabbit meat. The practice of hunting by students or their relatives, and the raising of rabbits for self-consumption, positively influenced the proportion of students that currently consumed rabbit meat. Most of the students that had eaten rabbit meat before but are currently non-eaters do so because of the meat's organoleptic characteristics or from lack of consumption habit.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from retail raw meats in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiangning; Wang, Hong; Xin, Youquan; Wei, Rongjie; Tang, Xinyuan; Zhao, Ailan; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Qun; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2015-05-04

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC-contaminated foodstuffs of animal origin. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of STEC from retail raw meats collected from two geographical regions in China. The results revealed that 166 out of 853 samples were stx-positive; 63 STEC isolates were recovered from 58 stx-positive samples including pork (4.4%, 14/318), beef (11.0%, 21/191), mutton (20.6%, 26/126), chicken (0.5%, 1/205), and duck (7.7%, 1/13). Twenty-six O serogroups and 33 O:H serotypes were identified. All three stx1 subtypes and five stx2 subtypes (2a to 2e) were found in the 63 STEC isolates, among which stx2e-positive STEC isolates were the most predominant (39.7%), followed by stx1c only (20.6%), stx1c+stx2b (14.3%), and stx1a only (9.5%). STEC isolates carried virulence genes eae (6.3%), ehxA (36.5%), katP (4.8%), astA (11.1%), and subA (36.5%). Of the four adherence-associated genes tested, toxB was absent, whereas saa, paa, and efa1 were present in 28, three, and one STEC isolates respectively. The STEC isolates were divided into 50 PFGE patterns and 33 sequence types. STEC from different sources and geographical regions were separated by PFGE and MLST. Our results revealed that there is a high genetic diversity of STEC in retail raw meats, some of which have potential to cause human diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of peripheral blood monocytes in hereditary xerocytosis and spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Snyder, L M; Leb, L; Jacobs, J B; Fortier, N L; Reeves, D; Neri, L L; St John, M

    1982-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, hereditary xerocytosis and spherocytosis, demonstrated in vivo engulfment of red cell and platelet fragments. In addition, morphometric studies performed on these monocytes showed an increase in cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio as well as lysosome and phagosome volumes. The production of carbon dioxide from glucose-1-14C in abnormal monocytes was increased (15-80%) but the intracellular values of beta-glucuronidase and esterase activity were similar to control monocytes. Monocyte locomotion assessed in the presence of chemotactic stimuli was found significantly increased (73 +/- 12 monocytes/oil immersion fields vs. 46 +/- 5 for control monocytes). We concluded that the monocytes in hemolytic anemias associated with increased in vitro red cell fragmentation have some features resembling the 'stimulated' monocytes and that this alteration may be due to red blood cell fragment ingestion.

  3. Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, C L; Mulley, R C; Wiklund, E; Flesch, J S; Sims, K

    2014-10-01

    The effect of pelvic and Achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. Venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and pH and core body temperature measured. Twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. Venison from fallow deer and red deer stags pelvic-suspended had significantly lower (P<0.001) cooked shear force values than Achilles hung carcasses. There was no significant difference between hanging technique for other characteristics measured. These data indicated that pelvic suspension should be adopted by the deer industry to increase tenderness of venison.

  4. A Hydraulic Model of Arterial System for Study the Relationship Between Blood Distribution and Frequency Characteristics of Blood Pressure Waveform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This paper was trying to find out a suitable hydraulic model for studying the frequency characteristics between blood pressure waveforms and systemic...were used as organs. We used two kinds of tubes to test the hydraulic model and tried to find out suitable material to stimulate the aorta and its

  5. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    PubMed Central

    An, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Oh, S. T.; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01). The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01). In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics. PMID:25557821

  6. Characteristics of gender-related circadian arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Driziene, Zaneta; Jakutiene, Eitaute; Stakisaitis, Donatas; Pundziene, Birute; Sveikata, Audrius

    2008-01-01

    To define 24-h characteristics of arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescent girls and boys; to determine gender-related differences of blood pressure, its circadian pattern. The 24-h blood pressure was monitored hourly in healthy girls (n=22, without no account for the menstrual cycle phase) and boys (n=22). Additionally, blood pressure of adolescent girls (n=15) was examined during different phases of their menstrual cycle (follicular, ovulation, and luteal). Blood pressure was monitored with an auto-cuff automatic outpatient blood pressure monitor. Investigation showed gender-related differences in 24-h blood pressure. Study results revealed the circadian blood pressure rhythm characterized by a period of low values during nighttime and an early morning increase in both adolescent groups. Nocturnal systolic blood pressure was higher (P<0.05) in boys than in girls in all phases of their menstrual cycle. Diurnal systolic blood pressure in boys was higher than in girls in their follicular phase (P<0.05). The day and night blood pressure differed between boys and girls (P<0.05). A dipping blood pressure pattern as a decrease in mean nighttime blood pressure as compared with mean daytime blood pressure was defined: 10.02+/-6.7% in girls (n=22) and 13+/-6.3% in boys (n=22), without gender-related differences (P>0.05). There were no differences in blood pressure dipping among girls' groups in different menstrual cycle phases (P>0.05). Adolescent boys showed a significant positive correlation between their mean diurnal blood pressure and height (P<0.05). The study proved gender-related arterial blood pressure differences in healthy adolescents. The results demonstrate the gender-specific circadian blood pressure rhythm pattern in both gender groups.

  7. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  8. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  9. Force and torque characteristics for magnetically driven blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pan; Haik, Yousef; Kilani, Mohammad; Chen, Ching-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Magnetically driven screw pumps were designed and fabricated for pumping biological fluids. The magnetic field simulations for three different magnetic coupling arrangements were obtained numerically. The force and torque for the three arrangements were computed. The effect of the separation gap between poles and the rotational angle on the force and torque is also presented. The pump characteristics were obtained experimentally.

  10. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transport characteristics of tramadol in the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

  12. Comparison of varying doses and durations of ractopamine hydrochloride on late-finishing pig carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, L W; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Parks, C W; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of various doses and durations of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on pig HCW, cutting yields, and meat quality. Late-finishing pigs (approximately 93 kg) were allotted to 12 treatments 35 d before slaughter. Treatments consisted of negative control (NEG; 13.1% CP, 0.64 TID Lys), positive control (POS; 17.8% CP, 0.94 TID Lys), and 2 RAC doses (5 and 7.4 mg/kg) with 5 different feeding durations for each dose (7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d). Pigs on ractopamine-duration diets were fed NEG until incorporation of RAC, and then the diet was switched to POS to comply with label requirements. A subset of 240 pigs was utilized to determine the effects of RAC on carcass cutting yields. This subset was selected by taking the 5 pigs closest to the average pen weight from 4 complete replicates. Differences in response to RAC between 5 and 7.4 mg/kg were not significant. Therefore, RAC dosages were pooled, resulting in an average dose of 6.2 mg/kg, which was then compared with NEG and POS diets. Ractopamine increased (P < 0.05) HCW by 2.5 and 2.3 kg compared with the NEG and POS diets, respectively. Hot carcass weight also increased linearly (P=0.003) as RAC duration increased. Indicators of carcass leanness increased with RAC compared with NEG. Estimated carcass lean percentage increased (P=0.010) 1 percentage unit from 54.79 to 55.79%, carcass cut yield increased (P<0.001) 1.23 percentage units from 50.61 to 51.84%, and (P=0.006) boneless lean cut yield increased 1.27 percentage units from 36.71 to 37.98%. Ractopamine decreased (P=0.002) subjective marbling scores 0.49 units from the NEG value of 3.0, but RAC did not differ (P=0.203) from POS. Subjective color values and shear force aging curves for RAC were not significantly different from NEG or POS. Overall, RAC had greater responses in carcass weight and cut yield than NEG, and had minimal effects on meat quality. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  14. Optimizing donor selection for public cord blood banking: influence of maternal, infant, and collection characteristics on cord blood unit quality.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristin M; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics (postprocessing total nucleated cell count [post-TNCC], CD34+, colony-forming units [CFUs]) were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25 × 10(9)) with CD34+ and CFUs in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hr), younger gestational age (34-37 weeks; CD34+ and CFUs), Caucasian race, higher birthweight (>3500 g), and larger collection volumes (>80 mL). We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Kinetic characteristics of porphyrin distribution in the blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorin, Vladimir P.; Khludeyev, Ivan I.; Mikhalovsky, Iosif S.; Zorina, Tatyana E.; Savitsky, Valery P.; Mel'nov, Sergey B.; Kochubeyeva, Nina D.; Kravchenko, Irina E.

    1999-12-01

    The objectives of the present work were to compare the kinetics of porphyrin exchange between different plasma lipoproteins and biological membranes. Isolated proteins were loaded by porphyrins (chlorin e6 derivatives and Zn- phthalocyanine) and the kinetics of pigment transfer from protein carrier to pigment-free proteins or biological membranes were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. It was obtained that the rate of exchange depended strongly on the pigment polarity. A main trend was that the time required for equilibrium redistribution increased with decreasing dyes polarity. Its values changed from seconds for polar sensitizers to tens of minutes in the case of apolar dyes. Extremely slow redistribution (several hours) was observed when the recovery of apolar pigments (chlorin e6 trimethylester and Zn-phthalocyanine) from LDL was studied. The results clear indicate that the rate of pigment exchange between proteins and cells may contribute to the control of sensitizer distribution in blood and solid tissues.

  16. In vitro and in situ growth characteristics and behaviour of spoilage organisms associated with anaerobically stored cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; De Graef, V; Debevere, J

    2005-01-01

    Understanding spoilage caused by different types of spoilage organisms, associated with vacuum-packaged sliced cooked meat products (CMP). First, strains were characterized in a broth at 7 degrees C under anaerobic conditions to compare their growth rate, acidifying character and metabolite production under conditions simulating refrigerated vacuum-packaged conditions. Brochotrix thermosphacta grew faster than the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Within the group of the LAB, all strains grew fast except Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuconostoc carnosum. Secondly, the organisms were inoculated on a model cooked ham to better understand the relationship between spoilage, microbial growth, pH, metabolite production and accompanying sensory changes. Most rapidly growing strains were Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides followed by B. thermosphacta, while Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuc. carnosum grew very slowly compared with the other LAB. Brochotrix thermosphacta caused sensory deviations at a lower cell number compared with the LAB. The related pH changes, metabolite production and sensory perception are presented. In this pure culture study, B. thermosphacta and Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides had the highest potential to cause rapid spoilage on CMP. A systematic study on the behaviour of spoilage organisms on a model cooked ham to establish the relationship between microbial growth, pH, metabolite formation and organoleptic deviations.

  17. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased (p<0.05) expression of AMP-activated protein kinase-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, but decreased (p<0.05) CAAT/enhancer binding protein-β gene expression and tended to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression in i.m. adipose tissue. Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05) compared to the control i.m. adipose tissue, but had no effect on saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. Although there were significant effects of supplemental palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  20. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B.; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased (p<0.05) expression of AMP-activated protein kinase-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, but decreased (p<0.05) CAAT/enhancer binding protein-β gene expression and tended to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression in i.m. adipose tissue. Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05) compared to the control i.m. adipose tissue, but had no effect on saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. Although there were significant effects of supplemental palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle. PMID:28515640

  1. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  2. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial.

  3. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  4. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One-Dimensional Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  5. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One–Dimensional Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant. PMID:25931614

  6. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  7. Effect of electrical stun/kill method, interval between killing and neck cutting and blood vessels cut on blood loss and meat quality in broilers.

    PubMed

    Raj, A B; Wilkins, L J; O'Callaghan, M; Phillips, A J

    2001-03-01

    1. Broiler chickens were killed using either an electrical waterbath (WB system) delivering 120 mA per bird (50 Hz, alternating current, AC) for 4 s or an alternative stun/kill method (ASK system); where head-only stunning for 1 s was immediately followed by head-to-body (vent) application for 1 s (150 mA, 50 Hz sine wave AC). Within each stun/kill system, the neck was cut ventrally or unilaterally 20, 60, or 180 s after killing. In addition, a control group of broilers was stunned with 100 mA per bird in a waterbath using 1500 Hz AC for 4 s and were bled by a ventral neck cut within 20 s. 2. Blood leaving the neck cut was collected for 90 s in a bin placed on an electronic balance and blood loss (g/kg body weight) calculated. 3. Individually identified, unplucked and uneviscerated carcases were held at ambient temperature until the end of the experimental day and then stored overnight in an air chiller (5 degrees C). The carcases were dissected and the incidence of broken furculum and coracoid bones, haemorrhaging in P. minor and P. major muscles, and discolouration of P. major muscles were determined. 4. When neck cutting was performed in broilers 20 s after the stun or kill, the ASK and WB systems, in comparison with high frequency stunning, produced on average about 10 g per kg less bleed out. Within the stun/kill systems, broilers killed by ASK had a greater bleed out than in the WB system. Neck cutting at 20 s or 60 s post-kill resulted in a greater bleed out than when performed after a delay of 180 s. Ventral or unilateral neck cutting resulted in a similar bleed out. 5. Stunning broilers with 1500 Hz AC resulted in lower incidences of broken bones, haemorrhaging in breast muscles and muscle discolouration post mortem than the stun/kill systems. These defects were significantly lower in the ASK than in the WB system. Delayed neck cutting increased the severity of discolouration occurring Post mortem in the breast muscles. 6. It is suggested that broilers

  8. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  9. Effects of blood in veins of dragonfly wing on the vibration characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhao, Hongxiao; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    How the blood in veins of dragonfly wing affects its vibration characteristics is investigated. Based on the experimental results of the wing's morphology and microstructures, including the veins, the membranes and the pterostigma, accurate three-dimensional finite element models of the dragonfly forewing are developed. Considering the blood in veins, the total mass, mass distribution and the moments of inertia of the wing are studied. The natural frequencies/modal shapes are analyzed when the veins are filled with and without blood, respectively. The based natural frequency of the model with blood (189 Hz) is much closer to the experimental result. Relative to bending modal shapes, the torsional ones are affected more significantly by the blood. The results in this article reveal the multi-functions of the blood in dragonfly wings and have important implications for the bionic design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of different types and proportions of added edible seaweeds on characteristics of low-salt gel/emulsion meat systems.

    PubMed

    Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Solas, M T; Bravo, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-01

    The effects of three different types of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) added at two concentrations (2.5% and 5% dry matter) on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of gel/emulsion systems were evaluated. The addition of seaweeds improved (P<0.05) water- and fat-binding properties except in the case of Nori added at 2.5%. Hardness and chewiness of the cooked products with added seaweed were higher (P<0.05), and springiness and cohesiveness were lower (P<0.05) than in control samples. Colour changes in meat systems were affected by the type of seaweed. The morphology of sample differed depending on the type of seaweed added, and this is the result of differences in physical and chemical characteristic of the seaweed powder used. In general, products formulated with the brown seaweeds (Sea Spaghetti and Wakame) exhibited similar behaviour, different from that of products made with the red seaweed Nori.

  11. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Qualitative characteristics of meat from cull cows of different genotypes and age class slaughter under different finishing systems: a meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Rangel F; Mayer, Andrei R; Vaz, Marcos A B; Pötter, Luciana; Cattelam, Jonatas; Callegaro, Álisson M; Pizzuti, Luiz Angelo D; Brondani, Ivan L; Alves Filho, Dari C; Pacheco, Paulo S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by meta-analysis, the quality of the meat of the cows according to genotype, termination system and age class slaughter. During an online research were identified 15 articles with information related to meat quality of slaughtered cows. The data were grouped according of the genotype of cows being: zebu or continental defined, crossed zebu x british or zebu x continental; according to termination system: feedlot or grassland; according to age of slaughter, where: up to 4 years old (young), 4-8 years old (adult) or more than 8 years old (old). The meat of the continental crossbred cows was softer than the other genotypes, both panel of evaluators and by Shear. The meat of cows finished in feedlot showed higher marbling degree in relation to meat of females finished on grassland. The reduction of the slaughter age of cows improved the meat color. The cow's genotype affects the organoleptic aspects of meat while the finished system and slaughter age affects the sensory aspects of meat.

  13. An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J

    2013-09-02

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm(2) reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3-5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P≤0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. © 2013.

  14. Carcass and meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of tissues from Pietrain-crossed barrows and gilts fed an elevated monounsaturated fat diet.

    PubMed

    Mas, G; Llavall, M; Coll, D; Roca, R; Diaz, I; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Realini, C E

    2010-08-01

    Fifty-one (Landrace *Large White) *Pietrain barrows and gilts were used to compare the effect of a diet rich in oleic acid (HO) by feeding a by-product of the olive industry (Greedy-Grass OLIVA(R): 1.4% growing, 3.8% finishing) or a grain and soy diet (CONTROL) on carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Gilts had leaner (P<0.05) carcasses with lower fat percentage in major primal cuts, and less (P<0.05) saturated fat compared with barrows with no interaction (P>0.05) between dietary treatment and gender. Source of dietary fat had no effect (P>0.05) on primal cut yields, composition of major primal cuts, or carcass and meat quality characteristics. Intramuscular fat from HO fed pigs had higher (P<0.05) percentage of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids, and lower (P<0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6:n-3 ratio compared with CONTROL animals (37.4% vs. 36.8%, 44.7% vs. 40.1%, 17.9% vs. 23.2%, and 18.9 vs. 21.8 ratio, respectively). Subcutaneous fat from pigs fed HO had greater (P<0.05) MUFA percentage, lower (P<0.05) SFA and PUFA percentage, and lower (P<0.05) n-6:n-3 ratio than pigs fed CONTROL diet (51.4% vs. 48.0%, 30.5% vs. 32.9%, 18.1% vs. 20.1%, and 9.83 vs. 11.3 ratio, respectively). Intramuscular fat had higher proportion of SFA and lower of MUFA showing a higher degree of tissue saturation compared with subcutaneous fat. Feeding Greedy-Grass increased MUFA and decreased PUFA proportions in fat depots reducing the risk of production of carcasses that are soft and oily which result in lower technological and processing quality. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat.

  16. [Investigation of the characteristics of Rh blood group of Uygur nationality in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiong-Cai; Zhou, Hua-You; Bai, Xu-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Xing, Yan-Zhao

    2007-08-01

    The study was to investigate the characteristics of Rh blood group of Uygur nationality in Xinjiang. 1 230 blood samples of Uygur nationality were studied by Rh serological typing, modified antiglobulin test, chloroform/trichloroethylene absorption elution test, upstream, downstream and hybrid Rhesus boxes, 10 exons of D gene, RHD(psi) pseudogene. The results showed that the frequency of RHD negative was 5.8%, and no Del type was found. The further investigation of 72 samples of RhD (-) found that ccee (57.02%) and Ccee (29.08%) phenotype as well as RHD(-)/RHD(-) genotype (94.44%) and complete deletion type of D gene exon (91.12%) were all in high frequency, no RHD(psi) pseudugene was detected. In conclusion, the Rh blood group of Uygurs nationality in Xinjiang possesses both oriental and caucasian Rh characteristics, which enriches the diversity of blood types in chinesenation.

  17. Clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kansui, Yasuo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kida, Haruko; Sakata, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Ibaraki, Ai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Strict control of blood pressure is important to prevent cardiovascular disease, although it is sometimes difficult to decrease blood pressure to target levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred in-hospital patients, whose 24-hour average blood pressure was higher than 130/80 mmHg even after treatment with more than three antihypertensive drugs, were included in the present analysis. Circadian variation of blood pressure was evaluated by nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure. Average blood pressures of all patients were high in both daytime and nighttime, 150.0/82.9 and 143.8/78.2 mmHg, respectively. Twenty patients had been treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In 63 patients out of the other 80 patients (79%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also decreased (<60 mL/min/1.73 m²). The patients classified into dipper, non-dipper, riser and extreme-dipper were 20%, 43%, 34% and 3%, respectively. In addition, in 17 patients whose eGFR was preserved, 12 patients showed a non-dipper or riser pattern, suggesting that it was difficult to account for this altered circadian blood pressure variation only by renal dysfunction. These results show that a large number of the patients with resistant hypertension suffered from renal dysfunction, although it was difficult to explain altered circadian blood pressure variation based on renal dysfunction alone.

  18. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented.

  19. Product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched dried vegetable paste.

    PubMed

    Faria da Rocha, Silvia; Kappaun Rodrigues, Marla Cristina; Legemann Monte, Micheli; Quites Larrosa, Ana Paula; de Almeida Pinto, Luiz Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a preparation of vegetable paste with bovine blood in order to maximize the protein content using linear programming, and to analyze the product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste dried in a spouted bed. The drying experiments were performed by evaluating the effects of inlet air temperature, paste flow rate and paste solids concentration on the dried product characteristics and quality (functional and nutritional properties). The vegetable paste enriched with bovine blood was a good source of protein (∼0.20 g g(-1) , dry basis), and the linear programming was adequate to select the constituents (carrot, onion, potato, kale, tomato, soybean oil and bovine blood) and optimize their quantities. The drying conditions of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste in the spouted bed that gave the best product characteristics were an air temperature of 110 °C and a paste flow rate of 600 mL h(-1) with 0.07 g g(-1) solids concentration. The addition of bovine blood to vegetable paste by linear programming increased the protein content of the paste and improved its functional properties and digestibility. The powder obtained from the spouted bed drier showed suitable functional and nutritional properties and was also a good source of antioxidant compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  1. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  2. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  3. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (p<0.0017) and improved emulsion stability (p<0.0001) but also resulted in greater textural and eating quality modification of sausages. Hardness values increased (p<0.0001) with increasing inulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (p<0.0112). Optimisation predicted two acceptable sausage formulations with significantly lower fat levels than the control, which would contain sufficient inulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI).

  6. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  7. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  8. Plasmodium berghei: characteristics of a selected population of small free blood stage parasites.

    PubMed

    Krier, J P; Hamburger, J; Seed, T M; Saul, K; Green, T

    1976-03-01

    The characteristics of a selected population of small blood stage parasites obtained by differential centrifugation of a population of P. berghei parasites freed by continuous flow sonication are described. About 10% of these free parasites are merozoites, many others are transitional forms having some merozoite characteristics. The parasite preparations are infectious and sufficiently resistant to incubation at 37 degrees C to be useful experimentally. Disc gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that these small parasites differ in composition from an unselected intraerythrocytic P. berghei population.

  9. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (CABPM): clinical characteristics of 31,530 patients].

    PubMed

    Sierra, Cristina; De la Sierra, Alejandro; Sobrino, Javier; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José Ramón; Gorostidi, Manuel; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2007-06-02

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in hypertensive patients. This study reports the clinical characteristics of 31,530 patients included in the Spanish Registry of ABPM. A total number of 767 investigators recruited patients with suspected or confirmed hypertension to whom an ABPM was indicated with a validated device and included them in the study. Mean blood pressures from daytime, nighttime, and the whole 24-hour period were all measured. Circadian patterns were defined depending on nocturnal systolic blood pressure fall: extreme dipper (> 20%), dipper (10%-20%), non-dipper (< 10%) and riser (nocturnal blood pressure increase). 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure values were lower than those obtained at the office. Twenty percent of patients exhibited elevated office blood pressure with normal values on ABPM ( hypertensives or false resistant) whereas 9% showed increased values on ABPM, but normal at the office (masked hypertension). The non-dipper or riser circadian patterns were present in more than half of the patients (40.2% and 13.4%, respectively) and were associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Almost one third of hypertensive patients exhibit blood pressure values that are not concordant between office and ABPM. More than a half of patients, especially those at higher risk, present a circadian pattern with an inadequate nocturnal blood pressure fall.

  10. Characteristics of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Retail Meats and Shrimp at a Local Market in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Quoc Phong; Ueda, Shuhei; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Hue; Dao, Thi Van Khanh; Van Hoang, Thi Ai; Tran, Thi Thuy Nga; Hirai, Itaru; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Kawahara, Ryuji; Do, Thai Hung; Vien, Quang Mai; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of food with multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, is considered a potential source for the wide dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria in communities. However, little is known about the extent of contamination of food with ESBL-producing bacteria in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from retail meats and shrimp in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 350 food samples (poultry [n=143], pork [n=147], and shrimp [n=60]) were purchased in July and November 2013 from a local market. ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated, and ESBL genotypes, phylogenetic groups, and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in retail foods was 40.6%. β-Lactamase-encoding genes of the CTX-M-1 (50.7%), CTX-M-9 (41.5%), TEM (59.9%), and SHV (2.8%) groups were detected singly or in combination. The percentages of single ESBL isolates harboring CTX-M-1 or -9 plus TEM groups were 35.2% and 16.2%, respectively. B1 was the most prevalent phylogroup in ESBL isolates from pork (44.7%), poultry (55.9%), and shrimp (72.7%). B2 was the least prevalent (4.2% and 4.8% for pork and poultry isolates, respectively). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobial groups) in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from food was 85.9%. This is the first report of the characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in retail foods in a local city in Vietnam. Our findings indicate that retail foods are contaminated with ESBL-producing E. coli, of which many were MDR. Further monitoring and public health efforts targeting food administration are needed to control the spread of ESBL-producing bacteria in communities.

  11. Performance and blood parameters when lambs and meat-goat kids were finished on pasture with and without whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated forage production patterns, weight gains, and health patterns when lambs (Ovis aries) and meat goat (Caprus hircus) kids were finished on a mixed sward of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with (SUP) and with...

  12. Study on thin wideband applicator for detecting blood characteristics in human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuki; Kuki, Takao; Nikawa, Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    Preventive care as well as early detection method and monitoring technique for diseases are highly attracted attention to increase quality of life. Noninvasive measurement method for blood characteristics in body is expected by patients with kidney dysfunction. Complex permittivity of blood is changed a few present at 6GHz. This change is caused by the change of water and albumin contents in blood. In this study, to detect blood characteristics in human body, experiments with phantom model has been performed using thin wideband applicator for examining microwave transmission up to 6GHz. The thin wideband applicator has advantages for detecting living body information in detail. The thin wideband applicator is designed based on Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna and is not required any balun and is very easy handling. Using developed Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna, transmission coefficient can be obtained as a function of thickness of phantom model with high sensitivity. Using this method, highly sensitive sensor for obtaining characteristics of blood in body can be developed.

  13. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Casal, A B; Orós, J

    2007-04-01

    A morphologic classification based on the cytochemical characteristics of blood cells of 35 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) is described. Cytochemical stains included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase (with and without sodium fluoride), acid phosphatase (with and without tartaric acid), Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. The morphologic characteristics of erythrocytes were similar to those reported in green turtles. Six types of white blood cells were identified: heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes. Except for the basophils, the rest of the white blood cells from loggerhead turtles had different cytochemical characteristics compared to blood cells from other sea turtle species. The leukocyte differential count was different from that reported for other sea turtle species. Heterophils were the most numerous leukocytes from these loggerhead turtles, followed by lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. This paper provides a morphologic classification of blood cells of loggerhead sea turtles that is useful for veterinary surgeons involved in sea turtle conservation.

  14. Identification of characteristic molecular signature for volatile organic compounds in peripheral blood of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Noh, Ji Heon; Eun, Jung Woo; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie, Hong Jian; Jang, Ja-June; Ryu, Jae Chun; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2011-01-15

    In a previous report we demonstrated that the transcriptomic response of liver tissue was specific to toxicants, and a characteristic molecular signature could be used as an early prognostic biomarker in rats. It is necessary to determine the transcriptomic response to toxicants in peripheral blood for application to the human system. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a major group of pollutants which significantly affect the chemistry of the atmosphere and human health. In this study we identified and validated the specific molecular signatures of toxicants in rat whole blood as early predictors of environmental toxicants. VOCs (dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were administered to 11-week-old SD male rats after 48 h of exposure, peripheral whole blood was subjected to expression profiling analysis. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant, and supervised analysis identified 1,217 outlier genes as distinct molecular signatures discerning VOC exposure from healthy controls. Further analysis of multi-classification suggested 337 genes as early detective molecular markers for three VOCs with 100% accuracy. A large-scale gene expression analysis of a different VOC exposure animal model suggested that characteristic expression profiles exist in blood cells and multi-classification of this VOC-specific molecular signature can discriminate each toxicant at an early exposure time. This blood expression signature can thus be used as discernable surrogate marker for detection of biological responses to VOC exposure in an environment.

  15. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  17. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  18. Analysis of blood donor pre-donation deferral in Dubai: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Al Shaer, Laila; Sharma, Ranjita; AbdulRahman, Mahera

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to define donor pre-donation deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred donors in Dubai. This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation between January 1, 2010, until June 30, 2013, in Dubai Blood Donation Centre, accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. The donation and deferral data were analyzed to determine the demographic characteristics of accepted and deferred donors, and frequency analyses were also conducted. Among 142,431 individuals presenting during the study period, 114,827 (80.6%) were accepted for donation, and 27,604 (19.4%) were deferred. The overall proportion of deferrals was higher among individuals less than 21 years old (35%, P<0.000), females (44% were deferred compared to 15% of males, P<0.0001), and first-time donors (22% were deferred vs 14% of repeat donors, P<0.0001). The main causes for a temporary deferral were low hemoglobin and high blood pressure. The deferral rate among blood donors in Dubai is relatively high compared to the internationally reported rates. This rate was higher among first-time donors and females, with low hemoglobin as the major factor leading to a temporary deferral of donors. Strategies to mitigate deferral and improve blood donor retention are urged in Dubai to avoid additional stress on the blood supply.

  19. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  20. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  1. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental zinc and chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, B M; Edenburn, B M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn) and Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) to finishing steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Angus cross steers (n = 142; BW = 527 ± 14 kg) were blocked by BW into 4 blocks (6 pens/block, 5 to 6 steers/pen). Steers targeted at an average 12th rib back fat thickness of 1.3 cm via ultrasound, by block, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements for the final 35 d of feeding before slaughter: 1) no supplementation, where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.82 and 0.98 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (CONT), 2) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride·steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.38 and 0.96 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC), or 3) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride, 1.0 g of Zn supplied as Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn), and 3 mg of Cr supplied as Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 159.73 and 1.25 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC+TM). All steers were fed the same basal diet of 20% corn silage, 20% dried distillers grains, 50% corn, and 10% mineral-vitamin supplement (DM basis). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a fixed effect of treatment and a random effect of block. Average daily gain and G:F were increased (P < 0.01) by 16% in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT. However, ADG and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.61) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Furthermore, HCW was increased (P = 0.04) by 1.87% (6.61 kg) in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT, whereas HCW was not different (P = 0.80) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Back fat thickness and marbling were not different (P ≥ 0.14) between steers fed RAC and CONT or (P ≥ 0.34) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Warner-Bratzler shear force tended to be greater (less tender; P = 0.06) in steers fed RAC when

  2. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  4. Changes in immunological characteristics of white blood cells after administration of standardized mistletoe extract.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Niemer, W; Werner, M; Beuth, J

    2001-01-01

    After administering standardized mistletoe extract, Viscum album L, (Iscador injections of 0.1 mg twice and 1.0 mg in defined intervals) the functional characteristics of microcirculation and immunological behavior of the white blood cells in different target tissues (derma, intestine) were investigated in healthy volunteers by vital microscopic investigation over 13 days of observation. The investigations showed a temporarily improved function of the microcirculation and an increased adhesion and transmigration of white blood cells in the target tissue areas. This observation was evaluated as a biologically relevant immunomodulation. Further investigations under pathophysiological conditions with regard to complementary administration of the test substance (e.g. to cancer patients) appear promising.

  5. Dispersion characteristics of blood during nanoparticle assisted drug delivery process through a permeable microvessel.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sachin; Ganguly, Suvankar; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticle assisted drug delivery holds considerable promise as a means of next generation of medicine that allows for the intravascular delivery of drugs and contrast agents. We analyze the dispersion characteristics of blood during a nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery process through a permeable microvessel. The contribution of molecular and convective diffusion is based on Taylor's theory of shear dispersion. The aggregation of red blood cells in blood flowing through small tubes (less than 40 μm) leads to the two-phase flow with a core of rouleaux surrounded by a cell-depleted peripheral layer. The core region models as a non-Newtonian Casson fluid and the peripheral region acts as a Newtonian fluid. We investigate the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction, the permeability of the blood vessel, pressure distribution, yield stress and the radius of the nanoparticle on the effective dispersion. We show that the effective diffusion of the nanoparticles reduces with an increase in nanoparticle volume fraction. The permeability of the blood vessels increases the effective dispersion at the inlet. The present study contributes to the fundamental understanding on how the particulate nature of blood influences nanoparticle delivery, and is of particular significance in nanomedicine design for targeted drug delivery applications.

  6. Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A study was performed to evaluate the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat collected at slaughterhouses and its potential transmission to pigs via pig meat. A total of 1039 blood samples were collected from pigs upon their arrival at the abattoir. The following day, meat samples (n = 1027) were collected from the carcasses of these same pigs. Samples originated from 2 Canadian slaughterhouses, 1 situated in the province of Quebec and the other situated in the province of Manitoba. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to PRRSV and both serum and meat samples were also tested for PRRSV nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seropositivity to PRRSV for all serum samples was 74.3%. Furthermore 45 (4.3%) of the total serum samples and 19 (1.9%) of the 1027 meat samples were positive for PRRSV by PCR. Sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 5 performed on 15 of the 19 PRRSV strains identified in pig meat indicated that 9 were field strains and 6 were vaccine-like (98% to 99.7% nucleotide homology with the Ingelvac RespPRRS/Repro vaccine). One of these 6 strains presented an intermediate 2-6-2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cut pattern and the others showed the characteristic 2-5-2 RFLP pattern of the vaccine strain. All strains sequenced were determined to be North American strains. In only 1 of the 19 PRRSV-positive meat samples could PRRSV be isolated. To test the potential infectivity of meat samples containing residual PRRSV, 11 of the PCR-positive meat samples (weighing 1.05 to 1.8 kg) were each used in feeding experiments of 2 PRRSV antibody-negative specific pathogen-free pigs of 9 wk of age. Samples were cut into several pieces and fed to each pair of pigs on 2 consecutive days. Each pig pair was housed in a separate cubicle and serum samples were collected at –7, 0, 7, 14, and 20 to 21 days post exposure. Seven pig pairs were found to be infected by PRRSV following

  7. Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Magar, Ronald; Larochelle, Renée

    2004-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat collected at slaughterhouses and its potential transmission to pigs via pig meat. A total of 1039 blood samples were collected from pigs upon their arrival at the abattoir. The following day, meat samples (n = 1027) were collected from the carcasses of these same pigs. Samples originated from 2 Canadian slaughterhouses, 1 situated in the province of Quebec and the other situated in the province of Manitoba. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to PRRSV and both serum and meat samples were also tested for PRRSV nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seropositivity to PRRSV for all serum samples was 74.3%. Furthermore 45 (4.3%) of the total serum samples and 19 (1.9%) of the 1027 meat samples were positive for PRRSV by PCR. Sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 5 performed on 15 of the 19 PRRSV strains identified in pig meat indicated that 9 were field strains and 6 were vaccine-like (98% to 99.7% nucleotide homology with the Ingelvac RespPRRS/Repro vaccine). One of these 6 strains presented an intermediate 2-6-2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cut pattern and the others showed the characteristic 2-5-2 RFLP pattern of the vaccine strain. All strains sequenced were determined to be North American strains. In only 1 of the 19 PRRSV-positive meat samples could PRRSV be isolated. To test the potential infectivity of meat samples containing residual PRRSV, 11 of the PCR-positive meat samples (weighing 1.05 to 1.8 kg) were each used in feeding experiments of 2 PRRSV antibody-negative specific pathogen-free pigs of 9 wk of age. Samples were cut into several pieces and fed to each pair of pigs on 2 consecutive days. Each pig pair was housed in a separate cubicle and serum samples were collected at -7, 0, 7, 14, and 20 to 21 days post exposure. Seven pig pairs were found to be infected by PRRSV following ingestion of

  8. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Hawaiian green turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, George H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  9. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT(®)) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks.

    PubMed

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Lee, K W; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT(®)) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  10. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S T.; Zheng, L.; Kwon, H. J.; Choo, Y. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT®) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats. PMID:25557680

  11. Laser ektacytometry and evaluation of statistical characteristics of inhomogeneous ensembles of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. Yu.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lugovtsov, A. E.; Ustinov, V. D.; Razgulin, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The paper is devoted to development of the laser ektacytometry technique for evaluation of the statistical characteristics of inhomogeneous ensembles of red blood cells (RBCs). We have analyzed theoretically laser beam scattering by the inhomogeneous ensembles of elliptical discs, modeling red blood cells in the ektacytometer. The analysis shows that the laser ektacytometry technique allows for quantitative evaluation of such population characteristics of RBCs as the cells mean shape, the cells deformability variance and asymmetry of the cells distribution in the deformability. Moreover, we show that the deformability distribution itself can be retrieved by solving a specific Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. At this stage we do not take into account the scatter in the RBC sizes.

  12. Arterial compliance, blood pressure, plasma leptin, and plasma lipids in women are improved with weight reduction equally with a meat-based diet and a plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Sasahara, T; Pomeroy, S E; Collier, G; Nestel, P J

    1998-11-01

    Obesity, strongly associated with the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study was designed to establish first whether systemic arterial compliance (SAC), an index of arterial function, is improved with weight loss and second, whether cardiovascular risk factors that improve with weight loss are reduced equally with lean meat or with an equivalent amount of plant protein in the diet. Thirty-six women, mostly overweight or obese, aged 40+/-9 years, were allocated nonrandomly to a 16-week parallel-design trial of two equienergetic diets designed to lead to weight loss, with one arm of the study emphasizing red meat and the other soybeans as the major protein source. Body weight, waist and hip circumference, and plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were measured, and SAC was calculated from ultrasound measurement of aortic flow velocity and aortic root driving pressure. Subjects lost weight (9% of body weight in 16 weeks) and showed decreased plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (12% and 14%, P < .0001, respectively), triacylglycerol (17%, P < .05), and leptin (24%, P < .01) concentrations. However, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels did not change significantly. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 7% and SAC increased 28% (P < .001 for both). However, only the decrease in arterial pressure correlated significantly with the reduction in the waist to hip ratio (WHR), and the improvement in SAC correlated inversely with the blood pressure reduction (P < .001 for both). Further, weight loss and the metabolic benefits of weight loss occurred equally with the meat-based and plant-based diets. We conclude that moderate weight loss in women leads to a substantial reduction in the cardiovascular risk, including SAC.

  13. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow.

  14. Attitudes towards meat and meat-eating among adolescents in Norway: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kubberød, Elin; Ueland, Øydis; Tronstad, Asne; Risvik, Einar

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the concept of disgust in relation to meat and meat-eating. A sample of 30 high school students (aged 16 to 17 years), 10 urban females, 10 rural females, and 10 rural males, participated in the study. The participants' attitudes towards meat and meat-eating were investigated through interviews of a semi-structured nature and a short, confidential questionnaire. The study showed that disgust was solely related to red meat varieties and not to chicken. There were no vegetarians in our consumer sample, but red meat-eating was more common among males than females. Sensory attributes that were drivers of liking for meat were good taste, good smell and juiciness; these were described by both genders. All the females tended to characterise meat and meat-eating experiences negatively. Their associations were based on disgust, rather than distaste as found among males. Offensive attributes that the females attributed to meat were linked to the animals and their body parts, blood and raw meat, fibrous and chewy texture, fatty feeling in the mouth, and visible fat. Subjects with regular contact with farm animals displayed more relaxed attitudes towards animal production and showed no such disgust reactions. Females also tended to associate meat with "heavy" food that had negative impact on their bodies. They were also less content with their body appearance, dieted more than males, and tended to associate health (in the sense of fat consumption) and food intake to the wish for slim bodies. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Triangulation method for determining capillary blood flow and physical characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gorti, S; Tone, H; Imokawa, G

    1999-08-01

    A method capable of measuring blood flow at precise depths within the skin is described. The method determines the static and the dynamic properties of light that is backscattered to small areas on the surface of the skin at several contiguous locations along the expected trajectory of laser-light propagation. From observations the method has been shown to be capable of determining physical characteristics that are unique to the different layers of the skin.

  16. Effects of forage level and chromium-methionine chelate supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung-Il; Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Hong, Seok-Man; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Lee, Bae-Hun; Peng, Jing-Lun; Ji, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Byong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate and forage level over two years, 1(st) fattening and 2(nd) fattening period on growth parameters, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of 46 Korean native (Hanwoo, Bos Taurus, BW = 183 ± 44 kg) steers. Treatments were: 1) Steers in the low forage (LF) group were fed diets that consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage; 2) Steers in the high forage (HF) group were fed diets that consisted of 40% concentrate and 60% forage. Following the 1(st) fattening period, steers (BW = 480 ± 37.6 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: LF (40 F plus no Cr-Met supplementation in the 2(nd) fattening period), LFCM (40LF plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period), HF (60 F plus no added Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period) and HFCM (60 F plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met in the 2(nd) fattening period). Dry matter intake of the treatment diets did not differ during the raising and 1(th) fattening period (P > 0.05). The ADG in the raising period showed no difference between the 40 F and 60 F groups (P > 0.05). Carcass characteristics including rib-eye area and meat yield index were higher in HF than the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The HF group tended to show a higher (P = 0.08) marbling score than the LF group whereas the HFCM group showed a higher marbling score than the LFCM group (P < 0.05). HDL was higher and LDL lower in groups fed with Cr-Met than in other groups whereas glucose showed the lowest value in HF group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride (TG), Cholesterol, PUN and total protein (TP) were the same among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). The Insulin concentration in the blood was significantly higher for the HFCM group than for the LF, LFCM and HF groups (P < 0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of chromium-methionine chelate could improve meat quality in beef steers.

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  18. Steady shear rheological characteristics of model system meat emulsions: Power law and exponential type models to describe effect of corn oil concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut; Yetim, Hasan

    2015-06-01

    The effect of oil concentration (57.50, 58.75, 60.00 and 61.25 %) and temperature (5, 10 and 15 ºC) on steady shear rheological properties of O/W model system meat emulsions were investigated. The effect of temperature and oil concentration was modeled using power law and exponential type functions. The meat emulsions showed non-Newtonian flow behavior because flow behavior index was lower than unity. Consistency coefficient and flow behavior index values of O/W model system meat emulsions were calculated using Oswald de Waele model with higher coefficients of determination. Apparent viscosities of emulsions at a specified shear rate (50 s(-1)) were in the range of 0.652-0.941 Pa s. Increasing oil concentration provided an increase in apparent viscosity and increase in temperature levels resulted a decrease in consistency coefficient values. The exponential function performed better than the power-law function (R (2) > 0.922) in terms of describing the effect of oil concentration on the steady shear rheological properties of the model system meat emulsions. Higher coefficients of determination (R (2) = 0.979-0.999) were observed in exponential-type function compared to a power law function (R (2) = 0.880-0.946).

  19. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride drinking water supplementation. 2. Meat and carcass characteristics of broilers grown under thermoneutral and cyclic heat-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Whiting, T S; Andrews, L D; Adams, M H; Stamps, L

    1991-01-01

    Two broiler trials were conducted to investigate the effect on post-mortem carcass and meat quality of NaHCO3 and KCl drinking water supplementation under thermoneutral and cyclic heat-stress climatic conditions. Water chill carcass weight change, water- and oven-cooked breast filled yields, and breast meat tenderness were measured. In Trial 1, neither environmental regimen, nor water treatments, nor their interaction was a significant (P less than .05) source of variation for the parameters measured. In Trial 2, environmental regimen was a highly significant (P less than .01) source of variability for chilled carcass weight change; the cyclic heat-stressed broiler carcasses gained more weight than the thermoneutral (control) broiler carcasses during ice-water chilling. Oven-cooked fillet yield was significantly (P less than .05) affected by environmental regimen; fillets from cyclic heat-stressed broilers had lower yields than thermoneutral (control) broiler fillets. Drinking water treatments were a significant (P less than .05) source of variation for breast meat tenderness in Trial 2. Broilers given .5% NaHCO3 from 5 to 8 wk of age had higher shear resistance values than broilers given a combination of .5% NaHCO3 and .5% KCl or tap water-fed controls. Breast meat shear values were negatively correlated (P less than .05) with 8-wk broiler body weight and 5- to 8-wk gain.

  20. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  1. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  2. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed.

  3. Outdoor Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: Effect Modification by Individual Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Liang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-02-15

    We collected data from Kailuan cohort study from 2006 to 2011 to examine whether short-term effects of ambient temperature on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are non-linear or linear, and their potential modifying factors. The HR, BP and individual information, including basic characteristics, life style, socio-economic characteristics and other characteristics, were collected for each participant. Daily mean temperature and relative humidity were collected. A regression model was used to evaluate associations of temperature with HR and BP, with a non-linear function for temperature. We also stratified the analyses in different groups divided by individual characteristics. 47,591 residents were recruited. The relationships of temperature with HR and BP were "V" shaped with thresholds ranging from 22 °C to 28 °C. Both cold and hot effects were observed on HR and BP. The differences of effect estimates were observed among the strata of individual characteristics. The effect estimate of temperature was higher among older people. The cold effect estimate was higher among people with lower Body Mass Index. However, the differences of effect estimates among other groups were inconsistent. These findings suggest both cold and hot temperatures may have short-term impacts on HR and BP. The individual characteristics could modify these relationships.

  4. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri

    1996-11-01

    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  5. Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Still, Carolyn H.; Craven, Timothy E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Van Buren, Peter; Sink, Kaycee M.; Killeen, Anthony A.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn; Wall, Barry; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Wright, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  6. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  7. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  8. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  9. Kinetic characteristics of the crystallization from model solutions of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Solodyankina, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization (growth order and constants) in a model solution of blood plasma have been investigated. The particular order and crystallization constant are determined to be n < 1 and k = 12.30-26.91 moln L-n s-n, respectively. The impurities are found to form the following descending sequence with respect to their inf luence on the particular kinetic characteristics of crystallization: milky acid > magnesium ions > alanine, glycine, glucose, and citric acid. It is shown that the impurities affect to a greater extent the nucleation rather than the growth stage. It is also established that a change in pH within 7.0-8.0 does not affect the crystallization parameters of the system modeling the composition of human blood plasma.

  10. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  11. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2010-03-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  12. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Masquerading as Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anubha; Commins, Scott P.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally recognized as a rapidly developing combination of symptoms often including hives and hypotension or respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, when a specific cause is identified, exposure to this cause is usually noted to have occurred within minutes to 2 hours before the onset of symptoms. This case is of a 79 year-old female who developed a severe episode of anaphylaxis 3 hours after eating pork. Prior to 2012, she had not experienced any symptoms after ingestion of meat products. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat has many contrasting features to immediate food-induced anaphylaxis. The relevant IgE antibody is specific for the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), a blood group substance of non-primate mammals. Evidence from Australia, Sweden, and the U.S. demonstrates that the primary cause of this IgE antibody response is tick bites. These bites characteristically itch for ten days or more. Diagnosis can be made by the presence of specific IgE to beef, pork, lamb, and milk and lack of IgE to chicken, turkey, and fish. Prick skin tests (but not intradermal tests) are generally negative. Management of these cases, now common across the southeastern U.S., consists of education combined with avoidance of both red meat and further tick bites. PMID:24811014

  13. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δt(p)) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVE(w)) and the tension-time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVE(w). Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures.

  14. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δtp) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVEw) and the tension–time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVEw. Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures. PMID:20719817

  15. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat sensory evaluation of West African dwarf sheep fed varying levels of maize and cassava hay.

    PubMed

    Fasae, O A; Adu, I F; Aina, A B J; Dipeolu, M A

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the growth performance and meat yield and quality of West African dwarf sheep. Twenty rams weighing an average of 15.3 ± 0.79 kg live weight and with an average age of 18 months were allotted at random to five dietary treatments of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize hay (MH) for a period of 105 days. Dry matter (DM) intake and growth rate of the rams were improved as the level of cassava hay (CH) increased in the diets. Live weight gain varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments, ranging from 38.8 to 47.9 g/day. The carcass weight of the rams fed 100% MH was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with the other treatments. Dressing percentage ranged from 56.5% to 61.0% with no significant (P > 0.05) difference observed across the treatments, while the distribution of the slaughtered parts was similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the dietary treatment. Proximate composition of the meat from the loin indicated that the DM, crude protein, fat and ash contents were not influenced (P > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. Panellists rated the meat to be similar (P > 0.05) in flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability while colour and texture varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments. In conclusion, this study indicated that better growth performance and meat production in West African dwarf sheep can be improved in form of body weight and carcass production when fed 25%MH and 75% CH diet.

  16. Umbilical Cord Blood Natural Killer Cells, Their Characteristics, and Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaria, Anushruti; Jawdat, Dunia; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system able to kill different targets such as cancer cells and virally infected cells without prior activation making then attractive candidates for cancer immunotherapy. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation but as we gain a better understanding of the characteristics of each immune cell that UCB contains, we will also be able to develop new cell therapies for cancer. In this review, we present what is currently known of the phenotype and functions of UCB NK cells and how these cells could be used in the future for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28386260

  17. The physiological characteristics and transcytosis mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

    PubMed

    de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2012-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the vessel wall made up of specialized capillary endothelial cells, surrounded by astroglial endfeet and neurons, that govern the exchange of compounds between blood and brain. It protects the brain from harmful compounds potentially present in blood, while it is specifically designed to supply the brain with the required nutrients and to get rid of waste products. The BBB is structurally different from blood capillaries in other tissues. The BBB strictly limits the paracellular exchange of compounds by the so-called tight junctions. Moreover, the capillary endothelial cells contain metabolic enzymes that may convert a compound before entering the brain while transcellular passage across the BBB may be limited or increased by active transport systems. Thus the BBB has an important role in the relationship of the concentration-time profile of compounds in blood and those in the brain. The functionality of the BBB is dynamically regulated, depending on the given conditions. Important examples are changes in BBB functionality that may result in or are brought about by (CNS) disease conditions. All together this indicates the importance of investigations on BBB functionality and resulting transport of compounds for the design and optimization of therapeutic regimens. Thus, BBB investigation is an ever growing and dynamic field studied by pharmacologists, neuroscientists, pathologists, physiologists, and clinical practitioners. This review deals with a general introduction on the physiological characteristics of the BBB, its different transport systems, with particular emphasis on supposed transcytosis mechanisms at the BBB. Specific and detailed information on drug delivery approaches aiming at transcytosis into the brain will be dealt with in other parts of this special issue.

  18. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  20. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  1. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  2. [Characteristics of blood lipids levels and relevant factor analysis during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, H Q; Chen, H; Yang, J

    2016-03-08

    To study the characteristics of blood lipids levels' change during pregnancy, and to discuss the relationships between the blood lipid level and the age, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy complications. From January to September 2015, we enrolled 2 907 pregnant women admitted to our hospital for regular checks as control group, 190 cases in gestational hypertension group, 258 cases in gestational diabetes mellitus group. The control group was divided into first trimester (≤12 w) second trimester (20 to 26 w) and third trimester (≥28 w) groups; in second trimester group, patients were further divided into the certain age group (<35years old) and elderly group (≥35 years old); blood lipid levels including serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in all groups. (1) Blood lipids levels varied as pregnancy proceeded. TG level increased most significantly, followed by TC, LDL-C level. However, HDL-C level slightly decreased in third trimester comparing with first and second trimester stage, the difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05); (2) serum TC, TG and LDL-C level in second trimester were significantly higher in the certain age group than in the elder group (P< 0.05); (3) in gestational diabetes mellitus group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels were significantly higher in first and second trimester than those in the control group (P< 0.05); (4) in gestational hypertension group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels were significantly higher in third trimester than those in the control group (P< 0.05); HDL-C level was lower in the gestational hypertension group than in the control group, and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The blood lipid levels in pregnancy increase gradually as the gestational weeks increase, which can be explained as a normal physiological phenomenon. Elder pregnancy

  3. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2011-03-15

    Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (p<0.001) were found for stx1 and for stx2 with bovine meat and milk products. The stx2e gene was significantly (p<0.001) associated with STEC from pork and wild boar meat. Stx1c and stx2b genes were significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in STEC from deer meat, as well as from meat and milk products derived from sheep and goats. Using logistic regression models we detected significant (p<0.01) combinations between stx1, stx2 and E-hly genes and STEC from bovine meat. The combination of stx1c and stx2b genes was significant (p<0.001) for STEC derived from red deer, sheep and goat products. The properties of foodborne STEC were compared with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important

  4. Aflatoxin production in meats. I. Stored meats.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, L B; Hartman, P A; Ayres, J C

    1969-11-01

    Aflatoxins were produced on fresh beef (in which bacterial spoilage was delayed with antibiotics), ham, and bacon inoculated with toxinogenic fungi and stored at 15, 20 and 30 C. Meats stored at 10 C were spoiled by bacteria and yeast before detectable levels of aflatoxins were produced. High levels of aflatoxins were formed in meats stored at 20 C; one sample supported the production of 630 mug of aflatoxins per g of meat, the major portion (580 mug) of which was aflatoxin G(1). Meats stored below 30 C developed higher levels of aflatoxin G(1) than B(1), but at 30 C Aspergillus flavus produced equal amounts of B(1) and G(1), whereas A. parasiticus continued to produce more G(1) than B(1).

  5. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  6. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  7. Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yong . E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu; Wang Honglan; Mazzone, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    We identified stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, designated cord blood-stem cells (CB-SC). CB-SC displayed important embryonic stem (ES) cell characteristics including expression of ES-cell-specific molecular markers including transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and SSEA-4. CB-SC also expressed hematopoietic cell antigens including CD9, CD45 and CD117, but were negative for CD34. CB-SC displayed very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. CB-SC could give rise to cells with endothelial-like and neuronal-like characteristics in vitro, as demonstrated by expression of lineage-associated markers. Notably, CB-SC could be stimulated to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells in vivo and eliminated hyperglycemia after transplantation into a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. These findings may have significant potential to advance stem-cell-based therapeutics.

  8. Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat.

    PubMed

    Young, J F; Therkildsen, M; Ekstrand, B; Che, B N; Larsen, M K; Oksbjerg, N; Stagsted, J

    2013-12-01

    Meat is an integral part of the human diet. Besides essential amino acids and nutritive factors of high quality and availability, meat provides often overlooked components of importance for human health. These are amino acids and bioactive compounds that may be very important in i) preventing muscle wasting diseases, such as in sarcopenia, ii) reducing food and caloric intake to prevent metabolic syndrome, iii) blood pressure homeostasis via ACE-inhibitory components from connective tissue, and iv) maintaining functional gut environment through meat-derived nucleotides and nucleosides. In addition, meat could be an important source of phytanic acid, conjugated linoleic acids and antioxidants. Further, it becomes increasingly apparent that design of in vitro meat will be possible, and that this development may lead to improved health benefits from commercially viable and sustainable meat products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Enrichment and Biological Characteristics of Peripheral Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rats].

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Ning; Chen, Long; Yu, Li-Mei; Liu, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effective method for enrichment of rat peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(PBMSC) and study the cell biological characteristics. Peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from blood of 4 week old rats after G-CSF mobilization. Thereafter, the fibroblast-like cells were acquired by plastic-adherent culture, and the proliferation curve was assayed. For analyzing surface markers of the second generation cultured isolated PBMSC, both flow cytometry(CD90, CD44, CD29, CD45, CD11b and CD79a) and immunocytochemical staining(CD73, CD105, CD34 and HLA-DR) methods were used. Furthermore, the differentiation capacities of PBMSC into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes were identified. (1) The adherent cells displayed typical colony-forming unit fibroblast(CFU-F) growth pattern after 6-7 day of primary culture and reached 80% confluence after 21 days of culture. The passaged PBMSC possessed high proliferative capacity and spindle growth pattern and was able to grown into exponential phase next day with a doubling time of 39.2 h. (2) PBMSC expressed mesenchymal markers such as CD90, CD44, CD29, CD73 and CD105, but failed to expressed markers of CD45, CD11b, CD79a, CD34 and HLA-DR. (3) After 21 days of culture in osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation media, calcifying nodules, intracellular glycosaminoglycans and lipid droplets could be found by alizarin red, alcian blue and oil red-O staining, respectively. PBMSC can be enriched from rat peripheral blood with high purity and abundance by our methods. The growth and phenotypic characteristics of the isolated PBMSC are consistent with that of well-known MSC, and these cells possess the capability to multi-lineage mesoderm differentiation.

  10. [Characteristics of blood type irregular antibodies in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area].

    PubMed

    Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Yun-Ming; Huang, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the distribution of irregular antibody of red blood cells in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area, so as to provide valuable information for the safety of transfusion and decrease of immune hemolytic transfusion reaction. Blood samples from June 2006 to May 2013 were tested for irregular antibody screening and identification, calculating the composition rate, group characteristics and the positive detection rate of irregular antibody. A total of 36287 blood samples were tested, out of them 571 samples were the irregular antibody positive, the positive rate was 1.574%(571/36 287), specific alloantibodies were found in 312 samples, the positive rate was 0.860%(312/36287). And autoantibody was found in 259 samples, the positive rate was 0.714%(259/36 287). The specific alloantibodies ratio in Rh system was the highest, reaching to 73.72%(230/312) with the positive rate of 0.634%;36 cases in Lewis system, account for 11.54%(36/312) with the positive rate of 0.099%; 34 cases in MNS system account for 10.89%(34/312) with the positive rate of 0.094%; direct coomb test showed positive result in 284 samples, the rate was 0.78%. The detected rate of positive irregular antibody in female is obviously higher than that in male patients (P<0.001), and it is also higher in people with pregnancy or transfusion than that in those without it (P<0.05). The irregular antibody screening and identification are very important in blood transfusion, especially for female and people with transfusion or pregnant history.

  11. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  12. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  13. Determinants of broiler chicken meat quality and factors affecting them: a review.

    PubMed

    Mir, Nasir Akbar; Rafiq, Aasima; Kumar, Faneshwar; Singh, Vijay; Shukla, Vivek

    2017-09-01

    Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. After slaughter, biochemical changes, causing the conversion of muscle to meat, determine final meat quality. Postmortem carcass temperature has profound effect on rigor mortis and the physicochemical changes observed in PSE muscles are attributed to postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH. Primary processing and further processing have become a matter of concern with respect to nutritional quality of broiler meat. Genetic variation among birds could contribute to large differences in the rate of rigor mortis completion and meat quality. Heritability estimates for meat quality traits in broilers are amazingly high (0.35-0.81), making genetic selection a best tool for improvement of broiler meat quality.

  14. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  15. Effects of replacing beef fat with pre-emulsified pumpkin seed oil on some quality characteristics of model system chicken meat emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Nacak, B.; Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tepe, M.; Baykara, I.; Kökmen, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of adding pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in water emulsion to model system chicken meat emulsions (MSME) on product quality and oxidative stability were investigated. MSME were produced by replacing 25% (P25) and 50% (P50) of beef fat with PSO-in-water emulsion (PSO/W) while control treatment was prepared with only beef fat. Addition of PSO/W to the formulation resulted in significant differences in chemical composition and pH values of both raw and cooked MSME treatments. The use of PSO/W produced significant improvements to emulsion stability, oxidative stability and cooking yield of MSME. It was determined that the use of PSO/W formulation results in decreased total expressible fluid values and increased cooking yields of the emulsions. It was observed that the highest cooking yield and the lowest total expressible fluid were found in the sample containing 50% PSO/W. It should be a feasible strategy to produce fat-reduced meat products with healthier lipid profiles by using PSO/W.

  16. Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  18. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05).

  19. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health.

  20. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  1. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  2. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardhana, Lakshitha P; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L; Benton, Miles C; Lea, Rodney A; Baines, Katherine J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Peripheral blood was collected from adults with eosinophilic asthma (EA; n = 21), paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA; n = 22), neutrophilic asthma (NA; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 10). Blood monocytes were isolated using ficoll density gradient and immuno-magnetic cell separation. Bisulfite converted genomic DNA was hybridized to Illumina Infinium Methylation27 arrays and analyzed for differential methylation using R/Bioconductor packages; networks of gene interactions were identified using the STRING database. Compared with healthy controls, differentially methylated CpG loci were identified in EA (n = 413), PGA (n = 495), and NA (n = 89). We found that 223, 237, and 72 loci were significantly hypermethylated in EA, PGA, and NA, respectively. Nine genes were common to all three phenotypes and showed increased methylation in asthma. Three pathway networks were identified in EA, involved in purine metabolism, calcium signaling, and ECM-receptor interaction. In PGA, two networks were identified, involved in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis. In NA, one network was identified involving sFRP1 as a key node, over representing the Wnt signaling pathway. We have identified characteristic alterations in DNA methylation that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma and may contribute to the disease mechanisms. This network-based characterization may help in the development of epigenetic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:25147914

  3. Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Yi; Li, Tsung Yu; Tsai, Chih Heng; Lo, Dan Yuan; Chen, Kuo Lung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Thirty male chickens were caponized at 8 weeks (capons); 15 capons were injected with estrogen (5 mg/bird estradiol 3-benzoate) every 2 weeks from 8 to 28 weeks, and 15 sham-operated male (shams) chickens and 15 females were selected for this trial. The results showed that the shams had lower relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than females (P < 0.05). The estrogen-treated capons had greater relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than shams and capons (P < 0.05), which might result from higher blood very low-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Caponization could dramatically increase relative abdominal fat (506%; P < 0.05). The shams had higher tibia weight and biomechanical properties, such as maximum bone strength and bending moment values than the capons (P < 0.05). Tibia biomechanical properties were reduced by estrogen treatment (P < 0.05). The females obtained the lowest biomechanical value in all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological examination revealed cavity formation in the cortical bone of estrogen-treated capons and female chickens, which suggested that estrogen reduced bone biomechanical properties by destroying its structural integrity.

  4. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetically levitated impeller in a centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2007-04-01

    Centrifugal blood pumps that employ hybrid active/passive magnetic bearings to support noncontact impellers have been developed in order to reduce bearing wear, pump size, the power consumption of the active magnetic bearing, and blood trauma. However, estimates made at the design stage of the vibration of the impeller in the direction of passive suspension during pump operation were inaccurate, because the influence of both the pumping fluid and the rotation of the impeller on the dynamic characteristics was not fully recognized. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic characteristics in a fluid of a magnetically levitated rotating impeller by measuring both the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation of the housing over a wide frequency range and the displacement due to input of a pulsatile flow during left ventricular (LV) assist. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the impeller was levitated in either air or water, and with or without rotation. The experimental and analytical results indicate that vibration of the impeller due to the external force in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force of water. The axial resonant frequency rose quadratically with rotational speed, and the tilt mode had two resonant frequencies while rotating due to the gyroscopic effect. With the pump inserted into a mock systemic circulatory loop, the dynamic stability of the impeller when pulsatile pressure was applied during LV assist was verified experimentally. The amplitudes of vibration in response to the pulsatile flow in the passively constrained directions were considerably smaller in size than the dimensions of initial gaps between the impeller and the pump housing.

  5. Vitamin D effect on umbilical cord blood characteristics: a comparison between African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Eldjerou, Lamis K; Cogle, Christopher R; Rosenau, Emma H; Lu, Xiaomin; Bennett, Clay A; Sugrue, Michele W; Hoyne, Jonathan; Lambert, Amy; Ashley, Lindsay; Sazama, Kathleen; Fields, Gary; Wingard, John R; Zubair, Abba C

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units collected from African Americans (AAs) have lower total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+ cell counts and are more likely to disqualify for banking compared to other ethnic groups. Furthermore, AAs have higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency. Given the importance of 25(OH)D in hematopoiesis, we examined the racial differences in UCB unit 25(OH)D content and its correlation with UCB cellular characteristics. A total of 119 UCB units that did not meet the TNC count banking criteria were analyzed. Fifty-one UCB units were collected from AA mothers and 68 from Caucasian mothers. We analyzed UCB volume, hematocrit (Hct), TNCs, mononuclear cells (MNCs), CD34+ cells, plasma 25(OH)D concentration, and progenitor clonogenic capacity measured by colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. Compared to Caucasians, AAs had significantly lower UCB 25(OH)D levels (p<0.0001), TNCs (p=0.002), MNCs (p=0.026), and CD34+ cells (p=0.026). Severe deficiency (25(OH)D<10 ng/mL) was only detected in AAs. No difference in median CFC count/10,000 MNCs was detected between AAs and Caucasians. Independent of race, a significant association was detected between 25(OH)D level and TNCs (r=0.193 p=0.035) and Hct (r=0.196 p=0.033). These results indicate the importance of 25(OH)D level as a racially independent predictor of UCB cellular characteristics and support further investigation of bioactive vitamin D and other predictors of hematopoiesis on cord blood quality. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

    2004-12-01

    The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this

  7. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  8. Characteristics and Predictive Value of Blood Transcriptome Signature in Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Holm, Ingrid A.; Campbell, Malcolm G.; Lee, In-Hee; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Hanson, Ellen; Harris, Heather K.; Lowe, Kathryn R.; Saada, Adrianna; Mora, Andrea; Madison, Kimberly; Hundley, Rachel; Egan, Jessica; McCarthy, Jillian; Eran, Ally; Galdzicki, Michal; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a spectrum of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in which known mutations contribute to disease risk in 20% of cases. Here, we report the results of the largest blood transcriptome study to date that aims to identify differences in 170 ASD cases and 115 age/sex-matched controls and to evaluate the utility of gene expression profiling as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of ASD. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for the neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation/depression, and notch signaling pathways. We developed a 55-gene prediction model, using a cross-validation strategy, on a sample cohort of 66 male ASD cases and 33 age-matched male controls (P1). Subsequently, 104 ASD cases and 82 controls were recruited and used as a validation set (P2). This 55-gene expression signature achieved 68% classification accuracy with the validation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.77]). Not surprisingly, our prediction model that was built and trained with male samples performed well for males (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.82), but not for female samples (AUC 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.67). The 55-gene signature also performed robustly when the prediction model was trained with P2 male samples to classify P1 samples (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.80). Our result suggests that the use of blood expression profiling for ASD detection may be feasible. Further study is required to determine the age at which such a test should be deployed, and what genetic characteristics of ASD can be identified. PMID:23227143

  9. Application of microbial transglutaminase in meat foods: A review.

    PubMed

    Santhi, D; Kalaikannan, A; Malairaj, P; Arun Prabhu, S

    2017-07-03

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme isolated from a variant of Streptomyces mobaraensis that forms covalent cross-links between protein molecules. Studies are being conducted since last two decades on utilization of MTG in meat foods to improve their characteristics, such as gelation, water-binding, emulsion stability, purge loss, cooking loss, etc. MTG is one of the important topics of interest in meat processing industry due to its advantages in practical utilization and commercial exploitation. This review will discuss about the overall applications of MTG in manipulating the functional properties of meat and meat products by means of various processes such as restructuring, value addition, etc.

  10. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, Anne; Wigboldus, Daniël H.J.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; van Baaren, Rick; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and methods A total of 4,901 whole blood donors were invited to donate in week 39 of 2009. Barriers mentioned by donors who informed the blood bank for not donating were registered for 1 month. Logistic regression analyses assessed relevant characteristics of return behaviour, such as age and blood type, in men and women separately. Results Of the invited donors, 55% returned to give a donation, whereas 45% did not return. Male donors were more likely to return when they were older, had a higher previous return rate and had no past deferrals. The same pattern was found among women, but was less strong. The main barriers were: time constraints (35%), preference to postpone donation due to general physical problems although being eligible to donate (29%), and being ineligible to donate due to medical deferral criteria (9%). Discussion Specific donor characteristics are associated with return behaviour. Not donating due to time constraints could mean that donors do not feel the urgency of donating blood. Interventions targeted to increase commitment among specific donor groups should be tested further. PMID:23522891

  11. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  12. The meat freshness detection based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin B.; Hou, Di B.; Huang, Ping J.; Ma, Ye H.; Li, Xian; Zhang, Guang X.

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has fingerprint features for many bio-molecules with frequency between infrared and microwave covering the vibrational models of a great number of materials. In this study, THz-TDS was used to detect the preserved and bad meat. And the absorption coefficient indices of bad meat and preserved meat were measured in the range of 0.2-1.0 THz. The result shows that there are differences of pork tissue in both time domain and absorption coefficient in the process of deterioration. Then differences between preserved and bad meat were also presented. In order to investigate the relationship between the terahertz characteristics and meat quality, the changes of water content and material in the samples were also discussed. This work supplies reference for the application of THz technology in meat quality detection.

  13. Quality control of Toxoplasma gondii in meat packages: standardization of an ELISA test and its use for detection in rabbit meat cuts.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Juliana Nunes; Meireles, Luciana Regina; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2011-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes severe disease both to man and livestock and its detection in meat after slaughtering requires PCR or biological tests. Meat packages contain retained exudate that could be used for serology due to its blood content. Similar studies reported false negative assays in those tests. We standardized an anti-T. gondii IgG ELISA in muscle juices from experimentally infected rabbits, with blood content determination by cyanhemoglobin spectrophotometry. IgG titers and immunoblotting profiles were similar in blood, serum or meat juice, after blood content correction. These assays were adequate regardless of the storage time up to 120 days or freeze-thaw cycles, without false negative results. We also found 1.35% (1/74) positive sample in commercial Brazilian rabbit meat cuts, by this assay. The blood content determination shows ELISA of meat juice may be useful for quality control for toxoplasmosis monitoring.

  14. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid in the goat kid diet: effects on immune system and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2012-11-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) supplementation on meat quality and immunity in goat (Capra hircus) kids was examined. Goat kids (n = 30) were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: goat milk (GM), cow (Bos taurus) milk (CM), and CM supplemented with DHA (CM-DHA). Animals were fed ad libitum twice daily and weighed twice each week. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture daily during the first 10 d of life and were subsequently collected every 5 d until slaughter at a BW of 8 kg. Carcass size (linear measurements) and weight, as well as meat pH, color, tenderness, and chemical composition were determined. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, peri-renal, pelvic, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fats were analyzed. Blood IgG and IgM concentrations, complement system activity (classical and alternative pathways), and chitotriosidase activity were recorded. Results indicated that the diet containing DHA did not affect (P > 0.05) carcass linear measurements, meat quality characteristics, or proximate composition of the meat. However, C22:6n3 fatty acid levels, mainly in intramuscular fat, were enriched (P < 0.05) in CM-DHA animals, and the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was improved (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) in immune function were observed among groups. In conclusion, powdered whole CM is an effective option for feeding goat kids, and the inclusion of DHA to CM increases the quantity of this fatty acid in the meat.

  16. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  17. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  18. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats.

    PubMed

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-09-01

    Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  19. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats

    PubMed Central

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    Objective Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Methods Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Results Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Conclusion Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections. PMID:28002930

  20. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  1. Hemorheological characteristics of red blood cells exposed to surface functionalized graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Nafiujjaman, Md; Nurunnabi, Md; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2016-11-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are potential candidates for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, bioimaging, cell labeling, and biosensors. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain unexplored. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate the toxicity effects of three GQDs with different surface functionalizations on the hemorheological characteristics of human RBCs, including hemolysis, deformability, aggregation, and morphological changes. RBCs were exposed to three different forms of GQDs (non-functionalized, hydroxylated, and carboxylated GQDs) at various concentrations (0, 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL) and incubation times (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 h). The rheological characteristics of the RBCs were measured using microfluidic-laser diffractometry and aggregometry. Overall, the hemolysis rate and rheological alterations of the RBCs were insignificant at a concentration less than 500 μg/mL. Carboxylated GQDs were observed to have more substantial hemolytic activity and caused abrupt changes in the deformability and aggregation of the RBCs than the non-functionalized or hydroxylated GQDs at concentrations >750 μg/mL. Our findings indicate that hemorheological assessments could be utilized to estimate the degree of toxicity to cells and to obtain useful information on safety sheets for nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Altered 3D Blood Characteristics in Aortic Disease by Velocity Distribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Schnell, Susanne; Puthumana, Jyothy; Bonow, Robert O; Collins, Jeremy D; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of velocity distribution analysis for identifying altered 3D flow characteristics in patients with aortic disease based on 4D flow MRI volumetric analysis. Methods Forty patients with aortic (Ao) dilation (mid ascending aortic diameter MAA=40±7 mm, age=56±17 yr, 11 females) underwent cardiovascular MRI. Four groups were retrospectively defined: mild Ao dilation (n=10, MAA<35 mm); moderate Ao dilation (n=10, 3545 mm); Ao dilation+aortic stenosis AS (n=10, MAA>35 mm and peak velocity >2.5m/s). 3D PC-MR angiograms were computed and used to obtain a 3D segmentation of the aorta which was divided into four segments: root, ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta. Radial chart displays were used to visualize multiple parameters representing segmental changes in the 3D velocity distribution associated with aortic disease. Results Changes in the velocity field and geometry between cohorts resulted in distinct hemodynamic patterns for each aortic segment. Disease progression from mild to Ao dilation+AS resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in flow parameters across cohorts and increased radial chart size for root and ascending aorta segments by 146% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion Volumetric 4D velocity distribution analysis has the potential to identify characteristic changes in regional blood flow patterns in patients with aortic disease. PMID:25252029

  3. Two-Dimensional Computational Flow Analysis and Frictional Characteristics Model for Red Blood Cell under Inclined Centrifuge Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi

    Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.

  4. Effect of the gamma radiation dose rate on psychrotrophic bacteria, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Brito, Poliana P; Azevedo, Heliana; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Fukuma, Henrique T; Mourão, Gerson B; Roque, Cláudio V; Miya, Norma T; Pereira, José L

    2011-03-01

    Frozen samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with skin were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0.0 kGy (control) and 3 kGy at 2 different radiation dose rates: 0.32 kGy/h (3 kGy) and 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy). Batches of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during 11 d of refrigerated (2 ± 1 °C) storage for the following parameters: total psychrotrophic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), evaluation of objective color (L*, a*, and b*) and a sensory evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). No statistical difference (P > 0.05) was found amongst the TBARS values obtained for the MDCM samples irradiated with dose rates of 0.32 and 4.04 kGy/h. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the psychrotrophic bacterial count as from the 7th day of refrigerated storage, for the MDCM samples irradiated at the dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h. With respect to the attribute of oxidized odor, the samples irradiated with a dose rate of 0.32 kGy/h showed a stronger intensity and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the sample irradiated with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h on days 0 and 2 of refrigerated storage. Irradiation with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy) was shown to be the best condition for the processing of MDCM according to the evaluation of all the variables, under the conditions of this study. Practical Application:  The results obtained for the application of different dose rates of ionizing radiation to mechanically deboned chicken meat will provide the food industry with information concerning the definition of the best processing conditions to maximize the sensory and food quality.

  5. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  6. Characteristics of pulsatile blood flow through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve installed in two different types of blood vessels: velocity and pressure of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Seok; Yoo, Song Min; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flow fields of blood flowing through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. A numerical analysis was carried out with the fluid-structure interaction between the blood flow and the motion of leaflets in two different types of blood vessels (type A, with sinus blood vessel, and type B, without sinus blood vessel). When the leaflet was fully opened, a fluttering phenomenon was detected in association with the blood flow, and recirculation flows were observed in the sinus region of the blood vessel for type A. During the closing phase, regurgitation was formed between the ring and the edge of the each leaflet for both types. When the leaflet came into contact with the valve ring at the end of the closing phase, rebound of the leaflet occurred. In consideration of the entire domain, the pressure drop occurs mainly in the valve region. The present results showed tendencies similar to those obtained by previous experiments for blood flow and contribute to the development of the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  8. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  9. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  10. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  11. A spatial regression analysis of German community characteristics associated with voluntary non-remunerated blood donor rates.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, C; Schneider, S; Litaker, D; Weck, E; Klüter, H

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial geographical variation in blood donation within developed countries. To understand this issue better, we identified community characteristics associated with blood donor rates in German municipalities in an ecological analysis. We calculated an aggregated rate of voluntary blood donors from each of 1533 municipalities in south-west Germany in 2007 from a database of the German Red Cross Blood Service. A multiple linear regression model estimated the association between the municipality-specific donor rate and several community characteristics. Finally, a spatial lag regression model was used to control for spatial autocorrelation that occurs when neighbouring units are related to each other. The spatial lag regression model showed that a relatively larger population, a higher percentage of inhabitants older than 30 years, a higher percentage of non-German citizens and a higher percentage of unemployed persons were associated with lower municipality-specific donor rates. Conversely, a higher donor rate was correlated with higher voter turnout, a higher percentage of inhabitants between 18 and 24 years and more frequent mobile donation sites. Blood donation appears to be a highly clustered regional phenomenon, suggesting the need for regionally targeted recruiting efforts and careful consideration of the value of mobile donation sites. Our model further suggests that municipalities with a decreasing percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds and an increasing percentage of older inhabitants may experience substantial declines in future blood donations. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An age×treatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study.

  13. Heart Rate Characteristic index monitoring for blood stream infection in an NICU: A 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Grunwald, Lisa; Stark, Ann R.; Reese, Jeff; Walsh, William; Wynn, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood stream infection (BSI) among Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) infants is a frequent problem associated with poor outcomes. Monitoring for abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) may decrease infant mortality by alerting clinicians to sepsis before it becomes clinically apparent. Methods HRC scores were acquired using the HRC (HeRO) monitor system from Medical Predictive Science Corporation and entered into the electronic medical record by bedside staff. We retrospectively analyzed HRC scores recorded twice daily in the medical record during a 30-month period (January 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012) for infants in the NICU at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt. We identified infants that met CDC criteria for late-onset BSI (>3 days of life) during the study period. Results During the study period, we recorded 127,673 HRC scores from 2384 infants. We identified 46 infants with BSI. Although 8% (9701/127,673) of the HRC scores were ≥2 and 1% (1387/127,673) were ≥5, BSI (at any time) was observed in just 5% of patients with HRC scores ≥2, and 9% of patients with HRC scores ≥5. Of infants with BSI, 5/46 (11%) had at least one HRC score ≥5 and 17/46 (37%) had at least one score ≥2 recorded in the 48 hour period prior to the evaluation that resulted in the first positive blood culture of the episode. Conclusion In our single center retrospective study, elevated HRC scores had limited ability to detect BSI. BSI was infrequent at any time during hospitalization in infants with significantly elevated HRC scores. PMID:26518312

  14. [Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; He, Fei; Hu, Da-yi; Ding, Rong-jing; Yu, Xiao-jun; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xue-bin; Guo, Ji-hong; Liu, Wen-ling; Li, Cui-lan; Li, Lei; Gao, Chuan-yu; Zhao, Luo-sha; Chu, Ying-jie; Huang, Zhen-wen; Wei, Jing-han; Hua, Shao-hua; Liu, Rui-yun; Zhuang, Xiao-feng

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population, and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure. Eighty-six passive smokers [mean age: (52.4 ± 7.6) years] were recruited from patients and their relatives who visited cardiovascular outpatient department and excluded structural heart disease between June 2010 and June 2012, 80 normal subjects who were not exposed to smoking served as controls. Questionnaire survey, 24 hours ambulatory electrocardiogram examination and blood pressure measurement were performed in all recruited subjects. (1) Non-marriage rate [18.60% (16/86) vs. 3.75% (3/80), P < 0.01] was significantly higher while education level were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in control group. Passive smokers were more likely service industry workers [29.07% (25/86) vs. 15.00% (12/80), P < 0.05] and had longer daily working time [(7.56 ± 1.24) h vs. (6.02 ± 0.96) h, P < 0.01], and were less likely to be professional technology industry employers [20.93% (18/86) vs. 36.25% (29/80), P < 0.05] and managers [13.95% (12/86) vs. 38.75% (31/80), P < 0.01] compared to controls. The main place of passive smoking was workplace (67.44%, 58/86), entertainment venues (63.95%,55/86), restaurants (48.84%, 42/86). (2) Standard of the normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN), the normal consecutive sinus RR interval difference between the root-mean-square (rMSSD) and adjacent the difference between the RR interval>50 ms the number of share the percentage (PNN50) were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P < 0.05). Every 5 min average of the standard deviation of sinus RR cycle (SDNN index) and 24 h every 5 min sinus RR interval mean standard deviation (SDANN) were similar between the 2 groups (all P > 0.05). Ultra-low-frequency power (VLF), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF) and LF/HF were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in

  15. The effects of the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis RX7 and B2A strains on the performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella concentration, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broiler challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. subtilis RX7 and B. subtilis B2A on growth performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella population, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broilers under S. typhimurium challenge. A total of 120, one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments, composed of six replications, with five birds per replication, for 10 day. The dietary treatment groups were negative control (NC; no antibiotic, no B. subtilis), positive control (PC; NC + 0.1% virginiamycin), B. subtilis RX7 (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis RX7 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g) and B. subtilis B2A (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g). All birds were orally challenged with 2 ml suspension, containing 10(4) cfu/ml of S. typhimurium KCCM 40253. Results indicated that the body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion did not differ, among all comparative treatments. Serum haptoglobin concentration was lower in Bacillus treatments (RX7 + B2A) than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Intestinal and excreta Salmonella number, and excreta ammonia gas emission in the PC treatment or Bacillus treatments, was lower than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Breast pH, colour and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation of B. subtilis RX7 and B2A. However, drip loss at 1 day post-slaughter from birds fed with B. subtilis RX7 and B2A decreased, compared with the positive control birds (p < 0.05). Relative gizzard weights of birds fed B. subtilis RX7 and B2A were significantly higher than the NC birds under S. typhimurium challenge. It is concluded from the results that B. subtilis RX7 and B2A increased the gizzard weight and decreased the intestinal and excreta Salmonella population and excreta ammonia gas, and drip loss of breast meat after being stored for 1 day, under stress caused by the S. typhimurium challenge. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Hematology, morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastuctural characteristics of blood cells in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Chanhome, Lawan; Rochanapat, Nirachara

    2002-01-01

    King cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) have been captive-bred at Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute since 1996 to supply venom for antivenom production. Hematologic tests would be useful for evaluating the health of the snakes, however, basic hematologic data and morphology have not been described for this species. The purpose of this study was to determine basic hematologic values and evaluate light microscopic, cytochemical, and electron microscopic characteristics of king cobra blood cells. Blood samples from 13 wild-caught and 15 captive-bred king cobras were collected into EDTA from the ventral caudal vein. A CBC was done using standard methods. Significant differences between groups were determined using t-tests. Cytochemical stains (periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], acid phosphatase [AcP], and beta-glucuronidase [beta-glu]), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard techniques. Eighteen snakes (64.3%) were positive for Hepatozoon infection. Hepatozoon organisms were detected nearly twice as frequently in wild-caught (11/13) as in captive-bred (7/15) snakes. Total WBC, azurophil, and lymphocyte counts were higher and fibrinogen concentration was lower in Hepatozoon-positive snakes. Captive-bred snakes had higher RBC values, lower azurophil, heterophil, and punctate reticulocyte percentages, and higher lymphocyte numbers compared with wild-caught snakes. Lymphocytes were the most commonly observed WBCs, and stained positive with PAS, ANAE, AcP, and beta-glu. Azurophil granules stained positive with SBB, PAS, and ANAE. Heterophils were the largest WBCs; their granules stained with SBB, ANAE, and beta-glu. Basophil granules stained with PAS, SBB, ANAE, and beta-glu. Thrombocytes were strongly positive with PAS. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed organelles within all WBCs except eosinophils and revealed the gamonts of Hepatozoon sp in RBCs and azurophils. These

  17. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and P<0.001, respectively). Unlike microvessel density, no significant difference was detected in lymphatic density between the basal or triple-negative groups compared with their respective controls. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non

  18. Influence of increasing breast meat yield on muscle histology and meat quality in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Rémignon, H; Desrosiers, V; Marche, G

    1996-01-01

    The histological characteristics, ie, myofibre types and cross-sectional areas (CSA), of pectoralis major and sartorius muscles of 20 male chickens from two lines (ten birds from each line) divergently selected for breast meat yield were compared. Moreover, some quality parameters (ie, drip loss, ultimate pH value and meat colour) of the breast muscle were recorded. The animals from both lines displayed identical pectoralis major myofibre types and CSA. A slight difference in typology, but not in myofibre CSA, was observed in the sartorius muscle: animals with the highest breast meat yield tended to have a more pronounced glycolytic character. No significant difference was observed in the quality of breast meat (pH, colour and drip loss).

  19. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7%) produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6%) produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5%) belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2%) contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals. PMID:22397509

  20. Risk factors and characteristics of blood stream infections in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Teng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ko, Po-Shen; Liu, Han-Tsung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Ling-Ju; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-06

    Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center. Between November 2002 and December 2008, consecutive patients with multiple myeloma in Taipei Veterans General Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Characteristics of patients with or without BSI were collected. Possible factors associated with development of BSI were analyzed by Cox regression. There were a total of 222 patients. The incidence of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis is 11.7%. The patients with BSI had poorer survival outcomes than those without (mortality rate: 50% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001). Moreover, advanced International Staging System stage (stage III vs. I/II: odds ratio [OR] 2.69, p = 0.049) and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG > 2 vs. ≤ 2: OR 3.58, p = 0.005) were the independent risk factors of BSI, whereas immunoglobulin deficiency and low absolute lymphocyte count were not associated with risk of BSI development. Our study highlights the characteristic of myeloma patients with BSI and the importance of disease and host factors on risk of BSI. Myeloma patients with risks of BSI should be properly managed to reduce early mortality.

  1. Genotoxicity testing of cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, M; Cadez, P; Zlender, B; Filipic, M

    2000-07-01

    The preformed cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) synthesized directly from bovine red blood cells or through a hemin intermediate was found to be a viable colorant for application to comminuted pork as a nitrite substitute. However the genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP has not been evaluated. Therefore the objectives of this work were to investigate genotoxicity of CCMP and the influence of CCMP addition on genotoxicity and the content of residual nitrite in model meat emulsion coagulates. Meat emulsions were prepared from white (musculus longissimus dorsi) and red (musculus quadriceps femoris) pork muscles with two different amounts of synthesized pigment CCMP. Comparatively, emulsions with fixed addition of nitrite salt and emulsions without any addition for color development were made. Genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates was tested with the SOS/umu test and the Ames test. Neither CCMP nor meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP or nitrite salt were genotoxic in the SOS/umu test. In the Ames test using Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 samples of coagulates prepared with CCMP and with nitrite showed weak mutagenic activity in Salmonella Typhimurium strain TA100 but only in the absence of the metabolic activation, while CCMP was not mutagenic. Coagulates prepared with CCMP contained significantly less residual nitrite than coagulates prepared with nitrite salt. These results indicate that from the human health standpoint the substitution of nitrite salt with CCMP would be highly recommendable.

  2. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liran C; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

  4. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in stool samples from asymptomatic human carriers working in the meat processing industry in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stephan, R; Ragettli, S; Untermann, F

    2000-02-01

    A total of 5590 stool samples from healthy employees in the meat industry were screened by PCR for verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). The PCR product of VT-encoding genes was detected in 3. 5% of the samples. Phenotypic and genotypic traits of 47 VTEC strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers were characterized. A variety of serotypes was found; one strain belonged to the serotype O157:H7. The majority of the isolates proved to be VT2-positive. Fifty-seven percent of the verotoxin-producing strains harboured the genes for one or several additional virulence associated factors, including intimin (eae, 8.5%), the 60 MDa plasmid (42.5%), enterohaemolysin (EHEC-hlyA, 38.3%), the heat-stable enterotoxin (astA, 6.4%), a serin protease (espP, 6.4%), colicin production (col D157, 12.8%) and a secretion system II (etpD, 10.6%). None of the strains was positive for a specific enzyme with catalase-peroxidase activity (katP).

  6. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P < 0.05). The Longissimus muscle area (LMA) of pigs fed the LP + Leu diet was larger than those fed the LP + Ala diet (P = 0.05). In addition, drip loss and intramuscular fat of pigs fed the LP + Ala diet were higher than that of the others (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of leucine in low protein diet could stimulate protein deposition and improve the meat quality of finishing pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  8. Influence of maternal, infant, and collection characteristics on high-quality cord blood units in Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoqing; Xie, Guie; Wu, Jieying; Chen, Jingsong; Lu, Yan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xuewei; Liao, Can

    2015-09-01

    The operation of cord blood banks (CBBs) requires immense labor, material, and financial resources. Thus, increasing the ratio of high-quality cord blood units (HQCBUs) in storage that are qualified for clinical use is critical for the efficient use of limited resources. Understanding the factors that contribute to HQCBUs, including maternal, fetal, and processing conditions, may improve the number of HQCBUs in storage. The maternal, fetal, and processing conditions of 4613 CBUs at the Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank were analyzed retrospectively to determine their effect on HQCBUs. All CBUs were obtained following strict standard operation procedures. Several factors may contribute to HQCBUs: fetal age older than 37 gestational weeks, female fetus, large cord blood (CB) volume (>80 mL), high birthweight (>3500 g), vaginal delivery, and a shorter amount of time between CB collection and processing (12 hr). We report for the first time that α-thalassemia carriers exhibit a postprocessing total nucleated cell count (p-TNCC) increase to at least 1.25 × 10(9) and an increase of the CD34+ cell count to at least 6.01 × 10(6) . Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and mothers younger than 25 years of age exhibited increased p-TNCC to at least 1.25 × 10(9) , and colony-forming units increased to at least 23.24 × 10(5) . We identified several factors that affect HQCBUs. These results may be used as a reference for updating CB collection strategies, with priority given to collecting CBUs from female fetuses older than 37 gestational weeks, at high birthweight, and born by vaginal delivery from mothers younger than 25 years of age, especially newborns with one parent carrying the trait or with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The collected CBUs should be sent to the laboratory as soon as possible for priority processing, which will help to increase the number and ratio of HQCBUs and the effective use of CBB resources. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Differentiating Blood, Lymph, and Primo Vessels by Residual Time Characteristic of Fluorescent Nanoparticles in a Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwoo; Lim, Jaekwan; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Kim, SungChul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) which were injected into a tumor tissue flowed out through the blood and lymph vessels. The FNPs in blood vessels remained only in the order for few minutes while those in lymph vessels remained for a long time disappearing completely in 25 hours. We found a primo vessel inside a lymph vessel near a blood vessel, and FNPs remained in the primo vessel for longer than 25 hours. In addition, we examined in detail the residual time characteristics of lymph vessels because it could be useful in a future study of fluid dynamical comparison of the three conduits. These residual time characteristics of FNPs in the three kinds of vessels may have implications for the dynamics of nanoparticle drugs for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23662147

  10. Antimicrobial food packaging in meat industry.

    PubMed

    Quintavalla, Stefania; Vicini, Loredana

    2002-11-01

    Antimicrobial packaging, an active packaging concept, can be considered an extremely challenging technology that could have a significant impact on shelf-life extension and food safety of meat and meat products. Use of antimicrobial substances can control the microbial population and target specific microorganisms to provide higher safety and quality products. Many classes of antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures, both synthetic polymers and edible films: organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins, and miscellaneous compounds such as triclosan, silver zeolites, and fungicides. The characteristics of some antimicrobial packaging systems are reviewed in this article. The regulatory status of antimicrobial packaging in EU is also examined.

  11. Advancements in meat packaging.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of Blood Pressure Profiles After Endovascular Coiling as Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Poor-Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kefu; Zhang, Yunfeng; Shen, Lihua; Ji, Qiuhong; Xu, Tian; Cao, Maohong

    2017-08-01

    Accurate identification of patients who will achieve a favorable outcome is almost impossible preoperatively or postoperatively in poor-grade (Hunt and Hess Grade IV and V) aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether characteristics of blood pressure profiles during the first 24 hours after endovascular coiling could predict prognosis in poor grade patients was explored. Data were obtained retrospectively on all patients undergoing endovascular treatment with poor-grade SAH from November 2011 to June 2016. Blood pressure during the initial 24 hours was measured at 2-hour intervals after coil embolization. Studied features of mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) as well as demographics, medical history, clinical characteristics, and neurologic outcomes were documented. SBPV was determined as standard deviation and successive variation of systolic blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of favorable outcome assessed on modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. The patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome were comparable with respect to systolic blood pressure on admission and MSBP after coiling. However, MSBP between 120 and 140 mm Hg was one of independent predictors of good outcomes at discharge (odds ratio 7.1; P = 0.002). SBPV-successive variation after embolization was associated with functional recovery (odds ratio 0.87; P = 0.011) in multivariate logistic analysis and mortality by Cox proportional hazard regression (hazard ratio, 1.10; P = 0.001) at 6-month follow-up. Characteristics of blood pressure profiles after coiling appeared to be simple and convenient indexes for the prognosis of patients with poor-grade SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  14. Effects of loading methods on rabbit welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, G; Vignola, G; Giammarco, M; Manetta, A C; Lambertini, L

    2010-05-01

    The effects of different loading methods on the welfare, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of hybrid commercial rabbits were investigated. 384 male rabbits, 82 days old, were transported from the farm to the slaughterhouse. At the farm, 192 rabbits were loaded onto the truck smoothly (S) and 192 rabbits were loaded roughly (R). The S loading method consisted of carefully placing each rabbit into the transport crates. In the R method, the loading was hurriedly and carelessly executed by the transport operator, throwing each animal into the crates fixed on the truck. Live weight before and after transport as well as slaughter data were recorded for each rabbit, and a subset of 80 carcasses were evaluated for meat quality. Blood samples from 80 rabbits were analysed for haematological and biochemical parameters. A significant neutrophilia (P<0.001), lymphocytopaenia (P<0.001) and an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.001) and creatine kinase (CK) activities (P<0.001) were recorded in all rabbits after transport, independent of the loading method. A twofold increase in serum corticosterone concentration (6.23 vs. 14.88 ng/mL; P=0.001) was observed in all rabbits following transport. Results suggest that the stress parameters analysed were more influenced by transport and handling itself rather than by the different loading methods. The results showed that there was no adverse effect of loading method on carcass traits. Furthermore, the stress condition evidenced by haematological and biochemical parameters prior to slaughter did not affect meat quality.

  15. Cadmium Concentration in Mother's Blood, Milk, and Newborn's Blood and Its Correlation with Fatty Acids, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Mother's Smoking Status.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Gutowska, Izabela; Jamioł, Dominika; Prokopowicz, Adam; Goschorska, Marta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cadmium concentration in mothers' blood, milk, and newborns' blood from Szczecin (Poland) as a result of environmental cadmium exposure and evaluate the correlation (1) between cadmium levels in analyzed matrices, (2) between cadmium and fatty acids in those matrices, and (3) between cadmium and some selected personal variables, such as anthropometric characteristics, mothers' smoking status, and fruit and fish consumption by mothers. The concentration of cadmium in whole blood and milk of mothers and in the umbilical cord blood of newborns was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. The fatty acid concentrations were determined by gas chromatography in our previous study. The mean concentrations of cadmium in maternal blood, newborn's blood, and breast milk were 0.61 ± 0.62 μg/L, 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/L, and 0.11 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively, and differed significantly between analyzed matrices. Cadmium concentrations in the umbilical cord blood were 15 % (range 0-83 %) of the concentration in maternal blood, whereas cadmium concentrations in breast milk constituted 35 % (range 3-142 %) of the concentration in mothers' blood. No correlation was found between cadmium levels in three analyzed matrices. The correlation analysis revealed significant low positive correlation between maternal blood cadmium concentrations and concentrations of elaidic, oleic, and cis-vaccenic acids in mothers' milk (correlation coefficients 0.30, 0.32, and 0.31, respectively). Mothers' blood cadmium correlated with mothers' age (r = -0.26, p = 0.03), maternal smoking before pregnancy (r = 0.55, p < 0.000), maternal smoking during pregnancy (r = 0.58, p < 0.000), and fruit consumption by mothers after delivery (r = -0.44, p = 0.003). Mothers' height was the only variable that correlated significantly with breast milk cadmium levels. Newborns

  16. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  17. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study.

    PubMed

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Wanders, A J; Brouwer, I A

    2012-02-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural trans fatty acid that is largely restricted to ruminant fats and consumed in foods and supplements. Its role in blood pressure (BP) regulation is still unclear. We examined the effect of cis-9, trans-11 CLA on BP compared with oleic acid. A total of 61 healthy volunteers were sequentially fed each of 3 diets for 3 weeks, in random order, for a total of 9 weeks. The diets were identical except for 7% of energy (18.9 g in a diet of 10 MJ day(-1)) that was provided either by oleic acid, by industrial trans fatty acids or by cis-9, trans-11 CLA. We measured BP on two separate days at the end of each intervention period. At baseline, mean BP was 113.8±14.4 mm Hg systolic and 66.3±9.6 mm Hg diastolic. The effect of the CLA diet compared with the oleic acid diet was 0.11 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.27, 1.49) systolic and -0.45 mm Hg (-1.63, 0.73) diastolic. After the industrial trans fatty acid diet, the effect was 1.13 mm Hg (-0.25, 2.51) systolic and -0.44 mm Hg (-1.62, 0.73) diastolic compared with the oleic acid diet. Our study suggests that short-term high intakes of cis-9,trans-11 CLA do not affect BP in healthy volunteers.

  18. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  19. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  20. Characteristics and prognostic value of lymphatic and blood vascular microinvasion in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Arame, Alex; Mordant, Pierre; Cazes, Aurélie; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2012-11-01

    The prognostic value of vascular microinvasion (VMI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a matter of discussion in recent decades. The last T N M classification does not take VMI into account, but many points remain questionable. A retrospective study was performed of patients undergoing operations for NSCLC during a 20-year period. Lymphatic VMI (LVMI) was classified as group (G) 1, blood VMI (BVMI) as G2, LVMI and BVMI as G3, and no VMI as G4. The demographic, pathologic, T N M characteristics, and long-term survival of each group were analyzed. A total of 3,868 patients (G1, 334; G2, 642; G3, 172; G4, 2,720), mean age 61.9 ± 10.1 years, underwent different types of resection, with complete lymphadenectomy in 88.5%. Adenocarcinomas were more frequent in G1 and G3, and squamous cell carcinomas in G2. In G2, more N1 tumors needed more extensive resections. G1 was equally distributed regardless of tumor size, but G2 prevalence increased with augmenting size. Nodules in the same lobe were significantly more frequent in LVMI than in BVMI. After exclusion of patients with R1 and R2 resections, multivariate analysis confirmed that LVMI and BVMI were independent prognostic factors as well as age, sex, type of resection, T extension, and N involvement. VMI is generally associated with a poorer prognosis. LVMI is less frequent than BVMI but has lower survival rates. The benefit of adjuvant therapy in VMI patients needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dietary fluorine on growth, blood and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Burnell, T W; Peo, E R; Lewis, A J; Crenshaw, J D

    1986-12-01

    Three hundred eighty-four growing-finishing pigs were used in two experiments to determine the effect of dietary fluorine (F) on growth, blood and bone physical characteristics. Fourteen dietary treatments were formulated by supplementing F (as NaF) to a milo-soybean meal basal diet (7 ppm F) to provide levels of 7, 132, 257, 382, 507 and 632 ppm F for Exp. 1, and 7, 25, 43, 61, 79, 97, 115 and 133 ppm F for Exp. 2. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not affected (P greater than .09) when F was fed at levels between 7 and approximately 132 ppm. Average daily gain and ADFI were reduced (P less than .0001) for pigs consuming diets with F concentrations greater than 132 ppm (Exp. 1). Feed conversion was not affected (P greater than .17) by any level of F fed. Serum F and alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased (P less than .01) with increasing dietary F levels. Serum and bone Ca and P concentrations were not affected (P greater than .13) by dietary F levels (Exp. 1). In Exp. 1 and 2, bone F increased (P less than .0001) and metatarsal stress and modulus of elasticity decreased (P less than .0001) as level of F increased in the diet. Bone thickness decreased quadratically (P less than .02) in Exp. 1 and linearly (P less than .0007) in Exp. 2 with increased dietary F levels. Scanning electron microscopy showed an increase in porosity of bones from pigs fed the higher levels of F. Growing-finishing pigs were able to tolerate approximately 132 ppm F for growth, but all of the F levels (greater than or equal to 7 ppm) fed in these two experiments affected bone integrity.

  2. [Analysis of Therapeutic Regularities and Characteristics of Blood-letting Therapy for Acne Patients Based on Data Mining].

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.

  3. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  4. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p < 0.05) BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON group. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p < 0.05). Drip loss percentage on days 3 and 5 and also meat colour were not affected significantly. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). Among measured blood constituents, chickens fed supplemented diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p < 0.05) IgG. Counts of red and white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage were not affected. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that supplementing pelleted diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens.

  5. Characteristics of blood vessels forming “sausages-on-a-string” patterns during hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnsborg Beierholm, Ulrik; Christian Brings Jacobsen, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Alstrøm, Preben

    2007-03-01

    A phenomenon of alternate constrictions and dilatations in blood vessels has been studied for over 50 years. Recently, a theory has been presented involving a Rayleigh type instability. We analyze the model in terms of the lengths of the deformations in relation to the wall thickness, blood pressure and stress. Analytical and numerical results obtained are consistent with experimental data.

  6. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  7. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic parameters for meat quality traits of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives.

  9. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  10. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  11. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  12. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L∗, a∗, b∗) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  13. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    PubMed

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed.

  14. Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.

    PubMed

    Watson, W A

    1975-04-26

    The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment.

  15. [Characteristics of foot blood supply in rigidity of the great toe].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, A A; Kramarenko, G N; Istomina, I S

    1991-07-01

    By means of angiography, made in 20 patients with rigidity of the first toes due to osteoarthrosis, there have been revealed chronic deficiency of blood circulation in the foot tissues, especially in its antero-internal section. Blood circulation deficiency is due either to the congenital anomaly of the foot vessels or to the consequences of their traumatic injuries. Blood supply deficiency results in degenerative-dystrophic changes of the first metatarsophalangeal articulations with development of their rigidity, aggravated by post-ischemic contracture of the foot muscles.

  16. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

  17. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence.

  18. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo

    2016-07-21

    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  19. EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL MEAT TENDERIZER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a meat tenderizing machine which utilizes the principle of cutting the tough fibers of a meat into short...lengths but at the same time knitting them into flat steak -like pieces of meat that can be handled easily.

  20. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  1. Morphological characteristics of blood cells in monitor lizards: is erythrocyte size linked to actual body size?

    PubMed

    Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Chylíková, Lenka; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr; Frynta, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Characteristics of a new automated blood sampling system for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Ingvar, M.; Rosenqvist, G.; Ekdahl, T.; Kappel, P.

    1995-08-01

    A new commercially available automated blood sampling system (ABSS) for positron emission tomography has been evaluated. The system uses a single BGO crystal and detects with high efficiency the annihilation radiation from tracers, labelled with positron emitting isotopes, in arterial blood. In addition the possibilities to use the ABSS as a detector in the analysis of the plasma samples with liquid chromatography techniques under flow conditions has been explored.

  3. Blood donors' physical characteristics are associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms - Donor InSight.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hurk, Katja; Peffer, Karlijn; Habets, Karin; Atsma, Femke; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M; Van Noord, Paulus A H; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T; De Kort, Wim L A M

    2017-09-01

    Observational data suggest that some donors might benefit from donating while others may be harmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential, routinely measured, determinants of pre- and post-donation symptoms. In Donor InSight, questionnaire data from 23,064 whole blood donors (53% female) were linked to routinely measured data on donors' physical characteristics (haemoglobin, blood pressure, body mass index and estimated blood volume) from the Dutch donor database. Absolute and relative associations between donors' physical donor and the presence of pre- and post-donation symptoms were studied using multivariable logistic regression. Pre-donation symptoms (lack of energy, headaches) were reported by 3% of men and 3% of women. Five percent of men and 4% of women reported positive post-donation symptoms (feeling fit, fewer headaches). Negative symptoms (fatigue, dizziness) were more common, occurring in 8% of men and 19% of women. All the studied donors' physical characteristics were positively associated with pre- and positive post-donation symptoms and negatively associated with negative symptoms. Body mass index was most consistently and independently associated with symptoms. Donors' physical characteristics, in particular body mass index, were consistently associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms. This indicates that subgroups of donors more and less tolerant to donation might be identifiable using routinely measured data. Further research is warranted to study underlying mechanisms and potential strategies to predict and prevent donor reactions.

  4. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  5. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon; Lee, Kichang

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2(*)-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI.

  6. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  7. [Salmonella infection of meat and meat products].

    PubMed

    Zvolibovskiĭ, V A; Rachkovskaia, Iu K; Devterova, L V

    1981-01-01

    The paper concerns the results of studying the frequency and degree of infection with Salmonella of diverse meat products including sausage ones. It was established that 10.2 +/- 2.1 % of samples taken from the organs of normal animals for slaughter were infected with Salmonella belonging to 9 serotypes. The most probable number per 1000 g (mpn/1000 g) was 10.5- greater than 322. Analysis of meat products in the course of manufacturing boiled sausage products demonstrated that Salmonella-infected were 44.2 +/- 8.5 % samples (mpn/1000 g 10.5- 92), taken from the starting raw material, 76.3 +/- 6.6 % samples (mpn/1000 g 10- greater than 322) from stuffing, 80.0 +/- 11.1% samples (mpn/1000 g 10.5- 69) from sausages after frying, 6.8 + +3.75 % samples (mpn/1000 g 22-72) from finished sausage. A total of 15 serotypes of Salmonella were detected in the course of study.

  8. [Characteristics of erythrocyte lipids in blood of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with increased natural radioactivity].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G; Shuktomova, I I; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    Interrelations between the lipid characteristics of the blood erythrocytes and 226Ra accumulation in the body of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with different levels of the radiation background were investigated. It is shown that the ratio of the phospholipid (PL) fractions which cause the blood erythrocyte structure depends on the phase of the population cycle, as well as on the sex and age of tundra voles. The statistically significant interrelation between lysoforms and the sphingomielin content has been revealed in the blood erythrocyte PL of tundra voles; its scale somewhat differs for the animals from the reference and Ra areas. The peroxide concentration in the blood erythrocyte lipids of tundra voles from the Ra area exceeded the control values in all mature groups of the animals trapped at the depression phase of the population density. The 226Ra content in the bodies of the tundra voles which were trapped in the Ra area at the increased phase of the population cycle is for certain higher than that for the animals from the reference area. Interrelations between the lipid peroxidation parameters in the blood erythrocytes and the body 226Ra content for separate sex-age groups of tundra voles have been revealed.

  9. A Novel Blood Viscosity Estimation Method Based on Pressure-Flow Characteristics of an Oxygenator During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed<