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Sample records for blood characteristics meat

  1. Effects of chitooligosaccharide supplementation on performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T X; Chen, Y J; Yoo, J S; Huang, Y; Lee, J H; Jang, H D; Shin, S O; Kim, H J; Cho, J H; Kim, I H

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with chitooligosaccharide (COS) on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 broilers with an average initial BW of 45.04 g per chick were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with 6 pens per treatment): 1) CON (basal diet), 2) ANT (basal diet + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin), 3) COS0.2 (basal diet + 14 g/kg of COS), 4) COS0.4 (basal diet + 28 g/kg of COS). The experiment lasted for 5 wk and avilamycin was administered from d 0 to 21. Growth performance was measured on d 0, 21, and 35, and all other response criteria were measured on d 35. No change in feed conversion (G:F) was observed in response to any of the treatments throughout the experimental period (P > 0.05). However, BW gain and feed intake were greater (P < 0.05) in broilers provided with feed supplemented with COS than in those in the control group. In addition, broilers had significantly greater (P < 0.05) red blood cell and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations when they were provided with the COS0.4 diet, whereas the triglyceride concentration was lower (P < 0.05) in broilers in the COS0.2 treatment group. No other blood characteristics were affected by the treatments. Additionally, as the dietary COS concentration increased, the liver weight increased (P < 0.05). Conversely, as the concentrations of dietary COS increased, abdominal fat decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, meat yellowness decreased (P < 0.05) as the concentration of COS increased. Finally, the breast meat and abdominal fat of birds provided with feed supplemented with COS had a lower (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acid concentration but a greater concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) than that of birds in the control. In conclusion, COS can improve the performance and breast meat quality of broilers while increasing

  2. Effects of phenyllactic acid on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, relative organ weight, blood characteristics, and meat quality of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Lee, J H; Yoo, J S; Cho, J H; Kim, H J; Kim, I H

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with phenyllactic acid (PLA) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, relative organ weight, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 500 male broilers (BW = 46.3 g) were randomly allotted into 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin (ANT), 3) basal diet + 0.2% PLA (PLA0.2), 4) basal diet + 0.4% PLA (PLA0.4), 5) basal diet + 0.2% PLA + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin (PA). Chicks fed PLA had lower feed intake (FI) from d 0 to 7 (P < 0.05) than those fed CON and ANT. From d 21 to 35, BW gain was greater in ANT, PLA0.4, and PA diets than CON and PLA0.2 diets (P < 0.05), whereas the FI was lowest in the PLA0.4 diet. Feed efficiency was depressed (P < 0.05) by the antibiotics and PLA supplementation during d 0 to 7, whereas it was improved (P < 0.05) in the PLA and ANT diets during d 21 to 35, with the best value in PLA0.4.The population of Escherichia coli in the large intestine was lower in the ANT, PLA0.4, and PA groups than the CON and PLA0.2 groups (P < 0.05). The relative weights of gizzard, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, breast, and abdominal fat were unaffected by any of the dietary supplementations. Treatment of PLA led to an increase (P < 0.05) in the concentrations of white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage. The yellowness of breast muscle decreased by ANT, PLA0.4, and PA treatment. In conclusion, PLA can improve growth performance when it is supplemented in finisher diet (d 21 to 35), whereas it can depress BW gain and FI in earlier days (d 0 to 7). In addition, PLA can also decrease the number of E. coli in the large intestine and improve the number of immune-related blood cells.

  3. Effects of Dietary Coptis Chinensis Herb Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, T. X.; Zhang, Z. F.; Kim, I. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary Coptis chinensis herb extract (CHE) on growth performance, blood characteristics, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs were investigated in an 18-wk feeding trial. A total of 36 Landrace×Yorkshire-Duroc pigs with an initial body weight of 20±1.0 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a control diet and other treatment diets were supplemented with 0.5, or 1 g CHE/kg, respectively. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from those pigs that had reached the market BW. During the experimental periods, growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were unaffected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of CHE. Plasma erythrocytes counts were increased (Linearly, p<0.05) in response to application of CHE at the end of the experiment. Moreover, pigs fed the CHE diets had better (p<0.05) meat color, pH and water holding capacity (WHC) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHE could increase blood erythrocytes counts and improve meat quality in growing-finishing pigs but not improve growth performance. PMID:25049712

  4. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö. Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting the

  5. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting

  6. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  7. Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, J P; Yan, L; Huang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. Birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (ME) 12.7 MJ/kg and crude protein (CP) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; ME 13.2 MJ/kg and CP 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or low nutrient density (ME 12.1 MJ/kg and CP 220.2 g/kg for 0-7 d; ME 12.6 MJ/kg and CP 209.8 g/kg for 8-28 d)] and 0 or 2 g/kg probiotics (1.0 × 10(10) viable spores/g of Bacillus subtilis endospores and 1.0 × 10(9) viable spores/g of Clostridium butyricum). 3. The high-nutrient-density diet increased body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration relative to the low-nutrient-density diet. High-nutrient-density diet reduced water loss ratio of breast muscle, liver and fat relative to body weight compared to low-nutrient density-diet. The inclusion of probiotics increased BWG and feed intake throughout the experiment. Dietary probiotics increased the percentage of blood lymphocytes and relative weight of spleen and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-probiotic treatment. The inclusion of probiotics decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lightness (L*) value of breast meat compared to the non-probiotic-supplemented diet. 4. In conclusion, high dietary nutrient density increased growth performance and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics increased growth performance but reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The positive effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance was reduced by the high-nutrient-density diet during the first week of life.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain/feed) didn’t differ among treatments through the whole experiment. These pigs fed the PCL diet had the greater (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter than those from PC and NC treatment at the end of the experiment. No differences were observed in white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and lymphocyte concentration among different treatments. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter. The pigs in NCL and PCL treatments had greater (p<0.05) backfat thickness and lower lean percentage. The color value of loin was higher (p<0.05) in NCL treatment compared to PCL treatment. Also, the NCL treatment had higher (p<0.05) marbling value than PC treatment. The drip loss was depressed by PCL and NCL treatment comapared to NC treatments. The water holding capacity (WHC) was higher (p<0.05) in NC and PCL treatment. In conclusion, the low FC can improve digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:25049693

  9. Effects of single or combined dietary supplementation of β-glucan and kefir on growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan and kefir (a fermented milk product) on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality in broilers. 2. A total of 375 day-of-hatch mixed sex ROSS 308 broilers (BW of 46 ± 0.1 g) were used in a 5-week experiment and randomly allotted to one of the following dietary treatments: (1) NC, basal diet; (2) PC, basal diet + 40 mg/kg of avilamycin; (3) B, NC + 0.1% β-glucan; (4) K, NC + 0.1% kefir; (5) BK, NC + 0.1% β-glucan + 0.1% kefir. 3. During weeks 0-3, broilers in B, K and BK treatments had higher body weight gain (BWG) than those in NC treatment. During weeks 4-5, BK treatment had a higher BWG than NC treatment. Overall, broilers given PC, K and BK diets had higher BWG than those given NC diet. The feed efficiency ratio (FCR) was improved by PC treatment. 4. Relative liver weight was increased by B treatment, whereas the relative weight of breast meat and gizzard was higher in BK group than that in NC group. Broilers given PC, B and BK diets had greater breast meat redness value and reduced drip loss at d 5 and d 7. The cooking loss was also reduced by B and BK treatments compared with NC treatment. 5. In conclusion, the results suggested that inclusion of 0.1% β-glucan and 0.1% kefir, either individually or combined, would improve growth performance and benefit meat quality in broiler chickens.

  10. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  11. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  12. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  13. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  14. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  15. Effect of age and gender on the processing characteristics of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Lakshmanan, V

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of processing characteristics of meat from young male, spent male and spent female buffaloes was made to find the suitability of the meat for developing ready to eat meat products. Intensively reared young male buffalo meat showed higher moisture, collagen solubility, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and water holding capacity than meat from the other animals. A higher pH, total meat pigments, salt soluble protein, emulsifying capacity and lower collagen solubility were observed in spent male buffalo meat. Spent female buffalo meat had higher fat, total collagen, muscle fibre diameter and shear force value. Sensory evaluation of pressure cooked meat chunks indicated a marked toughness in spent male and female buffalo meat samples. These results suggest that young male buffalo meat is more suitable for processing in chunks and spent male and female buffalo meat is more suitable for processing in smaller particles.

  16. WHITE STRIPING AND WOODEN BREAST DEFECTS INFLUENCE MEAT QUALITY AND MUSCLE PROTEIN CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER BREAST MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of the wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies on meat quality and protein characteristics of broiler breast meat. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) from a commercial processing plant were segregated into four groups: normal (neither WS nor W...

  17. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  18. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    PubMed

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  19. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products. PMID:23273448

  20. Carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of dairy suckling kids compared to an indigenous genotype.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Alper; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2010-06-01

    Effects of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality were investigated by using 24 suckling kids from Turkish Saanen, Gokceada and Maltese breeds. Carcass quality characteristics of indigenous kids (Gokceada) were lower than those of dairy type (Turkish Saanen and Maltese) kids. Breed effect on ultimate meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat samples from Turkish Saanen kids had higher redness (at 0, 1 and 24h) and yellowness (at 24h) values than Gokceada kids (P<0.05). Breed had no significant effect on sensory characteristics except flavour intensity. Flavour intensity scores given to meat samples of Maltese kids were higher than those of Turkish Saanen and Gokceada kids (P<0.01). In conclusion, dairy type breeds should be considered for meat production as well, with meat from Maltese kids potentially offering better colour and flavour intensity than that of Turkish Saanen kids.

  1. Observations on some chemical and physical characteristics of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Syed Ziauddin, K; Mahendrakar, N S; Rao, D N; Ramesh, B S; Amla, B L

    1994-01-01

    Proximate composition, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions of buffalo meat were similar to those of beef. Buffalo meat was also rich in lysine. Meat from young animals had a lower collagen content than that from old ones. As the temperature of holding the carcasses was increased, the rate of pH fall was faster. Meat from stressed animals showed a higher ultimate pH. Percentage of cooking loss and thermal shrinkage was higher in muscles of old animals than in young ones, which probably reflected the poor condition of the older animals. Meat cooked by pressure cooking showed lower Warner-Bratzler shear values as compared with meat cooked in boiling water.

  2. Characteristics and Applications of Microbial Starters in Meat Fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Fontana, Cecilia

    Fermentation and drying are among the most ancient food preservation techniques used by man. Developed through the years, these processes prolonged the storage time of meats (and meat products) and brought favorable changes to their organoleptic properties, with respect to the original substrate.

  3. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  4. Biofilm Formation Characteristics of Pseudomonas lundensis Isolated from Meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Yun-Fang; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms formations of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on food or food contact surfaces have attracted increasing attention. These events may lead to a higher risk of food spoilage and foodborne disease transmission. While Pseudomonas lundensis is one of the most important bacteria that cause spoilage in chilled meat, its capability for biofilm formation has been seldom reported. Here, we investigated biofilm formation characteristics of P. lundensis mainly by using crystal violet staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The swarming and swimming motility, biofilm formation in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C) and the protease activity of the target strain were also assessed. The results showed that P. lundensis showed a typical surface-associated motility and was quite capable of forming biofilms in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C). The strain began to adhere to the contact surfaces and form biofilms early in the 4 to 6 h. The biofilms began to be formed in massive amounts after 12 h at 30 °C, and the extracellular polysaccharides increased as the biofilm structure developed. Compared with at 30 °C, more biofilms were formed at 4 and 10 °C even by a low bacterial density. The protease activity in the biofilm was significantly correlated with the biofilm formation. Moreover, the protease activity in biofilm was significantly higher than that of the corresponding planktonic cultures after cultured 12 h at 30 °C.

  5. Effect of Myopathies on Meat Quality and Protein Characteristics of Broiler Breast Meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) conditions are abnormalities that occur in the breast muscles of modern broilers. Although WB and WS are known to adversely affect meat quality, the underlying effect of these conditions on muscle proteins are not well understood. The objective of this ...

  6. Amino acids in human blood plasma after single meals of meat, oil, sucrose and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Nasset, E S; Heald, F P; Calloway, D H; Margen, S; Schneeman, P

    1979-04-01

    Six healthy men (21 to 38 years; 58 to 80 kg) consumed an adequate diet in a metabolism unit. At 4-day intervals they ingested test meals and venous blood was drawn before and after ingestion at intervals for 8 hours. Test meals were 100, 200, and 300 g of cooked lean meat and quantities of corn oil, sucrose, and whiskey isoenergetic with 200 g of meat. Plasma was analyzed for 20 amino acids. Mean totals of amino acids (micromoles per liter) were maximally elevated at 1 or 2 hours post cibum for all meals and remained above fasting values at 4 hours, with one exception (glucose meal). At 8 hours they were all below fasting values with one exception (whiskey meal). Individual responses varied so much that mean values are misleading. One subject responded well to ingestion of 100 or 200 g of meat but failed to respond to 300 g of meat, oil, or sucrose. Another subject responded well to oil and sucrose, but failed to respond to 100 or 200 g of meat. Mean total fasting amino acid values for all subjects were relatively constant but values for individual subjects ranged from 16% above to 18% below their own fasting means. Ingestion of whiskey invariably resulted in a significant decline in molar ratios for histidine and a significant increase for threonine.

  7. Effects of housing systems on growth performance, blood plasma constituents and meat fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, A; Demir, E; Sarica, M; Ulutas, Z

    2009-04-15

    A research was conducted to determine the influence of the conventional and the free-range broiler housing systems using female broiler chicks had low hatching weight on growth performance, breast meat characteristics and some blood plasma parameters. In the conventional (totally confined) housing system sixty one-day-old female Ross broiler chicks were placed in indoor floor pens with three replicates of 20 chicks. In the free-range (partly-confined) housing system, sixty one-day-old Ross broiler chicks were placed in indoor floor pens and also accessed to a grass paddock during 44 day experimental period after 7 days old. Birds of both systems were fed the same commercial broiler diet. The free-range housing system significantly decreased the total feed intake and body weight of broilers (p<0.05). The redness (a* color) and yellowness (b* color) in breast meat were affected by the housing systems (p<0.05). The housing systems had no affect on fatty acids composition of breast meat (p>0.05). The plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels of the conventional reared birds were significantly higher than those reared the free-range (p<0.05). In conclusion, longer growth period was necessary to the free-range reared broilers.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of the effect on blood pressure of dietary non-meat protein versus meat protein in normotensive omnivores.

    PubMed

    Prescott, S L; Jenner, D A; Beilin, L J; Margetts, B M; Vandongen, R

    1988-06-01

    1. A randomized, controlled trial was carried out to examine whether changes in type and amount of dietary protein were responsible for earlier observations of blood-pressure-lowering effects of lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets. 2. Sixty-four subjects were pair-matched for sex, age, weight and sitting systolic blood pressure, and were randomly allocated to receive one of two types of protein supplement: one containing proteins from meat, the other proteins from non-meat sources. The supplements were balanced in terms of other nutrients. Consumption of other meat, poultry or fish was prohibited. 3. Sitting and standing blood pressures, weight, dietary intakes and plasma and urinary electrolytes were measured at regular intervals during the 12 weeks of trial. Urinary 3-methylhistidine was used as a measure of compliance. 4. Fifty subjects completed the trial. There were no statistically significant blood pressure differences between groups either at baseline or at end-of-trial, neither were there any substantive differences in mean blood pressure changes between baseline and end-of-trial. 3-Methyl-histidine excretion was significantly lower in subjects on the non-meat diet. 5. The results suggest that the protein components of the lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet are not responsible for the blood-pressure-lowering effects of that diet.

  9. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  10. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. PMID:22554470

  11. Biofilm formation of Salmonella serotypes in simulated meat processing environments and its relationship to cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huhu; Ding, Shijie; Dong, Yang; Ye, Keping; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-10-01

    Salmonella attached to meat contact surfaces encountered in meat processing facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. In this study, the influence of serotypes and media on biofilm formation of Salmonella was investigated in a simulated meat processing environment, and the relationships between biofilm formation and cell characteristics were also determined. All six serotypes (Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Indiana, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) can readily form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces, and the amounts of biofilms were significantly influenced by the serotypes, incubation media, and incubation time used in this study. Significant differences in cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, motility, and growth kinetic parameters were observed between individual serotypes tested. Except for growth kinetic parameters, the cell characteristics were correlated with the ability of biofilm formation incubated in tryptic soy broth, whereas no correlation with biofilm formation incubated in meat thawing-loss broth (an actual meat substrate) was found. Salmonella grown in meat thawing-loss broth showed a "cloud-shaped" morphology in the mature biofilm, whereas when grown in tryptic soy broth it had a "reticulum-shaped" appearance. Our study provides some practical information to understand the process of biofilm formation on meat processing contact surfaces.

  12. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment. PMID:25717090

  13. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment.

  14. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  15. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  16. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  17. Partly replacing meat protein with soy protein alters insulin resistance and blood lipids in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    van Nielen, Monique; Feskens, Edith J M; Rietman, Annemarie; Siebelink, Els; Mensink, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk, strictly controlled, weight-maintaining, moderately high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderately high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  18. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Choi, Y I; Kim, E J; Kim, H K; Heo, K N; Choi, H C; Lee, S K; Kim, C J; Kim, B G; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05). Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  19. Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

    2014-03-01

    Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in BC. Total fluid release (TFR), water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher lightness (L) in BC and redness (a) in FP emulsion were observed. Higher firmness, gumminess, chewiness and cohesiveness were observed in BC emulsion. SEM studies revealed a dense and compact protein matrix characteristic of heat induced protein gels. All micrographs showed structures that are compatible with fat globules, muscle fiber, meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

  20. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  1. Meat quality characteristics in different lines of Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Elena; Ruiz, Jorge; Ventanas, Jesùs; Jesús Petrón, Maria; Antequera, Teresa

    2004-06-01

    Physico-chemical parameters involved in technological meat quality for dry cured processing of four different lines (Entrepelado, Lampiño, Retinto and Torbiscal) of Iberian pigs were studied in the Masseter (MS) and Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. The line of Iberian pig significantly affected intramuscular fat content of MS muscle, animals from the Torbiscal line showing lower values. Proportions of several fatty acids of total lipids and polar lipids from the MS muscle were also affected. However, fatty acid composition and total lipids, neutral lipids and polar lipids of LD muscle and neutral lipids of MS muscle were scarcely affected. Lipid oxidation was also unaffected by Iberian pig line, but instrumental colour parameters of MS muscle showed significant variations.

  2. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Relationships between muscle characteristics and meat quality traits of young Charolais bulls.

    PubMed

    Renand, G; Picard, B; Touraille, C; Berge, P; Lepetit, J

    2001-09-01

    Charolais bull calves (106) were used to study the variability in meat quality attributes in relation to the variability in muscle characteristics in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle. The variability in traits was adjusted either to constant age or constant weight at slaughter and thus originated only from differences between animals born, reared and fattened in the same location. The following meat quality attributes were measured: the strength of the myofibrillar resistance to a 20% compression strain measured on the raw meat 2, 7 and 21 days post mortem; and taste panel scores of tenderness (initial and overall), flavour and juiciness of steaks grilled to a 55°C core temperature 6 or 15 days post-mortem. The following muscle characteristics were measured 24 h after slaughter: pH, dry matter, protein, lipid, heme iron and collagen contents, collagen solubility, LDH and ICDH activity, the proportion of slow twitch myosin heavy chain, the mean muscle fibre area and the mean sarcomere length. One fourth to one third of the variability of 2 day mechanical strength and 15 day tenderness or flavour scores were related to the variability in muscle characteristics. Tenderness and strength measurements were predominantly related to the muscle fibre area, collagen characteristics and energetic metabolic activity. Dry matter content was the principal muscle characteristic related to flavour. PMID:22062505

  4. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  5. Assessing carcass and meat characteristics of Damara, Dorper and Australian Merino lambs under restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    Almeida, André M; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Araújo, Susana S; Milton, John; Oldham, Chris; Greeff, Johan C

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most pressing constraint in ruminant production systems in tropical climates. SWL is controlled using supplementation, which is costly and difficult to implement in extensive systems, or using breeds adapted to tropical hot dry climates, like the Damara and Dorper. Albeit 15 years in Australia, little is known on how these sheep compare to Australian Merino. Here, the responses of the Damara, Dorper and Merino breeds to nutritional stress were compared. Seventy-two 6-month-old ram lambs, 24 from each breed, were allocated to growth (gaining 100 g/day) or restricted diets (losing 100 g/day, 85% of maintenance needs). Animals were weighed and carcass and meat characteristics determined. Results point out to the existence of important differences between the three genotypes, in particular between the Merino and the Southern African breeds. Additionally, Merino ram lambs seem to have been more influenced by SWL than the other two, with consequences on meat characteristics.

  6. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  7. Effect of chilling, polyphosphate and bicarbonate on quality characteristics of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Sen, A R; Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K

    2005-08-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate on colour and sensory attributes of pre- and post-chilled breast meat. 2. Three groups of 6 halves of breasts (pre-chill) immediately after slaughter were treated with 3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 3% sodium bicarbonate in 2% NaCl or 2% NaCl alone (control); the remaining 6 halves (post-chill) were stored overnight at 4 degrees C and then treated similarly. Both the pre- and post-chill samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h and pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, CIE colour values and sensory attributes were recorded. 3. Chilling had few effects on the meat characteristics measured in this study. 4. Treatment with phosphate and bicarbonate increased pH in both the pre- and post-chill groups. Treated breasts exhibited lower L* and higher a* value (more red) than controls. 5. A sensory evaluation study revealed improvements in colour and other sensory attributes of cooked broiler breast meat in all treated samples compared to the control. 6. The findings suggest that tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate, when injected post mortem, will have beneficial effects on several physico-chemical (pH, colour, WHC %, cooking loss) and sensory attributes of broiler meat. However, phosphate had a smaller effect than bicarbonate.

  8. Muscle and meat quality characteristics of Holstein and Salers cull cows.

    PubMed

    Jurie, C; Picard, B; Hocquette, J-F; Dransfield, E; Micol, D; Listrat, A

    2007-12-01

    Muscle characteristics and sensory rating of meat were determined in M. longissimus thoracis (LT), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST) and M. triceps brachii (TB) from seven Holstein (HO, dairy breed) and six Salers (SA, beef breed) cull cows slaughtered at 6-7 years of age at the same fat score. Significant differences (P<0.001) among muscle types were observed: ST was the more glycolytic and TB the more oxidative; total collagen: ST>SM=TB>LT; initial and overall tenderness: LT>TB=SM>ST, juiciness: TB>LT=SM>ST. Flavour differed only between breeds: HO>SA (P<0.01). Three tenderness classes (high, intermediate, low) were determined from scores for sensory overall tenderness for all 52 meats: the lower total and insoluble collagen contents, the more oxidative metabolism, the more tender was the meat. Muscle type, and not breed explained most of the variability of meat quality from dairy and beef cull cows slaughtered at the same age and fat score.

  9. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

  10. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation.

  11. Does the chicken genotype 'Géline de Touraine' have specific carcass and meat characteristics?

    PubMed

    Baéza, E; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Besnard, J; Berri, C

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the specific characteristics of carcass and meat from an old French chicken breed, the 'Géline de Touraine' (GT), characterised by a very slow-growing rate and usually slaughtered at 120 days of age. For this purpose, we compared the GT with an experimental crossbreed (EC) exhibiting the same growth rate, and with a 'Label rouge' (LR) genotype usually slaughtered at 84 days of age. A total of 250 males and 250 females per genotype were reared by separating sexes and genotypes. The growth performances were recorded. At 84 days of age, 80 birds per sex and per genotype were slaughtered. The frequency of clawing and pecking injuries on the carcass was noted. We also measured the skin colour and the thickness of wing membrane. The relative percentages of carcass, breast, thigh + drumstick, abdominal fat, testis or ovary to body weight were determined. On breast and thigh muscles the ultimate pH (pHu) and colour were measured. The juice loss after 3 days' storage at +4°C and after cooking at 85°C, and the shear force value of Warner-Bratzler were only measured on breast muscles. At 120 days of age, we repeated the same measurements but only on EC and GT genotypes in order to compare birds at the same age or at the respective slaughter age for each production. Whatever the slaughter age, the body weight of males was always higher than that of the females but the carcass yield was similar for both sexes. The females had higher breast yield and carcass fatness but lower thigh + drumstick yield than the males. The yellowness of skin and meat was higher for the females than for the males while the contrary was observed for the redness of the meat. The breast meat of the females also had higher cooking loss than that of the males. GT and EC birds exhibited a higher occurrence of carcass defects and a higher pHu in meat than LR birds. The GT chickens were characterised by a lower breast yield, a higher fattiness and an earlier sexual

  12. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets. PMID:26445200

  13. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets.

  14. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  15. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Young-Seok; Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  16. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  17. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  18. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  19. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. M.; Hwang, S.; Lee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs 663.0 μm2, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines. PMID:27383804

  20. Effect of feeding sugarcane press mud on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjan; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the possibilities of feeding unconventional agro-industrial byproduct for livestock production. Sugarcane press-mud (SPM), is a byproduct derived from sugarcane industry, which is rich in protein as well as minerals. The effects of dietary inclusion of SPM at different levels on the carcass characteristics of lambs were evaluated. Materials and Methods: SPM was incorporated in concentrate mixture at different levels 0% (SP0 - concentrate mixture without SPM [Control diet]), 10% (SP10 - concentrate mixture containing 10% SPM) and 20% (SP20 - concentrate mixture containing 20% SPM). The concentrate mixtures were fed along with wheat straw for 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, six lambs per group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass and meat quality characteristics. Results: No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on pre-slaughter weight or empty body weight basis of lambs fed different levels of SPM incorporated diets. Likewise carcass weight, carcass length, and wholesale cuts appeared to have similar values among groups. The yield of visceral organs, chemical composition, and sensory attributes were not statistically affected by inclusion of SPM in the diets except juiciness of control group meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than treatment group (SP20). Conclusion: The SPM can be incorporated in the diet of lambs up to the level of 20% without affecting the carcass characteristics of lambs. PMID:27065649

  1. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  2. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  3. Carcass yields and meat quality characteristics of adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) transported for 6h before slaughter.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Uttaro, Bethany; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-10-01

    The meat quality characteristics of adult emus transported for 6h before slaughter were determined. Forty-two emus were used in two trials, undertaken under warm and cool weather conditions, respectively. Male emus had significantly higher fat yields than females (12.43kg vs 9.5kg, P=0.002). About 38.1% of the emus had no wounds or bruises, 40.5% had bruises, while 21.4% had small wounds after transport. Meat from injured emus had significantly higher pH45. In warm weather, emus experienced significantly higher loss in body weight than that under cool weather. Drip loss in meat after 24h of storage was higher in emus which had greater live weight loss after transport (r=0.66, P<0.0001), confirming the adverse effects of transport stress on meat quality. Nutrient supplementation did not significantly affect processing yield or meat quality characteristics. This study points to the need for optimizing transport conditions of emus to maintain meat quality. PMID:24973774

  4. Carcass yields and meat quality characteristics of adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) transported for 6h before slaughter.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Uttaro, Bethany; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-10-01

    The meat quality characteristics of adult emus transported for 6h before slaughter were determined. Forty-two emus were used in two trials, undertaken under warm and cool weather conditions, respectively. Male emus had significantly higher fat yields than females (12.43kg vs 9.5kg, P=0.002). About 38.1% of the emus had no wounds or bruises, 40.5% had bruises, while 21.4% had small wounds after transport. Meat from injured emus had significantly higher pH45. In warm weather, emus experienced significantly higher loss in body weight than that under cool weather. Drip loss in meat after 24h of storage was higher in emus which had greater live weight loss after transport (r=0.66, P<0.0001), confirming the adverse effects of transport stress on meat quality. Nutrient supplementation did not significantly affect processing yield or meat quality characteristics. This study points to the need for optimizing transport conditions of emus to maintain meat quality.

  5. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered.

  6. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  7. Relationship between collagen characteristics, lipid content and raw and cooked texture of meat from young bulls of fifteen European breeds.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per; Failla, Sebastiana; Sañudo, Carlos; Richardson, R Ian; Nute, Geoff R; Olleta, José L; Panea, Begoña; Albertí, Pere; Juárez, Manuel; Hocquette, Jean-François; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Variations in texture were determined for 10 day aged raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle from 436 bulls of 15 European cattle breeds slaughtered at an age of 13-16 months. Variations in texture were related to differences in pH 24 h post-mortem, sarcomere length, collagen characteristics and lipid content. The shear force of cooked meat samples varied from 43.8 to 67.4 N/cm². Simmental, Highland and Marchigiana cattle had the highest shear force values and Avileña-Negra Ibérica, Charolais, Casina and Pirenaica cattle had the lowest values. Cooked meat toughness showed a weak negative correlation to lipid content (P<0.001) but no correlation to collagen characteristics. Raw meat texture measured by compression correlated positively (P<0.001) with total and insoluble collagen. In conclusion, collagen characteristics showed correlation to raw meat texture but not to cooked meat toughness of LT muscle in European young bulls.

  8. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  9. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  10. Repercussions of growth path on carcass characteristics, meat colour and shear force in Alentejana bulls.

    PubMed

    Costa, P; Simões, J A; Costa, A S H; Lemos, J P C; Navas, D; Hocquette, J F; Calkins, C R; Bessa, R J B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of eight muscles from bulls with distinct growth paths. A total of 40 Alentejana male calves were allocated to two distinct feeding regimes. In the continuous growth (CG) system, the animals were fed concentrates plus hay and were slaughtered at 18 months of age. On the other hand, in the discontinuous growth (DG) system, the animals were fed hay until 15 months of age; the cattle were then fed the same diet provided to the CG group from 15 to 24 months of age. The DG reduced hot carcass weight, fatness and dressing %, but the proportions of fat, bone and muscle tissues in the leg were not affected. In contrast, there was a positive impact of compensatory growth on supraspinatus, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, biceps femoris muscle tenderness, overcoming the negative effects of age at slaughter. The reasons for such improvement in meat tenderness were not related to intra-muscular fat content or myofibrillar protein degradation values. An association between tenderness and muscle collagen properties was not established. The results indicate that the compensatory growth has a muscle-dependent effect.

  11. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability. PMID:26638020

  12. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  13. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  14. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Kang, Suk-Nam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  15. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  16. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  17. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  18. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  19. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  20. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  1. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  2. Effect of Cattle Breed on Meat Quality, Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acids in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiangxue; Meng, Qingxiang; Cui, Zhenliang; Ren, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to compare meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acids of Limousin (LIM), Simmtental (SIM), Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC) and Jinnan (JN) offered the same diet in China. After finishing, eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughter at 18.5 months old. Longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle was taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Breed had little effect on most of meat and fat color parameters except for Hue and b* in which QC had lower values. LIM showed higher pH (24 h) and better water holding capacity than other breeds. LIM showed the lowest dry matter content but the highest crude protein. LX and LIM had higher percentage and density of red muscle fiber than other breeds. Lipid oxidations were significantly lower in LIM than in QC, with the LX, SIM and JN having the intermediate values. Compared to other four breeds, QC provided the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, LIM scored better on most of meat quality characteristics; however, local breeds such as LX and QC also had better muscle fiber characteristics and better fatty acids composition. PMID:25049633

  3. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  4. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mohrhauser, D A; Taylor, A R; Underwood, K R; Pritchard, R H; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Blair, A D

    2015-02-01

    Research has suggested that maternal undernutrition may cause the development of a thrifty phenotype in the offspring, potentially resulting in greater adiposity and reduced muscle mass. These alterations in adipose and muscle development could have lasting impacts on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. However, limited research exists evaluating the impact of maternal energy status on these economically important traits of the offspring. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality. To alter maternal energy status, cows either grazed dormant, winter range (positive energy status [PES]) or were fed in a drylot at 80% of the energy requirements for BW maintenance (negative energy status [NES]) during a mean period of 102 ± 10.9 to 193 ± 10.9 d of gestation. Changes in BCS, BW, LM area (LMA), and 12th rib backfat were measured throughout midgestation. At the end of midgestation, cows in the NES group had a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in BCS, BW, LMA, and 12th rib backfat when compared with PES dams. Cows and calves were managed similarly after midgestation through weaning and calves were managed and fed a common diet through the receiving, backgrounding, and finishing phases in the feedlot. Calves were harvested after 208 d in the feedlot, carcass characteristics were recorded, and strip loins were recovered for analysis of objective color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Maternal energy status had no influence on offspring HCW, dressing percent, LMA, percent KPH, marbling score, percent intramuscular fat, objective color, or WBSF (P > 0.10). Progeny of NES cows tended to have improvements in 12th rib backfat and USDA yield grade (P < 0.10). Greater ratio of marbling score to 12th rib fat thickness and ratio of percent intramuscular fat to 12th rib fat thickness (P < 0.05) were discovered in progeny from cows

  5. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  6. Effects of lairage time after road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Zhong, R Z; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lairage time after 8 h road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep. A total of 84 Ujimqin male sheep (average body weight 27.5 kg, 6 months old) were randomly allotted to one of seven groups: one control group (untransported) and six lairage groups (8 h road transport with 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h lairage times respectively). No significant lairage time effects were observed on weight loss. Sheep in 48 h group showed lower hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and higher pH(24 h) than that in other groups. The total haem pigment contents in sheep meat rose and were higher in 24 and 48 h groups than that in the control group. After transport, sheep in 0, 2, 24 and 48 h groups showed higher serum creatine kinase activities, cortisol and glucose concentrations than that in control group. Sheep in lairage groups had higher serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels compared with the control sheep. Sheep in 48 h group showed significant higher packed cell volume, total protein and blood urea nitrogen than that in other groups. Compared with the control group, the white blood cell counts were higher in 0 and 48 h groups. The neutrophil counts in 24 or 48 h groups were higher than that in the control group. The opposite was true for lymphocyte counts. A 6-12 h lairage is recommended in terms of the present transported pattern. PMID:21929728

  7. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P<0.01) rib-eye-area and 100-kg-adjusted rib-eye-area among groups. Longissimus lumborum length did not differ (P>0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls.

  8. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P<0.01) rib-eye-area and 100-kg-adjusted rib-eye-area among groups. Longissimus lumborum length did not differ (P>0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  9. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age.

  10. Comparison of active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of active dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood indexes related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. PMID:26472702

  11. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  12. Endocrine, blood metabolite, and meat quality changes in goats as influenced by short-term, preslaughter stress.

    PubMed

    Kannan, G; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H; Gelaye, S

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term, preslaughter stress on physiological responses and meat quality in goats of different age groups. The goats (n = 28) were classified into young (6 to 12 mo of age) and old (24 to 30 mo of age) groups, feed deprived overnight, and slaughtered at three different times (replicates). On each slaughter day, goats were either subjected to a 2-h transportation stressor (TS) or remained unstressed in holding pens (NS) before slaughter. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture from TS and NS goats at 2, 1, and 0 h before slaughter. Muscle glycogen and pH were measured on samples from longissimus muscle (LM) collected at 15 min and 24 h postmortem, and instrumental measures of meat color were obtained on the LM after a 24-h chilling period at 4 degrees C. The TS goats had higher plasma cortisol (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.05) concentrations than NS goats. The rates of increase in plasma cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in TS than in NS goats (stressor treatment x blood sampling time, P < 0.01). Muscle glycogen concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in NS than in TS goats and higher (P < 0.01) in old vs. young goats; however, pH measured at 15 min and 24 h postmortem was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Water-holding capacity of meat was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Older goats had lower (P < 0.01) L* values and greater (P < 0.01) a* and chroma values than the younger goats. The a* and chroma values of loin cuts from young goat carcasses were lower in the TS than NS treatment groups, but this effect was absent in the old goat carcasses (stressor treatment x age, P < 0.05). Cooking loss percentages and shear force values for loin chops aged for 7 d were not (P < 0.05) affected by stressor treatment; however, old goats produced tougher (P < 0.01) loin chops than young goats. These results indicate that short

  13. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable.

  14. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable. PMID:24423453

  15. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat

  16. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat

  17. [Changes of blood cell's morphological characteristics and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Mestiashvili, I G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the interpretation of the clinical value of blood cells' (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes) morphological characteristics changes taking into the consideration results of our own long-term (1982-2012) investigations as well as literature data. Patients with hematological and nonhematological diseases as well as large groups of Georgia population (about 30.000 persons, in age 2-81) were observed. By Gimsa-Romanovsky method stained blood smears were studied in light microscope. Changes of blood cells' morphological characteristics, observed by us and known in the literature, as well as ones revealed at first in this work, are presented according to the three branches of hemopoiesis. Possible changes of blood cells' morphological characteristics are described in details. Concrete changes in concrete diseases are presented in eight tables. Discussing the results the fact of the revealing of blood cells' morphological changes in some diseases, different by etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptomatology and treatment, is accentuated. Some examples of the differentiation of different diseases by means of that nuances, which are revealed in microscope and which are not noticeable for the modern techniques, are presented. The significance of some specific changes of blood cells' morphological characteristics for the doubtless diagnostic of some concrete anomalies is shown. The list of changes which are revealed in this work but are not founded in the literature is presented. The conclusion is drawn that the nuances of blood cells` morphological changes revealed in light microscope allow to narrow the spectrum of additional investigations for the establishment of diagnosis.

  18. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  19. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  20. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  1. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation.

  2. Effects of feed deprivation and transport on preslaughter blood metabolites, early postmortem muscle metabolites, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Gerritzen, M A; Venema, K; Korf, J

    2002-05-01

    In practice, poultry have their feed with drawn several hours before being collected and put on transport to the slaughter plant. With the exhaustion of their internal energy stores, the chickens may lack energy to cope with the conditions to which they are subjected. Meat quality is affected by the energy stored in the muscle at time of slaughter and its rate of decrease postmortem. Of 320 broiler chickens, half were subjected to 5 h feed deprivation whereas the others had access to feed until transport. In both groups, half the chickens were transported for 1.5 h, and the rest were transported within 5 min to the on-site slaughter facility. Twenty chickens were equipped with an ultrafiltration-collection device for monitoring glucose and lactate profiles. After slaughter, liver pH was measured. Stimulation of muscle metabolism was minimized by avoiding plucking. Breast muscle samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h and analyzed for pH and metabolite concentrations, and meat quality was measured at 96 h. Although liver glycogen was depleted in feed-deprived chickens, feed deprivation and transport for short periods were not found to affect blood glucose or lactate levels nor glycogen levels in the muscle at slaughter. Muscle carbohydrate metabolism was found to come to a complete halt after 6 h, which was not caused by exhaustion of the glycogen store but by the muscle's ability to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after 4 h. At this time, rigor mortis had set in and deboning could be done without risk of cold shortening. PMID:12033421

  3. Effects of feed deprivation and transport on preslaughter blood metabolites, early postmortem muscle metabolites, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Gerritzen, M A; Venema, K; Korf, J

    2002-05-01

    In practice, poultry have their feed with drawn several hours before being collected and put on transport to the slaughter plant. With the exhaustion of their internal energy stores, the chickens may lack energy to cope with the conditions to which they are subjected. Meat quality is affected by the energy stored in the muscle at time of slaughter and its rate of decrease postmortem. Of 320 broiler chickens, half were subjected to 5 h feed deprivation whereas the others had access to feed until transport. In both groups, half the chickens were transported for 1.5 h, and the rest were transported within 5 min to the on-site slaughter facility. Twenty chickens were equipped with an ultrafiltration-collection device for monitoring glucose and lactate profiles. After slaughter, liver pH was measured. Stimulation of muscle metabolism was minimized by avoiding plucking. Breast muscle samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h and analyzed for pH and metabolite concentrations, and meat quality was measured at 96 h. Although liver glycogen was depleted in feed-deprived chickens, feed deprivation and transport for short periods were not found to affect blood glucose or lactate levels nor glycogen levels in the muscle at slaughter. Muscle carbohydrate metabolism was found to come to a complete halt after 6 h, which was not caused by exhaustion of the glycogen store but by the muscle's ability to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after 4 h. At this time, rigor mortis had set in and deboning could be done without risk of cold shortening.

  4. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  5. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  6. Carcass, meat quality, and sensory characteristics of heavy body weight pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Myers, A J; Scramlin, S M; Parks, C W; Carr, S N; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K

    2008-12-01

    Carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and sensory attributes were evaluated in late-finishing barrows and gilts, weighing between 100 to 130 kg of BW, fed 0, 5, or 7.4 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) for the final 21 to 28 d before slaughter. Carcass data were collected from carcasses from barrows and gilts (n = 168), and all primal cuts from the right sides of these carcasses were fabricated to calculate primal yields as a percentage of the HCW. Subjective (National Pork Producers Council and Japanese) color, firmness, and marbling scores were determined on the LM of each loin and the semimembranosus muscle (SM) of the ham, whereas the moisture, extractable lipid, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory evaluations (juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor) were measured on the LM samples only. Gilts produced heavier (P < 0.05) HCW than barrows, whereas feeding RAC increased (P < 0.05) HCW over pigs fed diets devoid of RAC. Carcasses from gilts also had greater (P < 0.02) primal cut and lean cut (P < 0.01) yields than barrows, and dietary inclusion of 5 mg/kg of RAC increased (P < 0.05) total boneless cut and lean cut yields when compared with carcass from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC. Warner-Bratzler shear forces values were greater (P < 0.05) in the LM of gilts than barrows, but only juiciness scores were greater (P < 0.03) in LM chops from barrows than gilts. The LM from barrows had greater intramuscular lipid (P < 0.001) than the LM from gilts, and even though the LM from pigs fed 5 mg/kg of RAC had greater (P < 0.04) WBSF values than the LM from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC, including RAC in the late-finishing diets for 21 or 28 d did not affect sensory panel rating or percentages of moisture and intramuscular lipid. In summary, addition of RAC in the late-finishing diet improved carcass and primal cut yields when it was fed at 5 and 7.4 mg/kg without altering pork quality traits regardless of whether RAC was fed for 21 or

  7. Effects of feeding high-oil corn to beef steers on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Andrae, J G; Duckett, S K; Hunt, C W; Pritchard, G T; Owens, F N

    2001-03-01

    To assess the effects of feeding high-oil corn on carcass characteristics and meat quality, 60 yearling steers were fed high concentrate diets containing either control corn (82% of diet), high-oil corn (82% of diet), or high-oil corn at a concentration that was isocaloric with the control diet (74% of diet). After being fed for 84 d, steers were slaughtered. At 72 h postmortem, carcass data were collected and rib sections from five steers grading U.S. Choice and five steers grading U.S. Select from each treatment were collected, vacuum packaged, and aged for 14 d. Three steaks (2.54 cm thick) were removed from each rib for Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement, sensory appraisal, and fatty acid composition analyses. Data were analyzed with treatment as the main effect for the carcass data and treatment, quality grade, and two-way interaction in the model for the longissimus data. The two-way interaction was nonsignificant (P > 0.05) for all variables tested. No differences were detected (P > 0.05) in carcass measurements except for marbling scores and quality grades, both of which were greater (P < 0.05) for carcasses from steers fed the high-oil corn. Overall, 78% of steers fed the high-oil corn graded U.S. Choice compared with 47% for the control and 67% for isocaloric group. Shear force and sensory properties of the longissimus were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. Steaks from U.S. Choice carcasses rated higher (P < 0.05) for tenderness and tended to rate higher (P < 0.10) for juiciness. Feeding the isocaloric and high-oil diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and the total PUFA content of lipid extracted from the longissimus. Saturated fatty acid percentage was lowest (P < 0.05) for high-oil corn and highest (P < 0.05) for control, with isocaloric being intermediate. Feeding high-oil corn increased (P < 0.05) pentadecyclic acid, margaric acid, and total odd-chain fatty acid content. Feeding high-oil corn in finishing beef

  8. Interrelationships between meat quality traits, texture measurements and physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    PubMed

    Oury, M P; Picard, B; Briand, M; Blanquet, J P; Dumont, R

    2009-10-01

    Ninety-nine Charolais heifers were used to study the variability of meat quality traits in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis. The heifers of the same trade class were slaughtered at 33months of age (±4months) and 381kg carcass weight (±31kg). Muscle and bone development scores were evaluated before slaughter. Carcass weight, slaughter age and life average daily gain were recorded. Shear force measurements and meat quality traits were evaluated after 14days of aging. Some physicochemical characteristics were measured 24h post-slaughter. Tenderness was correlated with slaughter age (r=-0.31), bone development (r=-0.22) and life average daily gain (r=+0.37). Tenderness was significantly related to total collagen content (r=-0.24), lipid content (r=+0.27) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.24). Juiciness was positively correlated with lipid content (r=+0.31) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.20). Flavor intensity was correlated with lipid content (r=+0.26) and mean fiber area (r=+0.24). Shear force was correlated with total collagen, lipid and 27K proteasome sub-unit contents. Taking animal characteristics and muscle properties together in a multiple regression analysis increased the explained tenderness variability to 33%. The independent variables listed in order of importance were life average daily gain, total collagen content, bone development, lipid content, I myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, shear force of broiled meat and slaughter age. PMID:20416732

  9. Delivering meat carcasses/cuts to craft-butcher shops: an investigation of work characteristics and manual handling hazards.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Gingell, Alison

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated delivery scenarios of service drivers working in the retail meat industry. The methodology included analysis of accident reports, and field investigations of deliveries at craft-butcher shop premises, including semi-structured interviews with managers and workers. The findings provide greater clarity about the hazards in this job, and suggest for peripatetic delivery activities, four main factors on which decisions about risk and good practice may be made: composition of the orders; characteristics of the delivery vehicle/truck; handling method most often used; and, the road/access conditions.

  10. Delivering meat carcasses/cuts to craft-butcher shops: an investigation of work characteristics and manual handling hazards.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Gingell, Alison

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated delivery scenarios of service drivers working in the retail meat industry. The methodology included analysis of accident reports, and field investigations of deliveries at craft-butcher shop premises, including semi-structured interviews with managers and workers. The findings provide greater clarity about the hazards in this job, and suggest for peripatetic delivery activities, four main factors on which decisions about risk and good practice may be made: composition of the orders; characteristics of the delivery vehicle/truck; handling method most often used; and, the road/access conditions. PMID:24882060

  11. Native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma during rat liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Anuradha, V.; Namasivayam, A.; Parmeswearan, Diagaradjane

    1999-05-01

    Native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma was studied in the visible region, during the regenerating phase of the rat liver tissue. Animals were subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH). Blood samples were collected after several intervals of post PH time and also from control animals. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma were measured at 405 nm excitation. In addition to the primary emission peak around 440 nm, the fluorescence spectra of experimental group of animals showed distinct secondary emission peak around 620 nm, which is found to be absent in the case of control animals. This may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The fluorescence intensity at 620 nm was found to be maximum at about 16 hrs of post PH time and it decreased thereafter with increasing post PH time. The spectral differences between controls and experimental animals were found to be minimal at 240 hrs of post PH time.

  12. Performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma constituents of meat type drakes fed diets containing different levels of lysine with or without a microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A

    2003-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to study growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma constituents of Campbell drakes fed diets containing different levels of lysine with or without a microbial phytase. Basal vegetable duck all-mash diets were fed during the growing (1-35 d of age), and finishing period (36-56 d of age) and were formulated to contain 0.90% and 0.73% lysine (negative control), respectively. These diets were supplemented or not with L-lysine HCl, which resulted in a dietary lysine level of 0.90, 0.95, 1.01 and 1.06% and 0.73, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.94%, during the growing and finishing period, respectively. Furthermore, the diets were fed with or without 600 FTU phytase (Natuphos) except for those containing 1.06 and 0.94% lysine during the growing and finishing period, respectively (positive control). A lysine level of 1.01/0.87% in the growing/finishing diet significantly increased BWG and improved FCR of drakes by 2.1 and 1.8%, respectively. Phytase significantly increased BWG by 2.1% and 3.5% after feeding the basal diet and 1.01/0.87% lysine, respectively. Also, FCR was significantly improved by 2.2 and 1.8% of groups fed 0.95/0.80, and 1.01/0.87% lysine, respectively. Phytase as an independent variable increased BWG by 1.8, and improved FCR by 1.0%. Lysine and/or phytase did not affect carcass yield, and meat quality treats as well as plasma constituents of drakes. However, lysine level at 0.95/0.80% and 1.01/0.87% significantly decreased abdominal fat deposition compared to either the negative or the positive control. In conclusion, a lysine level of 1.01/0.87% in the growing/finishing diets for drakes is adequate. After phytase supplementation of the basal diet the BWG at a lysine level of 0.90/0.73% were similar to the positive control (1.06/0.94% lysine). However, the best FCR was obtained after feeding diets containing 1.01/0.87% lysine supplemented with phytase.

  13. Selected reaction monitoring method to determine the species origin of blood-based binding agents in meats: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Grundy, H H; Read, W A; Macarthur, R; Dickinson, M; Charlton, A J; Dušek, M; Breidbach, A; Scholl, P F; Newsome, G A; Bell, D; Alewijn, M

    2013-12-15

    Binding products or food 'glues' are used throughout the food industry to increase the meat use rate or to augment economic efficiency. Some of these binders contain thrombin from bovine and porcine blood. The European parliament has recently banned thrombin-based additives and labelling legislation governs their use in the US. A mass spectrometry screening method is available to detect the addition of thrombin agents to foods as there is a need to protect consumers and to avoid misleading trade practices. We report the details of an inter-laboratory trial to determine the transferability of this method to operators in various food testing laboratories, each using a different triple quadrupole mass spectrometer design. The trial was successful with the species origin of the binding agent contained in each of the 43 test materials being correctly reported by the participants. This is consistent with a false positive and false negative rate of 0%. This is the first collaborative study, as far as we are aware, which involves a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) application to approach a food authenticity issue.

  14. Body weight, meat quality and blood metabolite responses to carbohydrate administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kop-Bozbay, C; Ocak, N

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine weights of body (BW), carcass (CW), gastrointestinal tract (GTW), meat quality and some blood metabolite responses to corn starch, saccharose or glucose administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal (FW) in broilers. On day 42 of age, 200 broilers (Ross 308) were allocated randomly to five treatments with four replicates. During a 10-h FW, control broilers (C) were provided with non-treated water and the standard finisher diet ad libitum, whereas fasted broilers provided with non-treated (NFW) or treated water, 3 g glucose (G), saccharose (S) or corn starch (CS)/L. Eight birds (four males and four females) per treatment were slaughtered. Birds receiving non-treated or treated water had lower BW and higher carcass yield than the full-fed broilers. The full-fed broilers had higher absolute and relative GTW than the fasted birds. Broilers consumed more readily treated water compared with non-treated water. While the a* value of breast meat from CS birds was higher than that from NFW, the b* value of that was higher than S and C birds. The c* values of breast meat from S birds were lower compared with that from the CS treatment. The thigh meat from NFW broilers had higher h* value than that from C and G broilers. The thigh meats of C and CS broilers had higher c* value than that of G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma triglyceride concentration than NFW, S and G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma uric acid and uric acid nitrogen concentrations than S birds. These results show that carbohydrate administration in the drinking water cannot be a good alternative for the FW period before slaughter due to the fact that the carbohydrates do not reduce BW losses and do not lead to increases in meat quality.

  15. Effects of two beta-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Torres-Rodríguez, V; Meraz-Murillo, F J; Pérez-Linares, C; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Robinson, P H

    2006-12-01

    The impact of using 2 beta-adrenergic agonists in feedlot cattle fed finishing diets was evaluated using 54 steers (45 crossbred Charolais and 9 Brangus) initially weighing 424 +/- 26.6 kg in a randomized complete block design with 3 treatments and 6 blocks (i.e., 18 pens with 3 steers per pen). Response variables were feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Treatments were 1) control (no supplement added); 2) zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 60 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)); and 3) ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 300 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)). The beta-agonists were added to the diets during the final 33 d of the experiment. The groups of steers fed ZH or RH improved (P < 0.01) ADG by 26 or 24%, respectively, compared with control steers. Steers supplemented with RH consumed less (P = 0.03) DM (8.37 kg) than control steers (8.51 kg), whereas intake was similar (P = 0.37) for ZH and control steers. Addition of either beta-agonist to the diet considerably improved (P < 0.01) the G:F (ZH, 0.253 and RH, 0.248 vs. control, 0.185). Hot carcass weight and carcass yield were enhanced (P < 0.05) with both beta-agonists. The LM area was increased (P = 0.026) by ZH (75.2 cm(2)), but that of RH (72.2 cm(2)) was similar (P = 0.132) to the control steers (66.8 cm(2)). Meat from the ZH- (P = 0.0007) and RH- (P = 0.0267) supplemented steers had greater shear force values than control steers (ZH = 5.11; RH = 4.83; control = 4.39 kg/cm(2)). Variables related to meat color indicated that both beta-agonists led to a similar redness of the LM area related to the control group. In general, feedlot performance was greatly enhanced by beta-adrenergic agonists, and meat tenderness from treated animals was classified as intermediate. Furthermore, meat color was not altered by beta-agonist supplementation. PMID:17093218

  16. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs. PMID:27126221

  17. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  18. Effect of almond on technological, nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics of goat meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P < 0.05) the emulsion stability of formulation 1 and 2. Product with 2.5 % almond had higher (P < 0.05) cooking yield than other two products, whereas expressible water was lower. Emulsion and products pH values increased with the addition of almond. Emulsion and products with almond had higher (P < 0.05) proximate values except moisture content. Textural properties of all the products did not differ significantly. Percent SFAs decreased (P < 0.05) and MUFAs were increased with the addition of almond. The fatty acids C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 were significantly higher in formulation 1 and 2 products. Almond incorporation can be a very good approach to enhance nutritional profile of the meat products without affecting acceptability. PMID:26396321

  19. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  20. Fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from zebu steers fed with different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D M; Ladeira, M M; Chizzotti, M L; Machado Neto, O R; Ramos, E M; Gonçalves, T M; Bassi, M S; Lanna, D P D; Ribeiro, J S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of ground oilseed sources on the quality, fatty acid profile, and CLA content of meat from zebu steers. Thirty-one zebu steers with an initial average age of 23 mo and an initial BW of 365 kg were used in this study. The experimental period was 84 d, which was preceded by an adaption period of 28 d. The diet was provided ad libitum with a forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60. Corn silage was used as the forage source. Four different concentrates were formulated for each treatment: without additional lipids (control) or with ground soybeans (SB), ground cottonseed (CS), or ground linseed (LS). The SB, CS, and LS diets were formulated to have 6.5% ether extract on a total dietary DM basis. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design. After slaughter, samples were taken from the longissimus thoracis muscle for the measurement of fatty acid concentration and the evaluation of meat quality. The luminosity index was greater in the control and LS diets (P < 0.01). The greatest percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), trans octadecenoic acid (C18:1 trans-10, trans-11, or trans-12), and SFA in the subcutaneous fat were observed in the CS treatment (P < 0.01). Moreover, the least percentages of oleic acid (C18:1 cis-9) and total unsaturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat were observed in the CS diet (P < 0.01). The meat linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid percentages were greatest in the SB and LS treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). The unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratio was smallest for the CS diet (P < 0.01). A gradual increase in oxidation was observed as a function of storage time; however, the diets did not affect the rancidity of the meat (P > 0.05). The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat was impaired by the addition of CS. Supplying ground oilseeds did not increase the content of CLA in the meat.

  1. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P < 0.05), suggesting that cattle learned to mix legumes with tall fescue. Scan samples and assessments of pasture biomass removal revealed greater use of sainfoin than alfalfa when both legumes were abundant in the spring (P < 0.05); that pattern reversed toward the end of the growing season (P < 0.05) as the abundance of sainfoin declined more than that of alfalfa. Intake of forage per kilogram of gain was greater for SAN than for ALF in 2010 (P = 0.0003) and showed a tendency to be greater for SAN than ALF in 2012 (P = 0.19). There were no differences in ADG between SAN and ALF in either year (1 kg/d; P > 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P < 0.05) in 2012. Steaks from cattle finished on SAN were redder in color than steaks from cattle finished on ALF (P < 0.05; 2012). Meat samples from SAN and ALF showed some differences in unsaturated fatty acid profiles and volatiles concentrations (P < 0.05), but

  2. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  3. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  4. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    PubMed

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P < 0.01) and shear force value (P < 0.001) increased with age. Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat of musculus (M.) semimembranosus increased with age (P < 0.01). The percentage of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was lower (P < 0.001) in the M. longissimus dorsi of the kids slaughtered at 3 months of age than those in the other age groups. The females had higher intramuscular fat than that in males (P < 0.001) and meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P < 0.01). In conclusion, meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  5. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  6. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  7. Physical modeling of optical characteristics of blood-containing tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernova, Svetlana P.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Vari, Sandor G.

    1998-01-01

    In the course of search for systems and media that could simulate optical characteristics of bio-objects we developed a method of preparation of tissue phantoms on a gel base. Examination of fluorescence spectra of agar and gelatin gel revealed that agar gel may be used in phantom preparation as a matrix free of reabsorption effect and with low intrinsic fluorescence. But in subsequent experiments we used 10% gelatin gel in order to reproduce native fluorescence of biotissue. Phantom samples were prepared as 2.2 or 3.2 mm thick 25 mm diameter gel 'tablets' with controlled content of blood and scatterer (polystyrene latex). In phantoms without scatterer we studied the dependence of the shape of fluorescence spectrum on blood content (excitation wavelength 350 - 380 nm, observation of emission spectra within 400 - 650 nm range). We obtained an agreement of fluorescence intensity and spectrum shape transformation, as the blood concentration in phantom increases, with the changes of in vivo tissue autofluorescence spectra (literature data) when going from normal tissue to the abnormal region. Using measurements of collimated transmittance we evaluated scattering coefficient for polystyrene latex embedded in 10% gelatin gel. When blood was added, the linear dependence of extinction in phantom on latex concentration was distorted within absorption band.

  8. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  9. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  10. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45−DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9–19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11–13 µm should be used to challenge the system. PMID:23626725

  11. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  12. Effects of a higher incubation temperature between embryonic day 9 and 12 on growth and meat quality characteristics of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Krischek, C; Gerken, M; Wicke, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The study investigated the influence of manipulating incubation temperature for a short period on the post-hatch development up to week 16 in male and female BUT Big 6 turkeys. 2. Eggs were incubated at a control temperature of 37·5°C and 55% RH until d 18 when transferred to a hatcher at 37·5°C and 85% RH. For a 4 d period between embryonic day 9 (ED 9) and 12, eggs were incubated at 38·5°C and 55% RH (HT). 3. Birds were slaughtered at 16 weeks of age to analyse meat quality parameters of the Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). 4. Across both incubation treatments, the turkey males had significantly higher live and breast weights, but lower breast yields than the females. The sex of the animals only influenced the yellowness of the MPS with lower values in the males. 5. Temperature manipulation resulted in significantly decreased live weights of HT birds compared with the control animals across all ages in both sexes. No impact of incubation treatment on meat quality characteristics was found. 6. The results indicate a negative effect of higher incubation temperature on the post-hatch growth, possibly by influencing the mechanisms that regulate the hypertrophic growth of the muscle fibres.

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P < 0.01). High concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents. PMID:26319309

  14. Meat quality and muscle fibre type characteristics of Southdown Rams from high and low backfat selection lines.

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Purchas, R W; Davies, A S; Rae, A L; Barton, R A

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of the meat of 15-18-month Southdown rams from lines selected for high or low backfat depths (assessed ultrasonically at position C over the last rib) were compared. Half of the carcasses were electrically stimulated (ES) and within each carcass post-mortem treatments chosen to produce effects on meat tenderness were ageing periods of 1 or 15 days (Semimembranosus), early or delayed chilling (Biceps femoris), and trimming of the s.c. fat cover (Longissimus dorsi). These treatments had the expected effects on shear values, but the sizes of the effects were little affected by selection line or ES treatment. Selection line did not have any direct effects on shear values, reflectance values at several wavelengths, waterholding capacity, cooking loss or sarcomere length. The Semitendinosus muscle had a higher proportion of predominantly oxidative fibres for the high-backfat line, based on succinic dehydrogenase activity (P < 0·05), but there was no line difference in alkaline-stable ATPase activity in the same muscle. Muscle fibre diameter was similar for the two lines.

  15. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  16. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks1

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Yang, G. L.; Liu, G. N.; Wang, J. P.; Bai, S. P.; Ding, X. M.; Luo, Y. H.; Zhang, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks’ dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. PMID:24902707

  17. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ≤ 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet.

  18. Adherence characteristics of Listeria strains isolated from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Kalpana; Muriana, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    Over 1,560 non-food contact surface swabs and raw meat ingredient samples were collected from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants (520 from each plant) from 1998 to 1999, resulting in the recovery of 259 isolates of Listeria obtained from postprocess areas including drains, floors, garbage bins, cart wheels, walls, equipment surfaces, tables, brooms, pallet jacks, hoses, ladders, and waste chutes. We further examined 246 of the 259 isolates for adherence phenotype and used PCR to identify those that were Listeria monocytogenes. Adherence was classified as weak, moderate, or strong depending on results obtained with all Listeria isolates by using a fluorescent microplate adherence assay. Among the 246 isolates, there were 61 weakly, 148 moderately, and 37 strongly adherent Listeria, of which 130 (53%) were found to be L. monocytogenes. Plants A and B provided similar recoveries of 39 (7.5%) and 43 (8.3%) Listeria-positive isolates, including 9 (23.1% of Listeria) and 41 (95.3% of Listeria) identified as L. monocytogenes, respectively, that were weakly or moderately adherent. In plant C, we recovered 164 Listeria-positive samples (31.5% isolation rate), which included 80 L. monocytogenes-positive samples (49.8% of Listeria spp.), 52 of which were moderately adherent, as well as all 9 strongly adherent isolates of L. monocytogenes obtained in this study. Adherence properties of Listeria may allow persistence and recurrence in plant environments, potentially increasing the chance of eventual product contamination, and this emphasizes the need for sanitary approaches to prevent colonization by Listeria as well as product antimicrobial interventions should the sanitation barrier be breached.

  19. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  20. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm(2), p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10(3), p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm(2), p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  1. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  2. Color values and other meat quality characteristics of breast muscles collected from 3 broiler genetic lines slaughtered at 2 ages.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Krischek, C; Wicke, M

    2011-08-01

    Broilers from the lines Ross 308, Ross 708, and Cobb 700 were slaughtered at 28 and 41 d of age at a commercial abattoir. After slaughter, the carcass, breast, and leg weights as well as the breast and leg yields were determined. Further investigations analyzed the color [lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*)], pH at 24 h postmortem, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, grill loss, and shear force values as well as the muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the breast muscles. The 41-d-old broilers had higher carcass, breast, and leg weights than the 28-d-old birds. The breast yield values were higher and the leg yields were lower in the 41-d-old broilers. The fiber cross-sectional area values were also higher in the older birds. Within the younger birds the slaughter characteristics were approximately comparable among the lines. The EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values increased but the drip loss and a* values decreased with the age of the broiler. The genetic lines differed within the 28-d-old broilers with regard to EC, grill loss, and shear force values and within the 41-d-old broilers with regard to the EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values. The pH correlated negatively with the EC, L*, b*, drip loss, and shear force values. During storage, L* and b* values of the breast muscles increased and a* values decreased in all genetic lines, whereas the L* values were generally higher in the older broilers and the a* and b* results were generally higher in the breast muscles of the younger broilers. In conclusion, the carcass and meat quality characteristics of broilers changed with age with positive (carcass and breast muscle weight, drip loss) but also negative (L*, a*, grill loss) effects. The effect of the genetic line was rather low. Despite the age-related changes of meat quality parameter, the pH values remained unchanged, indicating muscle structural influences on the muscle-to-meat-transition with increasing age of the broiler.

  3. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  4. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent.

  5. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  6. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  7. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  8. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  9. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  10. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  11. Performance of Cinta Senese pigs reared outdoors and indoors. 1. Meat and subcutaneous fat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Carolina; Bozzi, Riccardo; Campodoni, Gustavo; Acciaioli, Anna; Franci, Oreste; Gandini, Gustavo

    2005-03-01

    The effects of rearing system on tissue composition of a sample joint and on chemical-physical traits of meat and subcutaneous fat were studied in an Italian local pig breed. Forty-six Cinta Senese pigs were used; 17 pigs were reared on wood pasture, 29 pigs were reared in pens and fed commercial mixtures. Weight at slaughter was 136.2 and 127.7 kg for indoor and outdoor-pigs respectively. For sample joint composition outdoor-pigs showed a lower percentage of Longissimus lumborum (Ll) (46% vs. 48%) and higher percentages of intermuscular fat (7.2% vs. 4.7%) and bone (20.9% vs. 19.2%). In Ll outdoor-pigs showed higher percentages of intramuscular fat (4.04% vs. 3.29%) and crude protein (23.5% vs. 22.8%), lower drip and cooking losses by oven (0.66% vs. 2.14% and 28.6% vs. 32.3% respectively) and higher cooking loss by water-bath (30.3% vs. 26.6%). Lower values of L* (45.8 vs. 50.1) and higher values of a* (14.9 vs. 11.8) and chroma (15.9 vs. 12.8) were recorded on Ll of outdoor-pigs. Subcutaneous fat of outdoor-pigs showed higher percentages of MUFA (55.1% vs. 53.3%) and PUFA (13.2% vs. 10.4%). Outdoor-pigs had higher PUFA/SFA ratio (0.43 vs. 0.29).

  12. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  13. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  14. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Long, L.; Wu, S. G.; Yuan, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Qi, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  15. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  16. The effect of feed withdrawal during lairage on meat quality characteristics in ostriches.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, S J; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P; Mellett, F D

    2005-04-01

    Commercially reared ostriches (n=84) were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The first group (stressed: n=38) was deprived of food for a period of 2.5 days prior to slaughter, to simulate the stress experienced by slaughter ostriches held in holding pens (lairage) at a commercial ostrich abattoir over a weekend. The second group (control: n=46) was fed normally until 24 h prior to slaughter. Initial live weight as well as hot and cold drumstick weight were independent (P>0.05) of treatment. Stressed birds lost on average (±SE) approximately three times more weight than control birds over the experimental period (-3.2±0.6 vs. -1.0±0.5 kg, respectively). Full stomach and alimentary tract weights did not differ between treatments although there was a tendency for that derived from stressed birds to have lower stomach contents. The intra-muscular (Muscularis iliofibularis) pH(f) of stressed birds was 0.22 units higher (P<0.01) than that of contemporaries in the control group 1 h post-slaughter (6.03±0.06 vs. 5.81±0.05, respectively). After 26.5 h in a refrigerated room, this difference still remained at 0.25 units (6.46±0.07 vs. 6.21±0.07, respectively; P<0.05). Post-slaughter changes in intra-muscular pH followed approximately the same trend in stressed and control birds. Intra-muscular temperature was largely independent of treatment, although there was a suggestion of a slightly higher (P=0.18) temperature in stressed birds immediately post-slaughter. Cooking loss, drip loss and shearing values were not affected (P>0.05) by the withholding of food for 2.5 days. It can thus be concluded that withholding feed from ostriches on lairage over a period of 2.5 days does not have any negative influence on the meat yield or physical quality traits thereof.

  17. Growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in F1 and F2 progenies of somatic cell-cloned pigs.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akiyuki; Miura, Narumi; Sunaga, Seiji; Oishi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Oishi, Takatsugu; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hanada, Hirofumi; Kubo, Masanori; Onishi, Akira

    2014-04-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production.

  18. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  19. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-09-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  20. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p<0.05). The protein content and shear force of the jerkies decreased with increasing amounts of MDCM, whereas the fat, ash content and processing yield showed the opposite tendency (p<0.05). Replacement with up to 10% MDCM had no adverse effects on the sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment II, four levels of pork collagen (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were added to the semi-dried chicken jerky formulated with 90% chicken breast and 10% MDCM. The addition of collagen increased the moisture content, but decreased the ash content of the jerkies produced (p<0.05). The processing yield of the jerkies increased with increasing added amounts of collagen (p<0.05). It was found that the jerkies formulated with 0-2% collagen had significantly higher overall acceptance score than those prepared with 3% collagen (p<0.05). In conclusion, MDCM and collagen could be useful ingredients to reduce the production cost and improve the processing yield of semi-dried chicken jerky. The optimal levels of MDCM and collagen which could be added without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics were up to 10% and 2%, respectively. PMID:26761667

  1. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    from 2.65 to 3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  2. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Dobaib, S N

    2010-01-01

    3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  3. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  4. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  5. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  6. Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characteristics, growth performance, carcase injuries and meat quality of broilers.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, A; Fabbri, C; Folegatti, E; Sirri, F

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to compare the effect of two litter types (wheat straw and wood shavings) and two different rearing conditions (Treated and Control) on welfare indicators, broiler performance, carcase injuries, particularly hock and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), litter characteristics and meat quality. 2. Treated conditions were characterised by a low stocking density (11 birds/m(2)), short photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) and a large amount of litter (3 to 4.5 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). Control conditions were a high stocking density (14 birds/m(2)), long photoperiod (23 h light:1 h dark) and small amount of litter (2.3 to 3 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). In addition, the effects of two widely used litter materials, wheat straw and wood shavings, were investigated. 3. The combined effects of lower stocking density, greater amount of litter material and a photoperiod similar to the natural one, reduced the occurrence of FPD in Treated groups keeping the FPD score under the European threshold. 4. Improved rearing conditions led to faster growth rate associated with inferior feed efficiency, whereas litter type exerted negligible effects on broiler performance. 5. Litter moisture content, nitrogen and ammonia released by the litter were lower in Treated groups than Control groups. The use of wood shavings resulted in lower moisture and nitrogen concentrations in the litter.

  7. Growth at fattening and carcass characteristics of D'man, Sardi and meat-sire crossbred lambs slaughtered at two stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Boujenane, Ismaïl

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth at fattening, carcass characteristics and carcass measurements of 19 Sardi, 19 D'man and 52 meat-sire crossbred lambs of both sexes slaughtered at 50 and 70 % of mature weight. Crossbred lambs were born from Sardi, D'man and F1 Sardi × D'man ewes mated to meat-breed rams (Ile de France and Mérinos Précoce). Lambs of each group (breed type by sex) were chosen at random and slaughtered either at 50 or 70 % of mature weight. Sardi and D'man purebred lambs had significantly lower growth at fattening, pre-slaughter live weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fatness, red offal, white offal, sub-products and non-carcass fat than meat-sire crossbred lambs. Differences were 42.2 g/day, 5.03 kg, 4.46 kg, 2.57 kg, 0.96, 0.59, 0.18 kg, 0.39 kg, 0.63 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. B and Wr measurements of meat-sire crossbred lambs were higher than those of Sardi and D'man purebred lambs, whereas the F measurement was in favour of purebreds. Likewise, CC, G/F and Wr/Th indices of meat-sire crossbreds were higher than those of purebreds; however, the opposite was observed for L/G and Th/G indices. Maternal heterosis was positive and not significant for most traits, negative and not significant for few traits (P > 0.05), but negative and significant for the proportion of sub-products (P < 0.05). It was concluded that growth and carcass characteristics of local sheep can be significantly improved by terminal crossbreeding.

  8. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl A; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Pachett, Annabelle

    2009-01-01

    Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are base producing but restrict red meat without clear justification. We hypothesized that a vitality diet (VD), a low-sodium DASH-type diet with a low dietary acid load containing 6 servings of 100 g cooked lean red meat per week, would be more effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) compared with a higher acid load reference healthy diet (RHD) based on general dietary guidelines to reduce fat intake and increase intake of breads and cereals. A randomized, parallel dietary intervention study was conducted to compare the BP-lowering effect of these 2 diets in postmenopausal women with high/normal BP. Women were randomly assigned to follow either VD or RHD for 14 weeks. Home BP was measured daily with an automated BP monitor under standard conditions. Of 111 women commencing the study, 95 completed (46 VD, 49 RHD). Systolic BP (SBP) throughout the intervention was lower in the VD group compared to the RHD group (repeated-measures analysis of variance time by diet, P = .04), such that at the end of the study, the VD had a fall of SBP by 5.6 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) compared with a fall of 2.7 +/- 1.0 mm Hg in the RHD (group difference, P = .08). When only those taking antihypertensive medications were assessed, the VD (n = 17) had a significant fall of 6.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg SBP (P = .02) and 4.6 +/- 1.4 mm Hg diastolic BP (P = .005) after 14 weeks, and their BP was lower than that of the RHD group (n = 18) throughout the study (P < .05). We concluded that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications.

  9. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  10. Prostaglandin E₂ production in mice is reduced by consumption of range-fed sources of red meat.

    PubMed

    Broughton, K Shane; Rule, Daniel C; Handrich, Eldon

    2011-12-01

    Many view bison as a healthful alternative to other red meat sources, and as a way to decrease health risks, they associate it with meat consumption. Using mice as a model for immune function, we hypothesized that consumption of meat from range-fed bison would decrease prostaglandin (PG) E₂ and alter prostacyclin (PGI₂) release upon immune challenge when compared with mice fed meat from grain-finished bison, range-fed beef, feedlot steers, free-ranging elk, or chicken breast. After 2 weeks on an experimental diet and inflammatory stimulation, mouse peritoneal macrophage was isolated and analyzed in 12 animals per diet. Peritoneal cell arachidonic acid increased in response to a chicken-based diet (P < .05), which was likely attributable to higher arachidonic acid intake. Release of PGE₂ was lowest in mice consuming meat of range-fed beef, range-fed bison, and elk but was highest with meat of grain-finished beef and intermediate in mice fed chicken (P < .05). Mice fed elk meat had the greatest PGI₂, whereas PGI₂ was decreased in mice fed meat of either range bison, range beef, or chicken (P < .05) and intermediate in mice fed meat of steers or bison finished in a feedlot. We conclude that consumption of meats characteristic of range-fed ruminants or wild ungulates supports reduced PGE₂ and greater PGI₂ synthesis, indicating potentially greater immune health and lower blood clotting potential than meat from grain-finished cattle or bison in this model system.

  11. The effect of season, sex, and portion on the carcass characteristics, pH, color, and proximate composition of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) meat.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2013-12-01

    The carcass yield, physical characteristics, and proximate composition of Egyptian geese (Alopochen aegyptiacus), a southern African gamebird species, have been studied. A total of 69 geese were harvested during 2 seasons: summer (n = 36) and winter (n = 33). This total group of geese consisted of 27 female birds and 42 male birds. Sex alone affected (P ≤ 0.05) the live and carcass weights, and the average muscle weight (g) of each portion was higher for the male fowl. The data does not indicate differences between the meat's physical characteristics on account of sex; however, the meat from the female birds did have a higher intramuscular fat content. Season (winter vs. summer) did not influence the average muscle weights (g) of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions, but the intramuscular fat content content of the birds hunted in winter was higher. Muscle color and pH differed as a result of season with the summer meat having a higher pH and more vivid red color compared with winter. The physical characteristics and the proximate composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions varied considerably. This is essentially connected to a difference in physical activity of the muscles in the portions. Overall, this study revealed that to ensure a consistent eating quality the harvesting periods of Egyptian geese should be considered. PMID:24235240

  12. Marination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Vacuum-aged Duck Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Young, Hae In; Lee, Haelim; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated marinade absorption and physicochemical characteristics of vacuum-aged duck breasts that were halved and individually vacuum-packed for chiller aging at 4°C for 14 d. One half was marinated for 0, 7, or 14 d, while the second half was used as a control. Marinade absorption, cooking loss, cooking yield, texture profile, pH, color, protein solubility, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were evaluated, and protein sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Marinade absorption and pH did not vary significantly after 14 d of aging. Marination increased the pH, color (a* and b*) values, and cooking yield and reduced cooking loss. TBARS values significantly increased with aging time, but were significantly reduced by marination. Myofibril and total protein solubility increased with aging and marination, while SDS-PAGE showed protein degradation. Hence, aging and marination can be used simultaneously to improve physicochemical quality and cooking yield of vacuum-aged duck breast. PMID:26954195

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of biltong, a traditional salted dried meat of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Thomas; Caro, Yanis; Petit, Anne-Sophie; Santchurn, Sunita J; Collignan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of several commercial beef, kudu and springbok biltong samples from South Africa were assessed in this study. Analysis of samples allowed their differentiation into 'dry' and 'moist' samples. Dry biltong showed low moisture content (21.5-25.3 g/100 g), a low water activity (0.65-0.68) and a high salt content (5.5-7.9 g/100 g), while moist biltong showed a higher moisture content (35.1-42.8 g/100 g), a higher water activity (0.85 to 0.89) and a lower salt content (3.8-5.6 g/100 g). The pH value did not vary significantly between both groups (5.00-6.26). The results showed that dry biltong presented a low total plate count (TPC) content, a high level of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a high level of D-lactic acid as compared to moist biltong. These results suggest that dry biltong complies with the standard hygienic quality (TPC<7 log cfu/g in agreement with the Food Standards Agency), while moist biltong samples generally showed a low content of D-lactic acid and a low ratio LAB/TPC.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of biltong, a traditional salted dried meat of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Thomas; Caro, Yanis; Petit, Anne-Sophie; Santchurn, Sunita J; Collignan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of several commercial beef, kudu and springbok biltong samples from South Africa were assessed in this study. Analysis of samples allowed their differentiation into 'dry' and 'moist' samples. Dry biltong showed low moisture content (21.5-25.3 g/100 g), a low water activity (0.65-0.68) and a high salt content (5.5-7.9 g/100 g), while moist biltong showed a higher moisture content (35.1-42.8 g/100 g), a higher water activity (0.85 to 0.89) and a lower salt content (3.8-5.6 g/100 g). The pH value did not vary significantly between both groups (5.00-6.26). The results showed that dry biltong presented a low total plate count (TPC) content, a high level of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a high level of D-lactic acid as compared to moist biltong. These results suggest that dry biltong complies with the standard hygienic quality (TPC<7 log cfu/g in agreement with the Food Standards Agency), while moist biltong samples generally showed a low content of D-lactic acid and a low ratio LAB/TPC. PMID:24334054

  15. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat.

  16. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  17. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  18. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  19. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  20. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from animals other than ruminants. The importation from regions of controlled risk or undetermined risk for BSE of processed animal protein derived from animals other than ruminants is prohibited... ruminants originating in a BSE controlled- or undetermined-risk region; (c) For blood meal, blood...

  2. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  3. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, Ilse; Willemsen, Ina; Rijnsburger, Martine; Eustace, Andrew; Xu, Li; Hawkey, Peter; Heck, Max; Savelkoul, Paul; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Huijsdens, Xander; Kluytmans, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We determined the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes of Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat and humans in the Netherlands. Raw meat samples were obtained, and simultaneous cross-sectional surveys of fecal carriage were performed in 4 hospitals in the same area. Human blood cultures from these hospitals that contained ESBL genes were included. A high prevalence of ESBL genes was found in chicken meat (79.8%). Genetic analysis showed that the predominant ESBL genes in chicken meat and human rectal swab specimens were identical. These genes were also frequently found in human blood culture isolates. Typing results of Escherichia coli strains showed a high degree of similarity with strains from meat and humans. These findings suggest that the abundant presence of ESBL genes in the food chain may have a profound effect on future treatment options for a wide range of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

  4. [Serologic characteristics and population distribution of subtypes B2 and AB2 of ABO blood group].

    PubMed

    Duan, Fu-Cai; Wang, Ming-Lu; Zhou, Ke-Li; Li, Da-Yuan; Zhang, Qin-Yong; Ma, Ai-Ping; Yang, He-Ying; Li, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Fang; Gao, Ying-Xue

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the serologic characteristics, genetic background and population distribution of B2 and AB2 subtype in Chinese ABO blood group. The classic blood group serological technology was used to detect ABO blood group of the propositus and their family members, the anti-B1 serum prepared by yourself was used to investigate the distribution of B1/B2 and AB1/AB2 subtype of the blood donor. The results indicated that the antigen of propositus was AB2 subtype and that of his child was B2 subtype. The anti-B1 antibody was detected in blood serum of propositus; the antigen of 3 from 2318 blood donors with B blood group were found to be B2 subtype, the antigen of 2 from 826 blood donors with AB blood group were found to be AB2 subtype. The investigation on propositus and the 3 B2 blood donor families showed that B2 antigen displays genetic characteristics of blood group. It is concluded that B2/AB2 subtype is from family inheritance, while B2 subtype is amounted to 0.129% in B blood group, and AB2 subtype is amounted to 0.224% in AB blood group.

  5. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  6. Comparison of carcass and meat characteristics of three rabbit lines selected for litter size or growth rate.

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Ariño, B; Grimal, A; Blasco, A

    2006-08-01

    Rabbits from three synthetic lines were compared. Line V and A were selected for litter size at weaning and line R was selected for growth rate between weaning and slaughter time. Forty animals of each line were slaughtered at 9week of age. Comparisons between lines were made using Bayesian statistical techniques. Line R had a higher meat/bone ratio, higher loin percentage and higher ultimate pH of M. Longissimus lumborum (LL) than A and V, but lower dressing out and lower hind part percentages. Some differences between lines in carcass and meat colour were found. No differences were found for percentage of released water of LL and for the activity of energy metabolic enzymes. At present, rabbit carcasses are not costed according to their retail cuts or meat/bone ratio, but dressing out percentage is taken into account, thus breeding companies should be concerned about lower carcass yield of lines selected by growth rate. PMID:22062565

  7. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  8. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals. PMID:27050968

  9. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat. PMID:26292792

  10. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  11. Young Salers suckled bull production: effect of diet on performance, carcass and muscle characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Serrano, E; Pradel, P; Jailler, R; Dubroeucq, H; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J-F; Listrat, A; Agabriel, J; Micol, D

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on young suckled Salers bull production and to study the effect of forage type and concentrate level on performance, carcass and muscle characteristics as well as on meat quality. Twenty-four Salers male calves of 150 days of age were assigned to six groups: C0 (fed exclusively with hay and dam's milk and slaughtered at approximately 6 months of age), and HH (hay - high concentrate), HL (hay - low concentrate), GH (cut grass - high concentrate), GL (cut grass - low concentrate) and CP (control pasture: pasture - high concentrate) groups differing in feeds received until slaughter and slaughtered unweaned at approximately 10 months of age. Carcass weights averaged 210 kg at 10 months of age at slaughter. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) in HH and GH groups tended to be higher (P = 0.09) than in HL and GL groups (1354 v. 1248 g/day). ADWG in CP group (1542 g/day) was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other groups. Carcass weight in CP group (230 kg) tended to be higher (P < 0.1) than in HL (198 kg) and GL (200 kg) groups. Carcass muscle weight was higher (P < 0.05) in GH (155 kg) and CP groups (165 kg) than in HL (141 kg) and GL (142 kg) groups. Carcass and offal fatty tissue weights and carcass fatness did not differ between groups. Neither forage type nor concentrate level had significant effect on the area of muscle fibres or on muscle metabolic enzyme activities (namely, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH, phosphofructokinase - PFK, isocitrate dehydrogenase - ICDH, citrate synthase - CS and cytochrome-c oxidase - COX). semitendinosus muscle of CP group presented higher CS enzyme activities (8.10 μmol/min per g) than HH (5.30 μmol/min per g) and GL (4.52 μmol/min per g) groups. Neither total nor insoluble collagen content significantly differed between groups. Lipid content in rectus abdominis muscle was relatively low (average 67.5 mg/g dry matter) and was not affected by diet (P > 0.05). The ratio between n-6 and n-3

  12. Frequency response characteristics of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Brittany; Rotella, Diane L; Stauss, Harald M

    2007-01-01

    Transfer function analysis of blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in humans demonstrated that cerebrovascular autoregulation operates most effectively for slow fluctuations in perfusion pressure, not exceeding a frequency of approximately 0.15 Hz. No information on the dynamic properties of cerebrovascular autoregulation is available in rats. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cerebrovascular autoregulation in rats is also most effective for slow fluctuations in perfusion pressure below 0.15 Hz. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (n = 10) were instrumented with catheters in the left common carotid artery and jugular vein and flow probes around the right internal carotid artery. During isoflurane anesthesia, fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure were elicited by periodically occluding the abdominal aorta at eight frequencies ranging from 0.008 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The protocol was repeated during inhibition of myogenic vascular function (nifedipine, 0.25 mg/kg body wt iv). Increases in cerebral perfusion pressure elicited initial increases in cerebrovascular conductance and decreases in resistance. At low occlusion frequencies (<0.1 Hz), these initial responses were followed by decreases in conductance and increases in resistance that were abolished by nifedipine. At occlusion frequencies of 0.1 Hz and above, the gains of the transfer functions between pressure and blood flow and between pressure and resistance were equally high in the control and nifedipine trial. At occlusion frequencies below 0.1 Hz, the gains of the transfer functions decreased twice as much under control conditions than during nifedipine application. We conclude that dynamic autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is restricted to very low frequencies (<0.1 Hz) in rats.

  13. [Blood group characteristics of Hapsburgs belonging to the line of Josef, Palatine of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Lontainé, S Z; Susa, E; Varga, T

    1980-10-01

    Results of the reported examination of blood-group characteristics and inheritance of historical personalities of Hungary evidence that blood-group determination or identification can be successfully carried out from bone or/and hair specimens having been buried and/or conserved for a long time. It should be mentioned, that determination of blood-group in such specimens and evaluation of results requires an exceptional carefulness since specific reactions may occur.

  14. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  15. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  16. Occurrence and genetic characteristics of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Swiss retail meat.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Debora; Overesch, Gudrun; Endimiani, Andrea; Collaud, Alexandra; Thomann, Andreas; Perreten, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Prevalence and genetic relatedness were determined for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (3GC-R-Ec) detected in Swiss beef, veal, pork, and poultry retail meat. Samples from meat-packing plants (MPPs) processing 70% of the slaughtered animals in Switzerland were purchased at different intervals between April and June 2013 and analyzed. Sixty-nine 3GC-R-Ec isolates were obtained and characterized by microarray, PCR/DNA sequencing, Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), and plasmid replicon typing. Plasmids of selected strains were transformed by electroporation into E. coli TOP10 cells and analyzed by plasmid MLST. The prevalence of 3GC-R-Ec was 73.3% in chicken and 2% in beef meat. No 3GC-R-Ec were found in pork and veal. Overall, the bla(CTX-M-1) (79.4%), bla(CMY-2) (17.6%), bla(CMY-4) (1.5%), and bla(SHV-12) (1.5%) β-lactamase genes were detected, as well as other genes conferring resistance to chloramphenicol (cmlA1-like), sulfonamides (sul), tetracycline (tet), and trimethoprim (dfrA). The 3GC-R-Ec from chicken meat often harbored virulence genes associated with avian pathogens. Plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups IncI1, IncFIB, IncFII, and IncB/O were the most frequent. A high rate of clonality (e.g., ST1304, ST38, and ST93) among isolates from the same MPPs suggests that strains persist at the plant and spread to meat at the carcass-processing stage. Additionally, the presence of the blaCTX-M-1 gene on an IncI1 plasmid sequence type 3 (IncI1/pST3) in genetically diverse strains indicates interstrain spread of an epidemic plasmid. The bla(CMY-2) and bla(CMY-4) genes were located on IncB/O plasmids. This study represents the first comprehensive assessment of 3GC-R-Ec in meat in Switzerland. It demonstrates the need for monitoring contaminants and for the adaptation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point concept to avoid the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria through the food chain.

  17. Thermal stress induces changes in gene expression and blood parameters in high and low feed efficiency meat quail.

    PubMed

    Gasparino, Eliane; Voltolini, Débora Marques; Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Marcato, Simara Marcia; Zancanela, Vittor; de Oliveira Grieser, Daiane; de Souza Khatlab, Angélica; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; de Oliveira Neto, Adhemar Rodriges

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we analysed markers of stress, plasma creatinine and T3 content, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), uncoupling protein (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) mRNA expression in the liver and muscle of high (0.22 g/g) and low (0.14 g/g) feed efficiency (FE) meat quail at three different air temperatures, comfortable, heat and cold stress, for 24 h. High FE quail presented higher plasma T3 and lower creatinine levels. IGF-I mRNA expression was higher in the livers of high FE quail than in the livers of low FE quail under both comfortable and cold stress conditions. In the muscle, regardless of the environment, high FE birds showed higher IGF-I mRNA expression. High FE birds also showed higher GHR mRNA expression under comfortable conditions. Regarding the environment, higher expression was observed in birds at comfortable conditions, and lower expression in birds under heat stress. UCP mRNA expression in the liver was lower in high FE birds and higher under heat stress compared with the other conditions. Low and high FE birds showed greater ANT mRNA expression in the muscle under cold stress. Greater mRNA COX III expressions were observed in the liver and muscle of quails under comfortable conditions. Our results suggest that temperature affects the expression of genes related to growth and mitochondrial energy production, and quail with different FEs respond differently to environmental stimuli. In comfortable conditions, high FE animals show higher IGF-I mRNA expression and plasma T3 and lower creatinine content.

  18. Transport characteristics of tramadol in the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

  19. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  20. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  2. Performance characteristics and estimation of measurement uncertainty of three plating procedures for Campylobacter enumeration in chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Habib, I; Sampers, I; Uyttendaele, M; Berkvens, D; De Zutter, L

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present an intra-laboratory study in order to estimate repeatability (r), reproducibility (R), and measurement uncertainty (U) associated with three media for Campylobacter enumeration, named, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA); Karmali agar; and CampyFood ID agar (CFA) a medium by Biomérieux SA. The study was performed at three levels: (1) pure bacterial cultures, using three Campylobacter strains; (2) artificially contaminated samples from three chicken meat matrixes (total n=30), whereby samples were spiked using two contamination levels; ca. 10(3)cfuCampylobacter/g, and ca. 10(4)cfuCampylobacter/g; and (3) pilot testing in naturally contaminated chicken meat samples (n=20). Results from pure culture experiment revealed that enumeration of Campylobacter colonies on Karmali and CFA media was more convenient in comparison with mCCDA using spread and spiral plating techniques. Based on artificially contaminated samples testing, values of repeatability (r) were comparable between the three media, and estimated as 0.15log(10)cfu/g for mCCDA, 0.14log(10)cfu/g for Karmali, and 0.18log(10)cfu/g for CFA. As well, reproducibility performance of the three plating media was comparable. General R values which can be used when testing chicken meat samples are; 0.28log(10), 0.32log(10), and 0.25log(10) for plating on mCCDA, Karmali agar, and CFA, respectively. Measurement uncertainty associated with mCCDA, Karmali agar, and CFA using spread plating, for combination of all meat matrixes, were +/-0.24log(10)cfu/g, +/-0.28log(10)cfu/g, and +/-0.22log(10)cfu/g, respectively. Higher uncertainty was associated with Karmali agar for Campylobacter enumeration in artificially inoculated minced meat (+/-0.48log(10)cfu/g). The general performance of CFA medium was comparable with mCCDA performance at the level of artificially contaminated samples. However, when tested at naturally contaminated samples, non-Campylobacter colonies gave similar deep

  3. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    PubMed

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (P<0.05) on hot and cold carcass yields and pH24, it resulted in a negative effect (P<0.05) on ham weight and yield, and increased the drip loss and cooking fluid. The dietary SID tryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. PMID:27054283

  4. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  5. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  6. Fluid dynamic characteristics of monopivot magnetic suspension blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Nishida, M; Asztalos, B; Tsutsui, T; Jikuya, T

    1997-01-01

    A monopivot magnetic suspension blood pump is a centrifugal pump under development with a magnetic suspension and a ceramic pivot to support the impeller with minimum contact. The pump size has been reduced by implementing a direct impeller drive mechanism in place of a magnetic coupling and motor. Flow visualization studies revealed that high shear, which seems to be closely related to hemolysis, concentrates in boundary layers near the walls. This implies that fluid dynamic shear can be reduced not by widening the gap, but by reducing the impeller velocity. Therefore, compared with the results of the previous semi-open curved vane impeller model, impeller velocity was reduced by 30% with a closed impeller having radial straight vanes, and smaller impeller/housing gaps. The volute shape around the impeller tip was also changed such that the outflow from the impeller enters along the center plane of the volute. To examine the effect of the improvements, hemolysis testing was conducted and found that the newly developed closed impeller model generated a lower level of hemolysis than the previous semi-open impeller model. PMID:9360122

  7. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority. PMID:27038423

  8. Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing-finishing swine: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Jancík, F

    2011-12-01

    Dietary Cr supplementation has potential to decrease fat and increase lean in carcasses of growing-finishing swine. However, effects of Cr supplementation on performance and economically important carcass and meat quality characteristics varied considerably among studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was designed to quantitatively describe effects obtained in several independent studies. To accommodate differences in methodology among studies, standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g) were calculated for results from 31 studies, in which Cr was supplemented as complexes of Cr Met chelate, Cr nanocomposite, Cr nicotinate, Cr propionate, Cr tripicolinate, or Cr yeast in diets for growing-finishing swine. Summary statistics were calculated by frequentist fixed and random effects, and hierarchical Bayesian models. With characteristics related to carcass quality, observed heterogeneity (P < 0.10) could not adequately be explained in a meta-regression by differences in initial BW and amount of Cr supplemented. Random effects and Bayesian models to summarize effect sizes for these characteristics showed similar results. According to random effects models, dietary Cr supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) 10th-rib fat thickness (mean effect size = -0.479; 95% confidence intervals = -0.680 to -0.279; 24 studies; 59 comparisons), whereas percentage carcass lean (mean effect size = 0.614; 95% confidence intervals = 0.366 to 0.863; 22 studies; 52 comparisons) and LM area (mean effect size = 0.571; 95% confidence intervals = 0.364 to 0.778; 29 studies; 72 comparisons) increased. Average daily gain and G:F, which did not present heterogeneity, were improved by Cr supplementation, whereas no effects were detected in characteristics (CIE color, drip loss, cook loss, shear force) related to meat quality. Some publication, or other small-study bias, was evident in results on growth and feed efficiency. However, directions of mean effect sizes were not changed by application of the trim

  9. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, yield, conformation score, marbling degree, fat thickness and fatness score than Criollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%). S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline). Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA). Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts. PMID:21272304

  11. HBsAg Positive Patient Characteristics in Hospital and Blood Donation Camps

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Joseph, Jensingh; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prevention of the residual risk of transfusion transmitted hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is mostly dependant on serological screening of blood donors for HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc Ab). This study aimed to study the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc Ab and to compare the profile of blood donors attending a blood donation camp and people attending a hospital based camp. Methods. In the blood donor camp, all the blood units were screened for HBV, (HBsAg and anti-HBc), and in the hospital based camp, screening was done for HBsAg alone. Baseline demographic characteristics were noted. Results. The number of blood bank donors was 363 (47.5%) and hospital camp attendees was 402 (52.5%). Prevalence of HBsAg positivity was similar in both the groups at 1.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Anti-HBc Ab positivity (Total) was 6% among the blood donors; Overall prevalence of HBV infection in this group was 3.2%. Conclusion. Policy for checking the collected blood unit by 3 tests for anti-HBc, anti-HBsAb, and HBsAg should be reconsidered to possibly achieve the zero risk goal of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. Blood obtained from a vaccinated donor may give an added protection to the recipient. PMID:24083029

  12. The comparison of three β-agonists for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Montgomery, J L; Smith, M F

    2009-03-01

    Forty-eight Bonsmara steers were assigned to three treatment groups and one control group consisting of 12 animals each. The control (C) received no β-agonist, while the three treatment groups received zilpaterol (6ppm) (Z), ractopamine (30ppm) (R) or clenbuterol (2ppm) (Cl) for the last thirty days on feed. Growth performance (final 30 days), USDA quality and yield grades and meat quality (shear force, chemical, histological and biochemical) were compared for the three β-agonist and control groups. Animals responded negatively to Cl treatment during initial stages of supplementation, which was evident in lower feed consumption and initial growth rates. For carcass growth and yield, Cl had greater and more efficient growth rates, higher dressed out yields (proportional), lower USDA yield grades, and reduced marbling compared with C (P<0.05). For meat quality measurements, the M. longissimus (LL) and M. semitendinosus (ST) were sampled. Cl had the greatest effect (P<0.05) on WBSF, especially on the LL, followed by Z. Variation in tenderness and ageing effects corresponded with variation in calpastatin activity and myofibrillar fragmentation between treatment groups. While zilpaterol and ractopamine are currently the only products registered for cattle in different countries, it seems that zilpaterol has an advantage in carcass growth efficiency and yield without showing any adaptation problems for animals such as experienced by the more aggressive β-agonist clenbuterol.

  13. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts: Effect of formulation and freezing storage.

    PubMed

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2015-10-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (-20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content, an increase in lipid oxidation indicators, and an intense browning of nuggets surface. The use of flank up to a 75% of the total meat in the formula led to higher fat contents and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in fried nuggets. This made them more prone to get oxidized during the freezing storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46-3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable prefried frozen lamb nuggets, which constitutes an opportunity for adding value to the whole lamb value chain.

  14. Effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg and approximately 15 months old fed extensively or intensively on maize silage and concentrate mixture for 100 or 138 days, were divided into four groups to assess the effect of time on feed and feeding intensity on the performance, carcass and meat quality traits. Bulls intensively fed for 138 days before slaughter had higher final body weight (673.7 kg) compared with the other three groups (610.6 kg, as overall mean). Intensive feeding significantly increased the average daily gain (1371 g/day) and improved the feed efficiency (6.95 kg DM/kg gain) compared with extensive feeding (943 g/day and 7.97 kg DM/kg gain). No significant differences were detected by time on feed. Hot carcass and kidney fat weights were significantly higher for intensively fed bulls compared with extensive ones. Dressing percentage significantly increased for 138 day groups compared with 100 day groups. Carcass conformation and fatness scores significantly improved by intensive feeding. L and b(*) values were not affected by time on feed or feeding intensity. Slaughtering after 138 days on feed significantly elevated the meat redness value (a(*)). Intensive feeding significantly decreased moisture and increased fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Shear force, collagen content, juiciness, flavour and sarcomere length did not differ by time on feed or feeding intensity, while inconsistent effects were observed on tenderness and solubility of collagen. PMID:22061314

  15. Effects of different lairage times after long distance transportation on carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hungarian Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Teke, Bulent; Akdag, Filiz; Ekiz, Bulent; Ugurlu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three lairage times (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) on the meat quality of tame trained to lead Hungarian Simmental bulls subjected to long commercial transportation of approximately 1800 km. A total of 30 bulls, with an average age of 24 months, were used. During the lairage, bulls received 0.5 kg concentrate feed per animal per day and ad libitum access to the hay and water. As the lairage duration increased, the pH(ult) decreased (P<0.05). Bulls lairaged for 24 h had lower L*, b* and H* values than those lairaged for 48 h and 72 h (P<0.05). The effect of lairage time on WHC, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force values was not significant. The b* value was considered the best predictor of muscle pH(ult). In conclusion, 72 h quiet lairage time is recommended after transportation in order to prevent the adverse effects of transportation on meat quality. PMID:23916957

  16. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    PubMed

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (P<0.01) for carcasses from C and S sires, and highest for carcasses from EAR calves. C-sired calves received higher (P<0.01) ratings for panel tenderness score, lower shear force value and number of chews before swallow than S- and EAR-sired progeny. Overall results of the study suggested that fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed. PMID:22061521

  17. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    PubMed

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (P<0.01) for carcasses from C and S sires, and highest for carcasses from EAR calves. C-sired calves received higher (P<0.01) ratings for panel tenderness score, lower shear force value and number of chews before swallow than S- and EAR-sired progeny. Overall results of the study suggested that fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed.

  18. Effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics. To attain 250 kg body weight (BW), the calves were allocated into three groups: high (H), low-high (L-H) and low (L) corresponding to concentrate levels receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190 kg BW and 1.50% thereafter, and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw. No significant differences of hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and lean fat-bone yields were observed among the treatment groups. The L group had heavier brisket weight and lower percentage of round weight in the hot carcass than the H and L-H groups (P<0.05). The H group had heavier hearts than the L group, and the H and L-H groups had heavier livers and kidneys than the L group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of rib eye area, pH and the contents of moisture, crude protein and fat in loin meat among the groups. The findings indicated that the effects of plane of nutrition affected the weight or percentages of some cut yields in the hot carcasses and internal organs. PMID:22574796

  19. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated.

  20. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  1. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  2. Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

    2011-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of

  3. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  4. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. PMID:24342184

  5. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  6. Authentication of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has increased. Many consumers are concerned about the meat they eat and accurate labelling is important to inform consumer choice. Authentication methods can be categorised into the areas where fraud is most likely to occur: meat origin, meat substitution, meat processing treatment and non-meat ingredient addition. Within each area the possibilities for fraud can be subcategorised as follows: meat origin-sex, meat cuts, breed, feed intake, slaughter age, wild versus farmed meat, organic versus conventional meat, and geographic origin; meat substitution-meat species, fat, and protein; meat processing treatment-irradiation, fresh versus thawed meat and meat preparation; non-meat ingredient addition-additives and water. Analytical methods used in authentication are as diverse as the authentication problems, and include a diverse range of equipment and techniques. This review is intended to provide an overview of the possible analytical methods available for meat and meat products authentication. In areas where no authentication methods have been published, possible strategies are suggested.

  7. Identification of characteristic molecular signature for volatile organic compounds in peripheral blood of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Noh, Ji Heon; Eun, Jung Woo; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie, Hong Jian; Jang, Ja-June; Ryu, Jae Chun; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2011-01-15

    In a previous report we demonstrated that the transcriptomic response of liver tissue was specific to toxicants, and a characteristic molecular signature could be used as an early prognostic biomarker in rats. It is necessary to determine the transcriptomic response to toxicants in peripheral blood for application to the human system. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a major group of pollutants which significantly affect the chemistry of the atmosphere and human health. In this study we identified and validated the specific molecular signatures of toxicants in rat whole blood as early predictors of environmental toxicants. VOCs (dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were administered to 11-week-old SD male rats after 48 h of exposure, peripheral whole blood was subjected to expression profiling analysis. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant, and supervised analysis identified 1,217 outlier genes as distinct molecular signatures discerning VOC exposure from healthy controls. Further analysis of multi-classification suggested 337 genes as early detective molecular markers for three VOCs with 100% accuracy. A large-scale gene expression analysis of a different VOC exposure animal model suggested that characteristic expression profiles exist in blood cells and multi-classification of this VOC-specific molecular signature can discriminate each toxicant at an early exposure time. This blood expression signature can thus be used as discernable surrogate marker for detection of biological responses to VOC exposure in an environment.

  8. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Casal, A B; Orós, J

    2007-04-01

    A morphologic classification based on the cytochemical characteristics of blood cells of 35 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) is described. Cytochemical stains included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase (with and without sodium fluoride), acid phosphatase (with and without tartaric acid), Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. The morphologic characteristics of erythrocytes were similar to those reported in green turtles. Six types of white blood cells were identified: heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes. Except for the basophils, the rest of the white blood cells from loggerhead turtles had different cytochemical characteristics compared to blood cells from other sea turtle species. The leukocyte differential count was different from that reported for other sea turtle species. Heterophils were the most numerous leukocytes from these loggerhead turtles, followed by lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. This paper provides a morphologic classification of blood cells of loggerhead sea turtles that is useful for veterinary surgeons involved in sea turtle conservation.

  9. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with different sources of selenium on growth response, selenium blood levels and meat quality of intensively finished Charolais young bulls.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Prevedello, P; Stefani, A L; Piron, A; Contiero, B; Lante, A; Gottardo, F; Chevaux, E

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed at comparing three strategies of supplementing selenium (Se) during the finishing period of Charolais young bulls: (1) administration of sodium selenite throughout the finishing (NaSe); (2) administration of an Se-enriched yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC R397) throughout the finishing (Se-Y); (3) administration of sodium selenite for 140 days replaced by Se-enriched yeast during the last 70 days of finishing (Switch). Eighty-four young bulls (mean initial BW=434.2±31.9 kg; mean age=382±52 days) were stratified by live weight and equally assigned to one of three Se treatments. Experimental groups were fed the same diets and the inclusion rate of the different treatments was targeted to achieve 0.3 mg of Se/kg of dry matter (DM) in the complete feed. The average daily gain of bulls was 1.36 kg/d and no differences due to Se treatment were recorded. Dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by Se treatment resulting in, on average, 10.3 kg/d and 7.65, respectively. Repeated blood samples were taken at days 0, 120, 180 and 210 of finishing to assess the Se status of the animals. As compared to NaSe, both organic Se treatments (Se-Y and Switch) increased plasma Se in the last two sampling sessions according to a significant treatment×time interaction (P<0.001). A similar trend was observed for serum total antioxidant status of the young bulls, whereas there was only a significant time effect (P<0.001) on glutathione peroxidase activity that was raised by all Se treatments. The finishing period lasted 210 days and at the abattoir there were no differences across Se treatments in carcass weight and dressing percentage. A higher Se content in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was instead observed in Se-Y samples as compared with NaSe (0.85 v. 0.47 mg/kg DM; P<0.05). Meat quality evaluation was carried out on LT samples after 6 and 11 days of ageing under a vacuum package. Regardless of ageing time, meat from young bulls

  11. Heating characteristics with a re-entrant type applicator in consideration of tissue blood flow rate.

    PubMed

    Ishimori, T; Ishihara, Y

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the heating system based on a re-entrant cavity that can heat a localized deep region in a living body noninvasively. This system is superior in a local heating characteristic. However, when the living body was treated as a heating object during thermotherapy (hyperthermia), the effect of blood flow changes on a heating characteristic has to be examined. The purpose of this study was to establish the quantitative evaluation method of heating characteristics for a re-entrant type applicator. The numerical analyses by using three-dimensional finite element method in consideration of a blood flow and fundamental experiments with prototype system were carried out. Since the difference of numerical analyses and experiments was as small as about 4.2 [%] by evaluation with full width at half maximum (FWHM), the validity of this numerical analysis was confirmed.

  12. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  13. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning.

  14. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  15. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  16. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. PMID:26995773

  17. Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).

    PubMed

    Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar.

  18. Influence of different types and proportions of added edible seaweeds on characteristics of low-salt gel/emulsion meat systems.

    PubMed

    Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Solas, M T; Bravo, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-01

    The effects of three different types of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) added at two concentrations (2.5% and 5% dry matter) on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of gel/emulsion systems were evaluated. The addition of seaweeds improved (P<0.05) water- and fat-binding properties except in the case of Nori added at 2.5%. Hardness and chewiness of the cooked products with added seaweed were higher (P<0.05), and springiness and cohesiveness were lower (P<0.05) than in control samples. Colour changes in meat systems were affected by the type of seaweed. The morphology of sample differed depending on the type of seaweed added, and this is the result of differences in physical and chemical characteristic of the seaweed powder used. In general, products formulated with the brown seaweeds (Sea Spaghetti and Wakame) exhibited similar behaviour, different from that of products made with the red seaweed Nori. PMID:22063041

  19. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  20. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow. PMID:26493195

  1. Baseline characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Still, Carolyn H; Craven, Timothy E; Freedman, Barry I; Van Buren, Peter N; Sink, Kaycee M; Killeen, Anthony A; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn M; Wall, Barry M; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia M; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wright, Jackson T

    2015-09-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mm Hg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mm Hg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. SPRINT enrolled 9361 hypertensive participants aged older than 50 years. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared with non-AAs. AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared with non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared with non-AAs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mm Hg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of systolic blood pressure targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  2. Qualitative characteristics of meat from cull cows of different genotypes and age class slaughter under different finishing systems: a meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Rangel F; Mayer, Andrei R; Vaz, Marcos A B; Pötter, Luciana; Cattelam, Jonatas; Callegaro, Álisson M; Pizzuti, Luiz Angelo D; Brondani, Ivan L; Alves Filho, Dari C; Pacheco, Paulo S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by meta-analysis, the quality of the meat of the cows according to genotype, termination system and age class slaughter. During an online research were identified 15 articles with information related to meat quality of slaughtered cows. The data were grouped according of the genotype of cows being: zebu or continental defined, crossed zebu x british or zebu x continental; according to termination system: feedlot or grassland; according to age of slaughter, where: up to 4 years old (young), 4-8 years old (adult) or more than 8 years old (old). The meat of the continental crossbred cows was softer than the other genotypes, both panel of evaluators and by Shear. The meat of cows finished in feedlot showed higher marbling degree in relation to meat of females finished on grassland. The reduction of the slaughter age of cows improved the meat color. The cow's genotype affects the organoleptic aspects of meat while the finished system and slaughter age affects the sensory aspects of meat.

  3. Performance and blood parameters when lambs and meat-goat kids were finished on pasture with and without whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated forage production patterns, weight gains, and health patterns when lambs (Ovis aries) and meat goat (Caprus hircus) kids were finished on a mixed sward of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with (SUP) and with...

  4. Non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood in micro-vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, S.; Misra, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Of concern in the paper is a generalized theoretical study of the non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood through micro-vessels, e.g. arterioles. The vessel is considered to be of variable cross-section and blood to be a Herschel-Bulkley type of fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to blood flow in the micro-circulatory system. The equations that govern the non-Newtonian peristaltic flow of blood are considered to be non-linear. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. It is observed that the numerical estimates for the aforesaid quantities in the case of peristaltic transport of blood in a channel are much different from those for flow in an axisymmetric vessel of circular cross-section. The study further shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shear stress are significantly altered due to the non-uniformity of the cross-sectional radius of blood vessels of the micro-circulatory system. Moreover, the magnitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index are important parameters that affect the flow behaviour. Novel features of SSD wave propagation that affect the flow behaviour of blood have also been discussed.

  5. Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

  6. Effect of supplementing different oils: linseed, sunflower and soybean, on animal performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of veal from "Rubia Gallega" calves.

    PubMed

    González, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Bispo, Esperanza; Dugan, Michael E R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of longisimus dorsi (LD) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) from Rubia Gallega (RG) calves was compared for three dietary oil sources (linseed, LO; sunflower, SFO or soybean, SYO). Oils were added (4.5%) to a commercial concentrate and no differences on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality among diets were noted. Total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased in LD and SCF when feeding LO diet (P<0.001). The trans(t) FA profiles were dominated by t11-18:1, except when feeding SFO diet, where ∑t6- to t10-18:1 exceeded t11-18:1 leading the highest (∑t6-to t10-18:1)/t11-18:11 ratio in LD (P<0.05). The overall changes in n-3 PUFA and t18:1 when feeding LO and SYO could be viewed as positive for human health, but quantitatively it was apparent that most dietary PUFA were completely biohydrogenated. Inhibiting PUFA biohydrogenation will be an important next step to improve the FA composition of RG cattle.

  7. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (p<0.0017) and improved emulsion stability (p<0.0001) but also resulted in greater textural and eating quality modification of sausages. Hardness values increased (p<0.0001) with increasing inulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (p<0.0112). Optimisation predicted two acceptable sausage formulations with significantly lower fat levels than the control, which would contain sufficient inulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect.

  8. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  9. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (p<0.0017) and improved emulsion stability (p<0.0001) but also resulted in greater textural and eating quality modification of sausages. Hardness values increased (p<0.0001) with increasing inulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (p<0.0112). Optimisation predicted two acceptable sausage formulations with significantly lower fat levels than the control, which would contain sufficient inulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect. PMID:24361558

  10. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. PMID:26420580

  11. Effect of supplementing different oils: linseed, sunflower and soybean, on animal performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of veal from "Rubia Gallega" calves.

    PubMed

    González, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Bispo, Esperanza; Dugan, Michael E R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of longisimus dorsi (LD) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) from Rubia Gallega (RG) calves was compared for three dietary oil sources (linseed, LO; sunflower, SFO or soybean, SYO). Oils were added (4.5%) to a commercial concentrate and no differences on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality among diets were noted. Total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased in LD and SCF when feeding LO diet (P<0.001). The trans(t) FA profiles were dominated by t11-18:1, except when feeding SFO diet, where ∑t6- to t10-18:1 exceeded t11-18:1 leading the highest (∑t6-to t10-18:1)/t11-18:11 ratio in LD (P<0.05). The overall changes in n-3 PUFA and t18:1 when feeding LO and SYO could be viewed as positive for human health, but quantitatively it was apparent that most dietary PUFA were completely biohydrogenated. Inhibiting PUFA biohydrogenation will be an important next step to improve the FA composition of RG cattle. PMID:24200577

  12. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI).

  13. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  14. Effects of forage level and chromium-methionine chelate supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung-Il; Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Hong, Seok-Man; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Lee, Bae-Hun; Peng, Jing-Lun; Ji, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Byong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate and forage level over two years, 1(st) fattening and 2(nd) fattening period on growth parameters, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of 46 Korean native (Hanwoo, Bos Taurus, BW = 183 ± 44 kg) steers. Treatments were: 1) Steers in the low forage (LF) group were fed diets that consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage; 2) Steers in the high forage (HF) group were fed diets that consisted of 40% concentrate and 60% forage. Following the 1(st) fattening period, steers (BW = 480 ± 37.6 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: LF (40 F plus no Cr-Met supplementation in the 2(nd) fattening period), LFCM (40LF plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period), HF (60 F plus no added Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period) and HFCM (60 F plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met in the 2(nd) fattening period). Dry matter intake of the treatment diets did not differ during the raising and 1(th) fattening period (P > 0.05). The ADG in the raising period showed no difference between the 40 F and 60 F groups (P > 0.05). Carcass characteristics including rib-eye area and meat yield index were higher in HF than the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The HF group tended to show a higher (P = 0.08) marbling score than the LF group whereas the HFCM group showed a higher marbling score than the LFCM group (P < 0.05). HDL was higher and LDL lower in groups fed with Cr-Met than in other groups whereas glucose showed the lowest value in HF group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride (TG), Cholesterol, PUN and total protein (TP) were the same among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). The Insulin concentration in the blood was significantly higher for the HFCM group than for the LF, LFCM and HF groups (P < 0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of chromium-methionine chelate could improve meat quality in beef steers.

  15. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri

    1996-11-01

    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  16. Effect of average litter weight in pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the offspring as depending on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pardo, C E; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2013-11-01

    Offspring born from normal litter size (10 to 15 piglets) but classified as having lower than average birth weight (average of the sow herd used: 1.46 ± 0.2 kg; mean ± s.d.) carry at birth negative phenotypic traits normally associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as brain-sparing and impaired myofiber hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to assess long-term effects of intrauterine crowding by comparing postnatal performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of offspring born from litters with higher (>1.7 kg) or lower (<1.3 kg) than average litter birth weight. From a population of multiparous Swiss Large White sows (parity 2 to 6), 16 litters with high (H = 1.75 kg) or low (L = 1.26 kg) average litter birth weight were selected. At farrowing, two female pigs and two castrated pigs were chosen from each litter: from the H-litters those with the intermediate (HI = 1.79 kg) and lowest (HL = 1.40 kg) birth weight, and from L-litters those with the highest (LH = 1.49 kg) and intermediate (LI = 1.26 kg) birth weight. Average birth weight of the selected HI and LI piglets differed (P < 0.05), whereas birth weight of the HL- and LH-piglets were similar (P > 0.05). These pigs were fattened in group pen and slaughtered at 165 days of age. Pre-weaning performance of the litters and growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of the selected pigs were assessed. Number of stillborn and pig mortality were greater (P < 0.05) in L- than in H-litters. Consequently, fewer (P < 0.05) piglets were weaned and average litter weaning weight decreased by 38% (P < 0.05). The selected pigs of the L-litters displayed catch-up growth during the starter and grower-finisher periods, leading to similar (P > 0.05) slaughter weight at 165 days of age. However, HL-gilts were more feed efficient and had leaner carcasses than HI-, LH- and LI-pigs (birth weight class × gender interaction P < 0.05). Meat quality traits were mostly similar between groups. The

  17. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  18. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  19. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2010-03-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  20. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δt(p)) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVE(w)) and the tension-time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVE(w). Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures.

  1. [Effects of technological additives and heating range on some chemical and physical changes in canned meat. 2. Changes in redox potentials and selected quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, J; Pikul, J; Janitz, W

    1976-01-01

    The influence of technological additives and the range of heating on the redox potential, as well as on some quality features of canned meat was examined. The experiments showed, that the time of storage and the degree of heating of model preserves of meat influence on the redox potential. The technological additions as polyphosphates, ascorbic acid, gelatine and mixtures of these substances influence less on the redox potential. The analysis of each experimental factor showed, that on the secretion of meat juice occurring during can pasteurization or sterilization influence all experimental factors, as the kind of heating, the time of storage as well as the kind and the quantity of technological additives. The highest secretion of meat juice was found in cans with addition of ascorbic acid. Cans with addition of gelatine had the smallest content of jelly and consequently the lowest secretion of meat juice. It was also found a certain relation between the level of redox potential and the tested quality features of the model meat preserves.

  2. [Blood oxygen transport, prooxidant -- antioxidant status, and vasoactive characteristics of vascular endothelium in rats treated with endotoxin and taurine].

    PubMed

    Milosh, T S; Maksimovich, N E

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on a group of 74 pregnant rats upon intramuscular introduction of E. coli lipopolysaccharides during pregnancy revealed the correction effect of taurine on the blood oxygen transport function, prooxidant - antioxidant status, and vasoactive characteristics of vascular endothelium.

  3. [Investigation of dynamic spectral characteristics of water in blood plasma hydrosols from breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Anichkov, N M; Manikhas, A G; Rozin, I T; Khaloimov, A I

    2006-01-01

    Our data on spectral characteristics of water in blood plasma hydrosols from breast cancer patients and healthy subjects are presented. A substantial difference between the two groups was found. As it was shown by us earlier, in breast cancer patients, as well as in other cancer patients, changes in spectral characteristics of water influence tissue hydrosols of the whole body. They persist even after tumor is radically removed. Such differences were probably linked to those in water molecular resonance frequencies. Using infrared spectroscopy, we confirmed the evidence available on carcinogenic (promoting) effect of both native and synthetic estrogens. It is suggested that healthy adult women have a certain "frequency immunity" which protects from the monthly autogenous promoting influences of estrogens. Our findings may contribute to devising further therapeutic frequency-assisted means of impacting on malignant tissue hydrosols.

  4. Levels of Office Blood Pressure and Their Operating Characteristics for Detecting Masked Hypertension Based on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Chang; Tuttle, Laura A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Olsson, Emily; Stankevitz, Kristin; Hinderliter, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Masked hypertension (MH)—nonelevated office blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-office BP average—conveys cardiovascular risk similar to or approaching sustained hypertension, making its detection of potential clinical importance. However, it may not be feasible or cost-effective to perform ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) on all patients with a nonelevated office BP. There likely exists a level of office BP below which ABPM is not warranted because the probability of MH is low. METHODS We analyzed data from 294 adults aged ≥30 years not on BP-lowering medication with office BP <140/90mm Hg, all of whom underwent 24-hour ABPM. We calculated sensitivity, false-positive rate, and likelihood ratios (LRs) for the range of office BP cutoffs from 110 to 138mm Hg systolic and from 68 to 88mm Hg diastolic for detecting MH. RESULTS The systolic BP cutoff with the highest +LR for detecting MH (1.8) was 120mm Hg, and the diastolic cutoff with the highest +LR (2.4) was 82mm Hg. However, the systolic level of 120mm Hg had a false-positive rate of 42%, and the diastolic level of 82mm Hg had a sensitivity of only 39%. CONCLUSIONS The cutoff of office BP with the best overall operating characteristics for diagnosing MH is approximately 120/82mm Hg. However, this cutoff may have an unacceptably high false-positive rate. Clinical risk tools to identify patients with nonelevated office BP for whom ABPM should be considered will likely need to include factors in addition to office BP. PMID:24898379

  5. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features. PMID:26563274

  6. Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yong . E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu; Wang Honglan; Mazzone, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    We identified stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, designated cord blood-stem cells (CB-SC). CB-SC displayed important embryonic stem (ES) cell characteristics including expression of ES-cell-specific molecular markers including transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and SSEA-4. CB-SC also expressed hematopoietic cell antigens including CD9, CD45 and CD117, but were negative for CD34. CB-SC displayed very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. CB-SC could give rise to cells with endothelial-like and neuronal-like characteristics in vitro, as demonstrated by expression of lineage-associated markers. Notably, CB-SC could be stimulated to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells in vivo and eliminated hyperglycemia after transplantation into a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. These findings may have significant potential to advance stem-cell-based therapeutics.

  7. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT(®)) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks.

    PubMed

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Lee, K W; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT(®)) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  8. A four-straight-line model for the proteinase-binding characteristics of human blood serum.

    PubMed Central

    Topping, R M; Seilman, S

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic evaluation of the capacity of human blood serum to form complexes with bovine trypsin generated partition profiles that may be approximated by a series of four intersecting straight lines. Such profiles are suggested to reflect the binding of trypsin to alpha 2-macroglobulin in a kinetically preferred mode (alpha-sites), followed by a subsidiary mode (beta-sites) and finally to alpha 1-antitrypsin. The form of the profile, in addition to revealing a hitherto unreported proteinase-binding capability of alpha 2-macroglobulin (beta-sites), also indicates that saturation of alpha-sites corresponds to a molar binding ratio of alpha 2-macroglobulin/trypsin of 1:2. Finally the profile provides, for certain pathological states, a clinically valuable characteristic. PMID:435247

  9. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  10. Patient characteristics with high or low blood urea nitrogen in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine characteristics of patients with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels higher and lower than the normal limit. METHODS: Patient records between April 2011 and March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. During this time, 3296 patients underwent upper endoscopy. In total, 50 male (69.2 ± 13.2 years) and 26 female (72.3 ± 10.2 years) patients were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups based on BUN levels: higher than the normal limit (21.0 mg/dL) (H) and lower than the normal limit (L). One-way analysis of variance was performed to reveal differences in the variables between the H and L groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the percentage of patients with gastric ulcer or gastric cancer in the H and L groups. RESULTS: White blood cell count was higher in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0047). Hemoglobin level was lower in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0307). Glycated hemoglobin was higher in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0264). The percentage of patients with gastric ulcer was higher in the H group (P = 0.0002). The H group contained no patients with gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with BUN ≥ 21 mg/dL might have more severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26139996

  11. Influence of Patient Characteristics on Success of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fravel, Michelle A.; Ernst, Michael E.; Weber, Cynthia A.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Carter, Barry L.; Bergus, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the influence of specific patient characteristics on the success of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Design Retrospective analysis. Setting University-affiliated family care center. Patients Five hundred thirty patients (mean age 52.7 yrs, range 14–90 yrs) who were undergoing ABPM between January 1, 2001, and July 1, 2007. Measurement and Main Results Specific patient characteristics were identified through an electronic medical record review and then examined for association with ABPM session success rate. These patient characteristics included age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), occupation, clinic blood pressure, travel distance to clinic, and presence of diabetes mellitus or renal disease. The percentage of valid readings obtained during an ABPM session was analyzed continuously (0–100%), whereas overall session success was analyzed dichotomously (0–79% or 80–100%). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the influence of patient characteristics on the percentage of valid readings and the overall likelihood of achieving a successful session. In the 530 patients, the average percentage of valid readings was 90%, and a successful ABPM session (≥ 80% valid readings) was obtained in 84.7% (449 patients). A diagnosis of diabetes was found to negatively predict ABPM session success (continuous variable analysis, p=0.019; dichotomous variable analysis, odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.87, p=0.019), as did renal disease (continuous variable analysis, p=0.006; dichotomous variable analysis, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17–0.90, p=0.027) and increasing BMI (continuous variable analysis, p<0.001; dichotomous variable analysis, OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65–0.93, p=0.005). Renal disease and BMI remained significant predictors in adjusted analyses. Conclusion For most patients, ABPM was successful; however, elevated BMI and renal disease were associated with less

  12. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid. PMID:19566728

  13. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  14. Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

    2004-12-01

    The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this

  15. Characteristics and Predictive Value of Blood Transcriptome Signature in Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Holm, Ingrid A.; Campbell, Malcolm G.; Lee, In-Hee; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Hanson, Ellen; Harris, Heather K.; Lowe, Kathryn R.; Saada, Adrianna; Mora, Andrea; Madison, Kimberly; Hundley, Rachel; Egan, Jessica; McCarthy, Jillian; Eran, Ally; Galdzicki, Michal; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a spectrum of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in which known mutations contribute to disease risk in 20% of cases. Here, we report the results of the largest blood transcriptome study to date that aims to identify differences in 170 ASD cases and 115 age/sex-matched controls and to evaluate the utility of gene expression profiling as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of ASD. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for the neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation/depression, and notch signaling pathways. We developed a 55-gene prediction model, using a cross-validation strategy, on a sample cohort of 66 male ASD cases and 33 age-matched male controls (P1). Subsequently, 104 ASD cases and 82 controls were recruited and used as a validation set (P2). This 55-gene expression signature achieved 68% classification accuracy with the validation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.77]). Not surprisingly, our prediction model that was built and trained with male samples performed well for males (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.82), but not for female samples (AUC 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.67). The 55-gene signature also performed robustly when the prediction model was trained with P2 male samples to classify P1 samples (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.80). Our result suggests that the use of blood expression profiling for ASD detection may be feasible. Further study is required to determine the age at which such a test should be deployed, and what genetic characteristics of ASD can be identified. PMID:23227143

  16. Two-Dimensional Computational Flow Analysis and Frictional Characteristics Model for Red Blood Cell under Inclined Centrifuge Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi

    Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.

  17. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  18. Assessment of Altered 3D Blood Characteristics in Aortic Disease by Velocity Distribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Schnell, Susanne; Puthumana, Jyothy; Bonow, Robert O; Collins, Jeremy D; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of velocity distribution analysis for identifying altered 3D flow characteristics in patients with aortic disease based on 4D flow MRI volumetric analysis. Methods Forty patients with aortic (Ao) dilation (mid ascending aortic diameter MAA=40±7 mm, age=56±17 yr, 11 females) underwent cardiovascular MRI. Four groups were retrospectively defined: mild Ao dilation (n=10, MAA<35 mm); moderate Ao dilation (n=10, 3545 mm); Ao dilation+aortic stenosis AS (n=10, MAA>35 mm and peak velocity >2.5m/s). 3D PC-MR angiograms were computed and used to obtain a 3D segmentation of the aorta which was divided into four segments: root, ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta. Radial chart displays were used to visualize multiple parameters representing segmental changes in the 3D velocity distribution associated with aortic disease. Results Changes in the velocity field and geometry between cohorts resulted in distinct hemodynamic patterns for each aortic segment. Disease progression from mild to Ao dilation+AS resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in flow parameters across cohorts and increased radial chart size for root and ascending aorta segments by 146% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion Volumetric 4D velocity distribution analysis has the potential to identify characteristic changes in regional blood flow patterns in patients with aortic disease. PMID:25252029

  19. Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs.

    PubMed

    Buranakarl, C; Trisiriroj, M; Pondeenana, S; Tungjitpeanpong, T; Jarutakanon, P; Penchome, R

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte characteristics were studied in 15 normal healthy dogs and 33 renal azotaemic dogs from Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. Dogs with renal azotaemia had reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (P<0.01), packed cell volume (PCV) (P<0.001) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P<0.001). The relationship was found between degree of azotaemia and MCV, PCV and MCHC. Dogs with severe renal azotaemia had higher intraerythrocytic sodium contents (RBC-Na) (P<0.05). The red blood cell catalase activity and glutathione and plasma malondialdehyde were unaltered while urinary malondialdehyde-creatinine ratio (U-MDA/Cr) increased significantly (P<0.001). The U-MDA/Cr was correlated significantly with plasma creatinine concentration (P<0.05), urinary protein-creatinine ratio (P<0.05) and fractional excretion of sodium (P<0.001). The results suggest some changes in RBC characteristics and urine oxidative stress marker in renal azotaemic dogs. Moreover, the U-MDA/Cr is a sensitive biochemical parameter which increased along with degree of renal dysfunction.

  20. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation. PMID:22060722

  1. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  2. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  3. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Masquerading as Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anubha; Commins, Scott P.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally recognized as a rapidly developing combination of symptoms often including hives and hypotension or respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, when a specific cause is identified, exposure to this cause is usually noted to have occurred within minutes to 2 hours before the onset of symptoms. This case is of a 79 year-old female who developed a severe episode of anaphylaxis 3 hours after eating pork. Prior to 2012, she had not experienced any symptoms after ingestion of meat products. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat has many contrasting features to immediate food-induced anaphylaxis. The relevant IgE antibody is specific for the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), a blood group substance of non-primate mammals. Evidence from Australia, Sweden, and the U.S. demonstrates that the primary cause of this IgE antibody response is tick bites. These bites characteristically itch for ten days or more. Diagnosis can be made by the presence of specific IgE to beef, pork, lamb, and milk and lack of IgE to chicken, turkey, and fish. Prick skin tests (but not intradermal tests) are generally negative. Management of these cases, now common across the southeastern U.S., consists of education combined with avoidance of both red meat and further tick bites. PMID:24811014

  4. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed.

  5. Some anthropometric characteristics, reactions on physical stress, and blood pressure in males aged 18 in "Primorsko-Goranska" County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kontosić, I; Mesaros-Kanjski, E; Bozin-Juracić, J; Vukelić, M; Grubisić-Greblo, H; Jonjić, A

    2001-06-01

    The paper presents the distribution and average values of some anthropometric characteristics in 1,210 males aged 18 in "Primorsko-Goranska" County, as well as some manifestations of physical fitness parameters and some correlations between these two groups of characteristics. The prevalence of hypertensive and limit values for systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 8.6% and for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 2.1%. Body weight and body mass index were in a significantly positive correlation with SBP and DBP Body mass index showed a significantly positive correlation with heart rate after step-test. Therefore, it can be concluded that overweight reduces tolerance on workload.

  6. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  7. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An age×treatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study.

  8. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow In Dementia: Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Alexander; Barclay, Laurie; Sansone, Joseph; Blass, John P.; Metz, Charles E.

    1985-06-01

    The coupling of mentation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has prompted the application of the Xe-133 inhalation method of measuring rCBF in the differential diagnosis of the two most common dementing diseases, Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia (MID). In this study receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of a 32 detector Xe-133 inhalation system in discriminating between patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls, MID patients and normal controls and between patients with Alzheimer's disease and MID. The populations were clinically evaluated as 1) normal (age 63.1 + 13.1, n=23), 2) Alzheimer's disease (age 72.7 + 7.0, n=82), 3) MID (age 76.4 + 7.6, n=27): The mean flow values for all detectors were lowest for the Alzheimer's disease group, larger for the MID group and largest for the normal controls. The dynamic relationship between the correct identifications (true posi-tives) versus incorrect identifications (false positives) per detector for any 2 pairs of clinical groups varies as the cutoff value of flow is changed over the range of experimental blood flow values. Therefore a quantitative characterization of the "decision" or ROC curve (TP vs FP) for each detector and for each pair of clinical groups provides a measure of the overall diagnostic efficacy of the detector. Detectors directed approximately toward the speech, auditory and association cortices were most effective in disciminatinq between each of the dementia groups and the controls. Frontal detectors were diagnostically inefficient. The Xe-133 inhalation system provided virtually no diagnostic power in discriminating between the two forms of dementia, however. Therefore this imaging technology is most useful when assessing the general diagnostic state of dementia (Alz-heimer's disease and MID) from normal cognitive function.

  9. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  10. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and P<0.001, respectively). Unlike microvessel density, no significant difference was detected in lymphatic density between the basal or triple-negative groups compared with their respective controls. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non

  11. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  12. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. PMID:22381704

  13. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  14. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  15. Effects of recombinant lycopene dietary supplement on the egg quality and blood characteristics of laying quails.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Chang, Chi-Huan; Lin, Li-Jen; Yu, Bi; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplement of bacterial lycopene (BL) produced by Escherichia coli on the egg quality and blood characteristics of laying quails. The antioxidant activity measurement showed that BL exhibited 100% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity at a concentration of 4.65 μg/ml, which was more effective than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and commercial lycopene (CL). Moreover, seven dietary groups of laying quails consisting of 10 100-day-old quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) each were fed with the basal diet supplemented with BL, CL or canthaxanthin (CA) for 4 weeks. Consequently, the triglyceride content of yolk was significantly lower in the group with BL and CL supplement. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the BL- and CA-supplemented groups at 18 mg/kg was lower than the control group. In conclusion, BL has a high antioxidant activity and is promising as a feed additive in the diet of laying quails. PMID:26100321

  16. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health. PMID:22493153

  17. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  18. Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat.

    PubMed

    Young, J F; Therkildsen, M; Ekstrand, B; Che, B N; Larsen, M K; Oksbjerg, N; Stagsted, J

    2013-12-01

    Meat is an integral part of the human diet. Besides essential amino acids and nutritive factors of high quality and availability, meat provides often overlooked components of importance for human health. These are amino acids and bioactive compounds that may be very important in i) preventing muscle wasting diseases, such as in sarcopenia, ii) reducing food and caloric intake to prevent metabolic syndrome, iii) blood pressure homeostasis via ACE-inhibitory components from connective tissue, and iv) maintaining functional gut environment through meat-derived nucleotides and nucleosides. In addition, meat could be an important source of phytanic acid, conjugated linoleic acids and antioxidants. Further, it becomes increasingly apparent that design of in vitro meat will be possible, and that this development may lead to improved health benefits from commercially viable and sustainable meat products.

  19. Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Roehe, R; Lavín, P; Batten, G; Andrés, S

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be one of the most efficient and advanced tools for the estimation of quality attributes in meat and meat products. This review focuses on the use of NIR spectroscopy to predict different meat properties, considering the literature published mainly in the last decade. Firstly, the potential of NIR to predict chemical composition (crude protein, intramuscular fat, moisture/dry matter, ash, gross energy, myoglobin and collagen), technological parameters (pH value; L*, a*, b* colour values; water holding capacity; Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force) and sensory attributes (colour, shape, marbling, odour, flavour, juiciness, tenderness or firmness) are reviewed. Secondly, the usefulness of NIR for classification into meat quality grades is presented and thirdly its potential application in the industry is shown. The review indicates that NIR showed high potential to predict chemical meat properties and to categorize meat into quality classes. In contrast, NIR showed limited ability for estimating technological and sensory attributes, which may be mainly due to the heterogeneity of the meat samples and their preparation, the low precision of the reference methods and the subjectivity of assessors in taste panels. Hence, future work to standardize sample preparation and increase the accuracy of reference methods is recommended to improve NIR ability to predict those technological and sensory characteristics. In conclusion, the review shows that NIR has a considerable potential to predict simultaneously numerous meat quality criteria. PMID:20416766

  20. Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Roehe, R; Lavín, P; Batten, G; Andrés, S

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be one of the most efficient and advanced tools for the estimation of quality attributes in meat and meat products. This review focuses on the use of NIR spectroscopy to predict different meat properties, considering the literature published mainly in the last decade. Firstly, the potential of NIR to predict chemical composition (crude protein, intramuscular fat, moisture/dry matter, ash, gross energy, myoglobin and collagen), technological parameters (pH value; L*, a*, b* colour values; water holding capacity; Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force) and sensory attributes (colour, shape, marbling, odour, flavour, juiciness, tenderness or firmness) are reviewed. Secondly, the usefulness of NIR for classification into meat quality grades is presented and thirdly its potential application in the industry is shown. The review indicates that NIR showed high potential to predict chemical meat properties and to categorize meat into quality classes. In contrast, NIR showed limited ability for estimating technological and sensory attributes, which may be mainly due to the heterogeneity of the meat samples and their preparation, the low precision of the reference methods and the subjectivity of assessors in taste panels. Hence, future work to standardize sample preparation and increase the accuracy of reference methods is recommended to improve NIR ability to predict those technological and sensory characteristics. In conclusion, the review shows that NIR has a considerable potential to predict simultaneously numerous meat quality criteria.

  1. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter. PMID:21240654

  2. Effects of chromium nicotinate on performance, carcase characteristics and blood chemistry of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chen, K L; Lu, J J; Lien, T F; Chiou, P W

    2001-07-01

    1. The objective of this trial was to study the effects of chromium nicotinate (Cr) supplementation on the performance, carcase characteristics and blood constituents of 9 to 22 week-old male turkeys. 2. Fifty-four 8-week-old male turkeys weighing 2.9 +/- 0.28 kg were allocated at random into 9 groups with 3 dietary treatments and 3 replicates. The dietary treatment was different dietary concentrations of chromium in the basal diet, to provide 0 (control), 1 or 3 mg/kg. The feeding trial lasted for 14 weeks. 3. Results showed that 1 mg/kg chromium supplementation significantly improved weight gain and food intake at 9 to 18 weeks of age but did not significantly influence performance at 19 to 22 week of age. The breast and thigh muscle were significantly increased in birds receiving 1 mg/kg chromium supplementation but were decreased by 3 mg/kg of supplementation. 4. Dietary chromium supplementation did not significantly influence other serum constituents, including insulin, HDL, VLDL+LDL, HDL-C, VLDL-C+LDL-C, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin at 18 and 22 weeks of age. 5. The serum triacylglycerol (TG) and uric acid contents were significantly increased, while glycerol and alpha-globulin were significantly reduced by 3 mg/kg chromium supplementation. However, 1 mg/kg chromium supplementation significantly reduced serum cholesterol and glycerol at 18-weeks old. At 22 weeks of age, 1 mg/kg chromium supplementation significantly increased serum glucose and decreased the uric acid concentration whereas 3 mg/kg chromium supplementation significantly increased the creatinine concentration and decreased beta-globulin concentration. PMID:11469563

  3. Unreliable oscillometric blood pressure measurement: prevalence, repeatability and characteristics of the phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, G S; Lourida, P; Tzamouranis, D; Baibas, N M

    2009-12-01

    Oscillometric devices are being widely used for ambulatory, home and office blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, even successfully validated oscillometric devices fail to provide accurate measurements in some patients. This study investigated the prevalence, the reproducibility and the characteristics of the phenomenon of unreliable oscillometric BP (UOBP) measurement. A total of 5070 BP measurements were obtained simultaneously (Y connector) using a professional oscillometric device (BpTRU) and a mercury sphygmomanometer in 755 patients (1706 visits). UOBP readings were defined as those with >10 mm Hg difference (systolic or diastolic) between the two methods. UOBP was found in 15% of systolic and 6.4% of diastolic BP measurements. In all, 18% of the participants had UOBP in their first but not their second visit, or the reverse. However, 49% of these participants had at least one more UOBP visit after their second visit within the study database. Patients with persistent UOBP were more likely to be female and had lower arm circumference. The systolic BP discrepancy between the two methods was associated with pulse pressure (r=0.41) and inversely with diastolic BP (r=0.40) and arm circumference (r=0.30), whereas the diastolic discrepancy with diastolic BP (r=0.61) and inversely with pulse pressure (r=0.32). There was a consistent significant trend for larger systolic BP discrepancy and smaller diastolic from the lower to the higher pulse pressure quintile (P<0.0001). A decreasing arm circumference was a significant predictor of persistent UOBP. These data suggest that the UOBP measurement is particularly common, not very reproducible and mainly affected by pulse pressure and arm circumference. PMID:19322203

  4. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  5. Modeling of the changes in heart rate and blood pressure with characteristic respiratory waveform during surgery under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kensaku; Matsui, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a model that can represent the physiological and mental responses of a patient at each stage of a surgical procedure during endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. In this study, causal influence structures among changes in heart rate and blood pressure and characteristic shapes on respiratory waveform were constructed using a Bayesian network. We defined ten respiratory waveform indices indicating breath-holding behaviors and respiratory irregularities. According to the results of analysis and model construction, the defined indices demonstrate improvements in the ability to predict the changing direction of blood pressure in all patients.

  6. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  7. The effects of the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis RX7 and B2A strains on the performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella concentration, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broiler challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. subtilis RX7 and B. subtilis B2A on growth performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella population, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broilers under S. typhimurium challenge. A total of 120, one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments, composed of six replications, with five birds per replication, for 10 day. The dietary treatment groups were negative control (NC; no antibiotic, no B. subtilis), positive control (PC; NC + 0.1% virginiamycin), B. subtilis RX7 (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis RX7 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g) and B. subtilis B2A (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g). All birds were orally challenged with 2 ml suspension, containing 10(4) cfu/ml of S. typhimurium KCCM 40253. Results indicated that the body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion did not differ, among all comparative treatments. Serum haptoglobin concentration was lower in Bacillus treatments (RX7 + B2A) than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Intestinal and excreta Salmonella number, and excreta ammonia gas emission in the PC treatment or Bacillus treatments, was lower than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Breast pH, colour and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation of B. subtilis RX7 and B2A. However, drip loss at 1 day post-slaughter from birds fed with B. subtilis RX7 and B2A decreased, compared with the positive control birds (p < 0.05). Relative gizzard weights of birds fed B. subtilis RX7 and B2A were significantly higher than the NC birds under S. typhimurium challenge. It is concluded from the results that B. subtilis RX7 and B2A increased the gizzard weight and decreased the intestinal and excreta Salmonella population and excreta ammonia gas, and drip loss of breast meat after being stored for 1 day, under stress caused by the S. typhimurium challenge.

  8. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  9. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  10. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health.

  11. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health. PMID:26555514

  12. Characteristics of blood vessels forming “sausages-on-a-string” patterns during hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnsborg Beierholm, Ulrik; Christian Brings Jacobsen, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Alstrøm, Preben

    2007-03-01

    A phenomenon of alternate constrictions and dilatations in blood vessels has been studied for over 50 years. Recently, a theory has been presented involving a Rayleigh type instability. We analyze the model in terms of the lengths of the deformations in relation to the wall thickness, blood pressure and stress. Analytical and numerical results obtained are consistent with experimental data.

  13. Effect of preslaughter anesthesia on muscle metabolism and meat quality of pigs of different halothane genotypes.

    PubMed

    Klont, R E; Lambooy, E; van Logtestijn, J G

    1993-06-01

    Pigs of different halothane genotypes were anesthetized 45 min before slaughter. During the period of anesthesia blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were taken to investigate muscle energy metabolism by measuring different metabolites. After exsanguination, the same metabolites and some meat quality characteristics were determined. Minimal differences in resting muscle metabolism seemed to exist between the halothane genotypes. Some significant differences in ante- and postmortem metabolism were found, particularly in creatine and lactate concentrations, but these were not reflected in ultimate meat quality. None of the pigs showed PSE meat and there were no differences in muscle pH and temperature at 45 min and 18 h postmortem. However, rigor, drip loss, and color still showed a significant genotype effect. It was concluded that due to the method of anesthesia there were no differences in muscle metabolism at the moment of slaughter. This may have led to a more uniform ultimate meat quality between pigs differing in their genetic susceptibility toward stress. There were differences in color and drip loss between the halothane genotypes that cannot be explained by differences in pH and carcass temperature at 45 min postmortem.

  14. Blood donation: comparing individual characteristics, attitudes, and feelings of donors and nondonors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Deborah; Grace, Debra; O'Cass, Aron

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of blood donors and increased demand for blood is an important health issue. Finding ways to increase donor recruitment and retention is a priority and, thus, an important area for research. This article aims to better understand donors and nondonors on the basis of their social responsibility, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, involvement in and attitude towards the blood donation issue, and their aroused feelings. The data from 345 completed surveys were collected via a web-based, self-administered method. Mean differences were examined and the conceptual model was tested via structural equation modeling. The findings provide important clarification of donation and nondonation behavior. PMID:25120042

  15. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence.

  16. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  17. Cinnamaldehyde in feedlot cattle diets: intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N; Benchaar, C; He, M L; Beauchemin, K A

    2010-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN), a natural chemical compound found in the bark of cinnamon trees, can alter rumen fermentation by inhibiting selected ruminal microbes, and consequently, may improve growth performance and feed efficiency of animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of feedlot cattle with CIN on intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites. Seventy yearling steers (BW = 390 +/- 25.2 kg) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments: control (no additive), monensin (MO; 330 mg*steer(-1)*d(-1)), and 400, 800, or 1,600 mg of CIN*steer(-1)*d(-1). At the start of the experiment, steers were blocked according to BW and assigned to 14 blocks of 5 cattle, with cattle within block assigned to treatments. The diets consisted of 9% barley silage, 86% dry-rolled barley grain, and 5% supplement (DM basis). Dry matter intake responded quadratically (P = 0.03) to CIN supplementation with 13% more feed consumed for steers fed CIN (mean of 3 CIN levels) compared with those fed control during the first 28 d of the experiment, and with a tendency of 4% increase over the entire experiment. The ADG (kg/d) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.08) to CIN supplementation during the first 28 d, but was not affected over the entire experiment (112 d). Feed efficiency (G:F) linearly declined (P = 0.03) during the first 28 d with CIN supplementation and was quadratically affected between d 29 to 56 and d 85 to 112 by CIN dose. Supplementation of MO did not affect (P > 0.15) DMI or growth performance at any time during the experiment. Serum NEFA concentrations were reduced (P = 0.05) by 35, 29, 30, and 22%, respectively, on d 56, 84, 112, and overall with CIN supplementation. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were reduced on d 28 by 56, 60, or 56% for 800 mg of CIN, 1,600 mg of CIN, and MO, respectively, compared with control. Plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein

  18. Echocardiographic and Blood Pressure Characteristics of First-Year Collegiate American-Style Football Players.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Stephen F; White, Stephanie; Erwin, John P; Meade, Thomas H; Martin, Steven E; Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Lambert, Bradley S; Bramhall, Joe P; Gill, Kory; Weir, David

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiographic (echo) and blood pressure (BP) reference values may help identify athletes at cardiovascular risk, yet benchmarks are inadequate for collegiate American-style football (ASF) players. Our purpose was to describe echo characteristics and BP values in collegiate ASF athletes compared with normal. First-year players (n = 80, age = 18 ± 1 years, height = 186 ± 7 cm, weight = 100.1 ± 22.0 kg, body mass index = 28.7 ± 5.0), body surface area [BSA] = 2.24 ± 0.25; percentage fat = 16.5 ± 9.7%) were measured for systolic and diastolic BP, and underwent echo procedures by a certified sonographer. Data analyses included simple statistics, Pearson r, frequencies in normal ranges, and t test; α = 0.05. Selected echo measurements (and indexed by BSA) were: left ventricular (LV) internal diameter diastole = 5.3 ± 0.5 cm (2.4 ± 0.3); left atrial diameter = 3.9 ± 0.5 cm (1.8 ± 0.2): LV end-diastolic volume = 138 ± 30 ml (62 ± 11); septal wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.2 cm (0.5 ± 0.1); LV posterior wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 cm (0.5 ± 0.1), LV mass = 212 ± 46 g (95 ± 18); and relative wall thickness = 0.39 ± 0.07. Correlations between BSA and echo variables were significant (r = 0.26 to 0.50). Indexing by BSA reduced percentages above reference ranges from 36% to 7%. Septal wall thickness index was significantly greater in black (0.5 ± 0.1) than nonblack (0.4 ± 0.1) athletes. Fifty-nine athletes were hypertensive or prehypertensive, and diastolic BP was significantly greater in black (76 ± 10 mm Hg) compared with nonblack athletes (71 ± 8 mm Hg). ASF athletes demonstrated LV wall thicknesses and cavity sizes consistent with sport-training hypertrophy but which were unremarkable when indexed by BSA. Ethnicity generally did not influence echo variables. No ASF players were identified with cardiac dysfunction or disease.

  19. The meat freshness detection based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin B.; Hou, Di B.; Huang, Ping J.; Ma, Ye H.; Li, Xian; Zhang, Guang X.

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has fingerprint features for many bio-molecules with frequency between infrared and microwave covering the vibrational models of a great number of materials. In this study, THz-TDS was used to detect the preserved and bad meat. And the absorption coefficient indices of bad meat and preserved meat were measured in the range of 0.2-1.0 THz. The result shows that there are differences of pork tissue in both time domain and absorption coefficient in the process of deterioration. Then differences between preserved and bad meat were also presented. In order to investigate the relationship between the terahertz characteristics and meat quality, the changes of water content and material in the samples were also discussed. This work supplies reference for the application of THz technology in meat quality detection.

  20. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  1. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety.

  2. [Characteristics of erythrocyte lipids in blood of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with increased natural radioactivity].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G; Shuktomova, I I; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    Interrelations between the lipid characteristics of the blood erythrocytes and 226Ra accumulation in the body of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with different levels of the radiation background were investigated. It is shown that the ratio of the phospholipid (PL) fractions which cause the blood erythrocyte structure depends on the phase of the population cycle, as well as on the sex and age of tundra voles. The statistically significant interrelation between lysoforms and the sphingomielin content has been revealed in the blood erythrocyte PL of tundra voles; its scale somewhat differs for the animals from the reference and Ra areas. The peroxide concentration in the blood erythrocyte lipids of tundra voles from the Ra area exceeded the control values in all mature groups of the animals trapped at the depression phase of the population density. The 226Ra content in the bodies of the tundra voles which were trapped in the Ra area at the increased phase of the population cycle is for certain higher than that for the animals from the reference area. Interrelations between the lipid peroxidation parameters in the blood erythrocytes and the body 226Ra content for separate sex-age groups of tundra voles have been revealed.

  3. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2*-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI. PMID:27051346

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow characteristics of the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Riela, A.R.; Stump, D.A.; Roach, E.S.; McLean, W.T. Jr.; Garcia, J.C.

    1985-03-01

    Four patients with the Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. All four patients had decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the area of their lesion, and in two patients who were subsequently tested with 5% carbon dioxide inhalation, impaired vasomotor reactivity was documented. Diminished regional cerebral blood flow is consistent with previously described nuclide flow studies which demonstrated a delay in the initial perfusion blush in the region of the abnormal vasculature. The focal decrease in blood flow was greatest in the most severely affected patient, but was also prominent in the two younger patients, both of whom have excellent neurologic function. These studies suggest that localized decrease in blood flow and vasomotor dysfunction in Sturge-Weber syndrome can precede the occurrence of severe neurologic impairment and extensive cerebral atrophy and possibly be a major contributing factor in progressive dysfunction. A secondary observation was that the blood flow in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly greater in two children compared to the two adults and was similar to the age-related differences reported for normal children and adults.

  5. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    PubMed

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P < 0.01), stood more (P < 0.01), tended (P = 0.06) to lie down less, and had fewer postural changes (P < 0.01) compared with CON gilts. Umbilical blood flow increased (P < 0.01) in EX compared with CON gilts. Moreover, gilts had greater (P < 0.01) umbilical blood flow in their first parity compared with their second. Indices of vascular resistance were not affected (P ≥ 0.15) by maternal treatment; however, EX gilts reached peak pulsatility index earlier than CON gilts (56.2 vs. 64.3 ± 3.6 d). Fetal weights, piglet birth weights, placental weight, interval between piglet births, and blood lactate of newborn piglets were unaffected (P ≥ 0.15) by maternal treatment. Although maternal exercise during gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known. PMID:23148241

  6. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    PubMed

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P < 0.01), stood more (P < 0.01), tended (P = 0.06) to lie down less, and had fewer postural changes (P < 0.01) compared with CON gilts. Umbilical blood flow increased (P < 0.01) in EX compared with CON gilts. Moreover, gilts had greater (P < 0.01) umbilical blood flow in their first parity compared with their second. Indices of vascular resistance were not affected (P ≥ 0.15) by maternal treatment; however, EX gilts reached peak pulsatility index earlier than CON gilts (56.2 vs. 64.3 ± 3.6 d). Fetal weights, piglet birth weights, placental weight, interval between piglet births, and blood lactate of newborn piglets were unaffected (P ≥ 0.15) by maternal treatment. Although maternal exercise during gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  7. 2D Source area prediction based on physical characteristics of a regular, passive blood drip stain.

    PubMed

    Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Violent criminal acts are often accompanied by dynamic blood shedding events. Bloodstain pattern analysis particularly deals with estimation of the dynamic blood shedding events from the static bloodstain patterns that have been left at the scene. Of all the stain patterns present at a crime scene, drip stain patterns are common stain patterns one would expect to document at a violent crime scene. The paper documents statistically significant correlations between different physical parameters, such as fall height, total number of spines associated with each stain. Statistical significant correlation between the angle of impact and the total number of spines associated with each stain pattern has been established in this work. The paper propounds that the breadth of a regular drip stain is particularly significant in making predictions empirically as also statistically about the surface area from which blood has dripped leading to the formation of a particular drip stain. A data model has been developed using machine learning techniques to predict the range of surface radius from which blood has dripped and lead to the formation of a particular drip stain (Accuracy: 97.53%, Sensitivity=0.9481, Specificity=1).

  8. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    PubMed

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  9. 2D Source area prediction based on physical characteristics of a regular, passive blood drip stain.

    PubMed

    Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Violent criminal acts are often accompanied by dynamic blood shedding events. Bloodstain pattern analysis particularly deals with estimation of the dynamic blood shedding events from the static bloodstain patterns that have been left at the scene. Of all the stain patterns present at a crime scene, drip stain patterns are common stain patterns one would expect to document at a violent crime scene. The paper documents statistically significant correlations between different physical parameters, such as fall height, total number of spines associated with each stain. Statistical significant correlation between the angle of impact and the total number of spines associated with each stain pattern has been established in this work. The paper propounds that the breadth of a regular drip stain is particularly significant in making predictions empirically as also statistically about the surface area from which blood has dripped leading to the formation of a particular drip stain. A data model has been developed using machine learning techniques to predict the range of surface radius from which blood has dripped and lead to the formation of a particular drip stain (Accuracy: 97.53%, Sensitivity=0.9481, Specificity=1). PMID:27295073

  10. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local wastewater treatment authorities charge non-residential customers, in part, based on measurements which indicate the pollutant load in the customer’s wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantificat...

  11. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Sigve; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Pillay, Pavitra; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Taylor, Myra; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Albregtsen, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS. Methods In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest. Results We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001), increased vascular density (p = 0.015) and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071). Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%. Conclusions The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis. PMID:27073857

  12. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  13. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P < 0.05). The Longissimus muscle area (LMA) of pigs fed the LP + Leu diet was larger than those fed the LP + Ala diet (P = 0.05). In addition, drip loss and intramuscular fat of pigs fed the LP + Ala diet were higher than that of the others (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of leucine in low protein diet could stimulate protein deposition and improve the meat quality of finishing pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one. PMID:26597995

  14. Pre-freeze and post-thaw characteristics on chimerism patterns in double-unit cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Tang-Her; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Lin, Tung-Liang; Yang, Chao-Ping; Hung, Iou-Jih; Wen, Yu-Chuan

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed the pre-freeze and post-thaw characteristics on chimerism patterns in 20 cases of double-unit cord blood transplantation. The cord blood units (CBUs) were a 4/6 HLA match or better with recipients and achieved a minimum combined precryo-preservation cell dose of 3.7 x 10(7) total nucleated cell (TNC)/kg. The unit with a higher cell dose was infused first. All evaluable patients engrafted at a median of 18 days. By day 42, neutrophil engraftment was derived from both donors in 63% of cases and a single donor in 37% of patients. By day 100, one unit predominated in 80% of the patients. Higher pre-freeze TNC and CD34+ cell doses were associated with cord predominance in 67% of patients.

  15. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  16. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  17. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of blood donors with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, C; Tanprasert, S; Chumnijarakij, T; Thanomchat, S; O'Prasert, B; Adulwijit, S

    1995-03-01

    Of 782,190 volunteer blood donors in Bangkok and nearby areas, who were screened for infection with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) from January 1988 through December 1992, 3,219 tested positive on both enzyme immuno assay and Western blot assay. The identification variables of the donor were collected. The majority of HIV seropositive blood donors were male. The average age (median) of HIV seropositive was 26-29 years all through 1988-2992. The prevalence of HIV seropositive in male donors was higher than that in females. HIV seropositivity was confirmed in blood donations from first-time male donors in this study during 1988-1992. This rate has increased progressively from 0.87/1,000 in 1988 to 15.95/1,000 in 1992 with much higher rates in repeat donors. The repeat male donors increased from 0.77/1,000 in 1988 to 5.26/1,000 in 1991 and since then showed a decreased rate to 3.93/1,000 in 1992. Female donors were infected with HIV more frequently with the prevalence by sex ratio M:F rising from 27:1 in 1988 to 6.6:1 in 1992. Comparing the seropositive rate between first time and repeat female donors, the results showed an increase in rate from 0.11/1,000 in 1990 to 2.02/1,000 in 1992, but essentially the same rate in report donors. A majority of HIV seropositive blood donors (1990-1992) lived in Bangkok (42-49%) and among those who lived in one eastern province (Samut Prakan), 90-93% lived in the industrial areas. Of those who lived in Chon Buri Province, 73-88% lived in Sattaheep District, which is a naval base.

  19. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  20. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men. PMID:27044854

  1. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  2. Effect of feeding high-oleic-acid peanuts to growing-finishing swine on resulting carcass fatty acid profile and on carcass and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Myer, R O; Johnson, D D; Knauft, D A; Gorbet, D W; Brendemuhl, J H; Walker, W R

    1992-12-01

    A high-oleic-acid peanut breeding line was used in a study designed to determine the effects of feeding swine diets containing elevated levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as a means to increase the level of monounsaturates and total unsaturates in the resulting carcass fat. Forty-eight pigs were allotted to four treatments that consisted of corn-soybean meal diets that contained 1) high-oleic peanuts (HOP), 2) regular commercial peanuts (RP), or 3) canola oil (CO), each added at a dietary level to provide 10% added fat/oil, and 4) a control diet with no added fat/oil. The oil of HOP averaged 75% oleic acid vs 60% for CO and 53% for RP. The pigs were fed the experimental diets from 33 to 102 kg BW, after which all pigs were slaughtered. All three dietary oil sources resulted in increases (P < .01) of monounsaturates in the backfat; the HOP diet resulted in the greatest increase (32% greater than control). Both CO and RP increased (P < .01) the level of polyunsaturates by nearly twofold; HOP resulted in a small decrease. Total unsaturates increased (P < .01) by 24, 24, and 27% for HOP, RP, and CO treatments, respectively, over that obtained from the control treatment. Carcass fat was softer/oilier (P < .05) from pigs fed CO and RP diets, but not from those fed HOP diets, compared with carcass fat of pigs fed the control diet. Dietary fat/oil source had no effect (P > .05) on other carcass compositional traits and various meat quality attributes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1474012

  3. [Influence of the characteristics of lipids on the regulation of biochemical processes in animal liver and blood].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, M V; Kushnireva, E V; Urnysheva, V V; Taran, Iu P; Shishkina, L N

    2007-01-01

    It has been established experimentally that the character and the scale of interrelations between various parameters of the phospholipid composition and their group-average values depend significantly on the characteristics of lipids (the antioxidative activity, quantity of peroxides, and antiperoxide activity) of animal liver and blood erythrocytes. It was shown that a single injection of low-toxicity Tween 80 and acetone at low doses modifies the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the liver and changes the physicochemical properties of lipids, and the interrelations between the parameters that are coordinated in norm, thereby causing the disturbance of biochemical functions of the liver.

  4. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  5. Dendritic Cells Differentiated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Monocytes Exhibit Tolerogenic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) is rich in diverse hematopoietic stem cells that are competent to differentiate into various cell types with immunological compatibility at transplantation. Thus, UCB is a potential source for the preparation of dendritic cells (DCs) to be used for cell therapy against inflammatory disorders or cancers. However, the immunological properties of UCB-derived DCs are not fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the phenotypes and functions of UCB monocyte-derived DCs (UCB-DCs) in comparison with those of adult peripheral blood (APB) monocyte-derived DCs (APB-DCs). UCB-DCs contained less CD1a(+) DCs, which is known as immunostimulatory DCs, than APB-DCs. UCB-DCs exhibited lower expression of CD80, MHC proteins, and DC-SIGN, but higher endocytic activity, than APB-DCs. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of UCB-DCs minimally augmented the expression of maturation markers and production of interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but potently expressed IL-10. When UCB-DCs were cocultured with CD14(+) cell-depleted allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells, they weakly induced the proliferation, surface expression of activation markers, and interferon (IFN)-γ production of T lymphocytes compared with APB-DCs. UCB possessed higher levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than APB, which might be responsible for tolerogenic phenotypes and functions of UCB-DCs. Indeed, APB-DCs prepared in the presence of PGE2 exhibited CD1a(-)CD14(+) phenotypes with tolerogenic properties, including weak maturation, impaired IL-12 production, and negligible T lymphocyte activation as UCB-DCs did. Taken together, we suggest that UCB-DCs have tolerogenic properties, which might be due to PGE2 highly sustained in UCB.

  6. Characteristics of nucleoplasmic bridges induced by 60Co γ-rays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Lu, Xue; Li, Shuang; Chen, De-Qing; Liu, Qing-Jie

    2013-12-16

    Few studies have shown that the yields of ionising-radiation-induced nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) in human cells are dose dependent. However, a dose-response curve between the NPB frequency and the absorbed dose of ionising radiation has not yet been established. This study aimed to investigate NPB frequencies in human peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by cobalt-60 ((60)Co) γ-rays and to establish a dose-response curve. Human peripheral blood samples were collected from three healthy males, and some of these samples were irradiated with 0-6 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. A cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay was then carried out to analyse NPBs and micronuclei (MN) in binucleated cells. The remaining blood samples were irradiated with 0, 2 and 5 Gy of γ-rays, and unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and acentric chromosome fragment) were analysed. The correlation between NPBs and dicentric plus ring chromosome (dic+r) induced by the same γ-ray dose was also analysed. Results showed that the NPB yields among the three subjects at each dose level were not significantly different. NPBs in binucleated cells at all γ-ray doses conformed to Poisson distribution. The dose-response curve of the γ-ray-induced NPB frequencies followed the linear-quadratic model y = (1.39×10(-3))x (2) + (4.94×10(-3))x. A positive correlation was observed between the frequencies of NPB and dic+r, as well as between the frequencies of MN and acentric fragments. Therefore, NPB is an important biomarker of early chromosome damage event induced by ionising radiation.

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peripheral blood cultural characteristics in adult acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, F. R.; Oliver, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A simple liquid culture technique has been used to study peripheral blood from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia. Evidence is presented that cells from morphologically identical types of leukaemia have differing capacity for "differentiation" from free floating blast cells into plastic-adherent phagocytic, trypsin-resistant macrophage-like cells with Fc and C3 receptors. Preliminary analysis suggests that patients whose cells have the greatest capacity for "differentiation" have a better chance of achieving complete remission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1063591

  8. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that

  9. [THE CERTAIN CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILY MEDITERRANEAN FEVER OF ARMENIAN POPULATION].

    PubMed

    Pepoian, A Z; Arutunian, N; Grigorian, A; Tsaturian, V V; Manvelian, A M; Dilnian, E; Balaian, M A; Torok, T

    2015-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate erythrocyte sedimentation rate, glucose level, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein in blood of patients with periodic peritonitis at the stage of remission. Also, effect of colchicine on activity of lactase was analyzed. It is demonstrated that frequency of increase of levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein during period of remission differed depending on gender while at the same time indicators of rheumatoid factor were within limits of normality in all patients. Despite research literature data establishing effect of colchicine on lactose assimilability, no significant inhibition of lactose activity was established in examined volunteers.

  10. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  11. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  12. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  13. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  14. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  15. Dietary Intake Assessment and Biochemical Characteristics of Blood and Urine in Patients with Chronic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found in age, height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure between the two groups. Daily energy intakes were 1900.6 kcal for the chronic gastritis patient group, and 1931.8 kcal for the normal control group without significant difference. No significant difference was found between the two groups in all nutrient intakes except for cholesterol. The chronic gastritis patients consumed lower amount of sugars and sweeteners but greater amount of starchy food groups such as potatoes and legumes than subjects of control group consumed. Also the chronic gastritis patients showed higher serum triglyceride concentration than the normal subjects. These results indicate that the dietary pattern of chronic gastritis patients may have relation to a change in the serum lipid level; however, more systematic research with a larger samples size is required. PMID:25954729

  16. Physician and patient characteristics associated with clinical inertia in blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Harle, Christopher A; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Shuo

    2013-11-01

    Clinical inertia, the failure to adjust antihypertensive medications during patient visits with uncontrolled hypertension, is thought to be a common problem. This retrospective study used 5 years of electronic medical records from a multispecialty group practice to examine the association between physician and patient characteristics and clinical inertia. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) were used to examine (1) differences in physician and patient characteristics among patients with and without clinical inertia, and (2) the association between clinical inertia and future uncontrolled hypertension. Overall, 66% of patients experienced clinical inertia. Clinical inertia was associated with one physician characteristic, patient volume (odds ratio [OR]=0.998). However, clinical inertia was associated with multiple patient characteristics, including patient age (OR=1.021), commercial insurance (OR=0.804), and obesity (OR=1.805). Finally, patients with clinical inertia had 2.9 times the odds of uncontrolled hypertension at their final visit in the study period. These findings may aid the design of interventions to reduce clinical inertia.

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shanbin; Cheng, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-07-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%) 2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  18. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics. PMID:25049656

  19. The characteristic expression pattern of BMI-1 and SALL4 genes in placenta tissue and cord blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction SALL4 and BMI-1 are important factors in hematopoiesis. Placental tissue (PT) and umbilical cord blood (CB) are rich in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs), but their SALL4 and BMI-1 expression levels remain unknown. Methods Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of these genes in PT and CB from ten cases, and ten healthy donors were used as controls. Results A significantly higher BMI-1 and SALL4 gene expression level was found in PT (median: 17.548 and 34.362, respectively) than in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) (median: 2.071 and 11.300, respectively) (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.007) and healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (median: 0.259 and 0.384, respectively) (P = 0.001 and P <0.0001), and their expression level was lower in PBMCs than in CBMCs (P = 0.029 and P = 0.002). A positive correlation between the BMI-1 and SALL4 genes was found in the PT and CB groups, while there was no significant correlation between these genes in the healthy group. There was also no significant correlation between the expression level of each gene in PT and CB. Conclusions These results describe the characteristic features of the BMI-1 and SALL4 gene expression pattern in placental tissue and cord blood. Placental tissue with higher expression level of both genes may be considered as a potential resource for SALL4-related HPC expansion. PMID:23632167

  20. Blood characteristics, tracheal volume and heart mass of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Birchard, G F; Kilgore, D L

    1983-01-01

    1. Measurements of certain hematological and morphological characteristics were made in burrowing owls and bobwhite in search of features that could be associated with the previously described ventilatory adaptations of the burrowing owl to hypoxia and hypercarbia. 2. Values for burrowing owls and bobwhite, respectively, were: P50 = 44.9, 46.0 torr; Hct = 36.6, 38.8 vol%, Hb = 12, 12.3 (g/100 ml); RBC = 2.72 X 10(6), 3.02 X 10(6); log P50/pH = -0.412, -0.485; delta log PCO2/delta pH = -1.39, -1.585. 3. The owls had greater heart weights and smaller tracheal volumes than the bobwhite or the predicted value. 4. No hematological characteristics of the burrowing bird distinguish it from the non-burrowing bird. PMID:6132713

  1. Blood characteristics, tracheal volume and heart mass of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Birchard, G F; Kilgore, D L

    1983-01-01

    1. Measurements of certain hematological and morphological characteristics were made in burrowing owls and bobwhite in search of features that could be associated with the previously described ventilatory adaptations of the burrowing owl to hypoxia and hypercarbia. 2. Values for burrowing owls and bobwhite, respectively, were: P50 = 44.9, 46.0 torr; Hct = 36.6, 38.8 vol%, Hb = 12, 12.3 (g/100 ml); RBC = 2.72 X 10(6), 3.02 X 10(6); log P50/pH = -0.412, -0.485; delta log PCO2/delta pH = -1.39, -1.585. 3. The owls had greater heart weights and smaller tracheal volumes than the bobwhite or the predicted value. 4. No hematological characteristics of the burrowing bird distinguish it from the non-burrowing bird.

  2. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  3. Blood flow characteristics in a terminal basilar tip aneurysm prior to its fatal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, D.M.; Putman, C.M.; Scrivano, E.; Lylyk, P.; Cebral, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The development and validation of methods to stratify the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms is highly desired since current treatment risks can exceed the natural risk of rupture. Because unruptured aneurysms are typically treated before they rupture, it is very difficult to connect the proposed risk indices to the rupture of an individual aneurysm. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the hemodynamic environment of a saccular aneurysm of the terminal morphology sub-type that was imaged just prior to its rupture and to test whether the hemodynamic characteristics would designate this particular aneurysm as at high risk. Methods A patient-specific computational fluid dynamics model was constructed from 3D rotational angiography images acquired just hours before the aneurysm ruptured. A pulsatile flow calculation was performed and hemodynamic characteristics previously connected to rupture were analyzed. Results It was found that the aneurysm had a concentrated inflow stream, small impingement region, complex intra-aneurysmal flow structure, asymmetric flow split from the parent vessel to the aneurysm and daughter branches, and high levels of aneurysmal wall shear stress near the impaction zone. Conclusions The hemodynamics characteristics observed in this aneurysm right before its rupture are consistent with previous studies correlating aneurysm rupture and hemodynamic patterns in saccular and terminal aneurysms. This study supports the notion that hemodynamic information may be used to help stratify the rupture risk of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:20150312

  4. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  5. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  6. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    PubMed

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed.

  7. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L∗, a∗, b∗) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  8. Correlations between Lymphocytes, Mid-Cell Fractions and Granulocytes with Human Blood Characteristics Using Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssein, Hend A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramli, R. M.; Ismail, N. E.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the subpopulations of human blood parameters including lymphocytes, the mid-cell fractions (eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes), and granulocytes were determined by electronic sizing in the Health Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia. These parameters have been correlated with human blood characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and blood types; before and after irradiation with 0.95 mW He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm). The correlations were obtained by finding patterns, paired non-parametric tests, and an independent non-parametric tests using the SPSS version 11.5, centroid and peak positions, and flux variations. The findings show that the centroid and peak positions, flux peak and total flux, were very much correlated and can become a significant indicator for blood analyses. Furthermore, the encircled flux analysis demonstrated a good future prospect in blood research, thus leading the way as a vibrant diagnosis tool to clarify diseases associated with blood.

  9. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet. PMID:12079050

  10. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  11. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  12. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  13. Changes of Femoral Photolethysmographic Waveform Characteristics in Anesthetized Dogs with Increased Blood Pressure Induced by Epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) has been proven to play an important role in changes of the morphology of a pulse waveform. However, the extent of change of the morphology because of BP signaling has yet to be accurately confirmed. Objectives: This study aims to disclose the accurate effect of BP on the changes in the morphology of the pulse waveform. Methods: Two dogs' invasive intraventricular BP (varied by ejecting different doses of epinephrine) and their femoral arterial pulse waveform (FAPW) signals were synchronously recorded. For each BP increase, a normalized single cardiac beat pulse from the FAPW signal was fitted by five Gaussian curves and the changes in the Gaussian parameters (height, peak position, and time support) were observed. Results: The height parameter increased while the position and time support parameters decreased with increasing systolic BP (SBP). The height ratio and the peak intervals between the first two components decreased with increasing SBP. Conclusions: These results may contribute to the better understanding of the underlying changes of arterial pulse properties at different BP levels and demonstrate the potential application value of the Gaussian fitting method for clinically assessing pulse morphology and evaluating the well-being of artery system.

  14. Quantifying the biophysical characteristics of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells in microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Fedosov, D. A.; Caswell, B.; Suresh, S.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria results from the stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs) and its ability to adhere to endothelial cells (cytoadherence). The dynamics of Pf-parasitized RBCs is studied by three-dimensional mesoscopic simulations of flow in cylindrical capillaries in order to predict the flow resistance enhancement at different parasitemia levels. In addition, the adhesive dynamics of Pf-RBCs is explored for various parameters revealing several types of cell dynamics such as firm adhesion, very slow slipping along the wall, and intermittent flipping. The parasite inside the RBC is modeled explicitly in order to capture phenomena such as “hindered tumbling” motion of the RBC and the sudden transition from firm RBC cytoadherence to flipping on the endothelial surface. These predictions are in quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations, and thus the three-dimensional modeling method presented here provides new capabilities for guiding and interpreting future in vitro and in vivo studies of malaria. PMID:21173269

  15. Changes of Femoral Photolethysmographic Waveform Characteristics in Anesthetized Dogs with Increased Blood Pressure Induced by Epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) has been proven to play an important role in changes of the morphology of a pulse waveform. However, the extent of change of the morphology because of BP signaling has yet to be accurately confirmed. Objectives: This study aims to disclose the accurate effect of BP on the changes in the morphology of the pulse waveform. Methods: Two dogs' invasive intraventricular BP (varied by ejecting different doses of epinephrine) and their femoral arterial pulse waveform (FAPW) signals were synchronously recorded. For each BP increase, a normalized single cardiac beat pulse from the FAPW signal was fitted by five Gaussian curves and the changes in the Gaussian parameters (height, peak position, and time support) were observed. Results: The height parameter increased while the position and time support parameters decreased with increasing systolic BP (SBP). The height ratio and the peak intervals between the first two components decreased with increasing SBP. Conclusions: These results may contribute to the better understanding of the underlying changes of arterial pulse properties at different BP levels and demonstrate the potential application value of the Gaussian fitting method for clinically assessing pulse morphology and evaluating the well-being of artery system. PMID:27683559

  16. Effects of donors' age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Du, Xiaochun; Chen, Qian; Xiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of donor age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) by comparing MenSCs derived from donors with three different age ranges and after different passage times. Continuous passage, flat cloning, cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric phenotyping and whole human genome microarray were performed to systematically analyze the relationship between the self-renewal ability of MenSCs as well as their potential to maintain their stem cell characteristics and to resist aging. The results demonstrated that the immunophenotypes and in vitro cultural characteristics of MenSCs did not change significantly with the progression of aging. However, some important signal pathways including MAPK, the insulin signaling pathway, pathways involved in carcinogenesis such as PPAR and P53, and cytokines and their receptors, as well as other pathways associated with immune response and aging, changed to various extents under the conditions of aging after a long time in vitro. The enriched differentially-expressed genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, stress response, cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. The key differentially-expressed genes associated with age and passage number were identified for use as biomarkers of cell aging.

  17. Effects of donors' age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Du, Xiaochun; Chen, Qian; Xiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of donor age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) by comparing MenSCs derived from donors with three different age ranges and after different passage times. Continuous passage, flat cloning, cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric phenotyping and whole human genome microarray were performed to systematically analyze the relationship between the self-renewal ability of MenSCs as well as their potential to maintain their stem cell characteristics and to resist aging. The results demonstrated that the immunophenotypes and in vitro cultural characteristics of MenSCs did not change significantly with the progression of aging. However, some important signal pathways including MAPK, the insulin signaling pathway, pathways involved in carcinogenesis such as PPAR and P53, and cytokines and their receptors, as well as other pathways associated with immune response and aging, changed to various extents under the conditions of aging after a long time in vitro. The enriched differentially-expressed genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, stress response, cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. The key differentially-expressed genes associated with age and passage number were identified for use as biomarkers of cell aging. PMID:26823782

  18. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI than pigs fed 6% fat. Pigs fed 6% fat had greater (P < 0.05) gain/feed (G/F) than pigs fed the control diet or other fat levels. Subcutaneous fat over the longissimus muscle from pigs fed CWG had more (P < 0.05) moisture than that from pigs fed PF. Feeding dietary fat (regardless of source or level) reduced (P < 0.05) the amount of saturated fats present in the LM. Similarly, 4 or 6% fat decreased (P < 0.05) the amount of saturated fats and increased unsaturated fats present in the bacon. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  19. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  20. Influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koger, T J; Wulf, D M; Weaver, A D; Wright, C L; Tjardes, K E; Mateo, K S; Engle, T E; Maddock, R J; Smart, A J

    2010-10-01

    Two hundred forty Angus crossbred steers were used to determine the influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of LM. Three replications of 5 dietary treatments were randomly applied to 15 pens in each of 2 yr. A finishing diet containing dry-rolled corn, soybean meal, and alfalfa hay was fed as the control diet. Wet distillers grains with solubles (DGS) or dry DGS was added to the finishing diets at either 20.0 or 40.0% of the dietary DM to replace all soybean meal and part of the cracked corn in treatment diets. Carcasses of steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) fat thickness (1.47 vs. 1.28 cm), greater (P < 0.05) USDA yield grades (3.23 vs. 2.94), and smaller (P < 0.05) percentage of yield grades 1 and 2 (41.1 vs. 60.4%) than carcasses of steers fed the control diet. Longissimus muscle from steers fed dry DGS had greater (P < 0.05) ultimate pH values (5.52 vs. 5.49) than LM from steers fed wet DGS. Ground beef from steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of α-tocopherol (1.77 vs. 1.43 μg/g) than ground beef from steers fed the control diet. Ground beef from steers fed 40% DGS had greater (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (2.84 vs. 2.13 mg/kg) on d 2 of retail display than ground beef from steers fed 20% DGS. Longissimus muscle of steers fed DGS had less (P < 0.05) C17:0 and more (P < 0.05) C18:0, C18:1t, C16:1c9, C18:2c9c12 (where t is trans and c is cis), and total PUFA than LM of steers fed the control diet. Feedlot steers fed DGS may need to be marketed earlier than normal to avoid excess external fat and carcasses with a greater numerical yield grade. These data suggest feeding DGS to finishing steers will have no adverse or beneficial effects on glycolytic variables (dark cutters), retail display life of ground beef, or meat tenderness. However, beef from cattle finished on diets

  1. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, N; Gulati, B R; Kumar, R; Gera, S; Kumar, S; Kumar, P; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise as therapeutic aid in the repair of tendon and ligament injuries in race horses. Fetal adnexa is considered as an ideal source of MSCs due to many advantages, including non-invasive nature of isolation procedures and availability of large tissue mass for harvesting the cells. However, MSCs isolated from equine fetal adnexa have not been fully characterized due to lack of species-specific markers. Therefore, this study was carried out to isolate MSCs from equine umbilical cord blood (UCB) and characterize them using cross-reactive markers. The plastic-adherent cells could be isolated from 13 out of 20 (65 %) UCB samples. The UCB derived cells proliferated till passage 20 with average cell doubling time of 46.40 ± 2.86 h. These cells expressed mesenchymal surface markers but did not express haematopoietic/leucocytic markers by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The phenotypic expression of CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90 was shown by 96.36 ± 1.28, 93.40 ± 0.70, 73.23 ± 1.29 and 46.75 ± 3.95 % cells, respectively in flow cytometry, whereas, reactivity against the haematopoietic antigens CD34 and CD45 was observed only in 2.4 ± 0.20 and 0.1 ± 0.0 % of cells, respectively. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation could be achieved using established methods, whereas the optimum adipogenic differentiation was achieved after supplementing media with 15 % rabbit serum and 20 ng/ml of recombinant human insulin. In this study, we optimized methodology for isolation, cultural characterization, differentiation and immunophenotyping of MSCs from equine UCB. Protocols and markers used in this study can be employed for unequivocal characterization of equine MSCs.

  2. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, blood biochemical parameters and immune response in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, E; Shokrollahi, B; Karimi, K; Amiri-Andi, M

    2016-06-01

    This study had the aim of evaluating the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on performance, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and antibody titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in quail. A total of 240 quail chicks were allotted to 4 treatments consisting of respectively 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/kg dietary MCFA. There were no significant differences in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio among treatments at different stages of the experiment. MCFAs had no significant effect on breast, thigh, liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weight ratios. However, the relative weight of abdominal fat significantly decreased in quail receiving 0.2 and 0.4 MCFA as compared to other treatments. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and total cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was increased in quail chicks receiving MCFA compared with control quail chicks. The concentrations of SRBC antibody were not statistically different among treatments. It is concluded that MCFA significantly decreased LDL, triglycerides, cholesterol and abdominal fat and increased HDL in quail chicks. PMID:27074264

  3. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  4. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  5. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat. PMID:25526906

  6. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan; Qu, Mingren

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat.

  7. Lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of a Spanish fermented dry-cured meat product (salchichón) with oregano essential oil used as surface mold inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana María; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Fenández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel

    2011-09-01

    The superficial antifungal activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) in Spanish fermented dry-cured sausages ("salchichón"), and its effects on lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The surface application of OEO reduced mold contamination on the surface, without significantly affecting the drying process. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids were determined. The addition of OEO led to a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids, but lipolysis was not greatly affected. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which was used to qualitatively assess the proteolytic changes in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during the process, pointed to very similar patterns in all the sausages. OEO did not significantly affect the sensory properties, but increased hardness, resulting in a better texture. Therefore, a shorter ripening time may be necessary for sausages treated with OEO. PMID:21497448

  8. Lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of a Spanish fermented dry-cured meat product (salchichón) with oregano essential oil used as surface mold inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana María; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Fenández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel

    2011-09-01

    The superficial antifungal activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) in Spanish fermented dry-cured sausages ("salchichón"), and its effects on lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The surface application of OEO reduced mold contamination on the surface, without significantly affecting the drying process. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids were determined. The addition of OEO led to a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids, but lipolysis was not greatly affected. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which was used to qualitatively assess the proteolytic changes in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during the process, pointed to very similar patterns in all the sausages. OEO did not significantly affect the sensory properties, but increased hardness, resulting in a better texture. Therefore, a shorter ripening time may be necessary for sausages treated with OEO.

  9. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat.

    PubMed

    Leskanich, C O; Matthews, K R; Warkup, C C; Noble, R C; Hazzledine, M

    1997-03-01

    An investigation was made to alter the fatty acid composition of pork and a pork product in line with human dietary advice while not adversely affecting factors controlling consumer acceptability. Pigs (n = 150) were assigned to three dietary treatments with 25 intact male-female pairs per treatment. Diet A (control) contained 3% of a 4:1 (wt/ wt) tallow-soybean oil mixture. Diets B and C contained 2% rapeseed oil plus 1% fish oil. Diets A, B, and C were supplemented with 100, 100, and 250 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, respectively. Pigs were given ad libitum access to feed from 52 kg live weight until 95 kg (slaughter). Sausages were prepared from the resulting cuts. Tissues of pigs were evaluated in terms of fat firmness, color, fatty acid composition, and contents of alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Organoleptic characteristics of chops and sausages were evaluated by a trained taste panel. Pigs fed Diets B and C had improved feed conversion ratios (P < .05) and ADG compared with control pigs. The levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturates were significantly increased in the tissues and sausage from pigs fed Diets B and C with associated alterations in n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios that accorded with contemporary human dietary recommendations. Levels of alpha-tocopherol and TBARS were significantly altered in the tissues. There were no appreciable differences between treatments in carcass characteristics, including color. The overall organoleptic acceptability of chops and sausages was not different between the treatments.

  10. Meat consumption: trends and quality matters.

    PubMed

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed.

  11. Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.

  12. [The relationship between hereditary characteristics in the blood (Phi-PO2-Pgd) and susceptibility to stress in swine. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Oskam, J P; Dings, A; van Haeringen, H

    1989-06-15

    Deaths during transport and the incidence of a poor quality of the meat in pigs were the most important reasons for studying the stress-syndrome (MHS) during the past twenty years. MHS is controlled by an autosomal Hal locus with two alleles N and n. Only pigs of genotype nn are sensitive to halothane and susceptible to stress. As a standard test for use in practice, the halothane test was developed in the Netherlands in 1974 and only this test is used to detect MHS. Heterozygotes can not be detected using this test. Since 1986, additional blood typing was carried out for the systems Phi, Po2 en Pgd in litters including at least one halothane-positive reactor. Blood typing was carried out in 533 pigs of four different lines of breeding company Cofok in Oosterhout and was found to be very successful (using the linkage groups) in identifying the heterozygotes. In 15.5 per cent of the offspring, it could not be stated whether the genotype was HalNN or HalNn. This was due to the fact that in these Nn x Nn matings the two haplotypes of one or both parents were identical. In this population, the haplotype PhiB-Po2S-PgdB was strongly (72-89 per cent) linked to the Haln-allele.

  13. Carcass merit and meat quality when Suffolk lambs, Katahdin lambs, and meat-goat kids were finished on a grass-legume pasture with and without supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant species and breed may impact response to supplementation of pasture diets. The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk crossbed; SX, n = 36), hair sheep (Katahdin; KA, n = 36), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; GX, n = 36) carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters...

  14. Studies on emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages incorporating skeletal and offal meat with different levels of pork fat.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K R; Sharma, N

    1990-01-01

    Ready-to-eat emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages were developed by using a combination of 80% meat components with 20% pork back fat. The meat components were constituted of 70 parts buffalo skeletal meat and 30 parts offal meat (rumen meat and heart meat in equal proportions). The emulsion stability, cooking losses of emulsions and sausages, composition of cooked sausages, eating quality of sausages and the microscopic characteristics of the raw emulsion and cooked sausages were studied. The light microscope micrograph of the raw emulsion showed uniformly well distributed fat globules embedded in a dense protein gel. The cooked emulsion also showed uniformly sized fat globules well distributed in a fine, compact, coagulated protein gel, which retained their original spherical shape. Good quality emulsion-type sausages could be produced having a high emulsion stability (0·87 ± 0·07 ml fat release/100 g emulsion); a low emulsion cooking loss (9·60 ± 0·60%) and a low sausage cooking loss (8·83 ± 0·48%). The overall acceptability of sausages was also high.

  15. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  18. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  19. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. PMID:24973207

  20. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  2. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  3. Multipoint quantification of multimarker genes in peripheral blood and micrometastasis characteristic in peri-operative esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhian; Jiang, Ming; Yan, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Jianhua; Ju, Huangxian

    2008-03-01

    This work proposed a method to assess the occult micrometastasis characteristic in peri-operative peripheral blood (PB) based on multipoint quantification of multimarker genes by real-time semiquantitative RT-PCR. The expression levels of SCC, CK19, CK20, CEA and survivin mRNA in PB samples collected before surgery (B-1), immediately after surgery (B0) and at the third day post-operatively (B+3) from 36 squamous esophageal cancer (EC) patients were detected. SCC and CK19 mRNA showed low positivity detection rates, while the rate for CEA and survivin mRNA panel was 58.3%, 83.3% and 72.3% at B-1, B0 and B+3, respectively. Opposite to the significant increase and slow decrease of CEA cells at stages of B-1 to B0 and B0 to B+3, respectively, survivin cells decreased significantly and increased quickly at the two stages. The follow-up with a period of 1.2 years showed that the patients with the B+3/B0 ratios of >or= 0.3 for CEA cells or/and >or= 10 for survivin cells exhibited significantly high possibility of developed metastasis, and the sensitivity to predict developed metastasis increased from 54.5% of CEA mRNA alone to 72.7% of CEA and survivin mRNA panel. These results suggested that CEA and survivin gene panel improved the sensitivity to predict recurrence and differentiate the micrometastatic process.

  4. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  5. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  6. Impact of primary care nursing workforce characteristics on the control of high-blood pressure: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parro-Moreno, Ana; Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Díaz-Holgado, Antonio; Aréjula-Torres, Jose L; Abraira, Victor; Santiago-Pérez, Isolina M; Morales-Asencio, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of Primary Health Care (PHC) nursing workforce characteristics and of the clinical practice environment (CPE) perceived by nurses on the control of high-blood pressure (HBP). Design Cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Administrative and clinical registries of hypertensive patients from PHC information systems and questionnaire from PHC nurses. Participants 76 797 hypertensive patients in two health zones within the Community of Madrid, North-West Zone (NWZ) with a higher socioeconomic situation and South-West Zone (SWZ) with a lower socioeconomic situation, and 442 reference nurses. Segmented analyses by area were made due to their different socioeconomic characteristics. Primary outcome measure: Poor HBP control (adequate figures below the value 140/90 mm Hg) associated with the characteristics of the nursing workforce and self-perceived CPE. Results The prevalence of poor HBP control, estimated by an empty multilevel model, was 33.5% (95% CI 31.5% to 35.6%). In the multilevel multivariate regression models, the perception of a more favourable CPE was associated with a reduction in poor control in NWZ men and SWZ women (OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99)); the economic immigration conditions increased poor control in NWZ women (OR=1.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.89)) and in SWZ, both men (OR=1.89 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.51)) and women (OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.76)). In all four models, increasing the annual number of patient consultations was associated with a reduction in poor control (NWZ women: OR=0.98 (95% CI0.98 to 0.99); NWZ men: OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99); SWZ women: OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99); SWZ men: OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Conclusions A CPE, perceived by PHC nurses as more favourable, and more patient–nurse consultations, contribute to better HBP control. Economic immigration condition is a risk factor for poor HBP control. Health policies oriented towards promoting positive environments for nursing practice are

  7. [IgE-induced anaphylactic reaction after eating lamb meat].

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kasper Lorenz; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2014-08-25

    This article presents the case of a 54-year-old male, who was admitted to hospital after suffering a severe anaphylactic reaction after tasting a spoonful of chili con carne and four months later after eating lamb meat. Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy was suspected and the subsequent blood test showed highly elevated specific IgE levels. Delayed allergy to meat is a relatively new type of allergy and the delayed onset of allergic symptoms poses a diagnostic challenge to the physician. This type of allergy should be considered when there has been no obvious allergen exposition prior to the allergic reaction. PMID:25293709

  8. Postmortem chemical changes in poultry breast meat monitored with visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken meat undergoes significant chemical and structural changes with postmortem time that influence meat quality characteristics. The objective of this study was to measure the visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral differences in broiler breast fillets at 0.5, 4, 24, and 120 h postmortem. Mu...

  9. Pilot clinical study to investigate the human whole blood spectrum characteristics in the sub-THz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; You, Borwen; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  10. Research of principles for estimating the freshness of meat products by color analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petukhova, Daria B.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Color is one of the most important metrics of foodstuffs quality. It gives an indication of freshness, ingredient composition as well as about the presence or absence of falsification. Most often, the color is estimated visually, and thus, the evaluation is subjective. By automating the color analysis a wide application for this method could be found. The aim of this research is to study the principles of color analysis as applied to the task of evaluating the freshness of meat products using modern machine vision systems. From a scientific point of view, the color of meat depends on the proportion of myoglobin and its derivatives. It's the main pigment that characterizes the freshness of meat. Further color of meat can change due to oxidation of myoglobin during storage. Myoglobin exists in three forms. There are oxygenated form, oxidized form and form without oxygen. The meat color changes not only due to the conversion of one form into another. The content of amino acids and ammonia are another characteristics and constant signs of meat products spoilage. The paper presents the results of meat color computer simulation based on data on the content of various forms of myoglobin in different proportions. The spectral characteristic of the light source used to illuminate the meat sample is taken into account. Also the experimental studies were conducted using samples of beef. As a result the correlations between said biochemical indicators of the quality and color of the meat obtained with the help of machine vision system were found.

  11. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets.

  12. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets. PMID:25652645

  13. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  14. A second look into fibre typing--relation to meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L

    2010-02-01

    Despite intensive research, a large variation in meat quality is still observed in most meat producing species. It is widely accepted that myofibre type composition is an important source of variation in meat quality. However, the identification of specific and universal relationships between myofibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality traits remains a challenge. After the presentation of recent knowledge underlying fibre typing, this review describes the involvements of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms, and the energy state of the myofibres in the control of contractile and metabolic properties, with a special attention to the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and mitochondrial compartment. In order to identify muscle components which could mask specific relationships between fibre type composition and meat quality, an analysis of the interactions between myofibres and other muscle cellular components is presented. After a brief description of myogenesis, the significance of the total number of fibres, myofibre cross-sectional area and fibre type composition for growth performance and meat quality is presented. Then, some genetic and environmental factors are proposed as possible tools to control meat quality trough the modulation of fibre type characteristics. Finally, a conclusion makes the point on bottlenecks still preventing the identification of specific relationships between fibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality, and suggests future perspectives such as direct selection on fibre traits and study of correlated responses, the development of in vitro approaches using cell cultures, manipulation of myogenesis during the fetal period, and the production and use of genetically modified animals.

  15. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and nutritional restriction on barbituate-induced sleeping times and selected blood characteristics in raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    SciTech Connect

    Montz, W.E.; Card, W.C.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.

    1982-05-01

    Hepatic microsomal enzyme activity was induced in wild-trapped raccoons (Procyon lotor) and selected blood characteristics were measured in an effort to detect responses due to PCB ingestion, nutritional restriction, and their interactions. Barbiturate-induced sleeping times were used as an index of hepatic microsomal activity because they have been used reliably by other workers. Blood characteristics examined in the study were nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, and three ketone bodies (D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone). Results show a reduction in sleeping times, elevated NEFA and D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and lower cholesterol concentrations in PCB-treated groups. A highly significant interaction between PCB treatment and nutritional restriction was observed in acetoacetate concentrations. (JMT)

  16. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  17. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  18. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach. PMID:26621069

  19. Pilot clinical study to investigate the human whole blood spectrum characteristics in the sub-THz region.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; You, Borwen; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the sub-THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those sub-THz spectra. A great difference between the sub-THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglycerides and the number of red blood cells were two dominant factors to have significant negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients. PMID:25968774

  20. Improving functional value of meat products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  1. Rapid discrimination of main red meat species based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lu; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2016-05-01

    Meat is the necessary source of essential nutrients for people including protein, fat, and so on. The discrimination of meat species and the determination of meat authenticity have been an important issue in the meat industry. The objective of this study is to realize the fast and accurate identification of three main red meats containing beef, lamb and pork by using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. After acquiring the hyperspectral images of meat samples, the calibration of acquired images and selection of the region of interest (ROI) were carried out. Then spectral preprocessing method of standard normal variate correction (SNV) was used to reduce the light scattering and random noise before the spectral analysis. Finally, characteristic wavelengths were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA), and the Fisher linear discriminant method was applied to establish Fisher discriminant functions to identify the meat species. All the samples were collected from different batches in order to improve the coverage of the models. In addition to the validation of sample itself in train set and cross validation, three different meat samples were sliced at the size of 2cm×2cm×2 cm approximately and were spliced together in one interface to be scanned by HSI system. The acquired hyperspectral data was applied to further validate the discriminant model. The results demonstrated that the near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology could be applied as an effective, rapid and non-destructive discrimination method for main red meats.

  2. The use of gamma radiation for the elimination of Salmonella from frozen meat

    PubMed Central

    Ley, F. J.; Kennedy, T. S.; Kawashima, K.; Roberts, Diane; Hobbs, Betty C.

    1970-01-01

    The use of a gamma radiation process for the elimination of Salmonella from frozen meat is considered with particular reference to the treatment of boned-out horsemeat and kangaroo meat imported into the UK and intended for use as pet meat. Examination of dose/survival curves produced for several serotypes of Salmonella in frozen meat shows that a radiation dose of 0·6 Mrad. will reduce a population by at least a factor of 105. The influence on the radiation resistance of salmonellas of such factors as preirradiation growth in the meat and temperature during irradiation have been examined and considered. It is also demonstrated with both preinoculated and naturally contaminated meat that postirradiation storage in the frozen state does not lead to the revival of irradiated salmonellas. The properties of Salmonella survivors deliberately produced in meat using conditions of irradiation designed to simulate a commercial process are studied after six recycling treatments through the process. There were no important changes in characteristics normally used for identification of Salmonella but radiation resistance was lowered. Survivors grown in situ in meat after irradiation showed an abnormally long lag phase, and removal of competitive microflora in meat by the radiation treatment can influence the growth of salmonellas. PMID:4914090

  3. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  4. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications.

  5. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines. PMID:16022764

  6. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  7. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  8. Energy conservation in meat, poultry, and dairy processing. Final report: development of a proposed conference series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-31

    A seminar series is proposed to target seven technologies for promotion to the meat, poultry, and dairy industries. Hog skinning, continuous rendering, whole blood processing, and electrical stimulation/hot deboning were selected as the most promotable technologies within the Meat Processing Industry. In Dairy Processing, multistage drying and mechanical vapor recompression are the targeted technologies. Waste heat recovery is a generic technology. The logistics of the seminar series is presented. The activities of the meat, poultry and dairy industries in energy conservation are reported. (MHR)

  9. Meat tenderizer in the acute treatment of imported fire ant stings.

    PubMed

    Ross, E V; Badame, A J; Dale, S E

    1987-06-01

    Meat tenderizer containing the proteolytic enzyme papain was tested for therapeutic efficacy in the sting of the imported fire ant. The parameters of pain and itching were used to evaluate qualitatively the sting response in 22 healthy medical students, and the laser Doppler velocimeter was used to assess quantitatively the change in cutaneous blood flow. The results indicated that, during the acute-phase reaction, no clinically or statistically significant difference was found between stings treated with meat tenderizer and stings treated without tenderizer. Therefore we conclude that meat tenderizer is of no therapeutic value in the acute treatment of the imported fire ant sting.

  10. Meat tenderizer in the acute treatment of imported fire ant stings.

    PubMed

    Ross, E V; Badame, A J; Dale, S E

    1987-06-01

    Meat tenderizer containing the proteolytic enzyme papain was tested for therapeutic efficacy in the sting of the imported fire ant. The parameters of pain and itching were used to evaluate qualitatively the sting response in 22 healthy medical students, and the laser Doppler velocimeter was used to assess quantitatively the change in cutaneous blood flow. The results indicated that, during the acute-phase reaction, no clinically or statistically significant difference was found between stings treated with meat tenderizer and stings treated without tenderizer. Therefore we conclude that meat tenderizer is of no therapeutic value in the acute treatment of the imported fire ant sting. PMID:3597861

  11. Characteristic of the Oxidative Stress in Blood of Patients in Dependence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov–Luchankiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Lee, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At the present time the alternation of the oxidative metabolism is considered as one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms in the development and progression of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However the nature and direction of the oxidative protein changes in CAP patient’s blood had been almost unexplored. AIM: To define oxidative and modified proteins in erythrocytes and blood plasma of CAP patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood plasma and erythrocytes obtained from: 42 patients with moderate severity pneumonia, 12 patients with grave severity pneumonia and 32 healthy volunteers. Content of advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives were estimated as indicators of the oxidative stress and oxidative damage of proteins. RESULTS: In patients with grave severity the level of oxidative proteins and MDA in erythrocytes exceeded both: control values and similar meanings in CAP patients with moderate severity. The further growth of MDA in this group patients’ blood plasma was observed, but the level of oxidative proteins decreased in comparison with those in CAP patients with moderate severity. CONCLUSION: To sum up, our derived data show, that injury of erythrocytes’ redox-status and blood plasma components plays an essential role in development and progression CAP. PMID:27275344

  12. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Raji, Muhabat A; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs. PMID:27375611

  13. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related. PMID:27254455

  14. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Muhabat A.; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M.; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs. PMID:27375611

  15. How Muscle Structure and Composition Influence Meat and Flesh Quality

    PubMed Central

    Listrat, Anne; Lebret, Bénédicte; Louveau, Isabelle; Astruc, Thierry; Bonnet, Muriel; Lefaucheur, Louis; Picard, Brigitte; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality. PMID:27022618

  16. Experimental evidence of hyperbolic heat conduction in processed meat

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, K.; Kumar, S.; Vedavarz, A.; Moallemi, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to present experimental evidence of the wave nature of heat propagation in processed meat and to demonstrate that the hyperbolic heat conduction model is an accurate representation, on a macroscopic level, of the heat conduction process in such biological material. The value of the characteristic thermal time of a specific material, processed bologna meat, is determined experimentally. As a part of the work different thermophysical properties are also measured. The measured temperature distributions in the samples are compared with the Fourier results and significant deviation between the two is observed, especially during the initial stages of the transient conduction process. The measured values are found to match the theoretical non-Fourier hyperbolic predictions very well. The superposition of waves occurring inside the meat sample due to the hyperbolic nature of heat conduction is also proved experimentally. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    PubMed

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  19. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  20. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  1. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights.

  2. Hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, Rhea Americana (Struthioniformes: Rheidae): a standard for Brazilian birds.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S S M; Ederli, N B; Bôa-Morte, M O; Oliveira, F C R

    2015-11-01

    Blood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. This study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, Rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. Fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo State and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo State, were selected. Blood samples were taken and RBC count, PCV and Hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts, as well as the TPP and fibrinogen were determined. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were identified and characterized morphologically. The values for the red series and hematimetric indexes were: RBC (2.81 ± 0.15 × 106/μL), PCV (44.20 ± 2.86%), Hb (12.12 ± 0.74 g/dL), MCV (15.75 ± 0.89 fL), MCH (43.18 ± 1.82 pg), MCHC (27.44 ± 0.80 g/dL); the values of white series were: WBC (12.072 ± 4116/μL), heterophils (64.10 ± 9.90%), eosinophils (2.05 ± 2.06%), monocytes (6.40 ± 2.99%), lymphocytes (26.93 ± 9.62%), basophils (0.52 ± 1.27%). One may conclude that on average, rheas' blood cells are larger than those of other birds, but these cells in smears cannot be differentiated only by their size. Besides rheas' leukocytes have different components and coloring as in other bird species, however, there are no components or staining aspects unique to the species. PMID:26675913

  3. Menstrual blood-derived stromal stem cells from women with and without endometriosis reveal different phenotypic and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Shohreh; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Shervin, Adel; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Kazemnejad, Somayeh; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Retrograde flow of menstrual blood cells during menstruation is considered as the dominant theory for the development of endometriosis. Moreover, current evidence suggests that endometrial-derived stem cells are key players in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In particular, endometrial stromal stem cells have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we aimed to use menstrual blood, as a novel source of endometrial stem cells, to investigate whether stromal stem cells from endometriosis (E-MenSCs) and non-endometriosis (NE-MenSCs) women differed regarding their morphology, CD marker expression pattern, proliferation, invasion and adhesion capacities and their ability to express certain immunomodulatory molecules. E-MenSCs were morphologically different from NE-MenSCs and showed higher expression of CD9, CD10 and CD29. Furthermore, E-MenSCs had higher proliferation and invasion potentials compared with NE-MenSCs. The amount of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in E-MenSCs co-cultured with allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was shown to be higher both at the gene and protein levels, and higher IDO1 activity was detected in the endometriosis group. However, NE-MenSCs revealed increased concentrations of forkhead transcription factor-3 (FOXP3) when compared with E-MenSCs. Nonetheless, interferon (IFN)-γ, Interleukin (IL)-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were higher in the supernatant of E-MenSCs-PBMC co-cultures. Here, we showed that there are inherent differences between E-MenSCs and NE-MenSCs. These findings propose the key role MenSCs could play in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and further support the retrograde and stem cell theories of endometriosis. Hence, considering its renewable and easily available nature, menstrual blood could be viewed as a reliable and inexpensive material for studies addressing the cellular and molecular aspects of endometriosis.

  4. Serum biochemical characteristics of Beluga, Huso huso (L.), in response to blood sampling after clove powder solution exposure.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Nodeh, Ali Jafar

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of anesthesia on serum parameters, Beluga, Huso huso (L.) were blood-sampled immediately without anesthesia (control) or subjected to following anesthesia procedure: 40, 120, and 240 s exposure to 3,000, 700, and 500 mg l⁻¹ clove solution, respectively. Blood samples were collected after these periods, when fish were immobile and reached stage 4 anesthesia. Results showed that cortisol and glucose levels were significantly high in 700 and 500 but not 3,000 mg l⁻¹ group compared to control. Serum lactate levels were significantly high in 500 mg l⁻¹ group compared to control group. Lactate levels were not significantly differed between control, 3,000, and 700 mg l⁻¹ groups. There were no significant differences in serum levels of cholesterol, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, Na⁺, Cl⁻, K⁺, and Ca²⁺. Results suggest that rapid anesthesia with higher dose is better than slow anesthesia with lower dose for blood sampling in Beluga.

  5. [The comparative characteristic of cytokine production in serum and whole blood in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash].

    PubMed

    Aschina, L A; Baranova, N I; Kojenkova, S V

    2015-03-01

    The sampling of 100 patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash and control group of 30 healthy donors was analyzed for identification of level of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18 and γ-interferon (IFN) in serum of patients. The same sampling was examined using method ex vivo for spontaneous and induced production by cells of immune system. In patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash increasing of spontaneous production of IL-4 and spontaneous and induced production of IL-17 and IFN was identified. The decreasing of spontaneous and induced production of IL-18 was detected too. These occurrences indicate to simultaneous activation of Th1, Th2 and Th17-population of T-lymphocytes. The analysis of level of cytokines in blood serum established only decreasing of level of IL-4 in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash as compared with healthy individuals. The level of other analyzed cytokines had no reliable differences that demonstrate both low informativeness of detection ofcontent of cytokines in blood serum and advantage of application of method ex vivo with detection of level of cytokines in whole blood. PMID:26031163

  6. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes.

  7. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  8. Meat goat production and marketing.

    PubMed

    Glimp, H A

    1995-01-01

    Production opportunities, management strategies, and marketing options for meat goats in the United States are reviewed in this manuscript. The basis for any expansion must be goat production systems that are biologically and economically sustainable, meeting both producer and consumer needs. Meat goats historically have been kept for brush control. Their use to control noxious plants and in vegetation management will continue to be their primary role in the future. Meat goats are rarely the primary animal production enterprise in the United States, but they are becoming increasingly important contributors to the income of many producers. Meat goat marketing is highly unstructured in the United States, yet prices are generally higher on a per unit of weight basis than other red meat-producing species. Efforts to organize marketing have had only limited success. Over 90% of the world's goats are in developing countries. Goats are increasingly important in these countries as subsistence food producers. Production systems range from goats being a part of nomadic multispecies herds on arid desert rangelands, in agropastoral production systems, to goats being the primary animal enterprise in smallholder farming systems.

  9. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  10. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products.

  11. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products. PMID:27156911

  12. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han Lin; Zhao, Pin Yao; Lei, Yan; Hossain, Md Manik; Kang, Jungsun; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs. PMID:26954131

  13. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  14. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  15. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  16. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all meat or meat food products intended for human... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS...

  17. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  18. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  19. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  20. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  1. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  2. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any vessel... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. 4.72 Section 4.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  4. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces.

  5. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, Glenmer B; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H; Kim, In H

    2016-07-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  6. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tactacan, Glenmer B.; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H.; Kim, In H.

    2016-01-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  7. [The comparative evaluation of tendencies in population mortality and particular characteristics of hospitalization under diseases of blood circulation system].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T M; Belov, V B; Lushkina, N P

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of data bases established that in the Russian Federation population mortality of diseases of blood circulation system in toto and of main diseases included in this class (100-199 of ICD-10) is significantly higher than in European countries. The population mortality is determined both by morbidity and quality of medical care in case of development of disease. In Russia, the increase of number of cases of hospitalization per one patient passed away due to these causes. This indicator was lower in comparison with corresponding indicators characterizing levels of hospitalization in EU countries. In Russia, to decrease mortality of this pathology it is needed to extend indications for hospitalization.

  8. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly.

  9. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  10. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly. PMID:26780279

  11. Analysis of Flow Characteristics of the Blood Flowing through an Inclined Tapered Porous Artery with Mild Stenosis under the Influence of an Inclined Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Analytical investigation of MHD blood flow in a porous inclined stenotic artery under the influence of the inclined magnetic field has been done. Blood is considered as an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid. The physics of the problem is described by the usual MHD equations along with appropriate boundary conditions. The flow governing equations are finally transformed to nonhomogeneous second-order ordinary differential equations. This model is consistent with the principles of magnetohydrodynamics. Analytical expressions for the velocity profile, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress, and pressure gradient have been derived. Blood flow characteristics are computed for a specific set of values of the different parameters involved in the model analysis and are presented graphically. Some of the obtained results show that the flow patterns in converging region (ξ < 0), diverging region (ξ > 0), and nontapered region (ξ = 0) are effectively influenced by the presence of magnetic field and change in inclination of artery as well as magnetic field. There is also a significant effect of permeability on the wall shear stress as well as volumetric flow rate. PMID:24719614

  12. History of the meat animal evaluation contest: a pedagogical stimulant.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, R G; Russell, R L; Skaar, B R; Kiser, J J; Mandigo, R W; Carr, T R; Parrett, D F

    2013-09-01

    A century ago students were exposed to livestock judging and meat judging, though each was taught as an independent entity. Fifty years ago universities started combining subjects involving the evaluation process, whether characteristics involved traits of the live animal or those related to meat value. Universities developed a meat animal evaluation contest (MAEC) that included breeding livestock, market livestock, and meat products. Using production records, students culled, ranked, priced, and answered questions about breeding and market cattle, swine, and sheep. For market livestock, ranks and values were scored on carcass data after the livestock were harvested. Students graded, ranked, answered questions, and priced meat products. A communications component involved students being given a problem to be discussed as a group presentation. In 1964, the first MAEC was conducted at Rath Packing Co., Waterloo, IA, and included 40 students. In 1967, the contest was held at The Farmbest Co. and IBP of Denison, IA, and included 87 students. In 1968, the MAEC moved to the Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben, Omaha, NE, and by 1988, 187 students (22 universities) competed. In 1995, the MAEC moved to the United Stockyards Co., St. Joseph, MO. Starting in 2004, it moved to various universities (South Dakota State University, Oklahoma State University, University of Nebraska, and Texas Tech University). The MAEC has stimulated students to better learn and understand the details of meat animal evaluation and has encouraged the development of evaluation courses as well as satellite and symposia programs. To date, over 6,000 students representing 40 universities have participated.

  13. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  14. A numerical study of the effect of catheter angle on the blood flow characteristics in a graft during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Hong Sun; Kim, Soyoon; Ro, Kyoungchul

    2013-02-01

    For patients with renal failure, renal replacement therapies are needed. Hemodialysis is a widely used renal replacement method to remove waste products. It is important to improve the patency rate of the vascular access for efficient dialysis. Since some complications such as an intimal hyperplasia are associated with the flow pattern, the hemodynamics in the vascular access must be considered to achieve a high patency rate. In addition, the blood flow from an artificial kidney affects the flow in the vascular access. Generally, the clinical techniques of hemodialysis such as the catheter angle or dialysis dose have been set up empirically. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed on the effect of the catheter angle on the flow in the graft. Blood is assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid. According to the high average wall shear stress value, the leucocytes and platelets can be activated not only at the arterial anastomosis, but also at the bottom of the venous graft, when the catheter angle is not zero. For a catheter angle less than five degrees, there is a low shear and high oscillatory shear index region that appears at the venous graft and the venous anastomosis. Thus, a catheter angle less than five degrees should be avoided to prevent graft failure.

  15. Comparison of live performance and meat quality parameter of cross bred (korean native black pig and landrace) pigs with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Jeong, T C; Kim, G D; Jeong, J Y; Cho, I C; Lim, H T; Kim, B W; Joo, S T

    2013-07-01

    Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.

  16. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID

  17. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  18. The two mutations, Q204X and nt821, of the myostatin gene affect carcass and meat quality in young heterozygous bulls of French beef breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Payet-Duprat, N; Hocquette, J F; Lepetit, J; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Bernard-Capel, C; Journaux, L; Bonnot, A; Renand, G

    2010-02-01

    The availability of genetic tests to detect different mutations in the myostatin gene allows the identification of heterozygous animals and would warrant the superiority of these animals for slaughter performance if this superiority is confirmed. Thus, 2 mutations of this gene, Q204X and nt821, were studied in 3 French beef breeds in the program Qualvigène. This work was done with 1,114 Charolais, 1,254 Limousin, and 981 Blonde d'Aquitaine young bulls from, respectively, 48, 36, and 30 sires and slaughtered from 2004 to 2006. In addition to the usual carcass traits recorded at slaughter (e.g., carcass yield, muscle score), carcass composition was estimated by weighing internal fat and dissecting the 6th rib. The muscle characteristic traits analyzed were lipid and collagen contents, muscle fiber section area, and pH. Regarding meat quality, sensory qualities of meat samples were evaluated by a taste panel, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from the blood samples of all calves, the blood samples of 78% of the dams, and the blood or semen samples of all the sires. Genotypes were determined for 2 disruptive mutations, Q204X and nt821. Analyses were conducted by breed. The superiority of carcass traits of calves carrying one copy of the mutated allele (Q204X or nt821) over noncarrier animals was approximately +1 SD in the Charolais and Limousin breeds but was not significant in the Blonde d'Aquitaine. In the Charolais breed, for which the frequency was the greatest (7%), young bulls carrying the Q204X mutation presented a carcass with less fat, less intramuscular fat and collagen contents, and a clearer and more tender meat than those of homozygous-normal cattle. The meat of these animals also had slightly less flavor. Also in the Charolais breed, 13 of 48 sires were heterozygous. For each sire, the substitution effect of the wild allele by the mutant allele was approximately +1 SD for carcass conformation and yield

  19. The two mutations, Q204X and nt821, of the myostatin gene affect carcass and meat quality in young heterozygous bulls of French beef breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Payet-Duprat, N; Hocquette, J F; Lepetit, J; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Bernard-Capel, C; Journaux, L; Bonnot, A; Renand, G

    2010-02-01

    The availability of genetic tests to detect different mutations in the myostatin gene allows the identification of heterozygous animals and would warrant the superiority of these animals for slaughter performance if this superiority is confirmed. Thus, 2 mutations of this gene, Q204X and nt821, were studied in 3 French beef breeds in the program Qualvigène. This work was done with 1,114 Charolais, 1,254 Limousin, and 981 Blonde d'Aquitaine young bulls from, respectively, 48, 36, and 30 sires and slaughtered from 2004 to 2006. In addition to the usual carcass traits recorded at slaughter (e.g., carcass yield, muscle score), carcass composition was estimated by weighing internal fat and dissecting the 6th rib. The muscle characteristic traits analyzed were lipid and collagen contents, muscle fiber section area, and pH. Regarding meat quality, sensory qualities of meat samples were evaluated by a taste panel, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from the blood samples of all calves, the blood samples of 78% of the dams, and the blood or semen samples of all the sires. Genotypes were determined for 2 disruptive mutations, Q204X and nt821. Analyses were conducted by breed. The superiority of carcass traits of calves carrying one copy of the mutated allele (Q204X or nt821) over noncarrier animals was approximately +1 SD in the Charolais and Limousin breeds but was not significant in the Blonde d'Aquitaine. In the Charolais breed, for which the frequency was the greatest (7%), young bulls carrying the Q204X mutation presented a carcass with less fat, less intramuscular fat and collagen contents, and a clearer and more tender meat than those of homozygous-normal cattle. The meat of these animals also had slightly less flavor. Also in the Charolais breed, 13 of 48 sires were heterozygous. For each sire, the substitution effect of the wild allele by the mutant allele was approximately +1 SD for carcass conformation and yield

  20. Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Cureux, James

    1974-01-01

    Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…