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Sample records for blood characteristics meat

  1. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  2. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö. Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting the

  3. Effects of dietary recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, blood characteristics, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Jung, S K; Kim, J S; Kim, K-W; Oh, K B; Lee, P-Y; Byun, S J

    2017-03-01

    The use of chlorella as an immune stimulant to enhance nonspecific host defense mechanisms or as an antimicrobial to inhibit bacterial growth has been reported. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, and the blood profile, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers. A total of 375 one-day-old ROSS 308 broilers (male and female) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments using 5 cages with 15 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) NC, basal diet supplemented with 1.0% E. coli fermented liquor (EFL); 2) PC1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella; 3) PC2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella; 4) T1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral); and 5) T2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral). The broilers in the T2 treatment groups showed higher body weight gain (BGW) by 2.55% (P < 0.01) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.75% (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the control NC treatment group. Moreover, the blood contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and IgA in the broilers of the T2 treatment group were significantly increased by 28.12, 23.07, and 29.72%, respectively -more than those found in the broilers of the NC treatment group (P < 0.01). In contrast, the LDL/C in the blood from the animals in the T2 treatment group was significantly decreased by 23.23% - more than that in the blood from the NC broilers (P < 0.05). Based on these results, we suggest that the dietary supplementation of broilers with recombinant chlorella could improve their growth performance, increase the concentration of IgA and apparently metabolizable nitrogen in the blood, and decrease ammonia emissions. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation through increasing the concentration of IgA and the level of metabolizable nitrogen.

  4. Effects of two probiotic additives containing Bacillus spores on carcass characteristics, blood lipids and cecal volatile fatty acids in meat type chickens.

    PubMed

    Novak, R; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Terčič, D; Cervek, M; Gorjanc, G; Holcman, A; Levart, A; Rogelj, I

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two commercially available probiotic additives, containing Bacillus spores, on carcass and meat characteristics, serum lipids and concentration of cecal volatile fatty acids of meat type chickens. Birds were fed regular corn-soy meal based feed (control), supplemented with additive A, containing 1.6 × 10(6) spores per gram of feed of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (group A) or additive B, containing the same concentration of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi spores (group B). One hundred and twenty birds (20 per replicate) were slaughtered at the age of 55 days. Results showed that birds in group B had higher (p < 0.05) final body weight compared to birds from group A and higher carcass weights and yield percentages compared with control. Breasts and whole legs were also heavier in group B, compared to control, but not the yield. Group A had higher yield of wings and lower abdominal fat weight compared to group B (p< 0.05), but not compared with control. Total cholesterol was not affected by the dietary treatment, on contrary both probiotics elevated the LDL (p < 0.05) and lowered HDL cholesterol, thus unfavourably changed animal's blood serum cholesterol profile. Both probiotics influenced the cecal fermentation, which was observed as decrease in cecal concentrations of propionic, butyric, n-butyric and n-valeric acids, but the differences compared to control group were statistically significant for group A only. It was established that probiotic additive B was more effective regarding carcass and meat part weights than additive A, however the animals from group B also had more abdominal fat and their meat had significantly higher conductivity than control group, which is not considered as beneficial.

  5. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  6. Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, J P; Yan, L; Huang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. Birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (ME) 12.7 MJ/kg and crude protein (CP) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; ME 13.2 MJ/kg and CP 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or low nutrient density (ME 12.1 MJ/kg and CP 220.2 g/kg for 0-7 d; ME 12.6 MJ/kg and CP 209.8 g/kg for 8-28 d)] and 0 or 2 g/kg probiotics (1.0 × 10(10) viable spores/g of Bacillus subtilis endospores and 1.0 × 10(9) viable spores/g of Clostridium butyricum). 3. The high-nutrient-density diet increased body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration relative to the low-nutrient-density diet. High-nutrient-density diet reduced water loss ratio of breast muscle, liver and fat relative to body weight compared to low-nutrient density-diet. The inclusion of probiotics increased BWG and feed intake throughout the experiment. Dietary probiotics increased the percentage of blood lymphocytes and relative weight of spleen and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-probiotic treatment. The inclusion of probiotics decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lightness (L*) value of breast meat compared to the non-probiotic-supplemented diet. 4. In conclusion, high dietary nutrient density increased growth performance and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics increased growth performance but reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The positive effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance was reduced by the high-nutrient-density diet during the first week of life.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain/feed) didn’t differ among treatments through the whole experiment. These pigs fed the PCL diet had the greater (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter than those from PC and NC treatment at the end of the experiment. No differences were observed in white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and lymphocyte concentration among different treatments. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter. The pigs in NCL and PCL treatments had greater (p<0.05) backfat thickness and lower lean percentage. The color value of loin was higher (p<0.05) in NCL treatment compared to PCL treatment. Also, the NCL treatment had higher (p<0.05) marbling value than PC treatment. The drip loss was depressed by PCL and NCL treatment comapared to NC treatments. The water holding capacity (WHC) was higher (p<0.05) in NC and PCL treatment. In conclusion, the low FC can improve digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:25049693

  8. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  9. Sensory characteristics of meat and meat products from entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Dolores Garrido, M; Egea, Macarena; Belén Linares, M; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Rubio, Begoña; Viera, Ceferina; Martínez, Beatriz

    2017-02-14

    The surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practised to prevent the development of boar taint in pork meat, but European rules aim to end this practice on a voluntary basis. This study represents a sensory characterization of the meat and meat products from entire male pigs. Three levels of androstenone concentration in fat were compared: low, 0-0.3mgkg(-1); medium, 0.4-0.9μgkg(-1) and high, 1-2.75μgkg(-1). The use of meat from entire males in meat products lowered the perception of boar taint compared with fresh meat but was insufficient to totally mask it. Androstenone levels seem to influence the intramuscular fat content and hence, on texture. The perception of boar taint in meat products depends on androstenone concentration as well as on the characteristics of the product. It is necessary to develop additional strategies to totally mask androstenone perception in meat and meat products.

  10. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  11. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  12. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure

  13. Influence of probiotics in different energy and nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and blood characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q W; Yan, L; Ao, X; Zhou, T X; Wang, J P; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis endospore and Clostridium butyricum endospore complex) supplementation and different energy and nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 96 pigs with initial BW of 47.50 ± 1.14 kg were used in a 10-wk experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of energy and nutrient density (low and high energy, CP, and Lys) and 0.2% probiotics according to their sex and BW (6 pens, with 2 gilts and 2 barrows/pen). From 0 to 5 wk, ADG and G:F, as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and energy, were improved (P < 0.05) in the probiotic groups and in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density groups. From 6 to 10 wk, ADG and G:F, as well as the ATTD of DM, N, and energy, were increased (P < 0.01) when pigs were fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets. Pigs fed the probiotic supplement or the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had increased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F overall. Moreover, pigs fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had increased (P < 0.05) meat color scores, marbling scores, drip loss values, pH, and LM area (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets, whereas the probiotic treatment groups had increased (P < 0.01) meat color scores, marbling scores, and redness values. The lightness and yellowness values in the low-energy and low-nutrient-density dietary treatments were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density dietary treatments. Interactive effects of dietary energy and nutrient density and probiotics were also observed (P < 0.05) on the digestibility of N at wk 10 and energy at wk 5, as well as on meat firmness at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of probiotics increased growth

  14. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company.

  15. Control of fresh meat quality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Joo, S T; Kim, G D; Hwang, Y H; Ryu, Y C

    2013-12-01

    Variations of fresh meat quality exist because the quality traits are affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Because the meat quality is basically dependent on muscle fiber characteristics, numerous studies have reported the relationship between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research, the relationship is yet to be fully established, however, the present knowledge suggests several potential ways to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics to improve meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of fresh meat quality, meat quality traits and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between fresh meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics. Finally, the present work proposes several potential factors including breed, genotype, sex, hormone, growth performance, diet, muscle location, exercise and ambient temperature that can be used to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics and subsequently meat quality in animals.

  16. WHITE STRIPING AND WOODEN BREAST DEFECTS INFLUENCE MEAT QUALITY AND MUSCLE PROTEIN CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER BREAST MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of the wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies on meat quality and protein characteristics of broiler breast meat. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) from a commercial processing plant were segregated into four groups: normal (neither WS nor W...

  17. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  18. Blood Levels of Meat-Linked Chemical Tied to Odds of Heart Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A molecule produced in the digestion of red meat, eggs and dairy products is ... Institute. TMAO is produced by gut bacteria during digestion of animal-based food, and accumulates in blood ...

  19. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products.

  20. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood...

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood...

  2. Characteristics of Yeasts Isolated from Pacific Crab Meat

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, M. W.; Spinelli, J.; Miyauchi, D.; Groninger, H.

    1965-01-01

    A total of 202 cultures of yeasts were isolated and characterized from king crab and Dungeness crab meat. A yeastlike organism, resembling Aureobasidium pullulans, and 15 different species distributed among the genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Torulopsis, Candida, and Trichosporon were represented. Nine of the species grew at 5 C or lower. Although two of the species grew at 37 C, none of the isolates had the characteristics of pathogenic species. Members of the Cryptococcus and Candida failed to grow at 37 C. Furthermore, species of the former genus were not pathogenic to mice. The pigmentation of the Rhodotorula cultures decreased in intensity as the incubation temperature was decreased. Biochemical activities of the different species were studied by use of triglycerides, lecithin, and proteins (casein, gelatin, and crab-meat protein) as substrates. Eight of the species could attack triglycerides; eight, lecithin; five, gelatin; one, casein; and one, crab protein. An organism, tentatively identified as Trichosporon sp., was very active in attacking each of the substrates tested and grew well at 0.5 C. PMID:5866045

  3. Carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of dairy suckling kids compared to an indigenous genotype.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Alper; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2010-06-01

    Effects of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality were investigated by using 24 suckling kids from Turkish Saanen, Gokceada and Maltese breeds. Carcass quality characteristics of indigenous kids (Gokceada) were lower than those of dairy type (Turkish Saanen and Maltese) kids. Breed effect on ultimate meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat samples from Turkish Saanen kids had higher redness (at 0, 1 and 24h) and yellowness (at 24h) values than Gokceada kids (P<0.05). Breed had no significant effect on sensory characteristics except flavour intensity. Flavour intensity scores given to meat samples of Maltese kids were higher than those of Turkish Saanen and Gokceada kids (P<0.01). In conclusion, dairy type breeds should be considered for meat production as well, with meat from Maltese kids potentially offering better colour and flavour intensity than that of Turkish Saanen kids.

  4. Characteristics and Applications of Microbial Starters in Meat Fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Fontana, Cecilia

    Fermentation and drying are among the most ancient food preservation techniques used by man. Developed through the years, these processes prolonged the storage time of meats (and meat products) and brought favorable changes to their organoleptic properties, with respect to the original substrate.

  5. Biofilm Formation Characteristics of Pseudomonas lundensis Isolated from Meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Yun-Fang; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms formations of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on food or food contact surfaces have attracted increasing attention. These events may lead to a higher risk of food spoilage and foodborne disease transmission. While Pseudomonas lundensis is one of the most important bacteria that cause spoilage in chilled meat, its capability for biofilm formation has been seldom reported. Here, we investigated biofilm formation characteristics of P. lundensis mainly by using crystal violet staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The swarming and swimming motility, biofilm formation in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C) and the protease activity of the target strain were also assessed. The results showed that P. lundensis showed a typical surface-associated motility and was quite capable of forming biofilms in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C). The strain began to adhere to the contact surfaces and form biofilms early in the 4 to 6 h. The biofilms began to be formed in massive amounts after 12 h at 30 °C, and the extracellular polysaccharides increased as the biofilm structure developed. Compared with at 30 °C, more biofilms were formed at 4 and 10 °C even by a low bacterial density. The protease activity in the biofilm was significantly correlated with the biofilm formation. Moreover, the protease activity in biofilm was significantly higher than that of the corresponding planktonic cultures after cultured 12 h at 30 °C.

  6. Effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate and sugar beet pulp in the concentrate for fattening lambs on acid-base status and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bodas, R; Rodríguez, A B; López, S; Fernández, B; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2007-12-01

    Thirty-six young Merino lambs (15.3kg live weight) were allocated into four equal groups to study the effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate ('Bic', 0 vs. 2%) and sugar beet pulp ('SBP', 0 vs. 12%) in the concentrate on meat characteristics. Lambs were fed barley straw and concentrate ad libitum. When they reached 25kg a blood sample was taken and the animal slaughtered. After 24h meat characteristics (pH, colour, water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force, chemical and fatty acid - 'FA' - composition) were measured on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. SBP replacing 24% of the barley in the concentrate caused an increase in shear force (P<0.05) and saturated FA (P<0.05), decreasing meat unsaturated FA (P<0.05). SB increased blood base excess (P<0.05) and meat yellowness (P<0.05) and decreased meat pH (P<0.05), without altering any other meat characteristics.

  7. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  8. Effect of Myopathies on Meat Quality and Protein Characteristics of Broiler Breast Meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) conditions are abnormalities that occur in the breast muscles of modern broilers. Although WB and WS are known to adversely affect meat quality, the underlying effect of these conditions on muscle proteins are not well understood. The objective of this ...

  9. Amino acids in human blood plasma after single meals of meat, oil, sucrose and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Nasset, E S; Heald, F P; Calloway, D H; Margen, S; Schneeman, P

    1979-04-01

    Six healthy men (21 to 38 years; 58 to 80 kg) consumed an adequate diet in a metabolism unit. At 4-day intervals they ingested test meals and venous blood was drawn before and after ingestion at intervals for 8 hours. Test meals were 100, 200, and 300 g of cooked lean meat and quantities of corn oil, sucrose, and whiskey isoenergetic with 200 g of meat. Plasma was analyzed for 20 amino acids. Mean totals of amino acids (micromoles per liter) were maximally elevated at 1 or 2 hours post cibum for all meals and remained above fasting values at 4 hours, with one exception (glucose meal). At 8 hours they were all below fasting values with one exception (whiskey meal). Individual responses varied so much that mean values are misleading. One subject responded well to ingestion of 100 or 200 g of meat but failed to respond to 300 g of meat, oil, or sucrose. Another subject responded well to oil and sucrose, but failed to respond to 100 or 200 g of meat. Mean total fasting amino acid values for all subjects were relatively constant but values for individual subjects ranged from 16% above to 18% below their own fasting means. Ingestion of whiskey invariably resulted in a significant decline in molar ratios for histidine and a significant increase for threonine.

  10. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  11. Physical distribution and characteristics of meat & bone meal protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is a high-protein commodity produced by the rendering of fat from unmarketable animal tissue. Concerns related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy have progressively restricted MBM’s conventional use as a feed ingredient. Consequently, significant attention has focused on th...

  12. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  13. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  14. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs.

  15. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat.

  16. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  17. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  18. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P < 0.01) and more eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.02) than pigs fed the 0 or 5% crude glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or

  19. Blood characteristics effect on pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Youn; Yoon, Jihyun; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Karimi, Ali; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-01-01

    PWV, a surrogate marker for vascular stiffness, can be also expressed by the Bramwell-Hill equation. The effect of blood density to PWV has been ignored, because variation of blood density is assumed to be negligible. In some clinical situation, blood density could be changed, and blood density as a mechanical property of blood flow might affect to PWV. While the elastic property plays an important role in determining the wave propagation in an elastic tube, our assumption is that there might be some relation between blood flow and vascular wall, and that the characteristics of blood flow might influence PWV. This study was objected to investigate the role of mechanical and hemorheologic parameters on PWV in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We have measured and analyzed the PWV, hemorheologic parameters, and other clinical parameters in 814 patients with coronary arterial disease scheduled for coronary angiography. There is no commercial method for measuring whole blood density. So, we defined the density score, which is sum of hemoglobin and total protein. And the hemorheologic parameters were measured within 4 hours after sampling by automated microfluidic hemorheometer. And the effect of all the clinical and hemorheologic parameter on PWV was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Many clinical parameters including age and blood pressure, high shear WBV and ESR as hemorheologic parameters, and density score were correlated well with ba-PWV. However, many clinical variables, high shear WBV and ESR lost the independent significance on multivariable regression analysis. Only age, SBP, and density score were independent variables (p < 0.001). In conclusion, density score as a mechanical property of blood might be suggested as an independent variable influencing PWV in addition to age and blood pressure, but hemorheologic parameters, such as RBC deformability, aggregation, and whole blood viscosity do not affect PWV independently.

  20. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  1. Influence of chestnut tannins on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Zhou, Daowei; Tong, Jianming; Vaddella, Venkata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of chestnut tannins (CT) on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature. Rabbits in one group were raised at 20°C and fed with basal diet (N) and other three groups (33°C) were fed basal diet with 0 (C), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg of diet. Compared with the C group, rabbits in CT10 had higher pH(24) and lower cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance values at 0, 30, and 60 min of forced oxidation. Rabbits in C group had higher cortisol levels, creatine kinase activities, white blood cell counts, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and lower T(3), T(4) levels, lymphocyte percentage than N and CT10 groups. Supplementation of CT seemed to have a positive effect on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of rabbits under high ambient temperature.

  2. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits.

  3. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  4. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.

  6. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation.

  7. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  8. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  9. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (P<0.05) as a function of palm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P<0.05), except for the neck weight. The weights of the heart, liver, kidney fat, small and large intestine, and gastrointestinal tract decreased. Nevertheless, the gastrointestinal content was greater for animals that were fed increasing levels of cake. For the other organs and viscera, differences were not verified (P>0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (P<0.05), although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  10. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. M.; Hwang, S.; Lee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs 663.0 μm2, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines. PMID:27383804

  11. The effect of meat products enriched with plant sterols and minerals on serum lipids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tapola, Niina S; Lyyra, Mari L; Karvonen, Henna M; Uusitupa, Matti I; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of non-esterified plant sterol-enriched and mineral-enriched low-fat and low-salted meat products compared with control meat products, on serum total and lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure in subjects with mildly to moderately elevated serum cholesterol concentration. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, repeated measure design was used. Altogether 21 volunteers completed the study. The study began with a pre-trial period of 1-2 weeks, which was followed by three different test periods in the following order: meat products enriched with plant sterols (1.2 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP1); meat products with no added plant sterols and minerals (control); and meat products with plant sterols (2.1 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP2). Each test period lasted for 3 weeks. During the MP2 period, the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration decreased 4.9+/-7.5% (P<0.05) and 4.6+/-11.3% (not significant), respectively, compared with the control period. No differences in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglyceride concentrations or in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were found among the test periods. In conclusion, the present study showed that frankfurters and cold cuts enriched with plant sterols from tall oil, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as part of habitual Finnish diet reduced the serum total cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects when the intake of sitosterols was 2.1 g/day, but not with the lower dose.

  12. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  13. Carcass yields and meat quality characteristics of adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) transported for 6h before slaughter.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Uttaro, Bethany; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-10-01

    The meat quality characteristics of adult emus transported for 6h before slaughter were determined. Forty-two emus were used in two trials, undertaken under warm and cool weather conditions, respectively. Male emus had significantly higher fat yields than females (12.43kg vs 9.5kg, P=0.002). About 38.1% of the emus had no wounds or bruises, 40.5% had bruises, while 21.4% had small wounds after transport. Meat from injured emus had significantly higher pH45. In warm weather, emus experienced significantly higher loss in body weight than that under cool weather. Drip loss in meat after 24h of storage was higher in emus which had greater live weight loss after transport (r=0.66, P<0.0001), confirming the adverse effects of transport stress on meat quality. Nutrient supplementation did not significantly affect processing yield or meat quality characteristics. This study points to the need for optimizing transport conditions of emus to maintain meat quality.

  14. Qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed different levels of crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Lanna, D P D; Lopes, L S; Teixeira, P D; Ladeira, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed crude glycerin. Forty-four animals with an initial live weight of 368 ± 4 kg were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments: no glycerin or addition of 6, 12 or 18% glycerin. The animals were slaughtered with 519.5 ± 14.9 kg of live weight. The meat characteristics assessed were chemical composition, shear force, fatty acid concentration, color and lipid oxidation. The addition of glycerin increased the content of ether extract (P<0.05) in the muscle. A linear increase was observed (P<0.05) in the oleic acid contents (C18:1 cis 9). The saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents linearly decreased in the muscle as a function of glycerin addition. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) indices increased with the use of crude glycerin (P<0.05). The crude glycerin increased the intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle.

  15. Rheological characteristics of fresh and frozen PSE, normal and DFD chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Barbut, S

    2005-12-01

    1. Textural and rheological differences among broiler breast meat ranging from pale, soft and exudative (PSE) to dark, firm and dry (DFD) in their fresh and frozen (and thawed) forms were investigated. 2. The PSE meat showed significantly higher lightness values and lower pH and water holding capacity values than normal and DFD meats; DFD meat was also significantly different from normal meat. 3. During cooking, PSE meat lost significantly more liquid and produced a softer gel than normal or DFD meats; texture profile analysis parameters were lower for the PSE meat. 4. The storage modulus values (G', rigidity of elastic response of the gelling material) showed that DFD meat produced a more rigid gel during cooking (especially above 54 degrees C) and later during cooling (back to 30 degrees C) compared with the PSE meat. 5. Freezing resulted in a trend of lower G' values before, during and after cooking. The results indicated that meat proteins were damaged during freezing and PSE meat was more severely affected, or that more protein denaturation occurred in the PSE meat.

  16. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  17. Influence of meat exudates on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the accumulated exudates released from pork loin of itself on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork during cold storage was investigated. Pork loins were divided into four groups (fresh pork with exudates, fresh pork without exudates, freeze-thawed pork with exudates and freeze-thawed pork without exudates) and stored at 1.0°C for 7 days. Exudate amount increased due to freeze-thawing and with storage, and most quality traits such as drip loss, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness, redness, and moisture content were affected by freeze-thawing (p<0.05). Freeze-thaw increased drip loss but decreased moisture content, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness and redness of meat (p<0.05). Microbial growth was solely affected by exudate removal and the removal of initial exudates decreased microbial growth (p<0.05). Exudates were positively correlated with total protein content and total plate count but negatively correlated with pH and cooking loss. Therefore, removing meat exudates and avoiding freeze can slow down the quality deterioration of pork during cold storage.

  18. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  19. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  20. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  1. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  2. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  3. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  4. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hozza, W. A.; Mtenga, L. A.; Kifaro, G. C.; Shija, D. S. N.; Mushi, D. E.; Safari, J. G.; Shirima, E. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  5. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  6. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values.

  7. Comparison of Characteristics of Myosin Heavy Chain-based Fiber and Meat Quality among Four Bovine Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gap-Don; Yang, Han-Sul; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fiber characteristics account for meat quality and muscle fibers are mainly classified into three or more types according to their contractile and metabolic properties. However, the majority of previous studies on bovine skeletal muscle are based on myosin ATPase activity. In the present study, the differences in the characteristics of muscle fibers classified by the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) among four bovine skeletal muscles such as longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) and their relationships to beef quality were investigated. MHCs 2x, 2a and slow were identified by LC-MS/MS and IIX, IIA and I fiber types were classified. PM, which had the smallest size and highest density of fibers regardless of type, showed the highest myoglobin content, CIE L*, a*, b* and sarcomere length (p<0.05), whereas ST with the highest composition of IIX, showed high shear force and low sarcomere length (p<0.05). The correlation coefficients between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality showed that type IIX is closely related to poor beef quality and that a high density of small-sized fibers is related to redness and tenderness. Therefore, the differences in meat quality between muscles can be explained by the differences in muscle fiber characteristics, and especially, the muscles with good quality are composed of more small-sized fibers regardless of fiber type. PMID:28115894

  8. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on physico-chemical characteristics of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerezo, S; Sañudo, C; Panea, B; Medel, I; Delfa, R; Sierra, I; Beltrán, J A; Cepero, R; Olleta, J L

    2005-02-01

    The effects of breed, slaughter weight and ageing time on the meat quality of the three most important Spanish breeds were considered. Two hundred and twenty-five lambs of Rasa Aragonesa-local meat breed-, Churra-local dairy breed- and Spanish Merino were used. Animals (75 of each breed) were slaughtered at three different live weights (10-12, 20-22 or 30-32 kg), and the meat was aged for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 days. The meat pH, colour, amount of haem pigments, intramuscular fat, moisture, hydroxyproline content and sarcomere length were measured at 24 h post-mortem. Meat texture was measured by compression after each ageing time. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.50 to 5.58. Meat colour varied with breed and slaughter weight (P⩽0.01), the M. longissimus thoracis was lighter in the youngest animals and in the Churra breed and redder in Merinos. Intramuscular fat increased and moisture decreased for heavier lambs. Differences in collagen were associated with breed (P⩽0.01); total and insoluble collagen contents were higher in the Churra breed. Sarcomere length was only slightly affected by slaughter weight. Meat from the Churra breed had the highest values at high levels of compression. Suckling lambs (10-12 kg) had greater myofibrillar toughness than heavier lambs and ageing strongly influenced myofibrillar tenderness.

  9. Effect of immunocastration with Bopriva on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Linares, C; Bolado-Sarabia, L; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Barreras-Serrano, A; Sánchez-López, E; Tamayo-Sosa, A R; Godina, A A; Ríos-Rincón, F; García, L A; Gallegos, E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of immunocastration on carcass and meat characteristics, Holstein bulls aged between 7 and 8months with a live weight of 232±1.19kg were given two separate treatments, placebo (intact bulls) versus Bopriva, and then slaughtered after approximately 239days of fattening. While the testosterone levels in intact bulls remained at 0.42ng/ml throughout the study, by day 181, differences (P<0.05) were observed in immunized bulls, with values of 0.21ng/ml. The carcasses of animals treated with Bopriva recorded both a higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and a cold carcass weight (CCW), as well as higher dorsal fat density, marbling and KPH (P<0.05); however, no differences (P>0.05) were observed in the Longissimus lumborum area. No significant differences (P>0.05) were recorded between the treatments for pH, L*, a*, b* C* and H*. The carcasses of the animals treated with Bopriva were heavier, with higher dorsal fat density and marbling score.

  10. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  11. Effect of dietary selenium source (organic vs. mineral) and muscle pH on meat quality characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Luis; Toldrá, Fidel; Rodríguez, Ana I; López-Bote, Clemente; Rey, Ana I

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of organic (Se-enriched yeast; SeY) versus inorganic selenium (sodium selenite; SeS) supplementation and the different response of selenium source according to muscle pH on pork meat quality characteristics. Pigs (n = 30) were fed the Se-supplemented diets (0.3 mg/kg) for 65 days. Neither electric conductivity (EC) nor drip loss were affected by the selenium source. The SeY group had lower TBARS in muscle samples after day 7 of refrigerated storage and higher a* values on days 1 and 7 than the SeS group. The effect of dietary selenium source on some meat quality characteristics was affected by muscle pH. Hence, as the muscle pH increases, the drip loss decreases but this effect is more marked with the dietary organic Se enrichment. Muscle pH seems to modulate the action of selenium in pork, especially some meat characteristics such as drip loss.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of raw turkey breast meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of quality changes in raw turkey breast meat by irradiation. Raw turkey breast meat was irradiated at 0 kGy, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy, and changes in quality parameters including color, lipid and protein oxidation, and off-odor volatiles were determined. Irradiation accelerated lipid and protein oxidation, and increased redness in raw turkey breast meat. However, irradiation had less effect on the volatile profiles of salt-soluble muscle extract than water-soluble muscle extract because the primary radiolytic product from water (hydroxyl radical) had higher chances to react with the water-soluble molecules nearby. The radiolytic degradation products from sulfur-containing amino acids and aldehydes from lipid oxidation were two major volatile compounds responsible for the off-odor of irradiated raw turkey breast meat. Dimethyl disulfide was found only in irradiated raw turkey breast meat, and the amount of dimethyl disulfide linearly increased as the irradiation dose increased, indicating that this compound can be used as a marker for irradiate meat.

  13. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable.

  14. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  15. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  16. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  17. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W

    2008-11-01

    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  18. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Wagyu heifers (Japanese Black cattle).

    PubMed

    Irie, M; Kouda, M; Matono, H

    2011-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is used as a hepatic and digestive medicine in humans and domestic animals, was added to the diet of Wagyu beef cattle to investigate its effects on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. The study involved 20 Japanese Black heifers. Animals were divided into the following 2 groups, a control group and a UDCA group (diet supplemented with UDCA), with each group containing 10 animals. The UDCA was administrated at a dose of 2.5 g/(animal/d) to each heifer 24 times over a period of 7 mo in the finishing period. The heifers were slaughtered at 29 mo of age, and carcass characteristics and meat quality were determined. Both the UDCA group and the control group showed similar (P > 0.1) final BW, fattening periods, and daily BW gain. Supplementation of UDCA significantly increased meat quality grade (P < 0.05) and marbling (P < 0.01) and but did not show a significant (P > 0.1) effect on dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib thickness, or ribeye area. The percentage of ether extract in the LM was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the UDCA group (43.2%) than in the control group (37.8%), whereas the percentage of moisture was significantly less in the former than the latter (P < 0.05).The L* (lightness) values of the muscles were greater (P < 0.05) in the UDCA group than in the control group. No significant differences (P > 0.1) were observed between groups in water-holding capacity, fatty acid composition, and vitamin E content of the LM or in intermuscular fat characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with UDCA can increase marbling without causing growth defects and can improve carcass characteristics in Wagyu cattle.

  19. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  20. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  1. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P < 0.01) with Cu supplementation. Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations than the other treatments. Backfat depth (P < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.01) were also increased with Cu supplementation. However, Cu-supplemented goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P < 0.01), C20:4 (P < 0.01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.03), decreased C18:1 trans (P = 0.04), and tended to decrease C18:0 (P = 0.08) in LM. Other fatty acids detected were not affected by dietary Cu supplementation (P > 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats.

  2. Influence of aging days and age at harvest on the meat quality characteristics of Gannan black yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, there is evidence that meat from yak is less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n=181) were...

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  4. Use of blood-free enrichment broth in the development of a rapid protocol to detect Campylobacter in twenty-five grams of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Kubota-Hayashi, Sayoko; Natori, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Takuya; Miyata, Machiko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Zhang, Jiwei; Kawamoto, Keiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Makino, Souichi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2013-04-15

    A Food Pathogen Enrichment (FPE) broth, which supports the growth of Campylobacter without lysed blood and CO2, was developed. The FPE broth supports the growth of Campylobacter to the same degree as Bolton and Preston broths. Using the FPE broth, we developed a novel rapid protocol to detect small numbers of Campylobacter in 25g of food. The sensitivity of FPE enrichment and PCR to detect Campylobacter spp. from spiked chicken meat was determined. The detection sensitivities for non-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from fresh meat ranged from 5.8 to 1.1×10(1)CFU per 25g of chicken meat, and those for freeze-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from frozen meat ranged from 9.9×10(1) to 2.0×10(2)CFU. The FPE broth enrichment culture (24h) of chicken meat, followed by PCR, resulted in a significantly higher detection score (80% positive) than conventional Bolton enrichment and subsequent colony isolation using mCCDA agar plates (18% positive). Differences between our new protocol and the Bolton enrichment method were due to the overgrowth of many resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in the Bolton enrichment broth.

  5. The use of meat juice or blood serum for the diagnosis of Salmonella infection in pigs and its possible implications on Salmonella control programs.

    PubMed

    Vico, Juan P; Mainar-Jaime, Raúl C

    2011-05-01

    Serology is the method of choice for country-scale Salmonella control programs in pigs and can be carried out both on blood serum or meat juice. However, the diagnostic performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on these sample matrices has not been sufficiently compared. The agreement between the serum ELISA and meat juice ELISA on samples taken from commercial farms was assessed in 2 pig populations (adult sows and finishers). Results of optical density percentage (OD%) from the serum ELISA were consistently higher than those from the meat juice ELISA (38.5 vs. 27.9; P<0.001), and the mean difference between them was significantly different from zero (P<0.0001). The overall correlation coefficient between serum ELISA and meat juice ELISA results was low (r=0.53). These results indicated an important disagreement between ELISA performed on serum and meat juice matrices and suggested that before implementing a control program to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in swine the choice of matrix on which to perform the ELISA should be carefully considered.

  6. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  7. Broiler survivors of intravenous micro-particle injections: evaluation of growth, livability, meat quality, and arterial blood gas values during a cyclic heat challenge.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Owens, C M; Devabhaktuni, M K; Cavitt, L C; Wang, W; Erf, G F

    2003-03-01

    When broilers are exposed to high ambient temperatures, their cardiac output can increase by 20 to 50%. Previously, we developed an intravenous micro-particle injection technique to select broilers having a cardiopulmonary capacity capable of accommodating increases in cardiac output associated with fast growth and cool temperatures. In the present study, male broilers were injected at 18 to 20 d of age with cellulose micro-particles sufficient to trigger >50% mortality by 35 d of age. The survivors of micro-particle injections (cellulose survivors) and saline-injected flock mates (control group) were exposed to a moderate cyclic heat challenge (peak temperature of 35 to 37 degrees C) beginning on d 36 and continuing through d 57. We tested the hypothesis that if the cellulose survivors represent the population cohort having the most robust cardiopulmonary capacity, then during a subsequent heat challenge these survivorspotentially may perform better than their unselected flock mates. Based on data combined from two independent experiments, the cellulose survivors exhibited improved livability and body weight gain when compared with their unselected flock mates during the cyclic heat challenge. Meat quality characteristics did not differ between the groups. In a third experiment, cellulose survivors and saline-injected male broilers were reared at thermoneutral temperatures or were exposed to a cyclic heat challenge beginning on d 36. Arterial blood samples were collected from unanesthetized birds at 47 to 49 d of age and were analyzed for pH, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, partial pressure of O2, and saturation of hemoglobin with O2. The blood gas values for the cellulose survivors and saline-injected broilers did not differ within a temperature regimen, regardless of whether the broilers were chronically acclimated to heat or were exposed to an acute heat challenge at the end of the experiment. The cellulose survivors did not differ in susceptibility to

  8. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  9. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  10. Rheological characteristics and morphology of dialdehyde starch/meat composites during heating.

    PubMed

    Chiang, P Y; Li, J Y; Chen, M L

    2009-03-01

    Dialdehyde starch (DAS) was added to pork ham batter. The effects of DAS on the meat protein gel during heating were investigated using thermal and rheological analyses. In this study, the degree of DAS oxidation was controlled by the reaction time. The DSC thermogram showed that increasing the degree of oxidation resulted in DAS having a higher gelatinization temperature and lower heat absorption. In dialdehyde starch/meat (DAS/M) composites, meat protein reduced the availability of water to starch and raised the gelatinization temperature and heat absorbed by the composites. The G'(max) of the composites was greater than the linear combination of their components. The rheological properties of DAS were a major factor affecting the properties of its composites. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with the aid of histologic technique revealed the network and distribution of DAS and DAS/M composites. The protein matrix formed the backbone of the network and gelatinized starch was trapped in the protein structure.

  11. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    PubMed

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P < 0.01) and shear force value (P < 0.001) increased with age. Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat of musculus (M.) semimembranosus increased with age (P < 0.01). The percentage of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was lower (P < 0.001) in the M. longissimus dorsi of the kids slaughtered at 3 months of age than those in the other age groups. The females had higher intramuscular fat than that in males (P < 0.001) and meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P < 0.01). In conclusion, meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  12. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    PubMed

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  13. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  14. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  15. Body weight, meat quality and blood metabolite responses to carbohydrate administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kop-Bozbay, C; Ocak, N

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine weights of body (BW), carcass (CW), gastrointestinal tract (GTW), meat quality and some blood metabolite responses to corn starch, saccharose or glucose administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal (FW) in broilers. On day 42 of age, 200 broilers (Ross 308) were allocated randomly to five treatments with four replicates. During a 10-h FW, control broilers (C) were provided with non-treated water and the standard finisher diet ad libitum, whereas fasted broilers provided with non-treated (NFW) or treated water, 3 g glucose (G), saccharose (S) or corn starch (CS)/L. Eight birds (four males and four females) per treatment were slaughtered. Birds receiving non-treated or treated water had lower BW and higher carcass yield than the full-fed broilers. The full-fed broilers had higher absolute and relative GTW than the fasted birds. Broilers consumed more readily treated water compared with non-treated water. While the a* value of breast meat from CS birds was higher than that from NFW, the b* value of that was higher than S and C birds. The c* values of breast meat from S birds were lower compared with that from the CS treatment. The thigh meat from NFW broilers had higher h* value than that from C and G broilers. The thigh meats of C and CS broilers had higher c* value than that of G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma triglyceride concentration than NFW, S and G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma uric acid and uric acid nitrogen concentrations than S birds. These results show that carbohydrate administration in the drinking water cannot be a good alternative for the FW period before slaughter due to the fact that the carbohydrates do not reduce BW losses and do not lead to increases in meat quality.

  16. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  17. Characteristics of meat emulsion systems as influenced by different levels of lemon albedo.

    PubMed

    Sarıçoban, C; Ozalp, B; Yılmaz, M T; Ozen, G; Karakaya, M; Akbulut, M

    2008-11-01

    The effect of the addition of lemon albedo on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared by the addition of two types of lemon albedo (raw and dehydrated) at five concentrations (0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10%) to mechanically deboned chicken meat. The emulsion capacity, stability, viscosity and flow properties of the prepared model emulsions were analyzed. In addition, the colour parameters of cooked emulsion gel were determined. The addition of lemon albedo increased the emulsion capacity (EC) and the highest EC value was reached with 5% of albedo added. However, further increase in the albedo concentration caused an inverse trend in the EC values. A similar trend was observed in the emulsion stability (ES) values. Dehydrated albedo (DA) addition caused higher EC and ES values than did raw albedo (RA). DA increased the L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values of the cooked emulsion gels. Emulsion viscosity (EV) values were positively correlated with an increase in albedo concentration and the highest EV value was obtained from the emulsions with 10% albedo. Albedo addition did not change the flow properties of the emulsions and, in addition, increased the pseudoplasticity. As a consequence, the use of lemon albedo might be a potential dietary fiber source to enhance the functional and technological properties for frankfurter-type meat products.

  18. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P < 0.05). Protein oxidation was increased both in cured and uncured meats (P < 0.05), but more in cured cooked meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P < 0.05), but the redness of cured cooked turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P < 0.05). Irradiated cured cooked turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products.

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P < 0.01). High concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents.

  20. Characteristics of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chicken meat and hospitalized dogs in Korea and their epidemiological relatedness.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nam Hoon; Park, Kun Taek; Jung, Woo Kyung; Youn, Hwa Young; Lee, Yeonhee; Kim, So Hyun; Bae, Wonki; Lim, Ji Youn; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jun Man; Hong, Soon Keun; Park, Yong Ho

    2006-10-31

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important pathogens in human and veterinary hospitals. The isolation of MRSA from animals and foodstuffs has been reported with an increased incidence. However, methicillin (oxacillin) is not used in animal husbandry or in animal hospitals in Korea. In this study, three pre-MRSA and one silent mecA-carrying methicillin susceptible S. aureus (smMSSA) were isolated from retail chicken meat, and three MRSA were isolated from hospitalized dogs in Korea. The three pre-MRSA isolates were determined to have a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III, and the smMSSA isolate was not classified. The animal hospital isolates were found to contain SCCmec type II. Seven and 15 S. aureus isolated from hospitalized humans and bovine milk, respectively, were also examined in this study in order to determine the epidemiological origins of MRSA. Multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) revealed that the chicken meat and bovine milk isolates were closely related to the animal hospital isolates. The SCCmec characteristics and MLST analyses indicated the possibility of the human to animal transmission of MRSA. These results highlight the importance of identifying MRSA carriers as well as intercepting MRSA transmission because MRSA is becoming increasingly widespread without any plausible relationship with the use of methicillin (oxacillin).

  1. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  2. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  3. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (P<0.05), obviously by e-beam irradiation compared to gamma-ray and X-ray (P<0.05). The redness of pork sausages was increased by gamma-ray irradiation, whereas it decreased by e-beam irradiation depending on absorbed dose level. No significant changes in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  4. Chemical and physical characteristics of lamb meat related to crossbreeding of Romanov ewes with Suffolk and Charollais sires.

    PubMed

    Kuchtík, Jan; Zapletal, David; Šustová, Květoslava

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of crossbreeding Romanov (RO) ewes with Suffolk (SF) and Charollais (CH) sires on the chemicophysical characteristics and FA profile of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) in lambs fattened under organic conditions. The experimental animals were male lamb twins of two different crossbreds; CH 50 RO 50 and SF 50 RO 50. Lambs were slaughtered at an average live weight of 31kg. CH 50 RO 50 displayed higher contents of dry matter and intramuscular fat of the QFM. A lower pH value of CH 50 RO 50 was reflected in an increase of WHC. Meat of SF 50 RO 50 lambs had more lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). The CH 50 RO 50 genotype showed a significantly higher proportion of C18:3n-3cis and n-3 PUFA than the SF 50 RO 50 genotype. The genotype also affected the Δ(9)-desaturase (16) index.

  5. Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis. In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose. Methods In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested. Results The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma) taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective. PMID:21106067

  6. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  7. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ≤ 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet.

  8. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  9. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent.

  10. Characteristics of compounds that cross the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2009-06-12

    Substances cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by a variety of mechanisms. These include transmembrane diffusion, saturable transporters, adsorptive endocytosis, and the extracellular pathways. Here, we focus on the chief characteristics of two mechanisms especially important in drug delivery: transmembrane diffusion and transporters. Transmembrane diffusion is non-saturable and depends, on first analysis, on the physicochemical characteristics of the substance. However, brain-to-blood efflux systems, enzymatic activity, plasma protein binding, and cerebral blood flow can greatly alter the amount of the substance crossing the BBB. Transport systems increase uptake of ligands by roughly 10-fold and are modified by physiological events and disease states. Most drugs in clinical use to date are small, lipid soluble molecules that cross the BBB by transmembrane diffusion. However, many drug delivery strategies in development target peptides, regulatory proteins, oligonucleotides, glycoproteins, and enzymes for which transporters have been described in recent years. We discuss two examples of drug delivery for newly discovered transporters: that for phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and for enzymes.

  11. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples.

  12. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  13. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  14. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  15. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Long, L.; Wu, S. G.; Yuan, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Qi, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  16. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-09-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed.

  17. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  18. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  19. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  20. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  1. [Immunophenotypic characteristics of peripheral blood cells in normal elderly men].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Zhe; Chang, Yan; Lu, Dan; Shi, Hong-Xia; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Yan-Rong

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to distinguish abnormal cells and to diagnose hematologic diseases through recognizing antigen expression pattern and percentage of peripheral blood cells in normal elderly men. Antigen expression of blast cells, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, nucleated red blood cells and plasma cells was detected by seven-color flow cytometry in a total of 88 peripheral blood samples from normal elderly men, aged median 82 years old, from 70 to 98 years. Groups were divided according to age, region and underlying diseases, and the percentages of different subgroup cells were examined to confirm whether the differences were significant or not. The results showed that the median proportion of CD34(+) blast cells in peripheral blood from normal elderly men were 0.017% (0.015%-0.020%), with high expression of HLA-DR, CD33, CD13 and CD117, low expression of myeloid antigens, such as CD15, CD11b and CD16, while lymphoid antigens were seldom positive, including CD7, CD19 and CD56. Dim-expression of CD38 was found in peripheral blood blast cells, CD38(dim)+/- cell percentage in blast cells was 61.36% ± 18.26%. In the differentiation and development of granulocytes, CD16(-), CD13(+) CD16(+) (intermediate) and CD16(+) (strong) CD13(+) cells appeared in sequence from immature to mature granulocytes, whose median proportions in nuclear cells were 0.04%, 0.30% and 61.30%, respectively. The percentages of immature monocytes, such as CD64(+) CD14(-) and HLA-DR(+) CD11b(-) cells, were from 0.00% to 0.10% and from 0.07% to 0.68%, separately. No significant differences were found between different subgroups (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the immunophenotypic characteristics and referential percentages of CD34(+) blast cells, granulocytes and monocytes with different development stages in peripheral blood from normal elderly men are recognized, which can help to discriminate abnormal cells.

  2. By-product feeds for meat goats: effects on digestibility, ruminal environment, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A; Poore, M H; Luginbuhl, J M

    2002-07-01

    lower (P < 0.01) for goats fed hay (15.4) and soyhull diets (11.6) than those fed corn gluten feed (25.2) and wheat midd diets (23.0, SEM = 1.35). Ruminal pH was lower for goats fed the byproducts, but remained above 6. Serum urea nitrogen (mg/100 mL) averaged 21.0+/-1.0 (P = 0.11) with soyhulls tending to be lowest (19.3) and corn gluten feed tending to be highest (22.8). Soyhulls, corn gluten feed, and wheat midds appear to be viable feed ingredients for meat goat diets.

  3. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    from 2.65 to 3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  4. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  5. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  6. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  7. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  8. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl A; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Pachett, Annabelle

    2009-01-01

    Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are base producing but restrict red meat without clear justification. We hypothesized that a vitality diet (VD), a low-sodium DASH-type diet with a low dietary acid load containing 6 servings of 100 g cooked lean red meat per week, would be more effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) compared with a higher acid load reference healthy diet (RHD) based on general dietary guidelines to reduce fat intake and increase intake of breads and cereals. A randomized, parallel dietary intervention study was conducted to compare the BP-lowering effect of these 2 diets in postmenopausal women with high/normal BP. Women were randomly assigned to follow either VD or RHD for 14 weeks. Home BP was measured daily with an automated BP monitor under standard conditions. Of 111 women commencing the study, 95 completed (46 VD, 49 RHD). Systolic BP (SBP) throughout the intervention was lower in the VD group compared to the RHD group (repeated-measures analysis of variance time by diet, P = .04), such that at the end of the study, the VD had a fall of SBP by 5.6 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) compared with a fall of 2.7 +/- 1.0 mm Hg in the RHD (group difference, P = .08). When only those taking antihypertensive medications were assessed, the VD (n = 17) had a significant fall of 6.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg SBP (P = .02) and 4.6 +/- 1.4 mm Hg diastolic BP (P = .005) after 14 weeks, and their BP was lower than that of the RHD group (n = 18) throughout the study (P < .05). We concluded that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications.

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of biltong, a traditional salted dried meat of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Thomas; Caro, Yanis; Petit, Anne-Sophie; Santchurn, Sunita J; Collignan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of several commercial beef, kudu and springbok biltong samples from South Africa were assessed in this study. Analysis of samples allowed their differentiation into 'dry' and 'moist' samples. Dry biltong showed low moisture content (21.5-25.3 g/100 g), a low water activity (0.65-0.68) and a high salt content (5.5-7.9 g/100 g), while moist biltong showed a higher moisture content (35.1-42.8 g/100 g), a higher water activity (0.85 to 0.89) and a lower salt content (3.8-5.6 g/100 g). The pH value did not vary significantly between both groups (5.00-6.26). The results showed that dry biltong presented a low total plate count (TPC) content, a high level of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a high level of D-lactic acid as compared to moist biltong. These results suggest that dry biltong complies with the standard hygienic quality (TPC<7 log cfu/g in agreement with the Food Standards Agency), while moist biltong samples generally showed a low content of D-lactic acid and a low ratio LAB/TPC.

  10. Marination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Vacuum-aged Duck Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Young, Hae In; Lee, Haelim; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-11-01

    We investigated marinade absorption and physicochemical characteristics of vacuum-aged duck breasts that were halved and individually vacuum-packed for chiller aging at 4°C for 14 d. One half was marinated for 0, 7, or 14 d, while the second half was used as a control. Marinade absorption, cooking loss, cooking yield, texture profile, pH, color, protein solubility, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were evaluated, and protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Marinade absorption and pH did not vary significantly after 14 d of aging. Marination increased the pH, color (a* and b*) values, and cooking yield and reduced cooking loss. TBARS values significantly increased with aging time, but were significantly reduced by marination. Myofibril and total protein solubility increased with aging and marination, while SDS-PAGE showed protein degradation. Hence, aging and marination can be used simultaneously to improve physicochemical quality and cooking yield of vacuum-aged duck breast.

  11. Marination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Vacuum-aged Duck Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Young, Hae In; Lee, Haelim; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated marinade absorption and physicochemical characteristics of vacuum-aged duck breasts that were halved and individually vacuum-packed for chiller aging at 4°C for 14 d. One half was marinated for 0, 7, or 14 d, while the second half was used as a control. Marinade absorption, cooking loss, cooking yield, texture profile, pH, color, protein solubility, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were evaluated, and protein sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Marinade absorption and pH did not vary significantly after 14 d of aging. Marination increased the pH, color (a* and b*) values, and cooking yield and reduced cooking loss. TBARS values significantly increased with aging time, but were significantly reduced by marination. Myofibril and total protein solubility increased with aging and marination, while SDS-PAGE showed protein degradation. Hence, aging and marination can be used simultaneously to improve physicochemical quality and cooking yield of vacuum-aged duck breast. PMID:26954195

  12. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  13. Quality and sensory characteristics of selected post-rigor, early deboned broiler breast meat tenderized using hydrodynamic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Meek, K I; Claus, J R; Duncan, S E; Marriott, N G; Solomon, M B; Kathman, S J; Marini, M E

    2000-01-01

    Our first objective was to determine the effects of explosive amount and distance of the explosive to the meat surface in the Hydrodyne process on broiler breast tenderness. Early deboned (EB) breasts were removed immediately after initial chill (45 min postmortem), stored for 24 h (4 C), and subjected to one of four Hydrodyne treatments (200 g at 20 cm, 350 g at 23 cm, 275 g at 20 cm, or 350 g at 20 cm). Breasts were water-cooked (78 C internal). Hydrodyne treatment (HYD) of 350 g at 20 cm produced the greatest reduction (28.3%) in Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS, 1.9-cm wide strips). This combination was the only treatment to improve tenderness (peak force 4.3 kg) to a level equivalent (P > 0.05) to aged controls (CA; peak force 3.1 kg). The second objective was to determine the quality and sensory characteristics of Hydrodyne-treated (350 g explosive at 20 cm) broiler breasts as compared with CA and EB. The WBS values (1.0-cm wide and thick strips) for CA (1.56 kg) were different from both HYD (3.7 kg) and EB breasts (4.7 kg). The CA resulted in more tender, flavorful, and juicer breasts than EB and HYD. The EB was higher in initial moisture release than HYD. The EB breasts with tenderness problems can be tenderized by the Hydrodyne process based on WBS results. However, higher levels of explosive may be required to optimize the tenderness improvement of EB breasts that vary significantly in initial tenderness.

  14. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  15. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  16. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  17. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  18. Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on meat colour, pH, composition, and water-holding characteristic in broilers under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Gao, F; Xu, X L; Zhang, W H; Song, S X; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on raw breast meat colour, pH, composition and water-holding characteristic of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS). 2. A total of 360 21-d-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 birds per cage). The positive control (PC) broilers were kept in a thermoneutral chamber (22-24°C) and fed on the basal diet. The other 4 groups were kept in a cyclic HS chamber (30-34°C) for 9 h (from 09:00 to 18:00). 3. A significant increase was observed in breast meat lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; and pH values at 28, 35 and 42 d; while a significant decrease was observed in breast meat cooking loss (CL) and contents of moisture, crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF) and crude ash (CA) due to HS. 4. The supplementation with 0·5 g Gln/kg decreased lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; while increasing redness at 28 d, yellowness at 35 d, contents of CP, CF and CA, thawing loss (TL) and drip loss (DL). The addition of 100 mg GABA/kg decreased lightness at 28 and 35 d, pH value at 28, 35 and 42 d, and TL; while increasing redness at 28 d, 35 and 42 d, contents of moisture, CP and CF. 5. The lightness, redness, and pH value; contents of moisture, CP, CF and CA; and TL, DL and CL of breast meat of broilers fed with the mixture of Gln and GABA under cyclic HS were similar to those of the broilers in the PC group. 6. Significant interactions were found between Gln and GABA for yellowness at 28 and 35 d; pH at 28, 35 and 42 d; moisture content, CP content, water-holding capacity and TL. 7. These results demonstrated that dietary Gln and GABA offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent cyclic HS-related depression in broiler meat chemical composition and quality.

  19. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  20. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  1. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, yield, conformation score, marbling degree, fat thickness and fatness score than Criollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  2. A Hydraulic Model of Arterial System for Study the Relationship Between Blood Distribution and Frequency Characteristics of Blood Pressure Waveform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This paper was trying to find out a suitable hydraulic model for studying the frequency characteristics between blood pressure waveforms and systemic...were used as organs. We used two kinds of tubes to test the hydraulic model and tried to find out suitable material to stimulate the aorta and its

  3. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts: Effect of formulation and freezing storage.

    PubMed

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2015-10-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (-20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content, an increase in lipid oxidation indicators, and an intense browning of nuggets surface. The use of flank up to a 75% of the total meat in the formula led to higher fat contents and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in fried nuggets. This made them more prone to get oxidized during the freezing storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46-3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable prefried frozen lamb nuggets, which constitutes an opportunity for adding value to the whole lamb value chain.

  4. Effect of live weight and sex on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of Merino lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Peña, Ramón E; Andrés, Ana I

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight lamb carcasses were divided into four groups (n=12) according to slaughter weight (24 and 29kg) and sex (male and female). Colour, pH, moisture, and intramuscular fat were not affected (p>0.05) by slaughter weight or sex. With respect to fatty acid composition, slaughter weight had significant effects on C12:0 (p<0.01), C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 (p<0.05) in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 decreased as slaughter weight increased, while C16:0 increased. In Semimembranosus (SM) m., only C18:3 n-3 and C20:2 n-6 were affected (p<0.001) by slaughter weight. Total PUFA in LL m. was greater (p<0.01) in females than in males. Although in general, sensorial quality was not significantly affected by slaughter weight or sex, meat from lighter lambs (24kg) had greater general acceptability than meat from heavier lambs (29kg).

  5. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  6. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  7. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  8. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    PubMed Central

    An, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Oh, S. T.; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01). The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01). In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics. PMID:25557821

  9. Effects of modified tall oil and creatine monohydrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, P R; Andrews, B S; Goodband, R D; Unruh, J A; Nelssen, J L; Woodworth, J C; Tokach, M D; Owen, K Q

    2000-09-01

    The effects of feeding modified tall oil (MTO) and creatine monohydrate (CMH) on growing-finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were determined. Eighty cross-bred barrows (initially 45.4 kg) were allotted randomly to one of four dietary treatments by weight and ancestry. The experiment was arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with two levels of MTO (0 or 0.50%), which were fed throughout the growing-finishing period, and two levels of CMH (0 or 25 g/d), which were fed for the final 10 d before slaughter. The corn-soybean meal diets were fed in two phases (45.4 to 78.9 kg and 78.9 to 117.5 kg BW). When CMH was added to the diet in place of corn, average BW was 107.5 kg. Feeding MTO increased (P < 0.05) ADG and gain:feed ratio (G/F) during the 45.4- to 78.9-kg growth interval and tended to improve (P = 0.10) G/F during the 45.4- to 107.5-kg growth interval. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.15) growth performance during the 78.9- to 107.5-kg growth interval. Modified tall oil increased (P = 0.02) G/F during the 10-d CMH supplementation period, and CMH numerically (P = 0.11) increased ADG and G/F. Supplementation of CMH did not affect (P > 0.20) any measured carcass characteristic or measures of meat quality at 24 h or 14 d postmortem. Feeding MTO reduced average back-fat (P = 0.05) and 10th rib backfat (P = 0.01) but did not affect (P > 0.10) other measured carcass characteristics or measures of meat quality at 24 h postmortem. Modified tall oil increased (P = 0.02) L* values (lightness) and tended to increase (P < 0.10) thawing and cooking losses of longissimus muscle chops at 14 d postmortem. These data demonstrate that MTO improves growth performance and reduces backfat in growing-finishing pigs, but supplementation of CMH, under the conditions of this experiment, was not beneficial for growing-finishing pigs.

  10. Force and torque characteristics for magnetically driven blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pan; Haik, Yousef; Kilani, Mohammad; Chen, Ching-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Magnetically driven screw pumps were designed and fabricated for pumping biological fluids. The magnetic field simulations for three different magnetic coupling arrangements were obtained numerically. The force and torque for the three arrangements were computed. The effect of the separation gap between poles and the rotational angle on the force and torque is also presented. The pump characteristics were obtained experimentally.

  11. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  12. Transport characteristics of tramadol in the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

  13. Factors affecting rabbit meat consumption among Spanish university students.

    PubMed

    González-Redondo, Pedro; Mena, Yolanda; Fernández-Cabanás, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rabbit meat consumption patterns among students. Results of the 342 students surveyed at the University of Seville, Spain showed that more men than women consumed rabbit meat. More students consumed wild rabbit meat than farmed rabbit meat. The practice of hunting by students or their relatives, and the raising of rabbits for self-consumption, positively influenced the proportion of students that currently consumed rabbit meat. Most of the students that had eaten rabbit meat before but are currently non-eaters do so because of the meat's organoleptic characteristics or from lack of consumption habit.

  14. Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, C L; Mulley, R C; Wiklund, E; Flesch, J S; Sims, K

    2014-10-01

    The effect of pelvic and Achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. Venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and pH and core body temperature measured. Twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. Venison from fallow deer and red deer stags pelvic-suspended had significantly lower (P<0.001) cooked shear force values than Achilles hung carcasses. There was no significant difference between hanging technique for other characteristics measured. These data indicated that pelvic suspension should be adopted by the deer industry to increase tenderness of venison.

  15. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial.

  16. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning.

  17. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  18. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One-Dimensional Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  19. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  20. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One–Dimensional Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant. PMID:25931614

  1. Effects of blood in veins of dragonfly wing on the vibration characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhao, Hongxiao; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    How the blood in veins of dragonfly wing affects its vibration characteristics is investigated. Based on the experimental results of the wing's morphology and microstructures, including the veins, the membranes and the pterostigma, accurate three-dimensional finite element models of the dragonfly forewing are developed. Considering the blood in veins, the total mass, mass distribution and the moments of inertia of the wing are studied. The natural frequencies/modal shapes are analyzed when the veins are filled with and without blood, respectively. The based natural frequency of the model with blood (189 Hz) is much closer to the experimental result. Relative to bending modal shapes, the torsional ones are affected more significantly by the blood. The results in this article reveal the multi-functions of the blood in dragonfly wings and have important implications for the bionic design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

  2. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority.

  3. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  4. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  5. Clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kansui, Yasuo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kida, Haruko; Sakata, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Ibaraki, Ai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Strict control of blood pressure is important to prevent cardiovascular disease, although it is sometimes difficult to decrease blood pressure to target levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred in-hospital patients, whose 24-hour average blood pressure was higher than 130/80 mmHg even after treatment with more than three antihypertensive drugs, were included in the present analysis. Circadian variation of blood pressure was evaluated by nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure. Average blood pressures of all patients were high in both daytime and nighttime, 150.0/82.9 and 143.8/78.2 mmHg, respectively. Twenty patients had been treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In 63 patients out of the other 80 patients (79%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also decreased (<60 mL/min/1.73 m²). The patients classified into dipper, non-dipper, riser and extreme-dipper were 20%, 43%, 34% and 3%, respectively. In addition, in 17 patients whose eGFR was preserved, 12 patients showed a non-dipper or riser pattern, suggesting that it was difficult to account for this altered circadian blood pressure variation only by renal dysfunction. These results show that a large number of the patients with resistant hypertension suffered from renal dysfunction, although it was difficult to explain altered circadian blood pressure variation based on renal dysfunction alone.

  6. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  7. Influence of different types and proportions of added edible seaweeds on characteristics of low-salt gel/emulsion meat systems.

    PubMed

    Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Solas, M T; Bravo, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-01

    The effects of three different types of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) added at two concentrations (2.5% and 5% dry matter) on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of gel/emulsion systems were evaluated. The addition of seaweeds improved (P<0.05) water- and fat-binding properties except in the case of Nori added at 2.5%. Hardness and chewiness of the cooked products with added seaweed were higher (P<0.05), and springiness and cohesiveness were lower (P<0.05) than in control samples. Colour changes in meat systems were affected by the type of seaweed. The morphology of sample differed depending on the type of seaweed added, and this is the result of differences in physical and chemical characteristic of the seaweed powder used. In general, products formulated with the brown seaweeds (Sea Spaghetti and Wakame) exhibited similar behaviour, different from that of products made with the red seaweed Nori.

  8. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  9. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  10. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  12. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat.

  13. Identification of characteristic molecular signature for volatile organic compounds in peripheral blood of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Noh, Ji Heon; Eun, Jung Woo; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie, Hong Jian; Jang, Ja-June; Ryu, Jae Chun; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2011-01-15

    In a previous report we demonstrated that the transcriptomic response of liver tissue was specific to toxicants, and a characteristic molecular signature could be used as an early prognostic biomarker in rats. It is necessary to determine the transcriptomic response to toxicants in peripheral blood for application to the human system. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a major group of pollutants which significantly affect the chemistry of the atmosphere and human health. In this study we identified and validated the specific molecular signatures of toxicants in rat whole blood as early predictors of environmental toxicants. VOCs (dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were administered to 11-week-old SD male rats after 48 h of exposure, peripheral whole blood was subjected to expression profiling analysis. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant, and supervised analysis identified 1,217 outlier genes as distinct molecular signatures discerning VOC exposure from healthy controls. Further analysis of multi-classification suggested 337 genes as early detective molecular markers for three VOCs with 100% accuracy. A large-scale gene expression analysis of a different VOC exposure animal model suggested that characteristic expression profiles exist in blood cells and multi-classification of this VOC-specific molecular signature can discriminate each toxicant at an early exposure time. This blood expression signature can thus be used as discernable surrogate marker for detection of biological responses to VOC exposure in an environment.

  14. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  16. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  17. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  18. Performance and blood parameters when lambs and meat-goat kids were finished on pasture with and without whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated forage production patterns, weight gains, and health patterns when lambs (Ovis aries) and meat goat (Caprus hircus) kids were finished on a mixed sward of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with (SUP) and with...

  19. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  20. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (p<0.0017) and improved emulsion stability (p<0.0001) but also resulted in greater textural and eating quality modification of sausages. Hardness values increased (p<0.0001) with increasing inulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (p<0.0112). Optimisation predicted two acceptable sausage formulations with significantly lower fat levels than the control, which would contain sufficient inulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect.

  1. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI).

  2. Dispersion characteristics of blood during nanoparticle assisted drug delivery process through a permeable microvessel.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sachin; Ganguly, Suvankar; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticle assisted drug delivery holds considerable promise as a means of next generation of medicine that allows for the intravascular delivery of drugs and contrast agents. We analyze the dispersion characteristics of blood during a nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery process through a permeable microvessel. The contribution of molecular and convective diffusion is based on Taylor's theory of shear dispersion. The aggregation of red blood cells in blood flowing through small tubes (less than 40 μm) leads to the two-phase flow with a core of rouleaux surrounded by a cell-depleted peripheral layer. The core region models as a non-Newtonian Casson fluid and the peripheral region acts as a Newtonian fluid. We investigate the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction, the permeability of the blood vessel, pressure distribution, yield stress and the radius of the nanoparticle on the effective dispersion. We show that the effective diffusion of the nanoparticles reduces with an increase in nanoparticle volume fraction. The permeability of the blood vessels increases the effective dispersion at the inlet. The present study contributes to the fundamental understanding on how the particulate nature of blood influences nanoparticle delivery, and is of particular significance in nanomedicine design for targeted drug delivery applications.

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  4. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  5. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  6. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow.

  7. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  8. Triangulation method for determining capillary blood flow and physical characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gorti, S; Tone, H; Imokawa, G

    1999-08-01

    A method capable of measuring blood flow at precise depths within the skin is described. The method determines the static and the dynamic properties of light that is backscattered to small areas on the surface of the skin at several contiguous locations along the expected trajectory of laser-light propagation. From observations the method has been shown to be capable of determining physical characteristics that are unique to the different layers of the skin.

  9. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  10. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental zinc and chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, B M; Edenburn, B M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn) and Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) to finishing steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Angus cross steers (n = 142; BW = 527 ± 14 kg) were blocked by BW into 4 blocks (6 pens/block, 5 to 6 steers/pen). Steers targeted at an average 12th rib back fat thickness of 1.3 cm via ultrasound, by block, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements for the final 35 d of feeding before slaughter: 1) no supplementation, where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.82 and 0.98 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (CONT), 2) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride·steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.38 and 0.96 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC), or 3) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride, 1.0 g of Zn supplied as Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn), and 3 mg of Cr supplied as Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 159.73 and 1.25 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC+TM). All steers were fed the same basal diet of 20% corn silage, 20% dried distillers grains, 50% corn, and 10% mineral-vitamin supplement (DM basis). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a fixed effect of treatment and a random effect of block. Average daily gain and G:F were increased (P < 0.01) by 16% in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT. However, ADG and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.61) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Furthermore, HCW was increased (P = 0.04) by 1.87% (6.61 kg) in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT, whereas HCW was not different (P = 0.80) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Back fat thickness and marbling were not different (P ≥ 0.14) between steers fed RAC and CONT or (P ≥ 0.34) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Warner-Bratzler shear force tended to be greater (less tender; P = 0.06) in steers fed RAC when

  11. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability.

  12. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis.

  13. Arterial compliance, blood pressure, plasma leptin, and plasma lipids in women are improved with weight reduction equally with a meat-based diet and a plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Sasahara, T; Pomeroy, S E; Collier, G; Nestel, P J

    1998-11-01

    Obesity, strongly associated with the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study was designed to establish first whether systemic arterial compliance (SAC), an index of arterial function, is improved with weight loss and second, whether cardiovascular risk factors that improve with weight loss are reduced equally with lean meat or with an equivalent amount of plant protein in the diet. Thirty-six women, mostly overweight or obese, aged 40+/-9 years, were allocated nonrandomly to a 16-week parallel-design trial of two equienergetic diets designed to lead to weight loss, with one arm of the study emphasizing red meat and the other soybeans as the major protein source. Body weight, waist and hip circumference, and plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were measured, and SAC was calculated from ultrasound measurement of aortic flow velocity and aortic root driving pressure. Subjects lost weight (9% of body weight in 16 weeks) and showed decreased plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (12% and 14%, P < .0001, respectively), triacylglycerol (17%, P < .05), and leptin (24%, P < .01) concentrations. However, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels did not change significantly. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 7% and SAC increased 28% (P < .001 for both). However, only the decrease in arterial pressure correlated significantly with the reduction in the waist to hip ratio (WHR), and the improvement in SAC correlated inversely with the blood pressure reduction (P < .001 for both). Further, weight loss and the metabolic benefits of weight loss occurred equally with the meat-based and plant-based diets. We conclude that moderate weight loss in women leads to a substantial reduction in the cardiovascular risk, including SAC.

  14. Effects of forage level and chromium-methionine chelate supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung-Il; Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Hong, Seok-Man; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Lee, Bae-Hun; Peng, Jing-Lun; Ji, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Byong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate and forage level over two years, 1(st) fattening and 2(nd) fattening period on growth parameters, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of 46 Korean native (Hanwoo, Bos Taurus, BW = 183 ± 44 kg) steers. Treatments were: 1) Steers in the low forage (LF) group were fed diets that consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage; 2) Steers in the high forage (HF) group were fed diets that consisted of 40% concentrate and 60% forage. Following the 1(st) fattening period, steers (BW = 480 ± 37.6 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: LF (40 F plus no Cr-Met supplementation in the 2(nd) fattening period), LFCM (40LF plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period), HF (60 F plus no added Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period) and HFCM (60 F plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met in the 2(nd) fattening period). Dry matter intake of the treatment diets did not differ during the raising and 1(th) fattening period (P > 0.05). The ADG in the raising period showed no difference between the 40 F and 60 F groups (P > 0.05). Carcass characteristics including rib-eye area and meat yield index were higher in HF than the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The HF group tended to show a higher (P = 0.08) marbling score than the LF group whereas the HFCM group showed a higher marbling score than the LFCM group (P < 0.05). HDL was higher and LDL lower in groups fed with Cr-Met than in other groups whereas glucose showed the lowest value in HF group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride (TG), Cholesterol, PUN and total protein (TP) were the same among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). The Insulin concentration in the blood was significantly higher for the HFCM group than for the LF, LFCM and HF groups (P < 0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of chromium-methionine chelate could improve meat quality in beef steers.

  15. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  16. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri

    1996-11-01

    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  17. Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Still, Carolyn H.; Craven, Timothy E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Van Buren, Peter; Sink, Kaycee M.; Killeen, Anthony A.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn; Wall, Barry; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Wright, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  18. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δtp) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVEw) and the tension–time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVEw. Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures. PMID:20719817

  19. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δt(p)) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVE(w)) and the tension-time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVE(w). Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures.

  20. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride drinking water supplementation. 2. Meat and carcass characteristics of broilers grown under thermoneutral and cyclic heat-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Whiting, T S; Andrews, L D; Adams, M H; Stamps, L

    1991-01-01

    Two broiler trials were conducted to investigate the effect on post-mortem carcass and meat quality of NaHCO3 and KCl drinking water supplementation under thermoneutral and cyclic heat-stress climatic conditions. Water chill carcass weight change, water- and oven-cooked breast filled yields, and breast meat tenderness were measured. In Trial 1, neither environmental regimen, nor water treatments, nor their interaction was a significant (P less than .05) source of variation for the parameters measured. In Trial 2, environmental regimen was a highly significant (P less than .01) source of variability for chilled carcass weight change; the cyclic heat-stressed broiler carcasses gained more weight than the thermoneutral (control) broiler carcasses during ice-water chilling. Oven-cooked fillet yield was significantly (P less than .05) affected by environmental regimen; fillets from cyclic heat-stressed broilers had lower yields than thermoneutral (control) broiler fillets. Drinking water treatments were a significant (P less than .05) source of variation for breast meat tenderness in Trial 2. Broilers given .5% NaHCO3 from 5 to 8 wk of age had higher shear resistance values than broilers given a combination of .5% NaHCO3 and .5% KCl or tap water-fed controls. Breast meat shear values were negatively correlated (P less than .05) with 8-wk broiler body weight and 5- to 8-wk gain.

  1. The physiological characteristics and transcytosis mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

    PubMed

    de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2012-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the vessel wall made up of specialized capillary endothelial cells, surrounded by astroglial endfeet and neurons, that govern the exchange of compounds between blood and brain. It protects the brain from harmful compounds potentially present in blood, while it is specifically designed to supply the brain with the required nutrients and to get rid of waste products. The BBB is structurally different from blood capillaries in other tissues. The BBB strictly limits the paracellular exchange of compounds by the so-called tight junctions. Moreover, the capillary endothelial cells contain metabolic enzymes that may convert a compound before entering the brain while transcellular passage across the BBB may be limited or increased by active transport systems. Thus the BBB has an important role in the relationship of the concentration-time profile of compounds in blood and those in the brain. The functionality of the BBB is dynamically regulated, depending on the given conditions. Important examples are changes in BBB functionality that may result in or are brought about by (CNS) disease conditions. All together this indicates the importance of investigations on BBB functionality and resulting transport of compounds for the design and optimization of therapeutic regimens. Thus, BBB investigation is an ever growing and dynamic field studied by pharmacologists, neuroscientists, pathologists, physiologists, and clinical practitioners. This review deals with a general introduction on the physiological characteristics of the BBB, its different transport systems, with particular emphasis on supposed transcytosis mechanisms at the BBB. Specific and detailed information on drug delivery approaches aiming at transcytosis into the brain will be dealt with in other parts of this special issue.

  2. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed.

  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Natural Killer Cells, Their Characteristics, and Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaria, Anushruti; Jawdat, Dunia; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system able to kill different targets such as cancer cells and virally infected cells without prior activation making then attractive candidates for cancer immunotherapy. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation but as we gain a better understanding of the characteristics of each immune cell that UCB contains, we will also be able to develop new cell therapies for cancer. In this review, we present what is currently known of the phenotype and functions of UCB NK cells and how these cells could be used in the future for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28386260

  4. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  5. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  6. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  7. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  8. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  9. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat sensory evaluation of West African dwarf sheep fed varying levels of maize and cassava hay.

    PubMed

    Fasae, O A; Adu, I F; Aina, A B J; Dipeolu, M A

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the growth performance and meat yield and quality of West African dwarf sheep. Twenty rams weighing an average of 15.3 ± 0.79 kg live weight and with an average age of 18 months were allotted at random to five dietary treatments of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize hay (MH) for a period of 105 days. Dry matter (DM) intake and growth rate of the rams were improved as the level of cassava hay (CH) increased in the diets. Live weight gain varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments, ranging from 38.8 to 47.9 g/day. The carcass weight of the rams fed 100% MH was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with the other treatments. Dressing percentage ranged from 56.5% to 61.0% with no significant (P > 0.05) difference observed across the treatments, while the distribution of the slaughtered parts was similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the dietary treatment. Proximate composition of the meat from the loin indicated that the DM, crude protein, fat and ash contents were not influenced (P > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. Panellists rated the meat to be similar (P > 0.05) in flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability while colour and texture varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments. In conclusion, this study indicated that better growth performance and meat production in West African dwarf sheep can be improved in form of body weight and carcass production when fed 25%MH and 75% CH diet.

  10. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments.

  11. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  12. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2011-03-15

    Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (p<0.001) were found for stx1 and for stx2 with bovine meat and milk products. The stx2e gene was significantly (p<0.001) associated with STEC from pork and wild boar meat. Stx1c and stx2b genes were significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in STEC from deer meat, as well as from meat and milk products derived from sheep and goats. Using logistic regression models we detected significant (p<0.01) combinations between stx1, stx2 and E-hly genes and STEC from bovine meat. The combination of stx1c and stx2b genes was significant (p<0.001) for STEC derived from red deer, sheep and goat products. The properties of foodborne STEC were compared with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important

  13. Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat.

    PubMed

    Young, J F; Therkildsen, M; Ekstrand, B; Che, B N; Larsen, M K; Oksbjerg, N; Stagsted, J

    2013-12-01

    Meat is an integral part of the human diet. Besides essential amino acids and nutritive factors of high quality and availability, meat provides often overlooked components of importance for human health. These are amino acids and bioactive compounds that may be very important in i) preventing muscle wasting diseases, such as in sarcopenia, ii) reducing food and caloric intake to prevent metabolic syndrome, iii) blood pressure homeostasis via ACE-inhibitory components from connective tissue, and iv) maintaining functional gut environment through meat-derived nucleotides and nucleosides. In addition, meat could be an important source of phytanic acid, conjugated linoleic acids and antioxidants. Further, it becomes increasingly apparent that design of in vitro meat will be possible, and that this development may lead to improved health benefits from commercially viable and sustainable meat products.

  14. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  15. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  16. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardhana, Lakshitha P; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L; Benton, Miles C; Lea, Rodney A; Baines, Katherine J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Peripheral blood was collected from adults with eosinophilic asthma (EA; n = 21), paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA; n = 22), neutrophilic asthma (NA; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 10). Blood monocytes were isolated using ficoll density gradient and immuno-magnetic cell separation. Bisulfite converted genomic DNA was hybridized to Illumina Infinium Methylation27 arrays and analyzed for differential methylation using R/Bioconductor packages; networks of gene interactions were identified using the STRING database. Compared with healthy controls, differentially methylated CpG loci were identified in EA (n = 413), PGA (n = 495), and NA (n = 89). We found that 223, 237, and 72 loci were significantly hypermethylated in EA, PGA, and NA, respectively. Nine genes were common to all three phenotypes and showed increased methylation in asthma. Three pathway networks were identified in EA, involved in purine metabolism, calcium signaling, and ECM-receptor interaction. In PGA, two networks were identified, involved in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis. In NA, one network was identified involving sFRP1 as a key node, over representing the Wnt signaling pathway. We have identified characteristic alterations in DNA methylation that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma and may contribute to the disease mechanisms. This network-based characterization may help in the development of epigenetic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:25147914

  17. Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Yi; Li, Tsung Yu; Tsai, Chih Heng; Lo, Dan Yuan; Chen, Kuo Lung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Thirty male chickens were caponized at 8 weeks (capons); 15 capons were injected with estrogen (5 mg/bird estradiol 3-benzoate) every 2 weeks from 8 to 28 weeks, and 15 sham-operated male (shams) chickens and 15 females were selected for this trial. The results showed that the shams had lower relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than females (P < 0.05). The estrogen-treated capons had greater relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than shams and capons (P < 0.05), which might result from higher blood very low-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Caponization could dramatically increase relative abdominal fat (506%; P < 0.05). The shams had higher tibia weight and biomechanical properties, such as maximum bone strength and bending moment values than the capons (P < 0.05). Tibia biomechanical properties were reduced by estrogen treatment (P < 0.05). The females obtained the lowest biomechanical value in all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological examination revealed cavity formation in the cortical bone of estrogen-treated capons and female chickens, which suggested that estrogen reduced bone biomechanical properties by destroying its structural integrity.

  18. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetically levitated impeller in a centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2007-04-01

    Centrifugal blood pumps that employ hybrid active/passive magnetic bearings to support noncontact impellers have been developed in order to reduce bearing wear, pump size, the power consumption of the active magnetic bearing, and blood trauma. However, estimates made at the design stage of the vibration of the impeller in the direction of passive suspension during pump operation were inaccurate, because the influence of both the pumping fluid and the rotation of the impeller on the dynamic characteristics was not fully recognized. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic characteristics in a fluid of a magnetically levitated rotating impeller by measuring both the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation of the housing over a wide frequency range and the displacement due to input of a pulsatile flow during left ventricular (LV) assist. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the impeller was levitated in either air or water, and with or without rotation. The experimental and analytical results indicate that vibration of the impeller due to the external force in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force of water. The axial resonant frequency rose quadratically with rotational speed, and the tilt mode had two resonant frequencies while rotating due to the gyroscopic effect. With the pump inserted into a mock systemic circulatory loop, the dynamic stability of the impeller when pulsatile pressure was applied during LV assist was verified experimentally. The amplitudes of vibration in response to the pulsatile flow in the passively constrained directions were considerably smaller in size than the dimensions of initial gaps between the impeller and the pump housing.

  20. Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

    2004-12-01

    The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this

  1. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  2. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  3. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  4. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  5. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  6. Quality control of Toxoplasma gondii in meat packages: standardization of an ELISA test and its use for detection in rabbit meat cuts.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Juliana Nunes; Meireles, Luciana Regina; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2011-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes severe disease both to man and livestock and its detection in meat after slaughtering requires PCR or biological tests. Meat packages contain retained exudate that could be used for serology due to its blood content. Similar studies reported false negative assays in those tests. We standardized an anti-T. gondii IgG ELISA in muscle juices from experimentally infected rabbits, with blood content determination by cyanhemoglobin spectrophotometry. IgG titers and immunoblotting profiles were similar in blood, serum or meat juice, after blood content correction. These assays were adequate regardless of the storage time up to 120 days or freeze-thaw cycles, without false negative results. We also found 1.35% (1/74) positive sample in commercial Brazilian rabbit meat cuts, by this assay. The blood content determination shows ELISA of meat juice may be useful for quality control for toxoplasmosis monitoring.

  7. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  8. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  9. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid in the goat kid diet: effects on immune system and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2012-11-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) supplementation on meat quality and immunity in goat (Capra hircus) kids was examined. Goat kids (n = 30) were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: goat milk (GM), cow (Bos taurus) milk (CM), and CM supplemented with DHA (CM-DHA). Animals were fed ad libitum twice daily and weighed twice each week. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture daily during the first 10 d of life and were subsequently collected every 5 d until slaughter at a BW of 8 kg. Carcass size (linear measurements) and weight, as well as meat pH, color, tenderness, and chemical composition were determined. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, peri-renal, pelvic, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fats were analyzed. Blood IgG and IgM concentrations, complement system activity (classical and alternative pathways), and chitotriosidase activity were recorded. Results indicated that the diet containing DHA did not affect (P > 0.05) carcass linear measurements, meat quality characteristics, or proximate composition of the meat. However, C22:6n3 fatty acid levels, mainly in intramuscular fat, were enriched (P < 0.05) in CM-DHA animals, and the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was improved (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) in immune function were observed among groups. In conclusion, powdered whole CM is an effective option for feeding goat kids, and the inclusion of DHA to CM increases the quantity of this fatty acid in the meat.

  11. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  12. The meat freshness detection based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin B.; Hou, Di B.; Huang, Ping J.; Ma, Ye H.; Li, Xian; Zhang, Guang X.

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has fingerprint features for many bio-molecules with frequency between infrared and microwave covering the vibrational models of a great number of materials. In this study, THz-TDS was used to detect the preserved and bad meat. And the absorption coefficient indices of bad meat and preserved meat were measured in the range of 0.2-1.0 THz. The result shows that there are differences of pork tissue in both time domain and absorption coefficient in the process of deterioration. Then differences between preserved and bad meat were also presented. In order to investigate the relationship between the terahertz characteristics and meat quality, the changes of water content and material in the samples were also discussed. This work supplies reference for the application of THz technology in meat quality detection.

  13. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  14. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An age×treatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study.

  15. The effects of the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis RX7 and B2A strains on the performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella concentration, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broiler challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. subtilis RX7 and B. subtilis B2A on growth performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella population, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broilers under S. typhimurium challenge. A total of 120, one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments, composed of six replications, with five birds per replication, for 10 day. The dietary treatment groups were negative control (NC; no antibiotic, no B. subtilis), positive control (PC; NC + 0.1% virginiamycin), B. subtilis RX7 (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis RX7 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g) and B. subtilis B2A (NC + 0.1% B. subtilis 1.0 × 10(9) cfu/g). All birds were orally challenged with 2 ml suspension, containing 10(4) cfu/ml of S. typhimurium KCCM 40253. Results indicated that the body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion did not differ, among all comparative treatments. Serum haptoglobin concentration was lower in Bacillus treatments (RX7 + B2A) than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Intestinal and excreta Salmonella number, and excreta ammonia gas emission in the PC treatment or Bacillus treatments, was lower than the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Breast pH, colour and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation of B. subtilis RX7 and B2A. However, drip loss at 1 day post-slaughter from birds fed with B. subtilis RX7 and B2A decreased, compared with the positive control birds (p < 0.05). Relative gizzard weights of birds fed B. subtilis RX7 and B2A were significantly higher than the NC birds under S. typhimurium challenge. It is concluded from the results that B. subtilis RX7 and B2A increased the gizzard weight and decreased the intestinal and excreta Salmonella population and excreta ammonia gas, and drip loss of breast meat after being stored for 1 day, under stress caused by the S. typhimurium challenge.

  16. Differentiating Blood, Lymph, and Primo Vessels by Residual Time Characteristic of Fluorescent Nanoparticles in a Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwoo; Lim, Jaekwan; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Kim, SungChul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) which were injected into a tumor tissue flowed out through the blood and lymph vessels. The FNPs in blood vessels remained only in the order for few minutes while those in lymph vessels remained for a long time disappearing completely in 25 hours. We found a primo vessel inside a lymph vessel near a blood vessel, and FNPs remained in the primo vessel for longer than 25 hours. In addition, we examined in detail the residual time characteristics of lymph vessels because it could be useful in a future study of fluid dynamical comparison of the three conduits. These residual time characteristics of FNPs in the three kinds of vessels may have implications for the dynamics of nanoparticle drugs for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23662147

  17. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

  18. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  19. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  20. Effect of dietary fluorine on growth, blood and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Burnell, T W; Peo, E R; Lewis, A J; Crenshaw, J D

    1986-12-01

    Three hundred eighty-four growing-finishing pigs were used in two experiments to determine the effect of dietary fluorine (F) on growth, blood and bone physical characteristics. Fourteen dietary treatments were formulated by supplementing F (as NaF) to a milo-soybean meal basal diet (7 ppm F) to provide levels of 7, 132, 257, 382, 507 and 632 ppm F for Exp. 1, and 7, 25, 43, 61, 79, 97, 115 and 133 ppm F for Exp. 2. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not affected (P greater than .09) when F was fed at levels between 7 and approximately 132 ppm. Average daily gain and ADFI were reduced (P less than .0001) for pigs consuming diets with F concentrations greater than 132 ppm (Exp. 1). Feed conversion was not affected (P greater than .17) by any level of F fed. Serum F and alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased (P less than .01) with increasing dietary F levels. Serum and bone Ca and P concentrations were not affected (P greater than .13) by dietary F levels (Exp. 1). In Exp. 1 and 2, bone F increased (P less than .0001) and metatarsal stress and modulus of elasticity decreased (P less than .0001) as level of F increased in the diet. Bone thickness decreased quadratically (P less than .02) in Exp. 1 and linearly (P less than .0007) in Exp. 2 with increased dietary F levels. Scanning electron microscopy showed an increase in porosity of bones from pigs fed the higher levels of F. Growing-finishing pigs were able to tolerate approximately 132 ppm F for growth, but all of the F levels (greater than or equal to 7 ppm) fed in these two experiments affected bone integrity.

  1. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  2. Effects of loading methods on rabbit welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, G; Vignola, G; Giammarco, M; Manetta, A C; Lambertini, L

    2010-05-01

    The effects of different loading methods on the welfare, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of hybrid commercial rabbits were investigated. 384 male rabbits, 82 days old, were transported from the farm to the slaughterhouse. At the farm, 192 rabbits were loaded onto the truck smoothly (S) and 192 rabbits were loaded roughly (R). The S loading method consisted of carefully placing each rabbit into the transport crates. In the R method, the loading was hurriedly and carelessly executed by the transport operator, throwing each animal into the crates fixed on the truck. Live weight before and after transport as well as slaughter data were recorded for each rabbit, and a subset of 80 carcasses were evaluated for meat quality. Blood samples from 80 rabbits were analysed for haematological and biochemical parameters. A significant neutrophilia (P<0.001), lymphocytopaenia (P<0.001) and an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.001) and creatine kinase (CK) activities (P<0.001) were recorded in all rabbits after transport, independent of the loading method. A twofold increase in serum corticosterone concentration (6.23 vs. 14.88 ng/mL; P=0.001) was observed in all rabbits following transport. Results suggest that the stress parameters analysed were more influenced by transport and handling itself rather than by the different loading methods. The results showed that there was no adverse effect of loading method on carcass traits. Furthermore, the stress condition evidenced by haematological and biochemical parameters prior to slaughter did not affect meat quality.

  3. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p < 0.05) BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON group. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p < 0.05). Drip loss percentage on days 3 and 5 and also meat colour were not affected significantly. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). Among measured blood constituents, chickens fed supplemented diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p < 0.05) IgG. Counts of red and white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage were not affected. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that supplementing pelleted diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens.

  4. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  5. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence.

  6. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo

    2016-07-21

    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  7. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  8. Morphological characteristics of blood cells in monitor lizards: is erythrocyte size linked to actual body size?

    PubMed

    Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Chylíková, Lenka; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr; Frynta, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment.

  9. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  10. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon; Lee, Kichang

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2(*)-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI.

  11. [Characteristics of erythrocyte lipids in blood of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with increased natural radioactivity].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G; Shuktomova, I I; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    Interrelations between the lipid characteristics of the blood erythrocytes and 226Ra accumulation in the body of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with different levels of the radiation background were investigated. It is shown that the ratio of the phospholipid (PL) fractions which cause the blood erythrocyte structure depends on the phase of the population cycle, as well as on the sex and age of tundra voles. The statistically significant interrelation between lysoforms and the sphingomielin content has been revealed in the blood erythrocyte PL of tundra voles; its scale somewhat differs for the animals from the reference and Ra areas. The peroxide concentration in the blood erythrocyte lipids of tundra voles from the Ra area exceeded the control values in all mature groups of the animals trapped at the depression phase of the population density. The 226Ra content in the bodies of the tundra voles which were trapped in the Ra area at the increased phase of the population cycle is for certain higher than that for the animals from the reference area. Interrelations between the lipid peroxidation parameters in the blood erythrocytes and the body 226Ra content for separate sex-age groups of tundra voles have been revealed.

  12. A Novel Blood Viscosity Estimation Method Based on Pressure-Flow Characteristics of an Oxygenator During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Soh, Zu; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hidenobu; Itoh, Hideshi; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), blood viscosity conspicuously increases and decreases due to changes in hematocrit and blood temperature. Nevertheless, blood viscosity is typically not evaluated, because there is no technology that can provide simple, continuous, noncontact monitoring. We modeled the pressure-flow characteristics of an oxygenator in a previous study, and in that study we quantified the influence of viscosity on oxygenator function. The pressure-flow monitoring information in the oxygenator is derived from our model and enables the estimation of viscosity. The viscosity estimation method was proposed and investigated in an in vitro experiment. Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8, 31.0, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37°C to 27°C, the mean inlet pressure (Pin ) and outlet pressure (Pout ) of the oxygenator and the flow (Q) and viscosity of the blood were measured. The estimated viscosity was calculated from the pressure gradient (ΔP = Pin  - Pout ) and Q and was compared to the measured blood viscosity. A strong correlation was found between the two methods for all samples. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean bias of -0.0263 mPa.s, a standard deviation of 0.071 mPa.s, limits of agreement of -0.114-0.166 mPa.s, and a percent error of 5%. Therefore, this method is considered compatible with the torsional oscillation viscometer that has plus or minus 5% measurement accuracy. Our study offers the possibility of continuously estimating blood viscosity during CPB.

  13. Analytic characteristics of three Bayer contour blood glucose monitoring systems in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, Dennis J; Nenninger, Denise A; Simmons, David A; Pardo, Scott; Pandya, Mauli; Fullam, Jeanellen

    2015-03-01

    Hypoglycemia in infants is common, is difficult to recognize, and may lead to permanent neurologic impairment. Low glucose concentrations and high hematocrits in newborns pose significant analytic challenges for whole blood glucose meters. Three Bayer glucose monitoring systems were evaluated using 211 blood samples from 162 neonates (age range 5 hours to 29 days, median age 3 days). Hematocrit and whole blood glucose were determined in heparinized whole blood, and plasma glucose was determined using the Roche Cobas 6000. Accuracy was evaluated against plasma concentrations using ISO 15197:2013 and CLSI POCT 12-A3 criteria. Glucose imprecision on the Cobas system was 1.8-2.6% (CV) from 26-610 mg/dL. Imprecision across all meter systems was 2.8% (CV) at 130 mg/dL. Glucose concentrations, hematocrit, and total bilirubin ranged from 20-150 mg/dL, 18 -75%, and 0.5-19.6 mg/dL, respectively. Linear regression analysis of whole blood versus plasma for the 3 combined systems yielded an average slope of 1.06 and correlation coefficient greater than 0.980. Bias between the Contour and Cobas was not significantly correlated with hematocrit. Greater than 99% of meter results were within 15 mg/dL and 20% of plasma results at glucose concentrations ≤ 75 and > 75 mg/dL, respectively. Of meter results, 97% were within 12.5 mg/dL of plasma results at concentrations ≤ 100 mg/dL, while 96% of meter results were within 12.5% of plasma at concentrations > 100 mg/dL. The Bayer CONTOUR Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems exceed ISO 15197:2013 and CLSI criteria in neonatal blood samples.

  14. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  15. Genetic parameters for meat quality traits of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives.

  16. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  17. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    PubMed

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed.

  18. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L∗, a∗, b∗) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  19. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD CELL MITOCHONDRIA IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, Yu k; Novgorodtseva, Tp; Kondrat'eva, E V; Zhukova, N; Antonyuk, M W; Knyshova, V V; Mineeva, E e

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a structural and functional study of blood cell mitochondria in 25 patients with controlled mild bronchial asthma (BA) including evaluation of blood saturation with oxygen, carboxyhemoglobin level in blood and carbon monoxide content in the exhaled air. Membrane potential of leukocyte mitochondria was determined based on the results of flow cytofluorimetry and fatty acid (FA) composition in platelet mitochondrial membranes measured by GLC. It was shown that the absence of clinical symptoms of BA during remission was associated with a reduction of membrane potential and a change of FA composition resulting in the depletion of the basal pool of saturated (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) and polyunsaturated (20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:4n-6) FA. These changes in the structural and functional state of blood cell mitochondria in patients with BA are signs of disordered energy-producing activity, membrane permeability and transmembrane transport suggesting the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular hypoxia. A deeper insight into the role of the structural and functional state of blood cell mitochondria in the formation of respiratory disorders will facilitate early detection of the risk and complications of bronchial obstruction.

  20. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

  1. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  2. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  3. Cognitive tasks during walking affect cerebral blood flow signal features in middle cerebral arteries and their correlation to gait characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gatouillat, Arthur; Bleton, Héloïse; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Perera, Subashan; Thompson, Scott; Smith, Traci; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-09-26

    Gait is a complex process involving both cognitive and sensory ability and is strongly impacted by the environment. In this paper, we propose to study of the impact of a cognitive task during gait on the cerebral blood flow velocity, the blood flow signal features and the correlation of gait and blood flow features through a dual task methodology. Both cerebral blood flow velocity and gait characteristics of eleven participants with no history of brain or gait conditions were recorded using transcranial Doppler on mid-cerebral artery while on a treadmill. The cognitive task was induced by a backward counting starting from 10,000 with decrement of 7. Central blood flow velocity raw and envelope features were extracted in both time, frequency and time-scale domain; information-theoretic metrics were also extracted and statistical significances were inspected. A similar feature extraction was performed on the stride interval signal. Statistical differences between the cognitive and baseline trials, between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries signals and the impact of the antropometric variables where studied using linear mixed models. No statistical differences were found between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries flows or the baseline and cognitive state gait features, while statistical differences for specific features were measured between cognitive and baseline states. These statistical differences found between the baseline and cognitive states show that cognitive process has an impact on the cerebral activity during walking. The state was found to have an impact on the correlation between the gait and blood flow features.

  4. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    PubMed

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  5. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local wastewater treatment authorities charge non-residential customers, in part, based on measurements which indicate the pollutant load in the customer’s wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantificat...

  6. Altruistic Behavior among College Students: An Investigation of the Social and Psychological Characteristics of Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Wilbert Marcellus, II

    The document describes a field study to investigate the relationship between altruism and blood donating behavior among members of a large midwestern college community. Altruistic behavior is interpreted as combining three motivations: (1) reward-cost, also referred to in terms of behavior as social exchange; (2) social responsibility and…

  7. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  8. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Sigve; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Pillay, Pavitra; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Taylor, Myra; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Albregtsen, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS. Methods In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest. Results We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001), increased vascular density (p = 0.015) and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071). Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%. Conclusions The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis. PMID:27073857

  9. A review of meat protein hydrolysates and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ahhmed, Abdulatef Mrghni; Muguruma, Michio

    2010-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that meat is a source of peptides that are effective at preventing and reducing chronic lifestyle-related diseases (CLSRDs) such as hypertension. This analysis reflects the importance of empowering hypertensive people in quality versus quantity of life issues, and in offering nutritional treatment options rather than medical alternatives. For both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, chemically based medications may have harmful side effects. Functional food rich in antioxidant vitamins, and proteins or biologically active peptides, can lower blood pressure in persons with essential hypertension, possibly by preventing an underlying cause of the condition. Deficiency in consumption of crucial nutrients such as proteins from meat origins, along with abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, may underlie the etiology of the clinical course of hypertension. Food derived from meat rich in nutrients may provide physiologically functional peptides, as well as improve digestion, and the metabolism of carbohydrate and fats, thus lowering blood pressure, and normalizing associated biochemical and histopathological changes. Meat was found to have value, because proteolysis of meat muscle generated a substantial number of multi-amino acid peptides that have nutrafunctional roles, and some of which have strong angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. This also demonstrates that meat proteins might lead to better nutraceutical therapy that minimizes health problems, and might aid in finding the most effective approaches for meeting the needs of all hypertension patients.

  10. The effect of red blood cell aggregation on velocity and cell-depleted layer characteristics of blood in a bifurcating microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, J. M.; Dusting, J.; Kaliviotis, E.; Balabani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is a multifaceted phenomenon, and whether it is generally beneficial or deleterious remains unclear. In order to better understand its effect on microvascular blood flow, the phenomenon must be studied in complex geometries, as it is strongly dependent on time, flow, and geometry. The cell-depleted layer (CDL) which forms at the walls of microvessels has been observed to be enhanced by aggregation; however, details of the characteristics of the CDL in complex regions, such as bifurcations, require further investigation. In the present study, a microchannel with a T-junction was used to analyze the influence of aggregation on the flow field and the CDL. Micro-PIV using RBCs as tracers provided high resolution cell velocity data. CDL characteristics were measured from the same data using a newly developed technique based on motion detection. Skewed and sharpened velocity profiles in the daughter branches were observed, contrary to the behavior of a continuous Newtonian fluid. RBC aggregation was observed to increase the skewness, but decrease the sharpening, of the velocity profiles in the daughter branches. The CDL width was found to be significantly greater, with a wider distribution, in the presence of aggregation and the mean width increased proportionally with the reciprocal of the fraction of flow entering the daughter branch. Aggregation also significantly increased the roughness of the interface between the CDL and the RBC core. The present results provide further insight into how RBC aggregation may affect the flow in complex geometries, which is of importance in both understanding its functions invivo, and utilizing it as a tool in microfluidic devices. PMID:23667411

  11. The effect of red blood cell aggregation on velocity and cell-depleted layer characteristics of blood in a bifurcating microchannel.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, J M; Dusting, J; Kaliviotis, E; Balabani, S

    2012-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is a multifaceted phenomenon, and whether it is generally beneficial or deleterious remains unclear. In order to better understand its effect on microvascular blood flow, the phenomenon must be studied in complex geometries, as it is strongly dependent on time, flow, and geometry. The cell-depleted layer (CDL) which forms at the walls of microvessels has been observed to be enhanced by aggregation; however, details of the characteristics of the CDL in complex regions, such as bifurcations, require further investigation. In the present study, a microchannel with a T-junction was used to analyze the influence of aggregation on the flow field and the CDL. Micro-PIV using RBCs as tracers provided high resolution cell velocity data. CDL characteristics were measured from the same data using a newly developed technique based on motion detection. Skewed and sharpened velocity profiles in the daughter branches were observed, contrary to the behavior of a continuous Newtonian fluid. RBC aggregation was observed to increase the skewness, but decrease the sharpening, of the velocity profiles in the daughter branches. The CDL width was found to be significantly greater, with a wider distribution, in the presence of aggregation and the mean width increased proportionally with the reciprocal of the fraction of flow entering the daughter branch. Aggregation also significantly increased the roughness of the interface between the CDL and the RBC core. The present results provide further insight into how RBC aggregation may affect the flow in complex geometries, which is of importance in both understanding its functions invivo, and utilizing it as a tool in microfluidic devices.

  12. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  13. Meat, dairy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007.

  14. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  15. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  16. Epidemiologic characteristics of blood donors with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, C; Tanprasert, S; Chumnijarakij, T; Thanomchat, S; O'Prasert, B; Adulwijit, S

    1995-03-01

    Of 782,190 volunteer blood donors in Bangkok and nearby areas, who were screened for infection with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) from January 1988 through December 1992, 3,219 tested positive on both enzyme immuno assay and Western blot assay. The identification variables of the donor were collected. The majority of HIV seropositive blood donors were male. The average age (median) of HIV seropositive was 26-29 years all through 1988-2992. The prevalence of HIV seropositive in male donors was higher than that in females. HIV seropositivity was confirmed in blood donations from first-time male donors in this study during 1988-1992. This rate has increased progressively from 0.87/1,000 in 1988 to 15.95/1,000 in 1992 with much higher rates in repeat donors. The repeat male donors increased from 0.77/1,000 in 1988 to 5.26/1,000 in 1991 and since then showed a decreased rate to 3.93/1,000 in 1992. Female donors were infected with HIV more frequently with the prevalence by sex ratio M:F rising from 27:1 in 1988 to 6.6:1 in 1992. Comparing the seropositive rate between first time and repeat female donors, the results showed an increase in rate from 0.11/1,000 in 1990 to 2.02/1,000 in 1992, but essentially the same rate in report donors. A majority of HIV seropositive blood donors (1990-1992) lived in Bangkok (42-49%) and among those who lived in one eastern province (Samut Prakan), 90-93% lived in the industrial areas. Of those who lived in Chon Buri Province, 73-88% lived in Sattaheep District, which is a naval base.

  17. Performance characteristics of the HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer using whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Voss, E M; Cembrowski, G S

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated the HemoCue B-Glucose (HemoCue Inc, Mission Viejo, Calif) analyzer for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. One hundred eighteen capillary whole-blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on the HemoCue B-Glucose and the YSI 2300 STAT Glucose/L-Lactate (Yellow Springs [Ohio] Instruments) analyzers; corresponding plasma glucose levels were measured in duplicate on the Roche Cobas MIRA (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Nutley, NJ) analyzer. Plasma glucose levels were converted to whole-blood equivalent glucose levels by using a factor of 1.11. The following regression equations were obtained: HemoCue = 1.02 (YSI) + 0.19, Sy/x = 0.52, r2 = .984; and HemoCue = 0.98 (whole-blood equivalent glucose levels) + 0.26, Sy/x = 0.55, r2 = .982. Within-run coefficients of variation were 4.0%, 3.5%, 2.2%, and 1.0% at glucose concentrations of 3.9, 5.4, 8.7, and 17.1 mmol/L (71, 97, 156, and 308 mg/dL), respectively. Between-run imprecision and total imprecision using lyopholized materials with three lot numbers of cuvettes were 4.2% and 5.6% at 2.1 mmol/L (37 mg/dL) and 2.4% and 2.7% at 5.2 mmol/L (95 mg/dL), respectively. The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer displayed linearity between 0 and 22.2 mmol/L (0 and 400 mg/dL), and the percent recovery averaged 98.7% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD). The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer is a rapid, simple, and reliable method for determinations of whole-blood glucose levels.

  18. Molecular and epidemiological characteristics of blood-borne virus infections among recent immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos; Jiménez, Victoria; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodés, Berta; Holguín, Africa; Alvarez, Patricia; García-Campello, Marta; Gómez-Hernando, César; Guelar, Ana; Sheldon, Julie; de Mendoza, Carmen; Simón, Ainhoa; Soriano, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    The increased immigration from developing regions to Western countries raises public health concerns related to blood-borne viruses. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infections among recent immigrants attending several Spanish diagnostic centers in years 2002 and 2003 was examined. Genetic characterization of viral subtypes and its relationship with distinct at-risk populations was carried out. A total of 1,303 immigrants were identified. They originated in Latin America (46.9%), Sub-Saharan Africa (23.7%), Eastern Europe (9.4%), and the Maghreb (9.2%). Seroprevalence rates were as follows: HIV-1 4.2%, HBV 4.1%, HCV 2.9%, and HTLV-1 0.8%. All patients with HIV-1 non-B subtypes, HBV genotypes E and A3, and HCV genotype 4 were sub-Saharan Africans, and had been infected mainly through heterosexual contacts. In contrast, Latin American homo/bisexual men carried HIV-1 subtype B most likely acquired after their arrival to Spain. In conclusion, while Sub-Saharan Africans carry wide diverse genetic variants of blood-borne viruses, the absence of high-risk practices in most cases could limit the spread of these variants. In contrast, Latin Americans with high-risk sexual practices may be a particularly vulnerable collective to acquire blood-borne viruses in the receptor country.

  19. Quality, Functionality and Shelf Life of Fermented Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2015-10-13

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional energy efficient preservation method widely used for improving quality, functionality, keeping quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes number of physical, biochemical and microbial changes, which eventually imparting functional properties, sensory characteristics and nutritional aspects of these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Those changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and srcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin and dehydration. Dry fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier for probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature etc.

  20. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan; Qu, Mingren

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat.

  1. Meat consumption: trends and quality matters.

    PubMed

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed.

  2. A method for estimating the accuracy of measurements of optical characteristics of the nuclei of blood cells in the diagnosis of acute leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of the random component of the measurement error of the nuclei structure characteristics, which are used in the method of structural elements to measure the differences of blood cells of different types. This method is realized in information-measuring system of the analysis of micropreparations of blood cells in the diagnosis of acute leukemia and its variants.

  3. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  4. Steady State Peripheral Blood Provides Cells with Functional and Metabolic Characteristics of Real Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bourdieu, A; Avalon, M; Lapostolle, V; Ismail, S; Mombled, M; Debeissat, C; Guérinet, M; Duchez, P; Chevaleyre, J; Vlaski-Lafarge, M; Villacreces, A; Praloran, V; Ivanovic, Z; Brunet de la Grange, P

    2017-03-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of nucleoplasmic bridges induced by 60Co γ-rays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Lu, Xue; Li, Shuang; Chen, De-Qing; Liu, Qing-Jie

    2013-12-16

    Few studies have shown that the yields of ionising-radiation-induced nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) in human cells are dose dependent. However, a dose-response curve between the NPB frequency and the absorbed dose of ionising radiation has not yet been established. This study aimed to investigate NPB frequencies in human peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by cobalt-60 ((60)Co) γ-rays and to establish a dose-response curve. Human peripheral blood samples were collected from three healthy males, and some of these samples were irradiated with 0-6 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. A cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay was then carried out to analyse NPBs and micronuclei (MN) in binucleated cells. The remaining blood samples were irradiated with 0, 2 and 5 Gy of γ-rays, and unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and acentric chromosome fragment) were analysed. The correlation between NPBs and dicentric plus ring chromosome (dic+r) induced by the same γ-ray dose was also analysed. Results showed that the NPB yields among the three subjects at each dose level were not significantly different. NPBs in binucleated cells at all γ-ray doses conformed to Poisson distribution. The dose-response curve of the γ-ray-induced NPB frequencies followed the linear-quadratic model y = (1.39×10(-3))x (2) + (4.94×10(-3))x. A positive correlation was observed between the frequencies of NPB and dic+r, as well as between the frequencies of MN and acentric fragments. Therefore, NPB is an important biomarker of early chromosome damage event induced by ionising radiation.

  6. Meat Quality and Physicochemical Trait Assessments of Berkshire and Commercial 3-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs. Moreover, meat from Berkshire pigs had higher levels of phosphoserine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, α-aminoadipic acid, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and carnosine and lower levels of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, and ammonia than did meat from LYD pigs. The fatty acids oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were present in significantly higher concentrations in Berkshire muscles than they were in LYD muscles. Additionally, Berkshire muscles were significantly enriched with nucleotide components (inosine), minerals (Mg and K), and antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid (C) in comparison with LYD muscles. In conclusion, our results show that in comparison with LYD meat, Berkshire meat has better meat quality traits and is a superior nutritional source of all essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, and minerals (Mg and K). PMID:27857540

  7. Productivity, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of fattening Zandi lambs fed sodium bentonite supplemented total mixed rations.

    PubMed

    Khadem, A A; Soofizadeh, M; Afzalzadeh, A

    2007-10-15

    Thirty male Zandy lambs (25 +/- 0.50 kg BW, 10 lambs in each group) were randomly allocated in three (control, 2% bentonite and 4% bentonite) treatment groups. Lambs were fed Total Mixed Rations (TMRs) containing 75% Concentrate Mixture (CM) and 25% forage. Sodium bentonite was mixed with the CM part of TMRs before being mixed with the forage. The fattening period lasted 84 days and data were collected on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of lambs. Results showed that sheep fed bentonite added diets had relatively higher feed intake than the control group which ended to slightly higher weight change with a fairly appropriate feed conversion ratio in bentonite fed animals. Compared to the control group, a reasonably lower glucose and urea concentration and a higher total protein content was observed in the blood of sheep fed bentonite supplemented diets. The use of bentonite in diets did not affect the blood cholesterol contents of sheep. Slaughter weights, carcass dressing out percentages and carcass cuts were a bit higher in sheep of bentonite fed groups compared to those in control group. Sheep fed bentonite added diets produced carcasses with lower subcutaneous fat thicknesses and lower fat-tail percentages. Furthermore, feed cost was estimated to be lower for sheep in 2% bentonite group than that in other two groups. In conclusion, the use of two-percent sodium bentonite is suggested for diets of fattening lambs in Iranian feed markets.

  8. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  9. [Changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics of rat erythrocytes after blood loss].

    PubMed

    Maslova, M N; Kazennov, A M; Katiukhin, L N; Novozhilov, A V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Tavrovskaia, T V

    2007-01-01

    In experiments of Wistar male rats, changes are studied of erythrocyte hematological, biochemical (activitities of transport ATPases), and rheological properties (capability for aggregation and deformability) 7 days after bloodletting of 12-15 % of the total blood mass. It has been shown that alongside with an elevation of erythrocyte volume and of the number of immature cells - reticulocytes, there was a statistically significant increase of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities in the whole erythrocytes and their membrane preparations - ghosts, the increment of activity in the case of Na,K-ATPase being essentially higher in the whole cells. This indicates the appearance of an enzyme activator inside the erythrocytes. There are also revealed a decrease of firmness of erythrocyte aggregates, a deceleration of spontaneous aggregation, and an increase of index of erythrocyte deformability. The conclusion is made that changes of erythrocyte rheological properties are interconnected with changes of the Na,K-ATPase activity and are directed to optimization of blood circulation in large vessels and capillary network.

  10. Effect of blood contamination on retention characteristics of MTA when mixed with different liquids.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Richard A; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-05-01

    Simulated furcation perforations were repaired with and without blood contamination utilizing tooth-colored mineral trioxide aggregrate (MTA) mixed with either MTA liquid (sterile water), lidocaine, or saline. Samples underwent Instron testing at either 24 or 72 hours and at 7 days. Data were analyzed using a 3-way ANOVA and post-hoc testing using Turkey's true test for significance. All of the 72-hour samples displayed significantly greater resistance to displacement than the 24-hour samples. All of the 7-day samples displayed significantly greater resistance to displacement than the 24-hour and 72-hour samples. Non-contaminated samples displayed significantly greater resistance to displacement than their blood-contaminated counterparts at 7 days. Non-contaminated samples mixed with sterile water, lidocaine, or saline performed similarly at all time periods. Allowing tooth-colored MTA to set undisturbed for 72 hours or longer prior to placement of a coronal restoration may decrease the chance of MTA displacement in furcation perforation repairs.

  11. Carcass merit and meat quality when Suffolk lambs, Katahdin lambs, and meat-goat kids were finished on a grass-legume pasture with and without supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant species and breed may impact response to supplementation of pasture diets. The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk crossbed; SX, n = 36), hair sheep (Katahdin; KA, n = 36), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; GX, n = 36) carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters...

  12. Redberry juniper as a roughage source in lamb feedlot rations: wool and carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profiles, and sensory panel traits.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Smith, S B

    2011-10-01

    Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with juniper leaves on end products were investigated in lambs. Lambs were individually fed diets containing cottonseed hulls (CSH), half of the CSH replaced by juniper (CSHJ), or all the CSH replaced by juniper (JUN). Lambs grew the same amount of wool when measured as greasy fleece (P>0.19), clean fleece (P>0.46), and clean wool production per unit of BW (P>0.54). Average fiber diameter quadratically decreased (P=0.04) and became more uniform (P<0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.16) by diet. Myristic, palmitoleic, and arachidic acids, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and the ∆9 desaturase index linearly increased (P<0.09) and stearic acid linearly decreased (P=0.05) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Off-flavor linearly increased (P=0.02) as juniper increased in the diet.

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shanbin; Cheng, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-07-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%) 2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  14. Influences of end-point heating temperature on the quality attributes of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.

  15. Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

  16. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics. PMID:25049656

  17. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hong, S M; Hwang, J H; Kim, I H

    2012-07-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  18. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure.

  19. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  20. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  1. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  2. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  3. Isolation and characterisation of Arcobacter butzleri from meat.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Lucia; Fegan, Narelle; Vanderlinde, Paul

    2004-02-15

    A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter in ground chicken, pork, beef and lamb meats. Meat samples were enriched in Arcobacter broth (AB) containing cefoperazone, amphotericin and teicoplanin (CAT) supplement. Samples were screened for the presence of Arcobacter spp. using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by isolation on blood and selective agar. Arcobacter butzleri was the only species of Arcobacter isolated from 35% of 88 samples of ground meats. A. butzleri was more frequently isolated from poultry (73%) than pork (29%), beef (22%) or lamb (15%) samples. No significant differences were found in the isolation rates and from the different regions sampled. Isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SacII, EagI and SmaI restriction endonucleases. A number of isolates with indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints were found to be epidemiologically related, which may indicate cross-contamination of common types of Arcobacter from different meat species or between meat species. The public health significance of Arcobacter in ground meat needs to be determined.

  4. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  5. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  6. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used. Seven additional diets that were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units/kg of microbial xylanase were also formulated. On the last day of the 23-d experiment, 2 blood samples were collected from 1 pig in each pen. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, and peptide YY (PYY) were measured in plasma samples and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein, and albumin were measured in serum samples. Initial and final BW were not affected by the inclusion level of FFRB or DFRB or by the addition of xylanase. The ADFI linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as inclusion of FFRB increased in diets and there was a tendency ( = 0.08) for reduced ADFI as DFRB was increased in the diets. Pigs fed diets containing DFRB had greater ADFI ( < 0.05) than pigs fed diets containing FFRB. The ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, < 0.05) with increasing level of FFRB or DFRB in the diets. The G:F linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB increased, and the G:F was greater ( < 0.05) in pigs fed diets containing FFRB than in pigs fed diets containing DFRB. The concentration of BUN linearly decreased ( < 0.05) when pigs were fed diets containing increasing levels of FFRB or DFRB. There was a tendency for the concentrations of TNF-α and PYY to linearly decrease ( = 0.09 and = 0

  7. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  8. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  9. West Nile fever characteristics among viremic persons identified through blood donor screening.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shimian; Foster, Gregory A; Dodd, Roger Y; Petersen, Lyle R; Stramer, Susan L

    2010-11-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood donors provides opportunities for identifying West Nile virus (WNV)-infected persons before symptoms develop and for characterizing subsequent illness. From June 2003 through 2008, the American Red Cross performed follow‐up interviews with and additional laboratory testing for 1436 donors whose donations had initial test results that were reactive for WNV RNA; 821 of the donors were subsequently confirmed to have WNV infection, and the remainder were unconfirmed or determined to have false‐positive results. Symptoms attributed to WNV infection were determined by comparing symptom frequency among 576 donors identified with early WNV infection (immunoglobulin M antibody negative) and those with unconfirmed infection. We estimate that 26% of WNV‐infected persons become symptomatic, defined by the presence of at least 3 of 8 indicator symptoms. Nearly one‐half of symptomatic persons sought medical care; only 5% received a diagnosis of WNV infection. Female subjects and persons with higher viral loads detected in the index donation were more likely than other subjects to develop symptoms.

  10. Immunophenotype characteristics of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of chronic idiopathic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Jenny V; Zabaleta, Mercedes; Aldrey, Oscar; Rivera, Henry; De Sanctis, Juan B; Bianco, Nicolás E; Blanca, Isaac

    2006-12-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is not completely understood although autoimmunity has been proposed. The aim of the study was to assess the expression of different leukocyte antigens, by flow cytometry, assaying total blood of 29 patients with CIU and of 20 sex and age matched controls. Moreover, we assessed soluble CD154 a marker of immune cell activation, predominantly memory T cells. When patients were divided depending an their response to the autologous serum skin test (ASST), three different groups were encountered: group 1 (n=11): with negative ASST-, group 2 (n=11): positive ASST (ASST+) with normal lymphocyte counts and group 3 (n=7): ASST+ with low lymphocyte counts (< 1500 cells/mm3). A significant increase in CD19+ percentage and not in the absolute count (P < 0.05) was observed in group 1 as compared to controls and to the other groups. In contrast, CD30+, CD45RO+ and CD4+/CD45RO+ percentages and biologically active soluble CD154 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group 3 as compared to group 1 or to controls. In ASST positive groups, CD45RO+ and CD4+/CD45RO+ positiveness correlates with wheal diameter. In conclusion, memory cells may play a role in these different types of patients and in understanding CIU pathogenesis.

  11. Changes of Femoral Photolethysmographic Waveform Characteristics in Anesthetized Dogs with Increased Blood Pressure Induced by Epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) has been proven to play an important role in changes of the morphology of a pulse waveform. However, the extent of change of the morphology because of BP signaling has yet to be accurately confirmed. Objectives: This study aims to disclose the accurate effect of BP on the changes in the morphology of the pulse waveform. Methods: Two dogs' invasive intraventricular BP (varied by ejecting different doses of epinephrine) and their femoral arterial pulse waveform (FAPW) signals were synchronously recorded. For each BP increase, a normalized single cardiac beat pulse from the FAPW signal was fitted by five Gaussian curves and the changes in the Gaussian parameters (height, peak position, and time support) were observed. Results: The height parameter increased while the position and time support parameters decreased with increasing systolic BP (SBP). The height ratio and the peak intervals between the first two components decreased with increasing SBP. Conclusions: These results may contribute to the better understanding of the underlying changes of arterial pulse properties at different BP levels and demonstrate the potential application value of the Gaussian fitting method for clinically assessing pulse morphology and evaluating the well-being of artery system. PMID:27683559

  12. Quantifying the biophysical characteristics of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells in microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Fedosov, D. A.; Caswell, B.; Suresh, S.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria results from the stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs) and its ability to adhere to endothelial cells (cytoadherence). The dynamics of Pf-parasitized RBCs is studied by three-dimensional mesoscopic simulations of flow in cylindrical capillaries in order to predict the flow resistance enhancement at different parasitemia levels. In addition, the adhesive dynamics of Pf-RBCs is explored for various parameters revealing several types of cell dynamics such as firm adhesion, very slow slipping along the wall, and intermittent flipping. The parasite inside the RBC is modeled explicitly in order to capture phenomena such as “hindered tumbling” motion of the RBC and the sudden transition from firm RBC cytoadherence to flipping on the endothelial surface. These predictions are in quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations, and thus the three-dimensional modeling method presented here provides new capabilities for guiding and interpreting future in vitro and in vivo studies of malaria. PMID:21173269

  13. Correlations between Lymphocytes, Mid-Cell Fractions and Granulocytes with Human Blood Characteristics Using Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssein, Hend A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramli, R. M.; Ismail, N. E.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the subpopulations of human blood parameters including lymphocytes, the mid-cell fractions (eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes), and granulocytes were determined by electronic sizing in the Health Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia. These parameters have been correlated with human blood characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and blood types; before and after irradiation with 0.95 mW He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm). The correlations were obtained by finding patterns, paired non-parametric tests, and an independent non-parametric tests using the SPSS version 11.5, centroid and peak positions, and flux variations. The findings show that the centroid and peak positions, flux peak and total flux, were very much correlated and can become a significant indicator for blood analyses. Furthermore, the encircled flux analysis demonstrated a good future prospect in blood research, thus leading the way as a vibrant diagnosis tool to clarify diseases associated with blood.

  14. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review.

  15. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... cooking process. The weight of barbecued meat shall not exceed 70 percent of the weight of the...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  17. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  18. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds.

  19. Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-07-01

    Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores.

  20. Iron, Meat and Health

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

  1. Postmortem chemical changes in poultry breast meat monitored with visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken meat undergoes significant chemical and structural changes with postmortem time that influence meat quality characteristics. The objective of this study was to measure the visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral differences in broiler breast fillets at 0.5, 4, 24, and 120 h postmortem. Mu...

  2. Research of principles for estimating the freshness of meat products by color analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petukhova, Daria B.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Color is one of the most important metrics of foodstuffs quality. It gives an indication of freshness, ingredient composition as well as about the presence or absence of falsification. Most often, the color is estimated visually, and thus, the evaluation is subjective. By automating the color analysis a wide application for this method could be found. The aim of this research is to study the principles of color analysis as applied to the task of evaluating the freshness of meat products using modern machine vision systems. From a scientific point of view, the color of meat depends on the proportion of myoglobin and its derivatives. It's the main pigment that characterizes the freshness of meat. Further color of meat can change due to oxidation of myoglobin during storage. Myoglobin exists in three forms. There are oxygenated form, oxidized form and form without oxygen. The meat color changes not only due to the conversion of one form into another. The content of amino acids and ammonia are another characteristics and constant signs of meat products spoilage. The paper presents the results of meat color computer simulation based on data on the content of various forms of myoglobin in different proportions. The spectral characteristic of the light source used to illuminate the meat sample is taken into account. Also the experimental studies were conducted using samples of beef. As a result the correlations between said biochemical indicators of the quality and color of the meat obtained with the help of machine vision system were found.

  3. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-02-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology, a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n = 2,101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining approximately 80% of the cases from the area. Noncancer population controls (n = 2,120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1,903 cases and 2,073 controls and used in conjunction with a meat mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P trend < 0.001 and OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P trend < 0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0; P trend = 0.001 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2; P trend = 0.001, respectively). HCAs and BaP were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

  4. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  5. Managing meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  6. Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.

  7. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets.

  8. Effect of lairage time, behaviour and gender on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dokmanovic, Marija; Ivanovic, Jelena; Janjic, Jelena; Boskovic, Marija; Laudanovic, Milica; Pantic, Srdjan; Baltic, Milan Z

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lairage time (short vs. long), behavior (aggressive vs. non-aggressive) and gender (gilts, barrows and boars) on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs (n = 100). In the group with short lairage, aggressive behavior of gilts and boars was observed. At exsanguination, blood samples were collected and levels of blood lactate and plasma cortisol were determined. Post mortem pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality class were determined on the muscle Longissimus dorsi. Higher blood lactate concentration (P < 0.05) and skin blemish score (P <0.001), lower temperature (P < 0.05) and drip loss (P < 0.01), as well as darker, less red and yellow meat color (P < 0.001) were found after long lairage compared to short lairage. Gilts had higher plasma cortisol concentrations than barrows (P < 0.05), while barrows had lower skin blemish scores (P < 0.05) than gilts and boars after long lairage. The highest incidence of PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat was observed in barrows (100.00%) and boars (91.67%) after short lairage, while the lowest incidence of PSE meat was found in barrows (28.89%) after long lairage. Aggressiveness affected meat temperature, as aggressive pigs had higher meat temperature (P < 0.05) than non-aggressive pigs.

  9. 9 CFR 94.21 - Importation of meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND..., and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. 94.21 Section... bovines from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. Meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products,...

  10. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  11. Specific serological identification of ostrich meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    van den Heever, L W; Marais, S

    1975-09-01

    Using aqueous urea solution extracts of heated ostrich muscle as antigen for the production of precipitating rabbit antiostrich sera, it was possible to specifically identify raw, heated (70-95 degrees C) and air dried-salted ostrich meat by means of gel immunodiffusion tests. The sera did not react with chicken, turkey or horse meat or with beef in any form. The soluble proteins extracted from ostrich meat heated to temperatures of 70 degrees C for 30 minutes appear to constitute at least two closely related antigenic determinants of which only one is thermostable at temperatures above 70 degrees C).

  12. An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases.

  13. A second look into fibre typing--relation to meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L

    2010-02-01

    Despite intensive research, a large variation in meat quality is still observed in most meat producing species. It is widely accepted that myofibre type composition is an important source of variation in meat quality. However, the identification of specific and universal relationships between myofibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality traits remains a challenge. After the presentation of recent knowledge underlying fibre typing, this review describes the involvements of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms, and the energy state of the myofibres in the control of contractile and metabolic properties, with a special attention to the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and mitochondrial compartment. In order to identify muscle components which could mask specific relationships between fibre type composition and meat quality, an analysis of the interactions between myofibres and other muscle cellular components is presented. After a brief description of myogenesis, the significance of the total number of fibres, myofibre cross-sectional area and fibre type composition for growth performance and meat quality is presented. Then, some genetic and environmental factors are proposed as possible tools to control meat quality trough the modulation of fibre type characteristics. Finally, a conclusion makes the point on bottlenecks still preventing the identification of specific relationships between fibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality, and suggests future perspectives such as direct selection on fibre traits and study of correlated responses, the development of in vitro approaches using cell cultures, manipulation of myogenesis during the fetal period, and the production and use of genetically modified animals.

  14. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  15. Risk analysis and meat hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1993-12-01

    Meat hygiene consists of three major activities: post-mortem inspection; monitoring and surveillance for chemical hazards; and maintenance of good hygienic practice throughout all stages between slaughter and consumption of meat. Risk analysis is an applied science of increasing importance to these activities in the following areas: facilitating the distribution of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest inspection resources, proportional to the likelihood of public health and animal health hazards; establishing internationally-harmonized standards and specifications which are consistent and science-based; and improving the safety and wholesomeness of meat and meat products in local and international trade. Risk analysis, in one form or another, is well developed with respect to establishing standards and specifications for chemical hazards; methods for risk analysis of post-mortem meat inspection programmes are beginning to emerge. However, risk analysis of microbiological hazards in meat and meat products presents particular difficulties. All areas of application currently suffer from a lack of international agreement on risk assessment and risk management methodology.

  16. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  17. Correlation of carcass meat content with development of the reproductive system in sexually immature gilts.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, Hanna; Kapelański, Wojciech; Bocian, Maria; Soltész, Angéla; Balogh, Péter

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the correlation of carcass meat content with the development of the reproductive system in sexually immature gilts of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) breeds. The results, obtained from three groups (I, II, III) of gilts differing in lean meat percentage, indicate an effect on fattening and slaughtering traits as well as on the morphometric characteristics of the uterus. There were statistically significant differences in the values of fattening and slaughtering traits in the groups of gilts tested. Studies on the relationship between morphometric characteristics of the reproductive system and carcass meat content showed that there was a correlation between the weight of the uterus with and without the broad ligament and the meat content of the carcass. The weight of the uterus was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in gilts with lower meat content. The negative influence of high gilt meatiness on development of the reproductive system was more pronounced in PLW gilts.

  18. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  19. Improving functional value of meat products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  20. Red meat, processed meat and cancer in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-12-16

    Epidemiological studies around the world were analysed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, demonstrating a positive correlation between consumption of red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer. In South Africa (SA) there is a great variation in the incidence of this type of cancer between various ethnic groups, related to diet and other risk factors. Strengthening the SA cancer registry and co-ordinated research on diet and cancer are required to provide specific answers for our population.

  1. Rapid discrimination of main red meat species based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lu; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2016-05-01

    Meat is the necessary source of essential nutrients for people including protein, fat, and so on. The discrimination of meat species and the determination of meat authenticity have been an important issue in the meat industry. The objective of this study is to realize the fast and accurate identification of three main red meats containing beef, lamb and pork by using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. After acquiring the hyperspectral images of meat samples, the calibration of acquired images and selection of the region of interest (ROI) were carried out. Then spectral preprocessing method of standard normal variate correction (SNV) was used to reduce the light scattering and random noise before the spectral analysis. Finally, characteristic wavelengths were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA), and the Fisher linear discriminant method was applied to establish Fisher discriminant functions to identify the meat species. All the samples were collected from different batches in order to improve the coverage of the models. In addition to the validation of sample itself in train set and cross validation, three different meat samples were sliced at the size of 2cm×2cm×2 cm approximately and were spliced together in one interface to be scanned by HSI system. The acquired hyperspectral data was applied to further validate the discriminant model. The results demonstrated that the near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology could be applied as an effective, rapid and non-destructive discrimination method for main red meats.

  2. Evaluation of volume and total nucleated cell count as cord blood selection parameters: a receiver operating characteristic curve modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Pérez, José C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura N; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Herrera-Garza, José Luís; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the current standard practice of using volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) count for the selection of cord blood (CB) units for cryopreservation and further transplantation. Data on 794 CB units whose CD34+ cell content was determined by flow cytometry were analyzed by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve model to validate the performance of volume and TNC count for the selection of CB units with grafting purposes. The TNC count was the best parameter to identify CB units having 2 × 10(6) or more CD34+ cells, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.828 (95% confidence interval, 0.800-0.856; P < .01) and an efficiency of 75.4%. Combination of parameters (TNC/mononuclear cells [MNCs], efficiency 74.7%; TNC/volume, efficiency 68.9%; and volume/MNCs, efficiency 68.3%) did not lead to improvement in CB selection. All CB units having a TNC count of 8 × 10(8) or more had the required CD34+ cell dose for patients weighing 10 kg or less.

  3. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications.

  4. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  5. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  6. Impact of primary care nursing workforce characteristics on the control of high-blood pressure: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parro-Moreno, Ana; Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Díaz-Holgado, Antonio; Aréjula-Torres, Jose L; Abraira, Victor; Santiago-Pérez, Isolina M; Morales-Asencio, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of Primary Health Care (PHC) nursing workforce characteristics and of the clinical practice environment (CPE) perceived by nurses on the control of high-blood pressure (HBP). Design Cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Administrative and clinical registries of hypertensive patients from PHC information systems and questionnaire from PHC nurses. Participants 76 797 hypertensive patients in two health zones within the Community of Madrid, North-West Zone (NWZ) with a higher socioeconomic situation and South-West Zone (SWZ) with a lower socioeconomic situation, and 442 reference nurses. Segmented analyses by area were made due to their different socioeconomic characteristics. Primary outcome measure: Poor HBP control (adequate figures below the value 140/90 mm Hg) associated with the characteristics of the nursing workforce and self-perceived CPE. Results The prevalence of poor HBP control, estimated by an empty multilevel model, was 33.5% (95% CI 31.5% to 35.6%). In the multilevel multivariate regression models, the perception of a more favourable CPE was associated with a reduction in poor control in NWZ men and SWZ women (OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99)); the economic immigration conditions increased poor control in NWZ women (OR=1.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.89)) and in SWZ, both men (OR=1.89 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.51)) and women (OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.76)). In all four models, increasing the annual number of patient consultations was associated with a reduction in poor control (NWZ women: OR=0.98 (95% CI0.98 to 0.99); NWZ men: OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99); SWZ women: OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99); SWZ men: OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Conclusions A CPE, perceived by PHC nurses as more favourable, and more patient–nurse consultations, contribute to better HBP control. Economic immigration condition is a risk factor for poor HBP control. Health policies oriented towards promoting positive environments for nursing practice are

  7. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  8. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  9. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Muhabat A.; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M.; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs. PMID:27375611

  11. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Raji, Muhabat A; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs.

  12. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kannan, G; Heath, J L; Wabeck, C J; Owens, S L; Mench, J A

    1998-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers (Arbor Acres) were either 1) fed a diet containing corticosterone (CORT) prior to processing, 2) transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3) processed without either of the above treatments. Six crates of birds (10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment) were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time (ST), Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen (IQF) in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice (AOI) for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides (R-value), cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses. The IQF Biceps femoris samples were used for pH, R-value, color, and heme pigment analysis. Mean (+/- SEM) CORT concentrations were 12.9+/-2.57, 11.7+/-1.38 and 7.9+/-0.79 ng/mL, respectively, in the CORT, transported, and control groups. There were significant treatment by ST (P < 0.05) and ST (P < 0.001) effects on the R-value of IQF P. superficialis samples. The CORT group had the highest L* value (P < 0.01) and the lowest a* value (P < 0.06). There was also a significant main effect of ST on shear values (P < 0.05) of AOI P. superficialis samples, with the means higher at 4 h than at 20 min post-mortem. The R-value of IQF B. femoris samples was markedly influenced by treatment (P < 0.001) and ST (P < 0.001). The results indicate that artificially elevating circulating CORT concentrations results in lighter meat color in broilers.

  13. Alkali-aided protein extraction of chicken dark meat: composition and stability to lipid oxidation of the recovered proteins.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, V; Omana, D A; Chan, J; Xu, Y; Betti, M

    2010-04-01

    Chicken dark meat has been considered as a major underused commodity due to the increasing demand for further-processed breast meat products. One option to increase the utilization of chicken dark meat is to extract myofibrillar proteins and separate them from fat and pigments to enhance their application for the preparation of further-processed meat products. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pH, in the range of 10.5 to 12.0, on the alkaline solubilization process of chicken dark meat. Aspects studied were the effect of the alkali-aided process on protein content, lipid composition, lipid oxidation, and color characteristics of the extracted meat. Each experiment and each assay were done at least in triplicate. Lipid content of the extracted meat showed a 50% reduction compared with the chicken dark meat. Neutral lipids were reduced by 61.51%, whereas polar lipids were not affected by the alkali treatments. There was a higher amount of TBA reactive substances observed in the extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat, indicating that extracted meat was more susceptible to oxidation. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (22:4n-6, 20:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), which were detected only in the polar lipids, were responsible for increasing lipid oxidation susceptibility of extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat. Alkali-aided extraction of chicken dark meat lightened the color of the meat. The redness, yellowness, and total heme pigments in extracted meat significantly decreased by 83, 11, and 53%, respectively, compared with chicken dark meat. Even though this process did not remove polar lipids, based on our early findings, the extracted meat had considerable physicochemical and textural properties for product preparation compared with those of raw dark meat. Hence, alkali recovery of protein can be considered a potentially useful method to increase the utilization of dark chicken meat.

  14. How Muscle Structure and Composition Influence Meat and Flesh Quality

    PubMed Central

    Listrat, Anne; Lebret, Bénédicte; Louveau, Isabelle; Astruc, Thierry; Bonnet, Muriel; Lefaucheur, Louis; Picard, Brigitte; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality. PMID:27022618

  15. Biological characteristics and effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) grafting with blood plasma on bone regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhiguo; Guo, Libin; Fang, Guojun; Cui, Zhenghong; Guo, Shengnan; Liu, Ying

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the biological characteristics/effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) grafting with blood plasma on bone regeneration in rat tibia nonunion. SD rats (142) were randomly divided into four groups: fracture group (positive control); nonunion group (negative control); hUC-MSCs grafting with blood plasma group; and hUC-MSCs grafting with saline group. Rats were administered tetracycline (30 mg/kg) and calcein blue (5 mg/kg) 8 days before killing. The animals were killed under deep anesthesia at 4 and 8 weeks post fracture for radiological evaluation and histological/immunohistological studies. The hUC-MSCs grafting with blood plasma group was similar to fracture group: the fracture line blurred in 4 weeks and disappeared in 8 weeks postoperatively. Histological/immunohistological studies showed that hUC-MSCs were of low immunogenicity which merged in rat bone tissue, differentiated into osteogenic lineages, and completed the healing of nonunion. After stem cell transplantation, regardless of whether plasma or saline was used, new multi-center bone formation was observed; fracture site density was better in stem cell grafting with blood plasma group. We, therefore, concluded that the biological characteristics of hUC-MSCs-treated nonunion were different from the standard fracture healing process, and the proliferative and localization capacity of hUC-MSCs might benefit from the use of blood plasma.

  16. The Dependence of the Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening Characteristics on Microbubble Size In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, James J.; Feshitan, Jameel A.; Wang, Shougang; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Baseri, Babak; Borden, Mark A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent neuropharmaceutical developments have led to potent disease-modifying drugs. In spite of these advancements, most agents cannot traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deposit in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been shown to induce noninvasive, localized, and transient BBB opening. Although promising, safety and efficacy concerns still remain. Previously reported experiments used conventional imaging contrast agents that have a wide size distribution. In this study, we hypothesize that BBB opening characteristics are dependent on bubble diameter. A 25 μl bolus of in-house manufactured, lipid-shelled bubbles with either 1-2 or 4-5 μm diameter ranges was injected intravenously. Pulsed FUS (frequency: 1.5 MHz, peak-negative pressure: 146-607 kPa, duty cycle: 20%, duration: 1-min) was then applied to the left hippocampus of mice (n = 16) in vivo through the intact skin and skull. MRI or fluorescence microscopy was used to determine BBB opening. Contrast-enhanced (Omniscan™; 0.75 mL; molecular weight: 574 Da) MRI (9.4-T) was acquired on multiple days after sonication to determine BBB opening and closing. Fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the feasibility of delivering large, 3 kDa dextran compounds through the BBB. The BBB opening acoustic pressure threshold for the 4-5μm bubbles was in the 146-304 kPa range while the threshold for the 1-2μm bubbles was higher. In conclusion, FUS-induced BBB opening and closing was shown to be dependent on the bubble diameter indicating the possibility of specifically designing bubbles to enhance this therapeutic application.

  17. Blood pressure and retinal microvascular characteristics during pregnancy: Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Jun; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Ikram, M Kamran; Gluckman, Peter; Meaney, Michael J; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2012-07-01

    Changes in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy are associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. We investigated whether maternal blood pressure during midpregnancy has an impact on the retinal microcirculation among pregnant Asian women. A total of 665 pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were recruited from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study. Blood pressure and retinal vascular parameters were both measured at 26 weeks' gestation following a standardized protocol. Blood pressure was measured by a digital automatic blood pressure monitor (Omron HEM 705 LP). Quantitative retinal vascular parameters were assessed by a semiautomated computer-based program (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). In multiple linear regression models, every 10-mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 1.9-μm (P<0.001) reduction in retinal arteriolar caliber, a 0.9° (P=0.05) reduction in retinal arteriolar branching angle, and a 0.07 (P<0.01) reduction in retinal arteriolar fractal dimension, respectively. Patients classified into a high-risk group in developing preeclampsia (mean arterial blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg) were twice as likely (odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI, 1.0-4.4]) to have generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing compared with those classified into a low-risk group (mean arterial blood pressure <90 mm Hg). Retinal venular caliber and vascular tortuosity were not associated with blood pressure measures. Elevated blood pressure is associated with a range of retinal arteriolar changes in pregnant women, providing evidence for an impact of blood pressure on the microcirculation during pregnancy.

  18. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  19. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  20. Dextran-sulfate-adsorption of atherosclerotic lipoproteins from whole blood or separated plasma for lipid-apheresis--comparison of performance characteristics with DALI and Lipidfiltration.

    PubMed

    Julius, Ulrich; Parhofer, Klaus G; Heibges, Andreas; Kurz, Stefan; Klingel, Reinhard; Geiss, Hans-Christian

    2007-01-01

    For many years dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA) treatment of separated plasma has been an established technology for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-elimination. Recently a system for the treatment of whole blood based on DSA was introduced into clinical practice. To further characterize DSA treatment of whole blood, the performance characteristics of both DSA modalities were compared at two investigational sites with two alternative LDL apheresis systems being already in routine clinical use. In prospective cross-over design, DSA whole blood treatment was compared with a whole blood polyacrylate LDL adsorption system (DALI) in one study group. DSA for plasma treatment was compared with Lipidfiltration in cross-over design in a second study group. In total, 12 patients on chronic LDL apheresis received 169 treatments. Six patients were treated twice with whole blood polyacrylate adsorption and twice with whole blood DSA. LDL-cholesterol (74.9-78.0%) and lipoprotein (a) (72.1-73.3%) were reduced by both with equal efficacy. DSA achieved a significantly higher reduction rate of fibrinogen. Another six patients were treated eight times with DSA plasma adsorption followed by 16 Lipidfiltration treatments. LDL-cholesterol (67.0-70.2%) and lipoprotein (a) (69.2-73.7%) were reduced by both with equal efficacy. Fibrinogen was eliminated more efficiently by Lipidfiltration (50.2 vs. 38.5%). DSA proved to be a safe and effective in both treatment modes, for plasma as well as for whole blood. At the discretion of the apheresis specialist, depending upon the status of national approval, DSA of whole blood complements the armamentarium of powerful modalities for extracorporeal elimination of atherosclerotic lipoproteins to meet specific individual, medical, or logistic needs.

  1. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  2. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  3. Effects of dietary chromium chloride, nicotinic acid and copper sulphate on meat of broilers.

    PubMed

    Javed, M T; Ellahi, M; Abbas, N; Yasmin, R; Mazhar, M

    2010-06-01

    1. Combinations of chromium and copper were added to the diet to assess their effects on broiler meat characteristics. 2. For this purpose 175 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 7 equal groups and were given treatment feeds containing copper sulphate, chromium chloride and nicotinic acid in different combinations. 3. The study was carried out for 5 weeks and samples were collected at the end of 15, 29 and 35 d of treatment and at 42 d after a withdrawal period of one week. 4. Cholesterol content had decreased significantly in breast meat at d 29 in all treatment groups. In thigh meat, it decreased significantly at d 29 in groups receiving two concentrations of chromium + two concentrations of copper. Cholesterol content remained lower even after withholding the treatment for one week. 5. Crude fat content decreased significantly in breast meat in all treatment groups. In thigh meat, at d 29, a significant reduction in crude fat was observed only in birds receiving low chromium and high copper. 6. Crude protein at d 29 increased significantly in breast meat of birds receiving low chromium and high copper, and low or high chromium, while it decreased significantly in treatment groups after withholding the treatment. In thigh meat, at d 29, it increased significantly in treatment groups but decreased significantly after withholding the treatment. 7. It was concluded that chromium and copper, along with nicotinic acid, have modulating effects on broiler meat under tropical conditions.

  4. [Gerasimov effect of an alternating magnetic field on clinical characteristics of peripheral blood from women suffering tuboperitoneal infertility of inflammatory origin].

    PubMed

    Sumarova, A V; Tedeeva, T A; Gerasimov, I G

    2009-01-01

    The influence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) on the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood cell count, and pH values in peripheral blood was studied in 15 woman volunteers suffering tuboperitoneal infertility (TPI) of inflammatory origin. They were found to have a significantly (p < 0.05) lower number of erythrocytes, absolute number of stab neutrophils, and relative number of segmented neutrophils compared with the respective normal values. In addition, their blood pH values were decreased. The above changes are characteristic of hypoxic conditions supposed "to train" tissues for chronic inflammation; such training may underlie the mechanism of therapeutic effect of alternating magnetic field in women with tubuloperitoneal infertility.

  5. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and nutritional restriction on barbituate-induced sleeping times and selected blood characteristics in raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    SciTech Connect

    Montz, W.E.; Card, W.C.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.

    1982-05-01

    Hepatic microsomal enzyme activity was induced in wild-trapped raccoons (Procyon lotor) and selected blood characteristics were measured in an effort to detect responses due to PCB ingestion, nutritional restriction, and their interactions. Barbiturate-induced sleeping times were used as an index of hepatic microsomal activity because they have been used reliably by other workers. Blood characteristics examined in the study were nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, and three ketone bodies (D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone). Results show a reduction in sleeping times, elevated NEFA and D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and lower cholesterol concentrations in PCB-treated groups. A highly significant interaction between PCB treatment and nutritional restriction was observed in acetoacetate concentrations. (JMT)

  6. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... action of dry heat resulting from the burning of hard wood or the hot coals therefrom for a...

  7. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with meat, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  9. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  13. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  14. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  15. Performance and blood pressure characteristics of first-year national collegiate athletic association division I football players.

    PubMed

    Carbuhn, Aaron F; Womack, John W; Green, John S; Morgan, Kent; Miller, Greg S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2008-07-01

    The authors were aware of no published studies in which the performance characteristics of first-year National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players were reported. From 2003 to 2006, 73 freshman and 12 transfer football recruits were tested before twice-a-day practices for bench press (BP), squat (SQ), power clean (PC), vertical jump (VJ), calculated jump power (CP), treadmill endurance capacity (Vo2peak), and maximal treadmill time (MTT). Individuals were grouped by player position for descriptive statistical analysis. As a group, offensive linemen (OL), defensive linemen (DL), linebackers (LB), tight ends (TE), and running backs (RB) averaged 152.8 kg for BP, 210.5 kg for SQ, 127.3 kg for PC, and 224.2 W for CP. These values were 22% to 30% higher than those for quarterbacks (QB), wide receivers (WR), defensive backs (DB), and kickers (K), who together averaged 120.2 kg for BP, 163.4 kg for SQ, 104.6 kg for PC, and 172.4 W for CP. Quarterbacks, WR, DB, and K as a group showed the highest MTT (13:13 m.s) and Vo2peak values (47.24 mL.kg.min), 15% to 20% higher than those for OL, DL, LB, RB, and TE, who averaged 11:27 m.s for MTT and 39.51 mL.kg.min for Vo2peak. Running backs, TE, LB, DB, and WR averaged 82.56 cm for VJ, which was 14% higher than that for DL, QB, K, and OL, who averaged 72.72 cm. On the basis of average resting blood pressure, 23.5% (20 players) were categorized as hypertensive (i.e., >/=140/90 mm Hg), 54% (46 players) as prehypertensive (i.e., 120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and 22.5% (19 players) as normal (i.e., <120/80 mm Hg). These data serve as a basis for comparisons among other Division I programs, benchmarking development and improvement through training, and creating position performance norms for incoming football athletes.

  16. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces.

  17. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products.

  18. Association of Blood Monocyte and Platelet Markers with Carotid Artery Characteristics: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, N.; Wu, K.K.; Howard, A.G.; Wasserman, B.; Wang, W.Y.-W.; Folsom, A.R.; Sharrett, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells from circulating blood. Blood cell activation could play an important role in plaque formation. Methods We analyzed the relationship between blood cellular markers and quantitative measures of carotid wall components in 1,546 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Carotid MRI Study. Carotid imaging was performed using a gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and cellular phenotyping by flow cytometry. Results Monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is associated with larger plaques, while CD14, myeloperoxidase, and TLR-4 associate with smaller. Platelet CD40L is associated with smaller plaques and thinner caps, while P-selectin is associated with smaller core size. Conclusions Blood cell activation is significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes of the carotid wall. PMID:21487219

  19. Meat science: From proteomics to integrated omics towards system biology.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2013-01-14

    Since the main ultimate goal of farm animal raising is the production of proteins for human consumption, research tools to investigate proteins play a major role in farm animal and meat science. Indeed, proteomics has been applied to the field of farm animal science to monitor in vivo performances of livestock animals (growth performances, fertility, milk quality etc.), but also to further our understanding of the molecular processes at the basis of meat quality, which are largely dependent on the post mortem biochemistry of the muscle, often in a species-specific way. Post mortem alterations to the muscle proteome reflect the biological complexity of the process of "muscle to meat conversion," a process that, despite decades of advancements, is all but fully understood. This is mainly due to the enormous amounts of variables affecting meat tenderness per se, including biological factors, such as animal species, breed specific-characteristic, muscle under investigation. However, it is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as the rearing environment, feeding conditions, physical activity, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress, post mortem handling. From this intricate scenario, biochemical approaches and systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion. The growing integration of omics disciplines in the field of systems biology will soon contribute to take further steps forward.

  20. Differentiation of Deboned Fresh Chicken Thigh Meat from the Frozen-Thawed One Processed with Different Deboning Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young Sik; Lee, Jae Cheong; Jung, Samooel; Jeon, Seung Yeop; Park, Do Hee; Lee, Soo-Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of three deboned categories of chicken thigh meat: one which was slaughtered and deboned in the same plant (fresh); one which was slaughtered, deboned, frozen, and thawed in the same plant (frozen-thawed); and the last which was slaughtered in a plant, deboned in a different plant, but then transferred to the original plant (fresh-outside). Surface color, drip loss, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, sensory evaluation, and total aerobic bacterial counts of the chicken samples were determined. Moreover, the torrymeter was used to measure the differences in freshness of the chicken meat. The surface color and the TBARS values did not show significant differences among the three categories. However, the total aerobic bacterial counts of fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat were significantly higher than the fresh chicken meat on the first storage day, and the drip loss of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly higher than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. In addition, the sensory evaluation of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly lower than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. Torrymeter values were higher in fresh chicken meat than fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat during the storage period. These results indicate that the quality of frozen-thawed chicken meat is comparatively lower than the fresh chicken meat, and the torrymeter values can accurately differentiate the fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat from the fresh ones. PMID:26760748

  1. Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Cureux, James

    1974-01-01

    Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…

  2. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  3. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  7. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  8. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  9. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  10. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  11. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  12. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... percent of meat of the species named on the label, computed on the weight of the fresh meat. Mechanically Separated (Species) may be used in accordance with § 319.6....

  14. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... percent of meat of the species named on the label, computed on the weight of the fresh meat. Mechanically Separated (Species) may be used in accordance with § 319.6....

  15. Red meat from animals offered a grass diet increases plasma and platelet n-3 PUFA in healthy consumers.

    PubMed

    McAfee, A J; McSorley, E M; Cuskelly, G J; Fearon, A M; Moss, B W; Beattie, J A M; Wallace, J M W; Bonham, M P; Strain, J J

    2011-01-01

    Red meat from grass-fed animals, compared with concentrate-fed animals, contains increased concentrations of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. However, the effects of red meat consumption from grass-fed animals on consumer blood concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status of consuming red meat produced from either grass-fed animals or concentrate-fed animals. A randomised, double-blinded, dietary intervention study was carried out for 4 weeks on healthy subjects who replaced their habitual red meat intake with three portions per week of red meat (beef and lamb) from animals offered a finishing diet of either grass or concentrate (n 20 consumers). Plasma and platelet fatty acid composition, dietary intake, blood pressure, and serum lipids and lipoproteins were analysed at baseline and post-intervention. Dietary intakes of total n-3 PUFA, as well as plasma and platelet concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA, were significantly higher in those subjects who consumed red meat from grass-fed animals compared with those who consumed red meat from concentrate-fed animals (P < 0·05). No significant differences in concentrations of serum cholesterol, TAG or blood pressure were observed between groups. Consuming red meat from grass-fed animals compared with concentrate-fed animals as part of the habitual diet can significantly increase consumer plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status. As a result, red meat from grass-fed animals may contribute to dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA in populations where red meat is habitually consumed.

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  17. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han Lin; Zhao, Pin Yao; Lei, Yan; Hossain, Md Manik; Kang, Jungsun; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs. PMID:26954131

  18. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from retail chicken meat and offal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    A rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter has been posing a serious concern for human health. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the overall trend in antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products collected from a wide geographic area throughout Japan. Resistance to Enrofloxacin was most frequently observed, with significantly higher rate of resistance among isolates obtained from offal (55.6%) than from meat (27.3%) samples (p = 0.05). These results highlight need for a better understanding of the characteristics of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products.

  19. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  20. Long-term red meat preservation using chilled and frozen storage combinations: A review.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews current literature relating to the effects of chilled and frozen storage on the quality characteristics of red meat (lamb and beef). These characteristics include tenderness (shear force), juiciness (fluid losses), flavour (lipid oxidation), colour and microbial loading. Research suggests that chilled storage of red meat can improve certain properties, such as shear force and species-specific flavour, to threshold levels before the effects on flavour and colour become deleterious, and key microbial species proliferate to spoilage levels. For frozen red meat, the negative effects upon quality traits are prevented when stored for shorter durations, although chilled storage conditions prior to freezing and retail display post-thawing can both positively and negatively affect these traits. Here, we review the effects of different chilled, frozen and combined chilled and frozen storage practices (particularly the chilled-then-frozen combination) on meat quality and spoilage traits, in order to contribute to superior management of these traits during product distribution.

  1. Characteristic of the Oxidative Stress in Blood of Patients in Dependence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov–Luchankiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Lee, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At the present time the alternation of the oxidative metabolism is considered as one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms in the development and progression of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However the nature and direction of the oxidative protein changes in CAP patient’s blood had been almost unexplored. AIM: To define oxidative and modified proteins in erythrocytes and blood plasma of CAP patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood plasma and erythrocytes obtained from: 42 patients with moderate severity pneumonia, 12 patients with grave severity pneumonia and 32 healthy volunteers. Content of advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives were estimated as indicators of the oxidative stress and oxidative damage of proteins. RESULTS: In patients with grave severity the level of oxidative proteins and MDA in erythrocytes exceeded both: control values and similar meanings in CAP patients with moderate severity. The further growth of MDA in this group patients’ blood plasma was observed, but the level of oxidative proteins decreased in comparison with those in CAP patients with moderate severity. CONCLUSION: To sum up, our derived data show, that injury of erythrocytes’ redox-status and blood plasma components plays an essential role in development and progression CAP. PMID:27275344

  2. Quality Assessment of the Breast Meat from WoorimatdagTM and Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Nam, Ki Chang; Jeon, Hee Jun; Choe, Jun Ho

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics that define the quality of WoorimatdagTM (WM, a certified meat-type commercial Korea indigenous chicken breed) and a commercial broiler breed (Ross, CB). Two hundred WM and 200 CB chickens that were 1-d-old and mixed sex were obtained from a commercial hatchery and randomly assigned to floor pens (20 chickens per pen, 3.0×2.0 m) and raised under the same environmental conditions. WM breast meat contained significantly higher crude protein and ash as well as lower crude fat than CB breast meat (p<0.05). WM breast meat had slightly higher alanine, histidine, isoleucine, and glycine as well as lower phenylalanine content than CB breast meat (p<0.05), and the WM breast meat had a low ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid composition (p<0.05). However, arachidonic acid composition was higher in the WM than the CB breast meat. In addition, the inosin-5’-monophosphate content was also higher in the WM compared with the CB breast (p<0.05). The WM breast meat had higher total collagen content compared with CB breast meat. WM soup taste received higher scores with regard to sensory evaluation compared with CB soup (p<0.05). From these results, we conclude that higher amount of protein and flavor precursors and lower amount of fat in the breast meat of WM could be attractive by consumer when compared with CB. PMID:26761506

  3. Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace) Pigs with Different Coat Colors

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jeong, T. C.; Kim, G. D.; Jeong, J. Y.; Cho, I. C.; Lim, H. T.; Kim, B. W.; Joo, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells. PMID:25049884

  4. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that (4.96 +/- 0.90 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a large abattoir in automated slaughter lines. Both groups of carcasses had mean pH values of 5.98. The dominant contaminants on carcasses from the small abattoir were Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  5. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  6. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  7. Intermingled Klebsiella pneumoniae Populations Between Retail Meats and Human Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gregg S.; Waits, Kara; Nordstrom, Lora; Weaver, Brett; Aziz, Maliha; Gauld, Lori; Grande, Heidi; Bigler, Rick; Horwinski, Joseph; Porter, Stephen; Stegger, Marc; Johnson, James R.; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, companion animals, and livestock. To better understand potential contributions of foodborne K. pneumoniae to human clinical infections, we compared K. pneumoniae isolates from retail meat products and human clinical specimens to assess their similarity based on antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness, and virulence. Methods. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from retail meats from Flagstaff grocery stores in 2012 and from urine and blood specimens from Flagstaff Medical Center in 2011–2012. Isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was assessed using multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. Extraintestinal virulence of several closely related meat-source and urine isolates was assessed using a murine sepsis model. Results. Meat-source isolates were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to tetracycline and gentamicin than clinical isolates. Four sequence types occurred among both meat-source and clinical isolates. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed close relationships among meat-source and clinical isolates. Isolates from both sources showed similar virulence in the mouse sepsis model. Conclusions. Meat-source K. pneumoniae isolates were more likely than clinical isolates to be antibiotic resistant, which could reflect selective pressures from antibiotic use in food-animal production. The close genetic relatedness of meat-source and clinical isolates, coupled with similarities in virulence, suggest that the barriers to transmission between these 2 sources are low. Taken together, our results suggest that retail meat is a potential vehicle for transmitting virulent, antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae from food animals to humans. PMID:26206847

  8. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  9. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    PubMed

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    High consumption of red meat and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on red meat and processed meat consumption in relationship to all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed through May 2013 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of red meat or processed meat consumption with all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific results were combined by using a random-effects model. Nine prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.22; n = 6 studies) for unprocessed red meat, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.28; n = 6 studies) for processed meat, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.35; n = 5 studies) for total red meat. In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion. These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality.

  11. Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lundén, Janne; Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel.

  12. Molecular Methods for Identification of Microorganisms in Traditional Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    Traditional fermentations are those that have been used for centuries and even pre-date written historical records. Fermentation processes have been developed to upgrade plant and animal materials, to yield a more acceptable food, to add flavor, to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and to preserve food without refrigeration (Hesseltine & Wang, 1980). Among fermented foods, sausages are the meat products with a longer history and tradition. It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians, in what is Iraq today, around 3000 BC. Chinese sausage làcháng, which consisted of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. Homer, the poet of The Ancient Greece, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey (book 20, verse 25), and Epicharmus (ca. 550 BC-ca. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled “The Sausage”.

  13. Prevalence of eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting Escherichia albertii from retail raw meat in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Li, Q; Bai, X; Xu, Y; Zhao, A; Sun, H; Deng, J; Xiao, B; Liu, X; Sun, S; Zhou, Y; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Chen, X; Zhang, Z; Xu, J; Xiong, Y

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia albertii is a newly emerging enteric pathogen that has been associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, E. albertii has also been detected in healthy and sick birds, animals, chicken meat and water. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of the eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting E. albertii strains in retail raw meat in China were evaluated. Thirty isolates of such strains of E. albertii were identified from 446 (6·73%) samples, including duck intestines (21·43%, 6/28), duck meat (9·52%, 2/21), chicken intestines (8·99%, 17/189), chicken meat (5·66%, 3/53), mutton meat (4·55%, 1/22) and pork meat (2·44%, 1/41). None was isolated from 92 samples of raw beef meat. Strains were identified as E. albertii by phenotypic properties, diagnostic PCR, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and housekeeping genes. Five intimin subtypes were harboured by these strains. All strains possessed the II/III/V subtype group of the cdtB gene, with two strains carrying another copy of the I/IV subtype group. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed high genetic diversity of E. albertii in raw meats. Our findings indicate that E. albertii can contaminate various raw meats, posing a potential threat to public health.

  14. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  15. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from shark (Scoliodon laticaudus) meat.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sijo; Shamasundar, B A

    2002-08-01

    Ice storage characteristics of Scoliodon laticaudus with reference to physicochemical and functional properties have been assessed. Total nitrogen content reduced to a value of 3.90 g/100 g from an initial value of 4.27 g/100 g of meat. Moisture content did not show much variation. The initial nonprotein nitrogen content which was 1.09% w/w of meat reduced to 0.98% during ice storage. Urea content of shark meat reduced by 25% during 12 days of ice storage. The increase in total volatile base nitrogen of shark meat was more than twofold at the end of 12 days of ice storage. Solubility of proteins showed an initial increase reaching a value of 87.9%, further reduced with ice storage. Gel filtration profile and SDS-PAGE pattern indicated aggregation of protein fractions and also showed dissociation or cleavage to small molecular weight fractions. Slope of reduced viscosity curve as a function of protein concentration decreased with ice storage period. Emulsion capacity of proteins from shark meat reduced from a value of 0.18 mL oil/mg protein to 0.14 mL oil/mg protein after 12 days of ice storage. Gel forming ability of shark meat monitored by dynamic viscoelastic measurement, gel strength, expressible water content and folding test showed that shark meat has got excellent ability to form gel and this property was marginally reduced during ice storage.

  16. Production of fungal chitosan from date wastes and its application as a biopreservative for minced meat.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Sami I A; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Moussa, Shaaban H

    2014-08-01

    Raw and processed meat contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms is a continuing worldwide problem facing health and industry overseers. Fungal chitosan was extracted, purified and characterized from Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404 grown in date syrup (dips) and applied as a potential meat biopreservative. The main features of produced chitosan were a deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 31,000Da, 96% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution and a harmonized IR-spectrum to standard commercial chitosan. The application of fungal chitosan, as a natural and safe biopreservative for minced meat, was conducted in comparison with potassium sorbate, as a commercial meat preservative. Treated meat samples with 0.02% chitosan was the least trials in microbial contents, i.e. total count, coliforms, β-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase positive staphylococci. The antimicrobial activity of fungal chitosan was considerably greater than that of potassium sorbate or their combination at 0.01% from each. Sensory characteristics, e.g. color, odor and texture, of treated meat with chitosan, were higher than those of control and potassium sorbate treated samples. Fungal chitosan, however, could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative for meat preservation and overall quality maintenance.

  17. Selenium supplementation enhances the element concentration in blood and seminal fluid but does not change the spermatozoal quality characteristics in subfertile men.

    PubMed

    Iwanier, K; Zachara, B A

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood components and seminal fluid and on spermatozoal quality characteristics in subfertile men. Thirty-three men were supplemented for 12 weeks with 200 micrograms Se/day in the form of yeast-rich Se (group I, n = 16) or sodium selenite (group II, n = 17). Blood samples and sperm were collected at the start of the study and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following Se supplementation. Se concentration in whole blood and plasma and GSH-Px activity in red cells and plasma increased significantly during the study, but in the group supplemented with yeast-Se the effect was more pronounced. Se concentration in seminal fluid also increased in both groups, but the effect of yeast-Se was markedly higher than that of selenite. In both groups statistically significant correlations were found between Se concentration in plasma and seminal fluid. GSH-Px activity in seminal fluid in the yeast-Se group increased significantly and reached a plateau after 2 weeks, whereas in the selenite group the activity did not change throughout the whole study period. Weak correlations between Se concentrations and GSH-Px activities in seminal fluid were seen, but only in the yeast-Se group were the relations statistically significant. The subjects in both groups showed no response in sperm count, motility, and morphology. In conclusion, we can ascertain that the supplementation of subfertile men with yeast-rich Se showed a more pronounced effect on Se concentrations and GSH-Px activities in blood components and seminal fluid than selenite did. Se supplementation did not improve the spermatozoal quality characteristics of sperm count, motility and, morphology.

  18. Growth response, blood characteristics and copper accumulation in organs of broilers fed on diets supplemented with organic and inorganic dietary copper sources.

    PubMed

    Jegede, A V; Oduguwa, O O; Bamgbose, A M; Fanimo, A O; Nollet, L

    2011-02-01

    1. A 56-d experiment was conducted to study the comparative influence of organic and inorganic dietary copper (Cu) sources on growth, blood characteristics and copper accumulation in organs of broilers. 2. A total of 480 Arbor-Acre unsexed broilers were fed on diets containing copper sulphate (CuSO(4)) or copper proteinate (Cu Pro) at concentrations of 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation. The birds were given a broiler starter diet from 1-28 d and a broiler finisher diet from 29-56 d which contained 30·8 mg/kg and 41·1 mg/kg basal copper concentration respectively. Growth performance, blood characteristics and Cu accumulation in organs of the broilers were measured. 3. At 28 d, Cu Pro-fed birds had improved feed conversion ratio compared with CuSO(4). At 56 d, birds fed on Cu Pro diets had significantly greater body weight than CuSO(4)-fed birds. Birds fed on CuSO(4) supplemented diets had significantly better feed conversion efficiency. Feed consumptions for the two Cu sources were not significantly different. At no stage did the concentration of added Cu affect the productive traits measured. 4. Cu Pro supplementation increased haemoglobin concentration but reduced plasma triglyceride and plasma cholesterol. Plasma cholesterol decreased as Cu concentration increased. 5. There was a greater accumulation of Cu in the blood, heart, lung, liver and bone of broilers fed on Cu Pro than in those receiving CuSO(4). The liver Cu concentration increased as dietary Cu concentration increased. 6. Cu Pro was more effective in promoting growth and reducing blood cholesterol, and was more bio-available in the organs of broilers.

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  20. PD-1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells and its modulation characteristics in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shikai; Song, Shiping; Ni, Yanli; Suo, Zhuoyao; Meng, Xiangying; Li, Dan; Zhou, Lin; Hao, Rimin; Zhao, Yaowei; Bai, Li; Hou, Lili; Liu, Bing; Liu, Guangxian

    2017-02-02

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors that block the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway have been used to treat a wide variety of cancers. Although results have been promising, significant inter-individual and inter-tumor variability has been observed. It is believed that better clinical outcome could be achieved if the treatment was individually designed based on the functional status of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and the cellular immunity. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of PD-1 and other immunomodulatory genes in peripheral blood from cancer patients, and immunomodulatory gene expression during radiotherapy and immunomodulation therapy with cytokines. Our results show that the PD-1 mRNA expression is significantly increased in peripheral blood in cancer patients. Anti-cancer treatments can significantly modulate the PD-1 expression, but this is largely dependent on the initial immune status. Moreover, the PD-1 expression on peripheral lymphocytes can be immunoactivation-derived. These results suggest that the regulation and expression pattern of PD-1/PD-L1 signal is complicated which will influence the effect of blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway for cancer treatment. Through combined analysis of PD-1, CTLA-4, and other immune markers in peripheral blood, we may accurately evaluate the functional status of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and cellular immunity, thereby providing clues for guiding anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 treatment.

  1. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  2. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2015-08-28

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake.

  3. The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Chunhong; Chen, Shiguo; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin

    2015-07-15

    The influence of curdlan at different levels, as well as the method of addition, on the viscoelastic characteristics of ribbonfish meat gel was investigated. From a small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis (SAOA), a variety of viscoelastic parameters were established and identified to measure the intensity of the interactions between curdlan and protein in the fish meat gel network structure. The results of water holding capacity, texture, sensory property and microstructure analyses were strongly in agreement with the rheology data, suggesting that SAOA might be an appropriate method for the industrial assessment of the quality of fish meat gel. Additionally, the recombination mechanism of the complex system formed by the fish protein and curdlan was also clarified. Compared with the irreversible curdlan gel samples, the addition of reversible curdlan gel to the fish meat gel formed a much denser cross-linked interpenetrating structure, which led to a more stable and ordered three-dimensional gel complex.

  4. UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Arihara, K; Itoh, M

    2000-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L. gasseri resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite. UV irradiation of the strain of L. gasseri JCM1131(T) generated several mutants resisting these compounds. A mutant strain 1131-M8 demonstrated satisfactory growth in meat containing 3.3% sodium chloride and 200 ppm sodium nitrite. Although proteins extracted from the cell surface of 1131-M8 were slightly different from those of the original strain, other biochemical characteristics of both strains were indistinguishable. These results suggest that the L. gasseri mutant obtained in this study could be utilized as a starter culture to develop probiotic meat products.

  5. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  6. Morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural characteristics of the blood cells of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silvestre, A; Marco, I; Rodriguez-Dominguez, M A; Lavín, S; Cuenca, R

    2005-04-01

    The object of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) by light and electron (TEM) microscopy, and cytochemical staining. Smears were prepared from blood from the ventral coccygeal vein of 10 healthy adult lizards (five males and five females) from the Giant Lizard of El Hierro Reproduction and Research Centre, Canary Islands, Spain. The cytochemical stains used were: benzidine peroxidase (BP), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (AP), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), toluidine blue (TB) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. Heterophils had granules that were heterogeneous in both size and electron density, and stained with BP, PAS and ANAE. Eosinophil granules were homogeneously electron-dense and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Basophils had both highly and moderately electron-dense granules, and stained with TB and ANAE. Azurophil granules were of low electron-density and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Azurophil cytoplasm was vacuolated on TEM. The cytoplasm of lymphocytes contained many ribosomes and was positive for AP. Monocytes had a large nucleus and a vacuolated cytoplasm but did not stain by any of the cytochemical methods used. Thrombocytes had a relatively large nucleus but little cytoplasm; they did not stain cytochemically. The blood cells of the giant lizards of El Hierro differ from those of other members of the Order Squamata both morphologically and cytochemically. The variation in cytochemical responses in the blood of reptiles makes it necessary to study species individually if meaningful clinical decisions are to be made.

  7. [The comparative evaluation of tendencies in population mortality and particular characteristics of hospitalization under diseases of blood circulation system].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T M; Belov, V B; Lushkina, N P

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of data bases established that in the Russian Federation population mortality of diseases of blood circulation system in toto and of main diseases included in this class (100-199 of ICD-10) is significantly higher than in European countries. The population mortality is determined both by morbidity and quality of medical care in case of development of disease. In Russia, the increase of number of cases of hospitalization per one patient passed away due to these causes. This indicator was lower in comparison with corresponding indicators characterizing levels of hospitalization in EU countries. In Russia, to decrease mortality of this pathology it is needed to extend indications for hospitalization.

  8. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tactacan, Glenmer B.; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H.; Kim, In H.

    2016-01-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  9. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  10. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting. PMID:25954058

  11. Viscoelastic and ultrastructural characteristics of whole blood and plasma in Alzheimer-type dementia, and the possible role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

    PubMed

    Bester, Janette; Soma, Prashilla; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-11-03

    Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Patients typically present with neuro- and systemic inflammation and iron dysregulation, associated with oxidative damage that reflects in hypercoagulability. Hypercoagulability is closely associated with increased fibrinogen and in AD patients fibrinogen has been implicated in the development of neuroinflammation and memory deficits. There is still no clear reason precisely why (a) this hypercoagulable state, (b) iron dysregulation and (c) increased fibrinogen could together lead to the loss of neuronal structure and cognitive function. Here we suggest an alternative hypothesis based on previous ultrastructural evidence of the presence of a (dormant) blood microbiome in AD. Furthermore, we argue that bacterial cell wall components, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative strains, might be the cause of the continuing and low-grade inflammation, characteristic of AD. Here, we follow an integrated approach, by studying the viscoelastic and ultrastructural properties of AD plasma and whole blood by using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography (TEG®) and the Global Thrombosis Test (GTT®). Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence and close proximity of microbes to erythrocytes. TEG® analysis showed a hypercoagulable state in AD. TEG® results where LPS was added to naive blood showed the same trends as were found with the AD patients, while the GTT® results (where only platelet activity is measured), were not affected by the added LPS, suggesting that LPS does not directly impact platelet function. Our findings reinforce the importance of further investigating the role of LPS in AD.

  12. Analysis of Flow Characteristics of the Blood Flowing through an Inclined Tapered Porous Artery with Mild Stenosis under the Influence of an Inclined Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Analytical investigation of MHD blood flow in a porous inclined stenotic artery under the influence of the inclined magnetic field has been done. Blood is considered as an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid. The physics of the problem is described by the usual MHD equations along with appropriate boundary conditions. The flow governing equations are finally transformed to nonhomogeneous second-order ordinary differential equations. This model is consistent with the principles of magnetohydrodynamics. Analytical expressions for the velocity profile, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress, and pressure gradient have been derived. Blood flow characteristics are computed for a specific set of values of the different parameters involved in the model analysis and are presented graphically. Some of the obtained results show that the flow patterns in converging region (ξ < 0), diverging region (ξ > 0), and nontapered region (ξ = 0) are effectively influenced by the presence of magnetic field and change in inclination of artery as well as magnetic field. There is also a significant effect of permeability on the wall shear stress as well as volumetric flow rate. PMID:24719614

  13. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  14. A numerical study of the effect of catheter angle on the blood flow characteristics in a graft during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Hong Sun; Kim, Soyoon; Ro, Kyoungchul

    2013-02-01

    For patients with renal failure, renal replacement therapies are needed. Hemodialysis is a widely used renal replacement method to remove waste products. It is important to improve the patency rate of the vascular access for efficient dialysis. Since some complications such as an intimal hyperplasia are associated with the flow pattern, the hemodynamics in the vascular access must be considered to achieve a high patency rate. In addition, the blood flow from an artificial kidney affects the flow in the vascular access. Generally, the clinical techniques of hemodialysis such as the catheter angle or dialysis dose have been set up empirically. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed on the effect of the catheter angle on the flow in the graft. Blood is assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid. According to the high average wall shear stress value, the leucocytes and platelets can be activated not only at the arterial anastomosis, but also at the bottom of the venous graft, when the catheter angle is not zero. For a catheter angle less than five degrees, there is a low shear and high oscillatory shear index region that appears at the venous graft and the venous anastomosis. Thus, a catheter angle less than five degrees should be avoided to prevent graft failure.

  15. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels <10.5g/dL. Older child age, hemoglobin <10.5g/dL, and putting fingers/toys in the mouth were associated with higher BPbs. Young maternal age, less education, father's job with potential risk of lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  16. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Walz, L S; White, T W; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R; Blouin, D C; Froetschel, M A; Brown, T F; Lupton, C J; Chapa, A M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of replacing some soybean meal (SBM) protein with fish meal (FM) protein in diets adequate and slightly deficient in CP, with or without .75% sodium bentonite (NaB) on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of individually fed Suffolk lambs. Diets were based on corn, SBM, and cottonseed hulls. In Exp. 1, five lambs were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments (11% CP with 3% FM, 13% CP with 0 or 3% FM). Lambs fed diets that contained 11% CP with 3% FM or 13% CP with 0% FM had similar DMI and ADG. Gain and feed efficiency were slightly improved (P = .18) by the 13% CP diet with 3% FM. In Exp. 2, 32 lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments (13.5% CP of DM) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (0 or 3% FM, and 0 or .75% NaB on an as-fed basis). The DMI and ADG were increased (P < .05) by FM and NaB supplementation. Interactions (P < .05) revealed that NaB increased DMI, ADG, gain per feed (g/kg of DMI), and plasma urea N concentration in the absence of FM but not in the presence of FM in the diet. Neither FM nor NaB influenced (P = .25) wool growth. Total ruminal VFA were increased (P < .06) by FM and NaB. Differences in mineral content of phalanx bone, liver, and kidney were small and may be related to the mineral content of diets and the effect of NaB on mineral solubilities. Similar DMI and ADG of lambs fed FM and NaB separately and in combination suggest that their beneficial effect is not additive.

  17. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID

  18. The effects of lairage time and handling procedure prior to slaughter on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dokmanović, M; Velarde, A; Tomović, V; Glamočlija, N; Marković, R; Janjić, J; Baltić, M Ž

    2014-10-01

    Lairage time (short - 8min to 2.7h, n=28 vs. long - 14 to 21.5h, n=72) and pig handling (gentle - no use of stick or electric prod, pig not slipping, falling, nor emitting high-pitched vocalizations vs. rough - where any of these occurred) effects on pig stress and meat quality were measured. Blood lactate and cortisol, plus post-mortem pH (pH60min; pH24h), temperature (T60min), drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality for the longissimus dorsi, pars lumbalis derived meat were determined. Carcass rigor mortis and skin damages were measured. Lairage time significantly affected blood lactate, carcass rigor mortis, skin damages, drip loss, color and meat quality. Handling procedure influenced blood lactate, pH60min and T60min. Long lairage was more stressful, and was detrimental to carcass quality, but caused better meat quality compared to short lairage. Rough handling was related to higher lactate and lower meat quality.

  19. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  20. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  1. Dietary lean red meat and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Mann, N

    2000-04-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower plasma cholesterol, contribute significantly to tissue omega-3 fatty acid and provide a good source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A study of human and pre-human diet history shows that for a period of at least 2 million years the human ancestral line had been consuming increasing quantities of meat. During that time, evolutionary selection was in action, adapting our genetic make up and hence our physiological features to a diet high in lean meat. This meat was wild game meat, low in total and saturated fat and relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The evidence presented in this review looks at various lines of study which indicate the reliance on meat intake as a major energy source by pre-agricultural humans. The distinct fields briefly reviewed include: fossil isotope studies, human gut morphology, human encephalisation and energy requirements, optimal foraging theory, insulin resistance and studies on hunter-gatherer societies. In conclusion, lean meat is a healthy and beneficial component of any well-balanced diet as long as it is fat trimmed and consumed as part of a varied diet.

  2. Zoonotic parasites from exotic meat in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found.

  3. Robotic equipment in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Purnell, G

    1998-01-01

    Robotic technology is beginning to find uses in the meat processing industry. This paper attempts to describe the potential benefits and some of the problems in implementing robots for meat processing. An overview of some of the robotic equipment available and in development for beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish and seafood processing is given. Standard industrial robots already perform meat industry tasks involving regular and uniform products and processes. Robotic automation is emerging for more skilled tasks but is not yet fully accepted or implemented in the meat industry.

  4. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  5. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. Spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shangbin; Chen, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-10-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%)2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50%+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  8. Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Trial Participants and Non-participants: Example of Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT-CTN) 0201 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khera, Nandita; Majhail, Navneet S.; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Naya; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Akpek, Görgün; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Beattie, Sara; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Burns, Linda J.; Dalal, Jignesh D.; Freytes, César O.; Gupta, Vikas; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Lazarus, Hillard M.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Steinberg, Amir; Szwajcer, David; Wingard, John R.; Wirk, Baldeep; Wood, William A.; Joffe, Steven; Hahn, Theresa E.; Loberiza, Fausto R.; Anasetti, Claudio; Horowitz, Mary M.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Controversy surrounds the question of whether clinical trial participants have better outcomes than comparable patients who are not treated on a trial. We explored this question using a recent large, randomized, multi-center study comparing peripheral blood (PB) with bone marrow (BM) transplantation from unrelated donors (URD), conducted by the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN). METHODS AND FINDINGS We compared characteristics and outcomes of study participants (n=494) and non-participants (n=1384) who appeared eligible and received similar treatment without enrolling on the BMT CTN trial at participating centers during the study time-period. Data were obtained from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Outcomes were compared between the two groups using Cox proportional hazards regression models. No significant differences in age, sex and disease distribution, race/ ethnicity, HLA matching, comorbidities and interval from diagnosis to HCT were seen between the participants and non-participants. Non-participants were more likely to have lower performance status, lower-risk disease, and older donors, and to receive myeloablative conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin. Non-participants were also more likely to receive PB grafts, the intervention tested in the trial (66% vs. 50% p<0.001). Overall survival, transplant-related mortality, and incidences of acute or chronic GVHD were comparable between the two groups though relapse was higher (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02–1.46, p=0.028) in non-participants. CONCLUSION Despite differences in certain baseline characteristics, survival was comparable between study participants and non-participants. The results of the BMT CTN trial appear generalizable to the population of trial-eligible patients. PMID:26071866

  9. Cashew nut meal in the feeding of meat quails.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Danilo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Filgueira, Thales Marcel Bezerra; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; do Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo; Aguiar, Geovana Costa; Nascimento, Etho Robério Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    A study was aimed to evaluate the effects of cashew nut meal inclusion (CNM) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of meat quails. A total of 432 meat quails with 7 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and nine replicates of eight birds each. Treatments were obtained with inclusion of CNM at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg. According to regression analysis, the inclusion of CNM, at levels above 50 g/kg, provided a linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter and metabolizable energy of diets, linear increase in feed intake and an increase in feed conversion ratio, not influencing weight gain and carcass characteristics. Comparing the results obtained with the different inclusion levels compared to those obtained with the diet without CNM (control group), it was noted that diets with 200 g/kg of CNM inclusion, the dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of diet were lower and the level of 250 g/kg provided higher feed intake. Considering the results, it can be inferred that cashew nut meal can be used as a feedstuff in meat quail's diets at levels up to 250 g/kg.

  10. Meat products and consumption culture in the East.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption is a basic activity necessary for survival of the human race and evolved as an integral part of mankind's existence. This not only includes food consumption habits and styles but also food preparation methods, tool development for raw materials, harvesting and preservation as well as preparation of food dishes which are influenced by geographical localization, climatic conditions and abundance of the fauna and flora. Food preparation, trade and consumption have become leading factors shaping human behavior and developing a way of doing things that created tradition which has been passed from generation to generation making it unique for almost every human niche in the surface of the globe. Therefore, the success in understanding the culture of other countries or ethnic groups lies in understanding their rituals in food consumption customs. Meat consumption culture in the East has not been well developed by its characteristic environment, religion, history, and main food staples. However, recently, the amount of meat production and consumption of the Eastern countries has grown rapidly by the globalization of food industry and rapid economic growth of the countries. This manuscript introduces meat-based products and consumption culture in Asian countries. However, because the environments and cultures within Asia are too diverse to cover all food cultures, this manuscript focused mainly on three northeast Asian countries including China, Japan, and Korea (Republic of) and some southeast Asian countries including Vietnam and Thailand, which have similar environments and cultural interactions historically but retain their own characteristic food culture.

  11. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina.

  12. [Age-dependent characteristics of the skin peripheral blood flow oscillations by nonlinear dynamics methods in humans].

    PubMed

    Tankanag, A V; Tikhonova, I V; Chemeris, N K

    2008-03-01

    Study of peripheral microhaemodynamics was carried out with laser Doppler flowmetry in healthy volunteers of different age groups. The ageing changes in the state of the skin peripheral blood flow, in the functioning of separate links and regulatory systems ofmicrovascular bed have been estimated in terms of relative entropy and fractal dimension values. The revealed significant age-dependent decrease of relative entropy values in the respiratory rhythm ranges, the neurogenic and myogenic activities yielded some evidence concerning the reduction of the microcirculation system chaotic changes within these frequency ranges during the ageing. The significant increase of fractal dimension values in the ranges of cardio-rhythm and the endothelial activity in the oldest group with the mean age of 77 years indicated that the structural complexity of the oscillations in these frequency ranges increased during ageing.

  13. Magnetic targeting in the impermeable microvessel with two-phase fluid model--non-Newtonian characteristics of blood.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sachin; Murthy, P V S N

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation deals with finding the trajectories of the drug dosed magnetic carrier particle in a microvessel with two-phase fluid model which is subjected to the external magnetic field. The radius of the microvessel is divided into the endothelial glycocalyx layer in which the blood is assumed to obey Newtonian character and a core and plug regions where the blood obeys the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley character which is suitable for the microvessel of radius 50 microm. The carrier particles, bound with nanoparticles and drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from malignant tissue, and captured at the tumor site using a local applied magnetic field. The applied magnetic field is produced by a cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body and near the tumor position. The expressions for the fluidic force for the carrier particle traversing in the two-phase fluid in the microvessel and the magnetic force due to the external magnetic field are obtained. Several factors that influence the magnetic targeting of the carrier particles in the microvasculature, such as the size of the carrier particle, the volume fraction of embedded magnetic nanoparticles, and the distance of separation of the magnet from the axis of the microvessel are considered in the present problem. An algorithm is given to solve the system of coupled equations for trajectories of the carrier particle in the invasive case. The trajectories of the carrier particle are found for both invasive and noninvasive targeting systems. A comparison is made between the trajectories in these cases. Also, the present results are compared with the data available for the impermeable microvessel with single-phase fluid flow. Also, a prediction of the capture of therapeutic magnetic nanoparticle in the impermeable microvasculature is made for different radii, distances and volume fractions in both the invasive and noninvasive cases.

  14. The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO): moving from baseline characteristics to research perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Niiranen, Teemu J; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Boggia, José; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sandoya, Edgardo; Stergiou, George S; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to construct an International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). The main goal of this database is to determine outcome-based diagnostic thresholds for the self-measured home blood pressure (BP). Secondary objectives include investigating the predictive value of white-coat and masked hypertension, morning and evening BP, BP and heart rate variability, and the home arterial stiffness index. We also aim to determine an optimal schedule for home BP measurements that provides the most accurate risk stratification. Eligible studies are population-based, have fatal as well as nonfatal outcomes available for analysis, comply with ethical standards, and have been previously published in peer-reviewed journals. In a meta-analysis based on individual subject data, composite and cause-specific cardiovascular events will be related to various indexes derived by home BP measurement. The analyses will be stratified by a cohort and adjusted for the clinic BP and established cardiovascular risk factors. The database includes 6753 subjects from five cohorts recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n = 2777); Finland (n = 2075); Tsurugaya, Japan (n = 836); Didima, Greece (n = 665); and Montevideo, Uruguay (n = 400). In these five cohorts, during a total of 62 106 person-years of follow-up (mean 9.2 years), 852 subjects died and 740 participants experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. IDHOCO provides a unique opportunity to investigate several hypotheses that could not reliably be studied in individual studies. The results of these analyses should be of help to clinicians involved in the management of patients with suspected or established hypertension. PMID:22763485

  15. Characteristic enhancement of blood pressure V-shaped waves in sinoaortic-denervated rats in a conscious and quiet state.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan; Gu, Hong-Xia; Gong, Min; Han, Ji-Ju; Wang, Yun; Xia, Zuo-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Min

    2016-11-08

    A hemodynamic feature of chronic sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats is the increase in blood pressure variability (BPV) without significant changes in the average level of blood pressure (BP). The current study was designed to investigate the changes in BP V-shaped waves (V waves) in SAD rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 2 groups: SAD rats and sham-operated rats (n=13). Hemodynamics measurements were obtained in conscious, freely moving rats, four weeks after sinoaortic denervation or sham operation. V wave indices were evaluated in rats in both conscious and quiet states. Additionally, normal and high BPV was simulated by the production of V waves with different amplitudes. The results showed that the V wave amplitude was dramatically increased, with a significantly prolonged duration and reduced frequency in SAD rats. V wave BPV in SAD rats was significantly increased, though BP remained unchanged. The twenty-four hour BPV in all rats was positively correlated with amplitude, duration time and V wave BPV and negatively correlated with frequency. The systolic BP spectral powers in the low frequency range (0.38-0.45 Hz) were significantly reduced in the V waves of SAD rats. Moreover, there was a remarkable increase in mean BPV and a normal mean BP after simulating high BPV in SAD rats. These results suggest that enhancement of V waves might be a waveform character of BP in SAD rats in both the conscious and quiet states. These types of V waves appear to be related to a depression of sympathetic regulation of BP induced by sinoaortic denervation.

  16. Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-31

    ;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

  17. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector-a review.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    2004-02-01

    In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purchase, based on their own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare.

  18. Proteome basis of pale, soft, and exudative-like (PSE-like) broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monil A; Jackson, Viodelda; Zhai, Wei; Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Beach, Carol M; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-11-01

    Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE) broiler breast meat has poor protein functionality, which leads to quality problems and economic loss in the poultry industry. Proteomics has been applied to characterize the biochemical mechanisms governing tenderness, color, and water-holding capacity in meat. However, the proteome basis of PSE has not yet been characterized for broiler breast meat. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the differences in meat quality (cooking loss and shear force), descriptive sensory characteristics, consumer acceptance, and whole muscle proteome between normal and PSE-like broiler breast meat. Male Hubbard × Cobb 500 birds (n = 1,050) were raised in commercial houses. Prior to harvest, a sample of the broilers (n = 900) were subjected to short-term stress (38°C for 2 h), and the remaining broilers (n = 150) were maintained at control conditions (21°C for 2 h). Broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat was collected and characterized by pH24 and L*24 as normal (pH24 5.8 to 6.2, L*24 45 to 55) or PSE-like (pH24 5.4 to 5.7, L*24 55 to 65) samples. Normal broiler breast meat had lower shear force values than PSE-like meat (P < 0.05). Based on sensory descriptive analysis, normal cooked chicken breast meat was more tender and juicier than PSE-like breast meat (P < 0.05). Consumer sensory analysis results indicated that 81% of consumer panelists liked normal breast meat whereas 62% of the panelists liked PSE-like breast meat. Whole muscle proteome profiling identified fifteen differentially abundant proteins in normal and PSE-like broiler breast samples. Actin alpha, myosin heavy chain, phosphoglycerate kinase, creatine kinase M type, beta-enolase, carbonic anhydrase 2, proteasome subunit alpha, pyruvate kinase, and malate dehydrogenase were over-abundant (P < 0.05) in PSE-like broiler breast whereas phosphoglycerate mutase-1, alpha-enolase, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase were over-abundant (P < 0

  19. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  20. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  1. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  3. Water holding capacity in poultry breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The underlying mechanisms that control water-holding capacity (WHC) in pale broiler meat are not well-established. The objectives of the two studies reported here were: 1) to determine the relationship between WHC and protein denaturation in broiler breast meat exhibiting divergent WHC attributes,...

  4. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  5. Low-sodium meat products: retaining salty taste for sweet health.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    There is a positive correlation between excessive intake of sodium and incidence of hypertension. As diet is the main source of sodium, awareness among people regarding its possible role upon health has driven demand for various low sodium foods including meat products. Meat products contribute a significant amount of dietary sodium, thus maligning their own image. However, this is not an easy task as common salt affects taste and flavor, functional attributes, stability, and food safety of meat products. The various properties such as taste and flavor, binding, as well as microbiological characteristics should be given due care while developing low salt meat products and accordingly different approaches have been proposed for processing of such products. Potassium chloride has been mostly used to replace sodium; however, a number of other salts, flavor enhancers, bitter blockers and water, as well as fat binders have also been attempted either alone or in different combinations. A number of low sodium meat products have been developed but their economy and consumer acceptability are the major concerns needing proper attention. In future it is anticipated that these challenges would be overcome to provide well acceptable and cost-effective healthier meat products to the consumers.

  6. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya.

    PubMed

    Azwai, S M; Alfallani, E A; Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M; Naas, H T; Moawad, A A; Gammoudi, F T; Rayes, H M; Barbieri, I; Eldaghayes, I M

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.

  7. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Azwai, S.M.; Alfallani, E.A.; Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.; Naas, H.T.; Moawad, A.A.; Gammoudi, F.T.; Rayes, H.M.; Barbieri, I.; Eldaghayes, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products. PMID:27004169

  8. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of active suppressor cells against IFN-gamma production in PHA-stimulated cord blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, H.; Taga, K.; Matsuda, A.; Uwadana, N.; Hasui, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-11-15

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were defective in their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or recombinant interleukin 2, whereas cord MNC could induce comparable amounts of IFN-gamma with adult controls on stimulation with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. Moreover, irradiation of cord MNC with 1500 rad before PHA stimulation could restore the IFN-gamma production. Kinetic studies indicated that such augmentation of IFN-gamma production by irradiation was evident when cord MNC were irradiated before or by 12 hr of PHA-stimulated culture. But irradiation after 18 hr or more of PHA stimulation did not exert any significant augmentation on IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. It seemed most likely that the ability of IFN-gamma production is already mature at birth, but radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production are activated within cord MNC at an early stage of PHA stimulation, resulting in poor IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by OKT3+, OKT4+, and OKT8- cord cells were markedly enhanced by irradiation with 1,500 rad before the culture. Coculture experiments disclosed that cord OKT4+ cells, but not OKT4- cells, when prestimulated with PHA for 24 hr, exerted active suppression on PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by adult MNC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production were induced within the OKT4+ T cell subset of cord MNC on PHA stimulation.

  9. The characteristics of coarse particulate matter air pollution associated with alterations in blood pressure and heart rate during controlled exposures

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Wang, Lu; Das, Ritabrata; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Although fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, the potential health effects of coarse PM (2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM10–2.5) remain less clearly understood. We aimed to elucidate the components within coarse PM most likely responsible for mediating these hemodynamic alterations. Thirty-two healthy adults (25.9 ± 6.6 years) were exposed to concentrated ambient coarse PM (CAP) (76.2 ± 51.5 μg/m3) and filtered air (FA) for 2 h in a rural location in a randomized double-blind crossover study. The particle constituents (24 individual elements, organic and elemental carbon) were analyzed from filter samples and associated with the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes occurring throughout CAP and FA exposures in mixed model analyses. Total coarse PM mass along with most of the measured elements were positively associated with similar degrees of elevations in both systolic BP and HR. Conversely, total PM mass was unrelated, whereas only two elements (Cu and Mo) were positively associated with and Zn was inversely related to diastolic BP changes during exposures. Inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location rapidly elevates systolic BP and HR in a concentration-responsive manner, whereas the particulate composition does not appear to be an important determinant of these responses. Conversely, exposure to certain PM elements may be necessary to trigger a concomitant increase in diastolic BP. These findings suggest that particulate mass may be an adequate metric of exposure to predict some, but not all, hemodynamic alterations induced by coarse PM mass. PMID:25227729

  10. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, requiring extra attention for accommodation and welfare. Carcasses of DM animals are very lean, and intramuscular fat content is low. The fatty acid profile is different when compared with non-DM animals, containing less saturated fatty acids. Collagen content of the meat is lower, so that meat from double-muscled animals is mostly more tender. However, meat tenderness, color and juiciness are not always improved. A different metabolism as a consequence of faster glycolytic myofibers can be partly responsible for this phenomenon. DM animals are interesting for the producer and butcher, and beneficial for the consumer, if an appropriate nutrition and accommodation, and adequate slaughter conditions are taken into account. Abstract Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and

  11. Influence of color on dielectric properties of marinated poultry breast meat.

    PubMed

    Samuel, D; Trabelsi, S

    2012-08-01

    The dielectric behavior of foods when exposed to radio-frequency and microwave electric fields is highly influenced by moisture content and the degree of water binding with constituents of the food materials. The ability to correlate specific food quality characteristics with the dielectric properties can lead to the development of rapid, nondestructive techniques for such quality measurements. Water-holding capacity is a critical attribute in meat quality. Up to 50% of raw poultry meat in the United States is marinated with mixtures of water, salts, and phosphates. The objective of this study was to determine if variations in breast meat color would affect the dielectric properties of marinated poultry meat over a broad frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz. Poultry meat was obtained from a local commercial plant in Georgia (USA). Color and pH measurements were taken on the breast filets. Groups of breast filets were sorted into classes of pale and normal before adding marination pickup percentages of 0, 5, 10, and 15. Breast filets were vacuum-tumbled and weighed for pickup percentages. Dielectric properties of the filets were measured with a coaxial open-ended probe on samples equilibrated to 25°C. Samples from pale meat exhibited higher dielectric properties than samples from normal meat. No differences could be observed between samples from pale and normal meat after marination of the samples. Overall, dielectric properties increased as the marination pickup increased (α=0.05). Marination pickup strongly influenced the dielectric loss factor. Differences between samples marinated at different pickup levels were more pronounced at lower frequencies for the dielectric loss factor. As frequency increased, the differences between samples decreased. Differences in dielectric constant between samples were not as consistent as those seen with the dielectric loss factor.

  12. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  13. Potential application of the electronic nose for shelf-life determination of raw milk and red meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, Aziz; El Barbri, Noureddine; El Bari, Nezha; Llobet, Eduard; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2009-05-01

    The present study describes the performance of an electronic nose in food odor analysis. This methodology was successfully applied to odor characterization of milk stored at 4° C during 4 days and of beef and sheep meat stored at 4° C for up to 15 days. The electronic nose sensor system coupled to PCA as a pattern recognition technique, is able to reveal characteristic changes in raw milk and red meat quality related to storage time. Additionally, a bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system for both beef and sheep meat analysis.

  14. Effect of Impeller Geometry on Lift-Off Characteristics and Rotational Attitude in a Monopivot Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kento; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the flow path geometry of the impeller on the lift-off and tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller against the hydrodynamic force was investigated in a centrifugal blood pump with an impeller supported by a single-contact pivot bearing. Four types of impeller were compared: the FR model with the flow path having both front and rear cutouts on the tip, the F model with the flow path having only a front cutout, the R model with only a rear cutout, and the N model with a straight flow path. First, the axial thrust and the movement about the pivot point, which was loaded on the surface of the impeller, were calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Next, the lift-off point and the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller were measured experimentally. The CFD analysis showed that the axial thrust increased gently in the FR and R models as the flow rate increased, whereas it increased drastically in the F and N models. This difference in axial thrust was likely from the higher pressure caused by the smaller circumferential velocity in the gap between the top surface of the impeller and the casing in the FR and R models than in the F and N models, which was caused by the rear cutout. These results corresponded with the experimental results showing that the impellers lifted off in the F and N models as the flow rate increased, whereas it did not in the FR and R models. Conversely, the movement about the pivot point increased in the direction opposite the side with the pump outlet as the flow rate increased. However, the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller, which oriented away from the pump outlet, was less than 0.8° in any model under any conditions, and was considered to negligibly affect the rotational attitude of the impeller. These results confirm that a rear cutout prevents lift-off of the impeller caused by a decrease in the axial thrust.

  15. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo O

    2012-09-20

    Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality.

  16. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. X.; Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Yeom, S. C.; Sohn, Y. G.; Kim, S. H; Nam, K. C.; Seo, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24) and shear force (−0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed. PMID:25049866

  17. Live performance, carcass characteristic and blood metabolite responses of broilers to two distinct corn types with different extent of grinding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Cui, D P; Zhang, Z Y; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Lin, H

    2017-04-01

    The major objective of this research was to establish the main and interactive effects of corn type and extent of grinding on broiler performance including carcass characteristics. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2 (corn type) × 2 (fine and coarse) factorial arrangement, each with six replicates of 45 male Ross chicks, was applied. Experimental diets, containing dent or hard corn, were formulated with two extents of grinding (3.00 or 6.00 mm screens) for three growing phases. In comparison with dent corn, the hard corn increased body weight (BW) gain and thigh muscle yield (p < 0.05), while decreasing feed conversion ratio (p < 0.01) and abdominal fat deposition (p < 0.05), some aspects of which were age-dependent and appeared to vary with extent of grinding. Coarser grinding increased the weight of proventriculus (p < 0.01), gizzard (p < 0.05) and small + large intestine (p < 0.10) relative to BW, particularly towards market size. These results suggest that feeding hard corn or large-particle-size corn have some favourable effects on growth performance or gastrointestinal development for finishing broilers.

  18. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    PubMed

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day(-1) varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day(-1) processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is

  19. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted.

  20. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression.