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Sample records for blood components advantages

  1. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  2. Blood component collection by apheresis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaler, Edwin A

    2006-07-01

    Apheresis component collection is a rapidly growing area in the blood collection field. Several instruments with varying capabilities are available. This is a brief review of the equipment available for granulocyte and apheresis component collection and indications for their use. In the United States, granulocytes are collected with the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Haemonetics LN9000, and Fresenius AS 104. The use of hetastarch for sedimenting agent and stimulation with G-CSF and G-CSF plus dexamethasone have substantially increased granulocyte yields. Plateletapheresis is performed in the United States on the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, Fenwal Amicus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), and Haemonetics LN9000. Automated red blood cell (RBC) collections are performed with the Haemonetics MCS+LN8150, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), Amicus, and Baxter Alyx. The RBC can be collected concurrently (with other components) in some instruments or separately in others. Plasma is collected concurrently on several instruments. Plasmapheresis for plasma only is performed on the Fenwal Autopheresis C and Haemonetics PCS2. Granulocyte yields range from 0.46 x 10(10) to 1.0 x 10(10) for unstimulated donors and 2.1 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) for donors stimulated with dexamethasone or prednisone. The use of G-CSF and G-CSF with dexamethasone has substantially increased granulocyte yields with yields of 4.1 x 10(10) to 10.8 x 10(10) reported. Platelet collection rates of 0.045-0.115 x 10(11) plt/min have been reported. Collection efficiencies of 46-85.7% have been reported. Automated (apheresis) component collection has the advantages of controlled volumes or doses of component, efficient use of the donor, multiple components from the same donor, better inventory control, and better quality control due to less manipulation of the individual components. Disadvantages of automated

  3. Raman Spectroscopy of Blood and Blood Components.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Chad G; Buckley, Kevin; Blades, Michael W; Turner, Robin F B

    2017-05-01

    Blood is a bodily fluid that is vital for a number of life functions in animals. To a first approximation, blood is a mildly alkaline aqueous fluid (plasma) in which a large number of free-floating red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leucocytes), and platelets are suspended. The primary function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body and move carbon dioxide in the return direction after it is produced by the cells' metabolism. Blood also carries nutrients to the cells and brings waste products to the liver and kidneys. Measured levels of oxygen, nutrients, waste, and electrolytes in blood are often used for clinical assessment of human health. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that uses the inelastic scattering of light to provide information on chemical composition, and hence has a potential role in this clinical assessment process. Raman spectroscopic probing of blood components and of whole blood has been on-going for more than four decades and has proven useful in applications ranging from the understanding of hemoglobin oxygenation, to the discrimination of cancerous cells from healthy lymphocytes, and the forensic investigation of crime scenes. In this paper, we review the literature in the field, collate the published Raman spectroscopy studies of erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets, plasma, and whole blood, and attempt to draw general conclusions on the state of the field.

  4. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  5. Clinical use of blood, blood components and blood products.

    PubMed Central

    Blajchman, M A; Shepherd, F A; Perrault, R A

    1979-01-01

    The goal of modern transfusion therapy is to provide appropriate replacement therapy with blood components as opposed to whole blood for patients with specific hematologic deficiencies. A prerequisite of component therapy is, therefore, correct identification of the deficiency. Appropriate use of components avoids many of the hazards associated with the use of whole blood, and at the same time makes maximal use of this valuable resource. Blood components separated from whole blood soon after collection and appropriately stored can, in combination, provide all the factors present in fresh whole blood. Red cell concentrates prepared from multiple packs have a hematocrit of approximately 70%. They may be stored for up to 3 weeks at 4 degrees C and are recommended for most situations requiring red cell transfusions. Platelet concentrates, which can be stored for up to 72 hours at 22 degrees C, may be used for thrombocytopenic patients. Fresh frozen plasma, stored plasma, cryoprecipitated factor VIII, factor VIII concentrate and factor IX complex concentrate are available for the proper treatment of patients with hemorrhagic disorders due to coagulation factor deficiencies. Similarly, albumin and immune serum globulin are available for their oncotic and antibody properties respectively. Thus, the availability and appropriate use of the various blood products allows not only optimal transfusion therapy for each patient, but also fuller utilization of national blood resources. PMID:466591

  6. Massive transfusion: blood component ratios.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devika S; Shaz, Beth H

    2013-11-01

    This review will address recent developments in the transfusion management of massively transfused trauma patients, focusing on the use of fixed blood component ratios in massive transfusion protocols. The majority of trauma centers have migrated from laboratory-based transfusion protocols to massive transfusion protocols with fixed blood component ratios. These protocols with red blood cell : plasma : platelet ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 are associated with improved survival in severely injured patients. However, alternate ratios have also demonstrated improved survival. Thus, the optimal ratio has not been determined. In addition, the use of medications, such as antifibrinolytics, and point of care testing, such as thromboelastography, are increasingly being used as part of massive transfusion protocols to adjust transfusion therapy and decrease bleeding. However, their optimal integration has yet to be determined. Massive transfusion protocols with fixed ratios of red blood cells to plasma and platelets have improved survival in both civilian and military trauma patients. Continued studies of ratios as well as integration of other therapies and testing are ongoing in order to continue to improve patient outcome.

  7. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  8. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking. PMID:25535413

  10. Overview of blood components and their preparation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  11. Implementation of nurse authorisation of blood components.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Elizabeth S; Sinclair, Charles

    A collaborative project between the Better Blood Transfusion teams in the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) and NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) explored the feasibility of nurses prescribing blood components, and clarified that blood components are not considered medicinal products, so the term prescription does not apply. No legal barriers to trained, competent nurses and midwives undertaking this role were identified and nurse authorisation of blood components was seen as having the potential to improve patients' experiences. A number of NHS Scotland boards showed interest in implementing this but there are challenges to ensuring that a robust governance structure is in place to support role development . Progress has been made with support from the Scottish Government Health Department and using a governance framework that was developed to support nurses who wish to undertake this role.

  12. Analysis of complications after blood components' transfusions.

    PubMed

    Timler, Dariusz; Klepaczka, Jadwiga; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Bogusiak, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Complications after blood components still constitute an important clinical problem and serve as limitation of liberal-transfusion strategy. The aim of the study was to present the 5-year incidence of early blood transfusions complications and to assess their relation to the type of the transfused blood components. 58,505 transfusions of blood components performed in the years 2006-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Data concerning the amount of the transfused blood components and the numbers of adverse transfusion reactions reported to the Regional Blood Donation and Treatment Center (RBDTC) was collected. 95 adverse transfusion reactions were reportedto RBDTC 0.16% of alldonations (95/58 505) - 58 after PRBC transfusions, 28 after platelet concentrate transfusions and 9 after FFP transfusion. Febrile nonhemolytic and allergic reactions constitute respectively 36.8% and 30.5% of all complications. Nonhemolyticand allergic reactions are the most common complications of blood components transfusion and they are more common after platelet concentrate transfusions in comparison to PRBC and FFP donations.

  13. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  14. Storage of Blood Components Does Not Decrease Haemostatic Potential: In vitro Assessment of Fresh versus Stored Blood Components Using Thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Bartfeld, Galia; Ellis, Martin; Lubetzky, Aharon; Yahalom, Vered; Kenet, Gili

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: Major surgery and severe trauma typically lead to massive blood loss requiring rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood products. It has been suggested that fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood provides a haemostatic advantage in this setting. The aim of the current study was to compare the clot formation parameters of fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood and whole blood reconstituted from components stored for varying periods of time, using rotational thromboelastography (ROTEM®). METHODS: Fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood using combinations of non-leucoreduced red cell units (stored for 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days), platelet concentrates (stored for 1, 3 or 5 days), and fresh frozen plasma (stored for 6 months) were analysed using ROTEM. Measurements of the clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), and maximal clot firmness (MCF) were compared between units of fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood samples. RESULTS: There was no difference in the haemostatic parameters measured of fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood using red cell units stored for less than 21 days. ROTEM demonstrated that the CT and CFT were significantly shorter for reconstituted whole blood samples using red cells stored for longer than 21 days when compared to fresh whole blood and to reconstituted whole blood samples using red cell units stored for less than 21 days. The CT was inversely correlated to the duration of platelet storage. The MCF was unchanged regardless of duration of blood product storage. CONCLUSION: Fresh unrefrigerated whole blood and blood products stored for short duration (less than 21 days) were not superior to those stored for longer durations.

  15. Storage of Blood Components Does Not Decrease Haemostatic Potential: In vitro Assessment of Fresh versus Stored Blood Components Using Thromboelastography

    PubMed Central

    Bartfeld, Galia; Ellis, Martin; Lubetzky, Aharon; Yahalom, Vered; Kenet, Gili

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Major surgery and severe trauma typically lead to massive blood loss requiring rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood products. It has been suggested that fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood provides a haemostatic advantage in this setting. The aim of the current study was to compare the clot formation parameters of fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood and whole blood reconstituted from components stored for varying periods of time, using rotational thromboelastography (ROTEM®). Methods Fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood using combinations of non-leucoreduced red cell units (stored for 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days), platelet concentrates (stored for 1, 3 or 5 days), and fresh frozen plasma (stored for 6 months) were analysed using ROTEM. Measurements of the clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), and maximal clot firmness (MCF) were compared between units of fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood samples. Results There was no difference in the haemostatic parameters measured of fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood using red cell units stored for less than 21 days. ROTEM demonstrated that the CT and CFT were significantly shorter for reconstituted whole blood samples using red cells stored for longer than 21 days when compared to fresh whole blood and to reconstituted whole blood samples using red cell units stored for less than 21 days. The CT was inversely correlated to the duration of platelet storage. The MCF was unchanged regardless of duration of blood product storage. Conclusion Fresh unrefrigerated whole blood and blood products stored for short duration (less than 21 days) were not superior to those stored for longer durations. PMID:21416027

  16. Discolored blood and blood components: a dilemma for transfusion specialists.

    PubMed

    Sood, Tanvi; Bedi, Ravneet Kaur; Mittal, Kshitija

    2014-04-01

    It is not uncommon in transfusion practice to see blood/components with abnormal colored plasma. The present study was conducted to identify and determine the etiology of blood and/or blood components showing altered color. The present study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh over a period of seven months. All the blood units/components having an abnormal appearance were segregated as: 1. Green discoloration. 2. Yellow discoloration. 3. Bright cherry red color. 4. Lipemic plasma. The donor's history was carefully evaluated and relevant investigations were done depending on discoloration. Seventeen units out of 7370 (0.23%) donations showed discoloration. In 3 units the plasma was green, 5 units were yellow, in 3 units PRBC/WB unit was bright cherry red and in the remaining 6 units the plasma was lipemic. Total bilirubin of all the 5 donors with yellowish plasma ranged from 1.6 to 2.3mg/dl. The hemoglobin and hematocrit of two out of three donors with cherry red discoloration of PRBC/WB was low. All the donors with lipemic plasma gave history of intake of fatty meal prior to donating blood. The existing rules prohibit issue of blood and blood components if the plasma is abnormal in color. Our study showed that many of the discolored units could have been safely transfused but further larger studies are required to confirm the safety of recipients receiving such units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Own-Race Advantage for Components as Well as Configurations in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, William G.; Rhodes, Gillian; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The own-race advantage in face recognition has been hypothesized as being due to a superiority in the processing of configural information for own-race faces. Here we examined the contributions of both configural and component processing to the own-race advantage. We recruited 48 Caucasian participants in Australia and 48 Chinese participants in…

  18. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 3, 2012, FDA published a final rule entitled ``Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  19. Pulmonary complications of transfused blood components.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alexander B

    2012-09-01

    Three transfusion complications are responsible for the majority of the morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This article discusses the respiratory complications associated with these pathophysiologic processes, including definitions, diagnosis, mechanism, incidence, risk factors, clinical management, and strategies for prevention. It also explores how different patient populations and different blood components differentially affect the risk of these deadly transfusion complications. Lastly, the article discusses how health care providers can risk stratify individual patients or patient populations to determine whether a given transfusion is more likely to benefit or harm the patient based on the transfusion indication, risk, and expected result.

  20. Coagulopathy and blood component transfusion in trauma.

    PubMed

    Spahn, D R; Rossaint, R

    2005-08-01

    Trauma is a serious global health problem, accounting for approximately one in 10 deaths worldwide. Uncontrollable bleeding accounts for 39% of trauma-related deaths and is the leading cause of potentially preventable death in patients with major trauma. While bleeding from vascular injury can usually be repaired surgically, coagulopathy-related bleeding is often more difficult to manage and may also mask the site of vascular injury. The causes of coagulopathy in patients with severe trauma are multifactorial, including consumption and dilution of platelets and coagulation factors, as well as dysfunction of platelets and the coagulation system. The interplay between hypothermia, acidosis and progressive coagulopathy, referred to as the 'lethal triad', often results in exsanguination. Current management of coagulopathy-related bleeding is based on blood component replacement therapy. However, there is a limit on the level of haemostasis that can be restored by replacement therapy. In addition, there is evidence that transfusion of red blood cells immediately after injury increases the incidence of post-injury infection and multiple organ failure. Strategies to prevent significant coagulopathy and to control critical bleeding effectively in the presence of coagulopathy may decrease the requirement for blood transfusion, thereby improving clinical outcome of patients with major trauma.

  1. Current good manufacturing practices for blood and blood components: notification of consignees receiving blood and blood components at increased risk for transmitting HIV infection--FDA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1996-09-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations to require that blood establishments (including plasma establishments) prepare and follow written procedures for appropriate action when it is determined that Whole Blood, blood components (including recovered plasma), Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes at increased risk for transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been collected. This final rule requires that when a donor who previously donated blood is tested on a later donation in accordance with the regulations and tests repeatedly reactive for antibody to HIV, the blood establishment shall perform more specific testing using a licensed test, if available, and notify consignees who received Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma or Source Leukocytes from prior collections so that appropriate action is taken. Blood establishments and consignees are required to quarantine previously collected Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes from such donors, and if appropriate, notify transfusion recipients. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) is also issuing a final rule, published elsewhere in this Federal Register, which requires all transfusion services subject to HCFA's conditions of Medicare participation for hospitals to notify transfusion recipients who have received Whole Blood or blood components from a donor whose subsequent donation test results are positive for antibody to HIV (hereinafter referred to as HCFA's final rule). FDA is requiring transfusion services that do not participate in Medicare and are, therefore, not subject to HCFA's final rule, to take steps to notify transfusion recipients. FDA is taking this action to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply, and to help ensure that information is provided to consignees of Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes and to recipients of Whole Blood and blood components from a

  2. Components of Executive Control with Advantages for Bilingual Children in Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Viswanathan, Mythili

    2009-01-01

    The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the ‘faces task’, developed by Bialystok, Craik, & Ryan (2006) to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development. PMID:19615674

  3. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components

    PubMed Central

    Cistola, David P.; Robinson, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance. PMID:28003711

  4. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components.

    PubMed

    Cistola, David P; Robinson, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance.

  5. [Conditions for blood components return, after storage in a depot].

    PubMed

    Hervé, I; Girard, A

    2008-11-01

    Recent changes in the regulation of blood components depots has allowed the Etablissement français du sang (EFS) to re-introduce blood components in the stock when they come back from the health establishment. This process is the responsibility of both EFS and health establishment. So collaboration between them is necessary to set an organisation to guarantee that blood components are transported and stored at optimum conditions. To achieve this, a checking procedure for the return process of blood components and a method that tracks the conditions they are exposed to during transportation are necessary. There are many temperature sensitive indicators available to track each unit of blood component. This article presents an organisation using a follow-up by electronic temperature monitors to record the temperature during the transportation and storage processes.

  6. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  7. [Inappropriate use of blood components in critical care?].

    PubMed

    Oddason, Karl Erlingur; Guđbjartsson, Tómas; Guđmundsson, Sveinn; Kárason, Sigurbergur; Hreinsson, Kári; Sigurđsson, Gisli H

    2014-01-01

    Due to potential risk of blood transfusions, clinical guidelines emphasize restrictive use of blood components. However, numerous studies indicate that adherence to guidelines is often less than optimal. Furthermore, information regarding use of blood transfusion in intensive care units (ICUs) and compliance to clinical guidelines is lacking. We studied the use of blood components in two adult ICUs in Iceland and the compliance to clinical guidelines. All adult patients that received blood components in both ICUs at Landspitali during 6 months in 2010 were studied. Hematology and coagulation parameters as well as indications for administration were compared with hospital guidelines. 202 patients (34%) received blood components, half of them after surgery. 30% received red-blood cells (RBCs), 18% fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 9% platelets. The mean hemoglobin value before RBC transfusion was 87 g/L, but in one third of cases it exceeded 100 g/L. FFP was transfused at a normal prothrombin time in 9% of cases. No coagulation parameters were available before transfusion of 5% of FFP. Mean platelet count before transfusion of platelets was 82 x109/L and in 34% of cases it exceeded 100 x109/L. One third of patients received blood components during their ICU stay, most commonly RBCs. At least 6% of RBCs, 14% of FFPs and 33% of platelets were not transfused according to recent guidelines at Landspítali. Although our results are in line with findings of other studies it appears that the use of blood components in Icelandic ICUs can be improved. Key words: Blood transfusion, intensive care unit, red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, transfusion clinical guidelines.

  8. Increased mortality in adult patients with trauma transfused with blood components compared with whole blood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among patients with trauma, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank data set to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult patients with major trauma (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified 3 independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency medical system transfer time, and type of blood transfusion, whole blood or components. Transfusion of whole blood was associated with reduced mortality; thus, it may provide superior survival outcomes in this population.

  9. Distribution and survival of Borrelia miyamotoi in human blood components.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Aaron M; Tonnetti, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, the agent of relapsing fever, is a tick-borne spirochete first isolated in Japan in 1994. Since then, the spirochete has been detected in ticks globally, generally in the same vectors as the Lyme disease agent. Human infection has been reported in Russia, Europe, Japan, and the United States, as influenza-like febrile illness. In addition, two cases of meningoencephalitis caused by B. miyamotoi have also been reported in immunocompromised patients. Here we evaluate the ability of the spirochete to survive in human blood components stored under standard blood bank conditions. Freshly collected human whole blood was spiked with in vitro cultured B. miyamotoi or B. miyamotoi-infected mouse plasma and separated into red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, and platelets. Components were either injected into immunocompromised (SCID) or wild-type immunocompetent mice or cultured in vitro, right after separation and after storage at the appropriate conditions. Infection was monitored by microscopic observation, blood smears, and polymerase chain reaction. In vivo, all the SCID mice challenged with the components before storage and the RBCs stored for up to 42 days developed the infection. Wild-type mice also developed the infection when injected with prestorage samples from all components, while a lower number of mice were infected by RBCs stored for 42 days. In vitro, spirochetes grew in all samples but frozen plasma. This study demonstrated that B. miyamotoi can survive standard storage conditions of most human blood components, suggesting the possibility of transmission by blood transfusion. © 2015 AABB.

  10. Blood borne: bacterial components in mother's blood influence fetal development.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Allister J; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial or viral infection of the mother during the course of pregnancy can cross the placenta and actively infect the fetus. However, especially for bacteria, it is more common for mothers to experience an infection that can be treated without overt fetal infection. In this setting, it is less well understood what the risk to fetal development is, particularly in terms of neurological development. This research highlight reviews recent findings indicating that bacterial components generated during infection of the mother can cross the placenta and activate the fetal innate immune system resulting in changes in the course of brain development and subsequent progression to postnatal cognitive disorders. Bacterial cell wall is a ubiquitous bacterial PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) known to activate inflammation through the stimulation of TLR2. Cell wall is released from bacteria during antibiotic treatment and new work shows that embryos exposed to cell wall from the mother demonstrate anomalous proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in a TLR2 dependent manner. Such proliferation increases the neuronal density of the cortical plate and alters brain architecture. Although there is no fetal death, subsequent cognitive development is significantly impaired. This model system suggests that bacterial infection of the mother and its treatment can impact fetal brain development and requires greater understanding to potentially eliminate a risk factor for cognitive disorders such as autism.

  11. Contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood: solubility in plasma and distribution in blood components following separation

    SciTech Connect

    Skjonsberg, O.H.; Kierulf, P.; Gravem, K.; Fagerhol, M.K.; Godal, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to estimate the solubility of contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood, thrombin induced fibrin polymerzation in CPD-plasma was examined by light scattering and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) determinations. In addition, I-125 fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood was used to investigate fibrin monomer retention in blood bags and transfusion filters (170 microns) and fibrin distribution in blood components derived from CPD-blood. Initial fibrin polymerization in CPD-blood occurred after conversion of 15 per cent of the fibrinogen to fibrin, implying that substantial amounts of fibrin may be kept solubilized in CPD-blood bags. Only minor amounts of I-125 fibrin monomers were retained in blood bags (2.4 per cent) and in transfusion filters (2.9 per cent) after sham transfusions. After separating I-125-fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood into its constituent components, the major part of fibrin (75.0 per cent) could be traced in the cryoprecipitate.

  12. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-03-27

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes when fed on noninfected mice. Here we show that when fed on mice infected with P. berghei, these transgenic mosquitoes are more fit (higher fecundity and lower mortality) than sibling nontransgenic mosquitoes. In cage experiments, transgenic mosquitoes gradually replaced nontransgenics when mosquitoes were maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-producing parasites (strain ANKA 2.34) but not when maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-deficient parasites (strain ANKA 2.33). These findings suggest that when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood, transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a selective advantage over nontransgenic mosquitoes. This fitness advantage has important implications for devising malaria control strategies by means of genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  13. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.

  14. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Denese C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation. PMID:28070448

  15. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Acker, Jason P; Marks, Denese C; Sheffield, William P

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  16. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  17. Bio-inspired nanomedicine strategies for artificial blood components.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2017-03-15

    Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders. However, donor-derived blood products suffer from issues of shortage in supply, need for type matching, high risks of pathogenic contamination, limited portability and shelf-life, and a variety of side-effects. While robust research is being directed to resolve these issues, a parallel clinical interest has developed toward bioengineering of synthetic blood substitutes that can provide blood's functions while circumventing the above problems. Nanotechnology has provided exciting approaches to achieve this, using materials engineering strategies to create synthetic and semi-synthetic RBC substitutes for enabling oxygen transport, platelet substitutes for enabling hemostasis, and WBC substitutes for enabling cell-specific immune response. Some of these approaches have further extended the application of blood cell-inspired synthetic and semi-synthetic constructs for targeted drug delivery and nanomedicine. The current study provides a comprehensive review of the various nanotechnology approaches to design synthetic blood cells, along with a critical discussion of successes and challenges of the current state-of-art in this field. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  19. Pathogen inactivation technologies for cellular blood components: an update.

    PubMed

    Schlenke, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood.

  20. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies for Cellular Blood Components: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Schlenke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood. PMID:25254027

  1. Ambient overnight hold of whole blood prior to the manufacture of blood components.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Blood services routinely separate whole blood into components that are then stored under different conditions. The storage conditions used for whole blood prior to separation must therefore be a compromise between the needs of the red cells (which benefit from refrigeration) and plasma and platelets (which are better preserved at ambient temperature). For many years, the approach has been to manufacture plasma and platelet components on the day of blood collection, and to refrigerate any unprocessed blood for manufacture into red cell components on the following day. However, this can make it challenging to maintain adequate stocks of all components. The European practice of 'ambient hold' of whole blood for up to 24 hours prior to processing allows greater flexibility in blood component manufacture, and the data reviewed suggest there is relatively little impact on the quality of red cell or plasma components, and an improvement in the quality of platelet components. © 2010 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Ensuring that blood transfusion sets administer an effective dose of functional blood components.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Nightingale, M J; Cardigan, R

    2013-08-01

    Proposed changes to ISO 1135-4 will require that blood transfusion administration sets are demonstrated by the manufacturers to be suitable for the range of cellular and plasma blood components for which they are designated. To design a test protocol to asses the depletion of the blood components by transfusion sets and damage and activation of blood components during their passage through the set. Transfusion giving sets (CareFusion Ref no. 60895 180311 and Fresenius Ref no. 2900032) were assessed by comparing samples of the blood component taken prior to and after passage through the transfusion set in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. As well as depletion of red cells, platelets and FVIIIc, the following markers of damage/activation were assessed: red cells-supernatant haemolysis and potassium; FFP-prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 and fibrinopeptide A and platelets-pH, CD62P, CD63 and sP-selectin. The CareFusion and the Fresenius transfusion sets gave less than 5% depletion of blood components and caused negligible and clinically insignificant effects on red cells, platelet concentrates and FFP. A practical test protocol has been established to assess the depletion, damage to and activation of the key constituents of commonly requested blood components. This protocol would provide a valuable addition to ISO 1135-4 in assuring the suitability of transfusion sets. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Interaction of blood components with cathelicidins and their modified versions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lai, Benjamin F L; Gani, Jurnorain; Mikut, Ralf; Hilpert, Kai; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-11-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) serve as effective components of the innate host defense against microbial infections. cAMPs often show broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but narrow-band activity is also observed. Despite their great potential, the polycationic nature of cAMPs could cause serious side effects once in the bloodstream which may limit their applications. However, there is very limited knowledge available on AMPs interaction with blood components in spite of the fact that the most likely route of administration to treat systemic microbial infections for these peptides is intravenous, where they immediately come in contact with all blood components. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of cAMPs as new alternative to antibiotics, we investigated the impact of cathelicidin related cAMPs on red blood cell lysis, aggregation, platelet activation, blood coagulation, and complement activation. The influence of cAMPs on blood depends on hydrophobicity and number of charges in the peptides. The hemolytic activity of cathelicidin (bactenecin) variants was much less than that of indolicidin due to their lower hydrophobicity. Except indolicidin, none of the peptides induce platelet activation. Some of bactenecin variants (R3, Sub3 and W3) with higher charge inhibited the blood coagulation. The cAMPs did not activate or inhibit complement at the concentrations studied, expect for the peptide (Sub3). Our data shows that it is important to investigate cAMP-based drug candidates regarding their interaction with blood components early on in the development process. We anticipate that this new knowledge on blood interaction of antimicrobial peptides will help to design peptides with a better therapeutic window and with less side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytomegalovirus in Australian blood donors: seroepidemiology and seronegative red blood cell component inventories.

    PubMed

    Lancini, Daniel V; Faddy, Helen M; Ismay, Sue; Chesneau, Stuart; Hogan, Chris; Flower, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can lead to severe disease in high-risk subpopulations. To prevent transfusion-transmitted CMV in these patient groups, the Australian Red Cross Blood Service maintains inventories of CMV-seronegative fresh blood components. Donor demographic data and CMV seroscreening results for all blood donations and blood components issued in Australia between financial years (FYs) 2008/09 to 2012/13 inclusive were obtained. Population estimates were also extracted for the calculation of age-weighted seroprevalence estimates. Linear regression was used to model trends in red blood cell (RBC) component acquisition and demand. The estimated age-weighted seroprevalence of CMV in 20- to 69-year old Australians was 76.12 ± 0.13%, with higher seroprevalence in females and older age groups. Seroprevalence decreased over the study period, while the demand for CMV-seronegative RBC components increased. It was predicted that component acquisition may be insufficient by FY 2017/18 if current trends persist. These findings represent an evaluation of CMV seroepidemiology in Australia and form a basis to predict the future status of CMV-seronegative RBC component inventories. The results will serve to guide Blood Service operations and inform current international debate on CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  9. A review on the effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.

    1998-11-01

    The major application of blood irradiation is for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease on immunodeficient patients by the abrogation of T-lymphocytes. Despite screening of blood donations, transfusion associated transmission of infections due to contaminated blood products is common. Hence, there is potential for the application of irradiation for the inactivation of pathogenic microbes in blood products. Literature on the effect of radiation on blood components is reviewed in order to make a rational decision on the feasibility of their irradiation.

  10. Novel pressure-gradient driven component for blood extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Khumpuang, S.; Horede, M.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Portable blood analysis devices are usually appreciable for applications in blood diagnostic system. We have designed and fabricated a low-cost and simple deal blood extraction device for a biomedical analysis. The device mainly composes of blood extraction tool and a functional bio-chemical analyzing element. In this work, we report the fabrication and pressure-gradient testing results of the blood extraction tool which consists of painless microneedle array and pressure-gradient tank. Microneedle array was fabricated by X-ray lithography using PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique. The idea of our extraction device was simple but capability which is just to hold a sufficient pressure gradient between the tank and blood vessel. The device can draw the volume of blood up to 237 μl. The device was made of low-cost and disposable materials since it is expected to be used for single blood analysis system. In this work, we introduce design, fabrication and mechanism of the pressure gradient driven component including the extraction test results. The fabrication method of microneedle used in our system is also described.

  11. Experimental study of physiological advantages of assist circulation using oscillated blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Nitta, S; Yambe, T; Naganuma, S; Hashimoto, H; Fukuju, T; Tabayashi, K

    1995-07-01

    To estimate the effect of oscillated blood flow on hemodynamics in an awake condition, left ventricular assist circulation using oscillated blood flow was performed on 3 adult goats as chronic animal examination. A vibrating flow pump (VFP) was used for generating high-frequency oscillated flow. The blood flow rate of assisted circulation was approximately 1.0 L/min, and the driving frequency of VFP was 25 Hz. Systemic vascular resistance and arterial impedance were calculated in this study. Systemic vascular resistance during assist circulation was decreased compared with that without assistance. Oscillated blood flow may be effective in decreasing vascular resistance. Moreover, it was suggested from the study of arterial impedance that motive characteristics of the vascular wall against changing blood pressure may keep their normal reaction. Therefore, oscillated blood flow may be used for left ventricular assist circulation as concluded from the study of the characteristics of blood vessels.

  12. Storage and handling of blood components – perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Tor; Kaada, Silje; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The storage and handling conditions of cellular blood components and plasma are often rigorous, which is causing extensive discard of components that may be of acceptable quality as the rules for “out of optimal storage conditions” seem to be based more on tradition than scientific investigations. This short review summarizes some of the key papers indicating that it should be time for reconsideration of these rules, and some new suggestions are carefully indicated. Red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and FFP are considered;lyophilized plasma and never-frozen liquid plasma are not included in this paper.

  13. Pseudocontamination of blood components with Burkholderia cepacia during quality controls.

    PubMed

    Ebner, W; Meyer, E; Schulz-Huotari, C; Scholz, R; Zilow, G; Daschner, F D

    2005-06-01

    We report on a pseudooutbreak of Burkholderia cepacia because of the use of a contaminated disinfectant during quality controls in a university blood bank. No septic reactions associated with transfusions had been reported in patients over the last 6 months. Analysis of the individual quality control procedures showed that a disinfectant based on a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) had been used in order to disinfect the rubber stopper of the blood culture bottle. B. cepacia was found in a sample taken from this disinfectant, which was prepared with concentrate and tap water according to the manufacturer's instructions. The four isolates (one in disinfectant and three in blood components) were found to be identical in their biochemical reactions and resistance patterns. QAC-based disinfectants are not efficacious against a part of the spectrum of gram-negatives and are therefore inadequate. After introduction of an alcohol-based preparation, no more cases of B. cepacia contamination have been identified.

  14. Changes in Blood Components in Aphtha Patients with Excess Heat.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lu; Li, Yan; Jiao, Yifeng; Fu, Danqing; Ye, Li; Ji, Jinjun; Xie, Guanqun; Fan, Yongsheng; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    "Superior heat" is a popularization expression in TCM heat syndrome and has no counterpart in the modern medical system concept. Oral ulcer is considered to be a kind of clinical manifestation of "superior heat." Aphtha is a common and frequently occurring disease, which can be divided into excess heat and Yin deficiency. The aphtha of excess heat manifests the syndromes of acute occurrence, severe local symptoms, obvious swelling and pain, red tongue, yellow coating, and fast-powerful pulse. In this study, we found that there was an abnormal immune regulation in aphtha patients induced by excess heat. There are changes in the blood components, including abnormal serum protein expression (IL-4, MMP-19, MMP-9, and Activin A) and a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the EXP group. Changes in the blood environment may be an important factor in the occurrence of aphtha caused by excess heat.

  15. Lysophosphatidylcholines: bioactive lipids generated during storage of blood components.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, Krystyna; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Michur, Halina; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Lachert, Elżbieta; Brojer, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is suggested to be a "two hit" event, resulting from priming and activation of pulmonary neutrophils. It is known that neutrophil activation may result from infusion of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) accumulated during storage of blood components. The aim of our study was to verify whether the LysoPCs are released into the storage medium of blood components. We measured the LysoPCs concentration in the supernatants from stored apheresis platelet concentrates (PLTs), packed non-leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (RBCs), leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (L-RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and donor plasma (control). Lipids were separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography, detected by primulin spray and quantified by photodensitometric scanning. The LysoPCs concentration in donor plasma was similar to that in FFP. During storage the LysoPCs content in PLTs increased almost two-fold as compared to the fresh isolated platelets. In RBCs and L-RBCs the LysoPC level was very low or below detection limit and did not increase throughout the storage period. According to our observations bioactive LysoPCs may be considered a neutrophil-activating factor only following PLT transfusions but not RBCs transfusions.

  16. Requirements for blood and blood components intended for transfusion or for further manufacturing use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety.

  17. The possible advantages of cryoprecipitate prepared from fresh frozen plasma from blood stored for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Philip, Joseph; Kumarage, Samantha; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Kumar, Sudeep; Mallhi, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    To compare the coagulation-factor profile of cryoprecipitate produced from fresh frozen plasma from whole blood (WB) stored for 24 hours at room temperature (24CP) with that of standard cryoprecipitate (CP). We collected 80 units of WB from healthy volunteers, of which 20 units were of each blood group. Each unit of blood was divided into 2 parts. One part was used for preparation and quality-control evaluation of CP within 8 hours of collection; the other part was stored at room temperature for 24 hours and then subjected to CP preparation. Coagulation studies were carried out on each batch of CP after production. Fibrinogen, Factor VIII (FVII), and von Willibrand factor (vWF) were measured, and the blood groups were determined. We used the Student's t-test to perform comparisons and considered results to be significant at P < .005. Overall, all 3 clotting factors were increased in 24CP compared with CP, with a statistically significant increase in the level of FVIII. Blood group AB had significantly increased levels of fibrinogen and vWF in 24CP compared with CP. Our study showed that 24CP has equal or greater levels of coagulation factors compared with CP. His indicates that our alternate approach for preparation of CP may enable more efficient use of blood collected in satellite blood collection centers and during blood drives.

  18. Effects of blood on bone cement made of calcium phosphate: problems and advantages.

    PubMed

    Musha, Yoshiro; Umeda, Tomohiro; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Shigemitsu, Toshio; Mizutani, Kazuhiro; Itatani, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have frequently been used as bone substitutes in the field of orthopedic surgery. When CPC is used as a bone substitute in vivo, blood contamination is unavoidable. To date, however, no detailed study has been conducted focusing on how the physical properties of CPCs would change under the influence of blood. In this study, the effects of blood contamination on Biopex-R (BPR, PENTAX, Tokyo) are examined in vitro and in vivo. The compressive strength of BPR after setting decreased depending on the amount of contaminating blood. The BPR, which has set in vivo, not only has a fragile surface due to the contamination by blood, but also has a propensity to shorten and be destroyed during the early postoperative stage, especially in the bone exposed to loads. On the other hand, radiographic and histological features in vivo indicated that the absorption and the bone replacement of BPR were stimulated by blood contamination. In the clinical evaluation, the patient's own peripheral venous blood was added to the BPR. One year after the surgery, the absorption was noted around the hardened BPR. To advance CPCs (including BPR) as bioabsorbable bone replaceable materials, it is essential to utilize the patient's own blood in combination with the CPC.

  19. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain.

  20. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    PubMed

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result.

  1. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  2. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  3. Bacterial contamination of blood and blood components in three major blood transfusion centers, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Andrew Anthony; Kuma, George Khumalo; Tettey, Yao; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Opintan, Japheth; Apeagyei, Francis; Ankrah, Jacob Otinkorang; Adiku, Theophilus Korku; Narter-Olaga, Edwin Gbli

    2009-07-01

    Reports from studies conducted in several countries indicate a high incidence of bacterial contamination of donor blood. The prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products in Ghana is not known. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products at the three major blood transfusion centers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Stored whole blood and its products were cultured on different media, and isolates were identified using standard biochemical and bacteriological methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to selected antimicrobial agents was also determined by the disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence rate was 9% (28/303; whole blood, 13% [24/192]; plasma, 3% [2/79]; platelet, 9% [2/22]). The Gram-positive bacteria isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. aureus, and Bacillus spp., and the Gram-negative organisms were Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to cloxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin but resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, and cotrimoxazole, while the Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime (except Y. enterocolitica), and cotrimoxazole. Our results suggest that bacterial contamination of blood and its products is prevalent in Ghana.

  4. [Endothelial glycocalyx of blood circulation. I. Finding, components, structure organization].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Turashev, A D

    2014-01-01

    In normal state, a complex multicomponent system called glycocalyx is present on the surface of endothelial vascular system. The structure of the glycocalyx is determined by a group ofproteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, originating from endothelial cells and blood flow. Due to its complexity and location on the border of the system of blood circulation, glycocalyx participates in a number of functions supporting the metabolism of the vascular wall. Complete or partial loss of this structure in pathologicalconditions leads to inconsistencies in the vascular wall and changes in its functions. The first part of this review considers the history of detection and determination of endothelial glycocalyx structure, utilized methods and approaches. The molecular composition of the glycocalyx, properties of its components and glycocalyx structure organization are described. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, see also http://www.maik.ru.

  5. Clinical use of blood and blood components in post-abortion care in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Tsima, B M; Melese, T; Mogobe, K D; Chabaesele, K; Rankgoane, G; Nassali, M; Habte, D

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the pattern and gaps in blood product utilisation in post-abortion care is crucial for evidence-based planning and priority setting. To describe the current use of blood and blood components in post-abortion care in Botswana. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study across four hospitals in Botswana using routine patients' records. We included all patients admitted for an abortion between January and August 2014. Descriptive statistics are used to report the results. Whole blood and red cell concentrates were used in 59/619 (9·5%) of patients. Plasma and platelet use was 1·3 and 0·7%, respectively. The mean admission haemoglobin level was 10·07 g dL(-1) (SD 2·69) and differed significantly between referral and district hospitals. The mean number of blood units transfused per patient was 2·23 (standard deviation (SD) 1·23), with 15/55 (27·3%) receiving a single unit. A total of 43/288 (14·9%) of the patients had haemoglobin levels below 7 g dL(-1) but did not receive any transfusion. There was a moderate positive correlation between admission haemoglobin level and time to transfusion (Spearman's rho = 0·37, P = 0·01). The number of blood units given increased with decreasing admission haemoglobin level. The strength of this association was moderate (Spearman's rho = -0·48, P < 0·001). There is a relatively low utilisation of blood and blood components in post-abortion care in Botswana despite an apparent clinical need in some instances. The reason for this shortfall, as well as its impact on morbidity and mortality, needs to be explored and be a focus of health systems research in Botswana. © 2016 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Blood components and OCT reflectivity evaluated in animal model.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Shozo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Shirasawa, Makoto; Yamashita, Takehiro; Uchino, Eisuke; Terasaki, Hiroto

    2014-12-01

    To see the relationship between blood components and optical coherence tomography (OCT) reflectivity using an animal model in which the aqueous humor was substituted by different experimental solutions without changing the integrity of the retina. The aqueous humor of an enucleated swine eye was replaced with plasma obtained from healthy volunteers. The OCT reflectivity of the anterior chamber filled with each plasma was calculated from individual OCT images, and was expressed by an arbitrary unit (AU). The concentration of blood components such as cholesterol, hemoglobin (Hb) and bilirubin of each individual was measured, and the correlation between each of them and the OCT reflectivity of aqueous humor in an enucleated swine eye was analyzed. Using the same model, the effects of the single plasma component on OCT reflectivity were examined. Blood samples were obtained from 24 individuals. OCT reflectivity was 30.68 ± 14.8 AU (average ± SD), ranging from 11.11 to 60.31 AU. OCT reflectivity correlated significantly with the concentration of triglycerides (R = 0.634, p = 0.001) and total cholesterol (R = 0.488, p = 0.015) using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. While a partial correlation analysis showed that it correlated significantly with triglyceride (R = 0.60, p = 0.003), but not total cholesterol. OCT reflectivity was highest in a balanced salt solution (BSS) with Hb (average 42.05 AU), followed by fibrinogen (8.08 AU), bilirubin (6.12 AU) and γ-globulin (2.85 AU). Albumin did not increase the reflectivity of the BSS with a normal concentration (1.11 AU) compared to the control BSS alone (0.73 AU). OCT reflectivity was most strongly affected by the presence of triglycerides among the blood components. Some molecules such as Hb and fibrinogen significantly increase the OCT reflectivity. This information should be helpful for interpreting the OCT findings correctly.

  7. Analysis of inventory strategies for blood components in a regional blood center using process simulation.

    PubMed

    Baesler, Felipe; Nemeth, Matías; Martínez, Cristina; Bastías, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The storage of blood components is an important concern in the blood supply chain. Because these are perishable products, the definition of good inventory policies is crucial to reduce shortages and spills. To analyze and propose inventory policies in a regional blood center, a discrete event simulation model was created using simulation software (Arena 12.0, Rockwell Software). The model replicates the activities that are performed along the supply chain including donation arrivals, testing, production, inventory management, and dispatching. Twelve different scenarios were analyzed, with each one representing different inventory policies composed of a combination of an optimal inventory, a reorder point, and a level of extra donations. The best scenario demonstrates that it is possible to decrease unsatisfied demand and wastage of red blood cell units by 2.5 and 3%, respectively, when compared to current practices. This study shows that simulation is an alternative that can be used to model inventory components in blood centers. A responsible selection of inventory variables can improve the capability of the system to respond to the final patient requirements. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Electronic enhancements to blood ordering reduce component waste.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Deandrade, Diana S; Triulzi, Darrell J; Wisniewski, Mary Kay; Waters, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    The effect on component wastage after enhancing the clinician's ability to order blood products in the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system was investigated in a multihospital network. A novel field was added to the CPOE of eight hospitals within a health care system allowing the physician to reserve a red blood cell (RBC) unit for transfusion at a later time. Simultaneously, an electronic means of communication with the blood bank was implemented requiring the nurse to ensure that the patient was prepared for the transfusion before a product could be issued. The wastage rates in the 12 months after these electronic enhancements (Phase 2) was compared to the preceding 19 months of a non-CPOE-based waste reduction campaign (Phase 1) and to the 24 months before the campaign (baseline period). There were significant reductions in platelet (PLT) waste between the baseline period and Phase 1 (p < 0.05) and between Phase 2 and both Phase 1 and the baseline period (p < 0.05). The annual systemwide cost savings in wasted PLTs between the baseline period and Phase 2 was approximately $123,300. RBC waste was significantly reduced between Phase 2 and both Phase 1 and the baseline period (p < 0.05). Cryoprecipitate waste was reduced between Phase 2 and the baseline period (p < 0.05), while plasma waste did not change between the three periods. Implementing a multifaceted approach to waste reduction led to a significant reduction in wastage for RBCs, PLTs, and cryoprecipitate. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Evaluation of the quality of blood components prepared using the Reveos automated blood processing system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Winter, K M; Kwok, M; Reid, S; Marks, D C

    2013-10-01

    The Reveos automated blood processing system has been developed to combine primary and secondary processing of whole-blood units, resulting in a plasma unit, a red-blood-cell concentrate and an interim platelet unit per input. The aim of this study was to determine product specifications and in vitro quality of components produced by the Reveos system. Whole blood was processed using the Reveos system and compared with historical Reference units produced using semi-automated methods. Reveos red cells were leucoreduced and stored in SAGM at 4°C. Reveos plasma was frozen at -30°C and factor activity was assessed after thawing. Reference red cell, plasma and buffy coats were produced by top and bottom processing. Leucoreduced Reveos and Reference platelet concentrates were prepared by pooling four interim platelet units or four buffy coats, respectively, with SSP+. Processing with the Reveos system was faster (76 min) than semi-automated separation (92 min). The red cell and platelet yields were higher in the units prepared by the Reveos system. The Reference and Reveos red cell and plasma units had very similar in vitro quality parameters. The platelet concentrates were also similar in many in vitro parameters, including pH, glucose and lactate metabolism, hypotonic shock response and phosphatidylserine expression, although platelet activation markers (CD62P and cytokine levels) were higher in the Reveos units. The Reveos system can improve blood component efficiencies through reductions in processing time, whilst maintaining similar component quality. Vox Sanguinis © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Application of the ADVIA cerebrospinal fluid assay to count residual red blood cells in blood components.

    PubMed

    Culibrk, B; Stone, E; Levin, E; Weiss, S; Serrano, K; Devine, D V

    2012-10-01

    There is no automated, accurate assay for the enumeration of residual red blood cells (rRBCs) in non-RBC components for transfusion, despite the potential risk of allo-immunization when mismatched components are transfused. The automated ADVIA 120 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assay, which is approved to count RBCs and WBCs in CSF samples, was optimized and tested to measure rRBC in platelet concentrate (PC) and plasma components. Sample dilution, incubation time and reagent volume were optimized for use with non-RBC blood products. The assay was linear (R(2) = 0·99), even at low rRBCs counts. Intra- and inter-assay variation gave coefficients of variance (CV) between 2·2 and 9·4% and 2·6 and 14·9%, respectively, depending on rRBC levels. Good correlation (r = 0·995) was found between the automated assay and manual counting, which is considered the gold standard. Using the automated assay, the range of rRBCs (count/unit) in buffy-coat platelet concentrate (PCs) was 27-5505 × 10(6) and in apheresis PCs was 1-361 × 10(6). The ADVIA CSF assay is a sensitive, precise and accurate means to assess rRBC counts in non-RBC components. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Leucoreduction of blood components: an effective way to increase blood safety?

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Maria; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been demonstrated that removal of white blood cells from blood components is effective in preventing some adverse reactions such as febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, immunisation against human leucocyte antigens and human platelet antigens, and transmission of cytomegalovirus. In this review we discuss indications for leucoreduction and classify them into three categories: evidence-based indications for which the clinical efficacy is proven, indications based on the analysis of observational clinical studies with very consistent results and indications for which the clinical efficacy is partial or unproven. PMID:26710353

  12. Leucoreduction of blood components: an effective way to increase blood safety?

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Maria; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been demonstrated that removal of white blood cells from blood components is effective in preventing some adverse reactions such as febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, immunisation against human leucocyte antigens and human platelet antigens, and transmission of cytomegalovirus. In this review we discuss indications for leucoreduction and classify them into three categories: evidence-based indications for which the clinical efficacy is proven, indications based on the analysis of observational clinical studies with very consistent results and indications for which the clinical efficacy is partial or unproven.

  13. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  14. Blood flows and metabolic components of the cardiome.

    PubMed

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Li, Z; Qian, H

    1998-01-01

    This is a plan for the first stage of The Cardiome Project. The cardiome is the representation, in quantitative, testable form, of the functioning of the normal heart and its responses to intervention. The goal is to integrate the efforts of many years into a comprehensive understandable scheme. Past efforts have spanned the fields of transport within blood vessels, the distributions of regional coronary blood flows, permeation processes through capillary and cell walls, mediated cell membrane transport, extra- and intracellular diffusion, cardiac electrophysiology, the uptake and metabolism of the prime substrates (fatty acid and glucose), the metabolism of the purine nucleosides and nucleotides (mainly adenosine and ATP), the regulation of the ionic currents and of excitation-contraction coupling and finally the regulation of contraction. The central theme is to define the coronary flows and metabolic components of a computer model that will become a part of a three-dimensional heart with appropriate fibre shortening and volume ejection. The components are: (a) coronary flow distributions with appropriate heterogeneity, (b) metabolism of the substrates for energy production, (c) ATP, PCr and energy metabolism and (d) calcium metabolism as it relates to excitation-contraction coupling. The modeling should provide: (1) appropriate responses to regional ischemia induced by constriction of a coronary artery, including tissue contractility loss and aneurysmal dilation of the ischemic region; (2) physiological responses to rate changes such as treppe and changes in metabolic demand and (3) changes in local metabolic needs secondary to changes in the site of pacing stimulation and shortening inactivation or stretch activation of contraction.

  15. Blood flows and metabolic components of the cardiome

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Li, Zheng; Qian, Hong

    2010-01-01

    This is a plan for the first stage of The Cardiome Project. The cardiome is the representation, in quantitative, testable form, of the functioning of the normal heart and its responses to intervention. The goal is to integrate the efforts of many years into a comprehensive understandable scheme. Past efforts have spanned the fields of transport within blood vessels, the distributions of regional coronary blood flows, permeation processes through capillary and cell walls, mediated cell membrane transport, extra- and intracellular diffusion, cardiac electrophysiology, the uptake and metabolism of the prime substrates (fatty acid and glucose), the metabolism of the purine nucleosides and nucleotides (mainly adenosine and ATP), the regulation of the ionic currents and of excitation–contraction coupling and finally the regulation of contraction. The central theme is to define the coronary flows and metabolic components of a computer model that will become a part of a three-dimensional heart with appropriate fibre shortening and volume ejection. The components are: (a) coronary flow distributions with appropriate heterogeneity, (b) metabolism of the substrates for energy production, (c) ATP, PCr and energy metabolism and (d) calcium metabolism as it relates to excitation–contraction coupling. The modeling should provide: (1) appropriate responses to regional ischemia induced by constriction of a coronary artery, including tissue contractility loss and aneurysmal dilation of the ischemic region; (2) physiological responses to rate changes such as treppe and changes in metabolic demand and (3) changes in local metabolic needs secondary to changes in the site of pacing stimulation and shortening inactivation or stretch activation of contraction. PMID:9785950

  16. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  17. Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy - Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Toneguzzo, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells from a patient's blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes and are often dysfunctional. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T cells to prevent graft-versus-host reactions. Cytotoxic cell lines have been established from patients with clonal NK-cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. Except for the NK-92 cell line, though, none of the other six known NK cell lines has consistently and reproducibly shown high antitumor cytotoxicity. Only NK-92 cells can easily be genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been infused into patients with advanced cancer with clinical benefit and minimal side effects.

  18. Modifications to Blood Components: When to Use them and What is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Gehrie, Eric A; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2016-06-01

    Blood component modifications can be performed by the hospital blood bank for select clinical indications. In general, modification of blood components increases costs and may delay availability of the blood component because of the additional time required for some modification steps. However, the benefit of blood product modification may outweigh these concerns. Common modifications include leukoreduction, irradiation, volume reduction, splitting, and washing. Modification availability and selection practice may vary from hospital to hospital. In this article, available blood component modifications are described along with the benefits, drawbacks, and specific clinical indications supporting their use.

  19. Variability in blood and blood component utilization as assessed by an anesthesia information management system.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven M; Savage, Will J; Rothschild, Jim A; Rivers, Richard J; Ness, Paul M; Paul, Sharon L; Ulatowski, John A

    2012-07-01

    Data can be collected for various purposes with anesthesia information management systems. The authors describe methods for using data acquired from an anesthesia information management system to assess intraoperative utilization of blood and blood components. Over an 18-month period, data were collected on 48,086 surgical patients at a tertiary care academic medical center. All data were acquired with an automated anesthesia recordkeeping system. Detailed reports were generated for blood and blood component utilization according to surgical service and surgical procedure, and for individual surgeons and anesthesiologists. Transfusion hemoglobin trigger and target concentrations were compared among surgical services and procedures, and between individual medical providers. For all patients given erythrocytes, the mean transfusion hemoglobin trigger was 8.4 ± 1.5, and the target was 10.2 ± 1.5 g/dl. Variation was significant among surgical services (trigger range: 7.5 ± 1.2-9.5 ± 1.1, P = 0.0001; target range: 9.1 ± 1.2-11.3 ± 1.4 g/dl, P = 0.002), surgeons (trigger range: 7.2 ± 0.7-9.8 ± 1.0, P = 0.001; target range: 8.8 ± 0.9-11.8 ± 1.3 g/dl, P = 0.001), and anesthesiologists (trigger range: 7.2 ± 0.8-9.6 ± 1.2, P = 0.001; target range: 9.0 ± 0.9-11.7 ± 1.3 g/dl, P = 0.0004). The use of erythrocyte salvage, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets varied threefold to fourfold among individual surgeons compared with their peers performing the same surgical procedure. The use of data acquired from an anesthesia information management system allowed a detailed analysis of blood component utilization, which revealed significant variation among surgical services and surgical procedures, and among individual anesthesiologists and surgeons compared with their peers. Incorporating these methods of data acquisition and analysis into a blood management program could reduce unnecessary transfusions, an outcome that may increase patient safety and reduce costs.

  20. Endurance Capacity Changes Following Induced Erythrocythemia - The Utility of Frozen Blood Component Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    L and M Meyers, Thawing of Frozen Blood Components , NOSC Code 5143 introductory letter report, 10 December 1976. **This has recently been extended to...water bathing the sample bag. Continued research at the Naval Ocean Systems Center on thawing of frozen blood components by microwave energy promises...infusion of whole blood or blood components will affect the plasma volumes and RBC volumes differently, depending upon the composition of the infusate. The

  1. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2) gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  2. Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing a Phospholipase A2 Gene Have a Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Blood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C.; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. Results We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Conclusions Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control. PMID:24098427

  3. AAGBI guidelines: the use of blood components and their alternatives 2016.

    PubMed

    Klein, A A; Arnold, P; Bingham, R M; Brohi, K; Clark, R; Collis, R; Gill, R; McSporran, W; Moor, P; Rao Baikady, R; Richards, T; Shinde, S; Stanworth, S; Walsh, T S

    2016-07-01

    Blood transfusion can be life-saving. Anaesthetists regularly request and administer blood components to their patients. All anaesthetists must be familiar with indications and appropriate use of blood and blood components and their alternatives, but close liaison with haematology specialists and their local blood sciences laboratory is encouraged. Considerable changes in approaches to optimal use of blood components, together with the use of alternative products, have become apparent over the past decade, leading to a need to update previous guidelines and adapt them for the use of anaesthetists working throughout the hospital system.

  4. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  5. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  6. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  7. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A R; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C G; Espina, Luz M; Souza, Kátia P R; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Krysztof, David E; Foster, Gregory A; Stramer, Susan L; Rios, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. We used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3-8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.

  8. Interactions between solubilized polymer molecules and blood components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghua; Jiao, Yanpeng; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Xue, Wei

    2012-05-30

    In biomedical field, a variety of natural or synthetic polymers are being exponentially developed and used in vivo to improve human health. In practical applications, these biopolymers would enter blood circulation directly or indirectly, positively or passively, rapidly or slowly. Blood is a special tissue of human body, which fulfills many important missions to sustain normal metabolism. The contact with blood of the biopolymers, which are seen as foreign substances by the body, would be harmful or even instantaneously lethal, depending on the nature and the dose of the biopolymers administered. Therefore, it is critical to clearly understand the potential influences of the foreign polymers on blood before the polymers are applied from the lab to bedside. In this review, we discuss the recent studies on the interactions of foreign, solubilized polymer molecules (excluding formed polymer materials) with blood constituents (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma proteins, etc.), to gain insight into the potential in vivo applications of the biopolymers in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Blood components: Are they drugs or special medicines?].

    PubMed

    Garraud, O; Tissot, J-D

    2016-09-01

    Blood transfusion and plasma derived-drugs significantly differ from other medicines in that their availability strictly depends on blood and plasma collected from healthy donors. Blood collection must comply with a double objective: to maintain donor heath safety, and to avoid any transmitted infections in recipients. This raises several ethical concerns that appear to be different from usual ethical and deontological issues linked to other pharmaceutical and industrial processes. The main concern is the non-commercialization of the human body. Words and concept are of major importance in this context. This short review aims at presenting the main issues relevant to those questions with respect to the various stakeholders.

  10. Blood Components Interactions to Ionic and Nonionic Glyconanogels.

    PubMed

    Narain, Ravin; Wang, Yinan; Ahmed, Marya; Lai, Benjamin F L; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-09-14

    Nanogels are prominent examples of "smart" nanomaterials, which are designed to incorporate biologically relevant (macro)molecules for systemic delivery. Although these systems are carefully engineered, only a handful of studies discuss the blood compatibility of nanogels, and no systematic studies are available on how the presence of net or surface charges impacts the hemocompatibility of these nanomaterials. Therefore, in this study, temperature responsive, galactose based nanogels bearing net positive, negative, or neutral charges, either in the core or shell of nanogels, are prepared and are subsequently evaluated for their blood compatibility profiles. The nanogels containing neutral core and shell, cationic core with neutral shell, anionic core with neutral shell, neutral core with cationic shell, and neutral core with anionic shell are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization approach. The evaluation of complement activation, blood clot formation, platelet activation, red blood cells aggregation, and hemolysis provides a detailed analysis of structure activity relationship of blood compatibility profile of these nanogels. The data reveal that the physical and biological (blood compatibility) properties can be carefully tuned by embedding the charges in the core of temperature-responsive nanomaterials, protected by neutral carbohydrate based shells.

  11. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  12. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  13. Loureirin B: An Effective Component in Dragon's Blood Modulating Sodium Currents in TG Neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangming; Yin, Shijin; Chen, Su; Ma, Quanshun

    2005-01-01

    To test, analyze and express the relationship between the pharmacological effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) dragon's blood and that of its component loureirin B, specify an operational definition for effective component from raw drug of TCM. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons were observed. The results show that both dragon's blood and loureirin B suppressed two types of peak sodium currents in a dose-dependent way. 0.1% dragon's blood and 0.2mmol/L loureirin B affected the activation and inactivation of sodium channels. The results further prove the analgetic mechanism of dragon's blood interfering with the nociceptive transmission. According to the above definition, loureirin B is the effective component in dragon's blood modulating sodium currents in TG neurons.

  14. Sb(V) Reactivity with Human Blood Components: Redox Effects

    PubMed Central

    López, Silvana; Aguilar, Luis; Mercado, Luis; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V) in human blood. Sb(V) reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V) was partially reduced to Sb(III) in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III) was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L−1 EDTA prevented Sb(III) oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The transformation of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V) in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V) significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32±0.09 to 0.07±0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL−1 of Sb(V) increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4±0.1 to 7.0±0.4 U mL−1 and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62±1 to 34±2 nmol min−1 mL−1. PMID:25615452

  15. Goals for Educating Residents in the Use of Blood Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstaedt, Richard S.; Glanz, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Medical care evaluation studies suggest that doctors often do not use blood resources appropriately and key educational objectives in the field are not being met. The Delphi method was used to achieve a consensus opinion among transfusion medicine educators to determine goals and objectives. (MLW)

  16. Goals for Educating Residents in the Use of Blood Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstaedt, Richard S.; Glanz, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Medical care evaluation studies suggest that doctors often do not use blood resources appropriately and key educational objectives in the field are not being met. The Delphi method was used to achieve a consensus opinion among transfusion medicine educators to determine goals and objectives. (MLW)

  17. Sb(V) reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    PubMed

    López, Silvana; Aguilar, Luis; Mercado, Luis; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V) in human blood. Sb(V) reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V) was partially reduced to Sb(III) in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III) was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) EDTA prevented Sb(III) oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The transformation of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V) in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V) significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1) of Sb(V) increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1) and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1) mL(-1).

  18. Blood Contrast Agents Enhance Intrinsic Signals in the Retina: Evidence for an Underlying Blood Volume Component

    PubMed Central

    Ts'o, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the extent to which neurovascular coupling contributes to stimulus-evoked intrinsic signals in the retina. Methods. The retinas of five adult cats were examined in vivo. Animals were anesthetized and paralyzed for imaging stability. The retinas were imaged through a modified fundus camera capable of presenting patterned visual stimuli simultaneous with a diffuse near infrared (NIR). Results. Injections of nigrosin increased signal strength by as much as 36.3%, and indocyanine green (ICG) increased signal magnitudes by as much as 38.1%. In both cases, intrinsic signals maintained a colocalized pattern of activation corresponding to the visual stimulus presented. The time course of the evoked signals remained unaltered. The spectral dependency of signal enhancement mirrored the absorption spectra of the injected dyes. Conclusions. The data are consistent with a neurovascular coupling effect in the retina. Patterned visual stimuli evoke colocalized NIR reflectance changes. The patterned decrease in reflectance was enhanced after nigrosin or ICG was injected into the systemic circulation. These findings suggest stimulus-evoked changes in blood volume underlie a component of the retinal intrinsic signals. PMID:21051719

  19. New approach to 'top-and-bottom' whole blood separation using the multiunit TACSI WB system: quality of blood components.

    PubMed

    Lotens, A; Najdovski, T; Cellier, N; Ernotte, B; Lambermont, M; Rapaille, A

    2014-10-01

    TACSI whole blood system is designed to combine primary and secondary processing of six whole blood bags into plasma units, buffy coat and red blood cell concentrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the specifications and in vitro storage parameters of blood components compared with standard centrifugation and separation processing. Whole blood bags, collected in CRC kits, were treated on a TACSI whole blood system. They were compared with whole blood bags collected in Composelect kits. In addition to routine quality control analyses, conservation studies were performed on red blood cell concentrates for 42 days and on plasma for 6 months. Platelets pools with five buffy coats were also created, and cellular contamination was evaluated. Red blood cell concentrates produced from TACSI whole blood met European quality requirements. For white blood cell count, one individual result exceeded 1 × 10(6) cells/unit. All plasma units fell within specifications for residual cellular contamination and storage parameters. The performances of the TACSI whole blood system allow for the preparation of low volume buffy coats with a recovery of 90% of whole blood platelets. Haemoglobin losses in TACSI BC are smaller, but this did not result in higher haemoglobin content of red cells. These BC are suitable for the production of platelet concentrates. From these in vitro data, red blood cell concentrates produced using TACSI whole blood are suitable for clinical use with a quality at least equivalent to the control group. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Modern banking, collection, compatibility testing and storage of blood and blood components.

    PubMed

    Green, L; Allard, S; Cardigan, R

    2015-01-01

    The clinical practice of blood transfusion has changed considerably over the last few decades. The potential risk of transfusion transmissible diseases has directed efforts towards the production of safe and high quality blood. All transfusion services now operate in an environment of ever-increasing regulatory controls encompassing all aspects of blood collection, processing and storage. Stringent donor selection, identification of pathogens that can be transmitted through blood, and development of technologies that can enhance the quality of blood, have all led to a substantial reduction in potential risks and complications associated with blood transfusion. In this article, we will discuss the current standards required for the manufacture of blood, starting from blood collection, through processing and on to storage. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Blood component recalls and market withdrawals: frequency, reasons, and management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Glenn

    2013-04-01

    In a previous article, we reviewed the management of blood component recalls and withdrawals (G. Ramsey. Transfusion Med Rev 2004;18:36-45). Since then, US rates of recall and biological product deviation for blood components have improved significantly, particularly with regard to reduced recalls for donor infectious disease risks or testing. However, analysis of the current data from the US Food and Drug Administration suggests that 1 (0.4%) in 250 blood components is involved in market withdrawals and quarantines, with 1 in 5800 components formally recalled. Most of these units, unfortunately, had already have been transfused. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued several recent guidances that address transfusion service actions for dealing with specific infectious disease problems. This present article updates our 2004 recommendations as to when to notify physicians about transfused nonconforming blood components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Anez, German; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Espina, Luz M.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Krysztof, David E.; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-02-12

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Here, we used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. As a result, DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. In conclusion, DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.

  3. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    DOE PAGES

    Anez, German; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; ...

    2016-02-12

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Here, we used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples wasmore » determined by culture in mosquito cells. As a result, DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. In conclusion, DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma.« less

  4. Distribution of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 in Blood Components from Infected Blood Donors from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Chancey, Caren; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Espina, Luz M.; Souza, Kátia P. R.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Krysztof, David E.; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4) that can also be transmitted by blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The distribution of DENV in the components of blood from infected donors is poorly understood. Methods We used an in-house TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to test residual samples of plasma, cellular components of whole blood (CCWB), serum and clot specimens from the same collection from blood donors who were DENV-RNA-reactive in a parallel blood safety study. To assess whether DENV RNA detected by TaqMan was associated with infectious virus, DENV infectivity in available samples was determined by culture in mosquito cells. Results DENV RNA was detected by TaqMan in all tested blood components, albeit more consistently in the cellular components; 78.8% of CCWB, 73.3% of clots, 86.7% of sera and 41.8% of plasma samples. DENV-1 was detected in 48 plasma and 97 CCWB samples while DENV-4 was detected in 21 plasma and 31 CCWB samples. In mosquito cell cultures, 29/111 (26.1%) plasma and 32/97 (32.7%) CCWB samples were infectious. A subset of samples from 29 donors was separately analyzed to compare DENV viral loads in the available blood components. DENV viral loads did not differ significantly between components and ranged from 3–8 log10 PCR-detectable units/ml. Conclusions DENV was present in all tested components from most donors, and viral RNA was not preferentially distributed in any of the tested components. Infectious DENV was also present in similar proportions in cultured plasma, clot and CCWB samples, indicating that these components may serve as a resource when sample sizes are limited. However, these results suggest that the sensitivity of the nucleic acid tests (NAT) for these viruses would not be improved by testing whole blood or components other than plasma. PMID:26871560

  5. Primary study for detection of arterial blood pressure waveform components.

    PubMed

    Paradkar, Neeraj; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a technique to detect significant systolic peaks, the percussion (P) and tidal peak (T) and diastolic peak (D) from the arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform. The technique is aimed at robust detection even in presence of significant noise. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based dominant period extraction of the ABP waveform followed by wavelet transform and local peak detection is applied to detect the points of interest. MIMIC-II ABP databse serves as a training dataset to select SVD and wavelet transform parameters and CSL Benchmark database is used to analyze the technique. Salient systolic peak detection for the CSL dataset was performed with positive predictive value and sensitivity figures of 98.48% and 99.24% respectively.

  6. [Antibacterial components from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana].

    PubMed

    Jiang, He-mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jun; Dai, Hao-fu; Luo, Yan-ping; Mei, Wen-li

    2015-10-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana by various column chromatographies on silica and sephadex LH-20 gel. Based on spectral analysis of NMR and MS, their structures were identified as 3, 4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (1), 3', 4', 5'-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol (2), pinoresinol (3), (2R)-7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavane (4), (2R)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methylflavane(5),(2S)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane(6) ,(2S)-4',7-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethylflavane(7), 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone(8), 4,4'-dihydroxy-2-methoxydihydrochalcon(9) and Cambodianin E (10). Antibacterial activity assay showed that compounds 1, 4 and 10 have inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cuben, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Ralstonia solanacearum.

  7. [Research on the blood components detecting by multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-quan; Wu, Hong-jie; Lin, Ling

    2010-09-01

    To discuss the feasibility of using the serum's multi-optical path length spectroscopy information for measuring the concentration of the human blood components, the automatic micro-displacement measuring device was designed, which can obtain the near-infrared multi-optical path length from 0 to 4.0 mm (interval is 0.2 mm) spectra of 200 serum samples with multioptical path length spectrum of serum participated in building the quantitative analysis model of four components of the human blood: glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), by mean of the significant non-linear spectral characteristic of blood. Partial least square (PLS) was used to set up the calibration models of the multi-optical path length near-infrared absorption spectrum of 160 experimental samples against the biochemical analysis results of them. The blood components of another 40 samples were predicted according to the model. The prediction effect of four blood components was favorable, and the correlation coefficient (r) of predictive value and biochemical analysis value were 0.9320, 0.9712, 0.9462 and 0.9483, respectively. All of the results proved the feasibility of the multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique for blood components analysis. And this technique established the foundation of detecting the components of blood and other liquid conveniently and rapidly.

  8. Evaluation of overnight hold of whole blood at room temperature before component processing: effect of red blood cell (RBC) additive solutions on in vitro RBC measures.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Cancelas, Jose A; Cardigan, Rebecca; Devine, Dana V; Gulliksson, Hans; Sparrow, Rosemary L; Vassallo, Ralph R; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Baumann-Baretti, Bärbel; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Whole blood (WB) can be held at room temperature (18-25°C) up to 8 hours after collection; thereafter the unit must be refrigerated, rendering it unsuitable for platelet (PLT) production. Overnight hold at room temperature before processing has logistic advantages, and we evaluated this process in an international multicenter study for both buffy coat (BC)- and PLT-rich plasma (PRP)-based blood components and compared three red blood cell (RBC) additive solutions (ASs) for their ability to offset effects of overnight hold. Nine centers participated; seven used the BC method, and two used the PRP method. Four WB units were pooled and split; 1 unit was processed less than 8 hours from collection (Group A), and the other three (Groups B, C, and D) were held at room temperature and processed after 24 to 26 hours. RBCs in Groups A and B were resuspended in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol, Group C in phosphate-adenine-guanosine-glucose-saline-mannitol, and Group D in ErythroSol-4 RBCs were stored at 2 to 6°C for 49 days. RBCs from overnight-held WB had lower 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and higher adenosine triphosphate (ATP). At the end of storage there were no differences between groups, apart from a slightly higher hemolysis in Group B. ErythroSol-4 showed a slightly higher initial ATP and 2,3-DPG content, but at the end of storage no differences were found. Overnight hold of WB before processing has no lasting deleterious effects on in vitro quality of subsequently prepared components. The use of different RBC ASs did not appear to offer significant advantages in terms of RBC quality at the end, regardless of the processing method. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Direct estimation of dissolved organic carbon using synchronous fluorescence and independent component analysis (ICA): advantages of a multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    De Almeida Brehm, Franciane; de Azevedo, Julio Cesar R; da Costa Pereira, Jorge; Burrows, Hugh D

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is frequently used as a diagnostic parameter for the identification of environmental contamination in aqueous systems. Since this organic matter is evolving and decaying over time. If samples are collected under environmental conditions, some sample stabilization process is needed until the corresponding analysis can be made. This may affect the analysis results. This problem can be avoided using the direct determination of DOC. We report a study using in situ synchronous fluorescence spectra, with independent component analysis to retrieve relevant major spectral contributions and their respective component contributions, for the direct determination of DOC. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a very powerful and sensitive technique to evaluate vestigial organic matter dissolved in water and is thus suited for the analytical task of direct monitoring of dissolved organic matter in water, thus avoiding the need for the stabilization step. We also report the development of an accurate calibration model for dissolved organic carbon determinations using environmental samples of humic and fulvic acids. The method described opens the opportunity for a fast, in locus, DOC estimation in environmental or other field studies using a portable fluorescence spectrometer. This combines the benefits of the use of fresh samples, without the need of stabilizers, and also allows the interpretation of various additional spectral contributions based on their respective estimated properties. We show how independent component analysis may be used to describe tyrosine, tryptophan, humic acid and fulvic acid spectra and, thus, to retrieve the respective individual component contribution to the DOC.

  10. Red blood cell components: time to revisit the sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2017-03-01

    Quality and safety of red blood cell (RBC) components is managed by screening of donors and strict regulatory controls of blood collection, processing and storage procedures. Despite these efforts, variations in RBC component quality exist as exemplified by the wide range in storage-induced haemolysis. This article provides a brief overview of the variables that contribute or potentially contribute to the quality of stored RBC components, including blood collection, processing, and donor-related variables. Particular focus is made on donor health and lifestyle factors that are not specifically screened and may impact on the physicobiochemical properties of RBCs and their storability. Inflammatory and oxidative stress states may be especially relevant as RBCs are susceptible to oxidative injury. Few studies have investigated the effect of specific donor-related variables on the quality of stored RBC components. Donor-related variables may be unaccounted confounders in the "age of blood" clinical studies that compared outcomes following transfusion of fresher or longer-stored RBC components. The conclusion is drawn that the blood donor is the greatest source of RBC component variability and the least "regulated" aspect of blood component production. It is proposed that more research is needed to better understand the connection between donor-related variables and quality consistency of stored RBC components. This could be very important given the impact of modern lifestyles that sees escalating rates of non-communicable health conditions that are associated with increased oxidative stress, such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes in children and adults, as well as an ageing population in many countries. The effect of these changes to global health and population demographics will impact on blood donor panels, and without significant new research, the consequences on the quality of stored blood components and transfusion outcomes are unknown.

  11. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  12. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  13. Blood transfusion practice in obstetric and gynecology: impact of educational programs to create awareness for judicious use of blood components.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Snehalata C; Patel, Pratima N

    2014-09-01

    The study presents the data analysis (1) To find out the trend of blood component use during the period 2003-2010 and to determine impact of component awareness programs on reduction in whole blood (WB) and single unit transfusions. (2) To determine Hb trigger. The details about blood units issued were entered in the integrated blood bank management software as well as in Microsoft Excel. The data of 4,838 cases of pregnancy anemia; 2,244 receiving blood for obstetric (Ob) hemorrhage including 270 cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation; 1,413 women having Gynecological (Gy) bleeding; 911 Ob, 2,032 Gy and 740 surgeries for Gy malignancy were analyzed. During the years 2003-2010 there was gradual increase in component utilization for pregnancy anemia, Ob/Gy surgeries and Ob/Gy bleeding and significant reduction in WB transfusions due to component awareness programs. But single unit transfusions showed comparatively lower trend of reduction. The mean Hb was 6.4 g/dL for pregnancy anemia, 8.1 g/dL for surgeries and 7.3 g/dL for Ob/Gy bleeding.

  14. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraitl, Jens; Timm, Ulrich; Lewis, Elfed; Ewald, Hartmut

    2010-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for a measurement of blood components. The absorptioncoefficient of blood differs at different wavelengths. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components like hemoglobin (Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (CoHb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. Currently, invasive methods are used to measure the Hb concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analyzed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A noninvasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data.

  15. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for... machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for... using machine- readable information that would be acceptable as a system for labeling blood and blood...

  16. Consequences of Transfusing Blood Components in Patients With Trauma: A Conceptual Model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Transfusion of blood components is often required in resuscitation of patients with major trauma. Packed red blood cells and platelets break down and undergo chemical changes during storage (known as the storage lesion) that lead to an inflammatory response once the blood components are transfused to patients. Although some evidence supports a detrimental association between transfusion and a patient's outcome, the mechanisms connecting transfusion of stored components to outcomes remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide critical care nurses with a conceptual model to facilitate understanding of the relationship between the storage lesion and patients' outcomes after trauma; outcomes related to trauma, hemorrhage, and blood component transfusion are grouped according to those occurring in the short-term (≤30 days) and the long-term (>30 days). Complete understanding of these clinical implications is critical for practitioners in evaluating and treating patients given transfusions after traumatic injury.

  17. Combination of the advantages of chromatographic methods based on active components for the quality evaluation of licorice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xujia; Li, Qing; Lv, Chunxiao; Du, Yiyang; Xu, Huarong; Wang, Di; Li, Mingxiao; Li, Bohui; Li, Jing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, improved and comprehensive method including high-performance thin-layer chromatography, fingerprint technology and single standard to determine multiple components was developed and validated for the quality evaluation of licorice. In this study, a newly developed high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was first used for authentication of licorice, which achieved simultaneous identification of multiple bands including five bands for known bioactive components by comparing their retention factor values and colors with the standards. For fingerprint analysis, 8 of 16 common peaks were identified. Simultaneously, similarity analysis which showed very similar patterns and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to discriminate and classify the 27 batches of samples. Additionally, the single standard to determine multiple components method was first successfully achieved to quantify the eight important active markers in licorice including liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquritin, neoisoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and glycyrrhizic acid. The easily available glycyrrhizic acid was selected as the reference substance to calculate relative response factors. Compared with the normal external standard method, this alternative method can be used to determine the multiple indices effectively and accurately. The validation result showed that the developed method was specific, accurate, precise, robust and reliable for the overall quality assessment of licorice.

  18. Blood collection, components preparation and distribution in Iran, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Omidkhoda, Azadeh; Amini Kafi-Abad, Sedigheh; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The information about the dynamics of blood collection, components preparation and distribution in Iran was measured and compared during 2008-2012. The survey instruments were based on collecting data from all 220 blood collections and blood processing centers over the country, registering them in the validated data base and reporting them to headquarter of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. Total blood collection increased during this period, and in 2012 represented a 12.6 percent increase compared to that in 2008. On average, red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate were prepared from 95.5 ± 2.4, 81 ± 3.8 and 47 ± 8.8 percent of all whole blood collection. From 2008 to 2011, the distribution of whole blood and fresh frozen plasma revealed different patterns. For whole blood, declines were noted, while for fresh frozen plasma increases were reported. In addition the distribution of red blood cells and platelet concentrate did not change considerably. Also between 2008 and 2012, the mean percentage of outdated and discarded units was 3.6 ± 1 and 5.2 ± 4.6. This study as a first national survey provides comprehensive information about the blood supply, components preparation and distribution, and helps to define strategy for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Damage Control Resuscitation: Optimizing Blood Component use to Save Lives of Severely Injured Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    amounts of fibrinogen contained in each blood component (FFP, platelets , WB, RBCs and cryoprecipitate) as described by Stinger et al (2008). 2.2...patients who received the usual higher ratio of RBCs to plasma. O ussed in this current paper involve the use of fresh whole blood and apheresis ... platelets in theater. Data suggest that the availability of platelets will reduce the need for fresh whole blood, but the availability of platelets is

  20. Red blood cell components: time to revisit the sources of variability

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Rosemary L.

    2017-01-01

    Quality and safety of red blood cell (RBC) components is managed by screening of donors and strict regulatory controls of blood collection, processing and storage procedures. Despite these efforts, variations in RBC component quality exist as exemplified by the wide range in storage-induced haemolysis. This article provides a brief overview of the variables that contribute or potentially contribute to the quality of stored RBC components, including blood collection, processing, and donor-related variables. Particular focus is made on donor health and lifestyle factors that are not specifically screened and may impact on the physicobiochemical properties of RBCs and their storability. Inflammatory and oxidative stress states may be especially relevant as RBCs are susceptible to oxidative injury. Few studies have investigated the effect of specific donor-related variables on the quality of stored RBC components. Donor-related variables may be unaccounted confounders in the “age of blood” clinical studies that compared outcomes following transfusion of fresher or longer-stored RBC components. The conclusion is drawn that the blood donor is the greatest source of RBC component variability and the least “regulated” aspect of blood component production. It is proposed that more research is needed to better understand the connection between donor-related variables and quality consistency of stored RBC components. This could be very important given the impact of modern lifestyles that sees escalating rates of non-communicable health conditions that are associated with increased oxidative stress, such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes in children and adults, as well as an ageing population in many countries. The effect of these changes to global health and population demographics will impact on blood donor panels, and without significant new research, the consequences on the quality of stored blood components and transfusion outcomes are unknown. PMID:28263168

  1. Where do Trypanosoma cruzi go? The distribution of parasites in blood components from fractionated infected whole blood.

    PubMed

    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Riera, Cristina; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are the blood component most frequently involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transfusion transmission cases reported in the literature, although whole blood (WB) and red blood cells (RBCs) have also been incriminated. However, there is little knowledge of the parasite distribution among blood components. The aim of this study was to investigate in which blood component T. cruzi parasites concentrate the most, after fractionating artificially T. cruzi-infected WB. The T. cruzi parasite load was studied by a specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in WB, buffy coat (BC), PLT concentrates, RBCs before and after leukoreduction, and plasma (PL). The parasite load in WB experimentally infected with 1.5 × 10(6) parasites (2.78 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) was unevenly distributed among the separated blood components. The highest level was found in the BC (6.94 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) and RBCs before leukoreduction by filtration (2.51 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL), after which RBCs presented a 99.9% reduction in parasite levels. Both PL and PLTs, partially leukoreduced by centrifugation but nonfiltered, had low parasite levels, the lowest concentration being in PL. The highest parasite concentration was detected in the BC, followed by RBCs before leukoreduction. There is a notable risk of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease associated with nonleukoreduced RBCs. Leukoreduction may be an effective prevention strategy for transfusion-transmitted T. cruzi infection, especially in endemic countries and in nonendemic countries with a high rate of immigration from Latin America. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Application to Noninvasive Measurement of Blood Components Based on Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Kazuto; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujita, Keiichi; Kaneko, Wataru; Morikawa, Tomotaka; Toba, Eiji; Kobayashi, Hideo

    Recently, lifestyle diseases (diabetics, hyperlipemia etc.) have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a matter of vital importance to us. About tens of millions of people in Japan have approached the danger of lifestyle diseases. So they have to do a blood test to make sure that they have controlled physical condition themselves. Therefore, they have to measure blood components again and again. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood components based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. In order to study, the influence of individual difference, the internal standard method was introduced. This paper describes the detail of the internal standard method and its effect to the blood components calibration. Significant improvement was obtained by using the internal standard.

  3. The study on the light absorption and transmission laws of the blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zulin; Lai, Yan; Ge, Haiyan; Xu, Zhangrui

    2003-12-01

    Aim: This experiment studied the light absorption laws of the blood components between 240-800nm. Methods: The absorbance and transmittance of the blood components were measured by applying a model UV-365 double beam scanning spectrophotometer with an integral sphere, between 240-800nm. Results: The results show: 1) The absorbance and transmittance laws resemble each other in blood of the Groups A,B,AB and O. 2) Between 600-800nm, the absorbances of the whole blood, erythrocyte, leukocyte, plasma and serum are less than 5%, while the transmittances of them are more than 95%. 3) To erythrocyte and lymphocyte, typical absorption peaks appear at 416.57+/-1.90, 542.71+/-1.80, 578.57+/-1.81nm. Conclusion: These results provide some useful parameters for the optical properties of blood and the clinical applications.

  4. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk.

    PubMed

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. From whole blood to component therapy: the economic, supply/demand need for implementation of component therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Erhabor, O; Adias, T C

    2011-12-01

    Blood may be transfused as whole blood or as one of its components. Because patients seldom require all of the components of whole blood, it makes sense to transfuse only that portion needed by the patient for a specific condition or disease. This treatment, known as "blood component therapy", allows several patients to benefit from one unit of donated whole blood. Blood components include red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate. A considerable literature has accumulated over the past decade indicating that leukocytes present in allogeneic cellular blood components, intended for transfusion, are associated with adverse effects to the recipient. These include the development of febrile transfusion reactions, graft-versus-host disease, alloimmunization to leukocyte antigens, and the immunomodulatory effects that might influence the prognosis of patients with a malignancy. Moreover, it has become evident that such leukocytes may be the vector of infectious agents such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human T-Lymphotrophic Virus 1/11 (HTLV-I/II), and Epstein Barr (EBV) as well as other viruses. Effective stewardship of blood ensuring that several patients potentially benefit from components derived from one unit of donated whole blood is important for economic, supply/demand reasons and to protect the national inventory at times of national blood shortage. Blood safety in developing countries can be improved by more appropriate use of blood components rather than whole blood transfusion and the provision of alternatives such as oral and intravenous iron, erythropoietin, saline and colloids. This will facilitate the optimal use of the limited blood supply. Political will and open-mindedness to innovative ways to improve supply, appropriateness, optimal use and safety of blood from all types of donors are essential to promote more evidence-based approaches to blood transfusion practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. In vitro combinations of red blood cell, plasma and platelet components evaluated by thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Agren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Kardell, Malin; Ostlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta Taune

    2014-10-01

    Thromboelastography is increasingly used to evaluate coagulation in massively bleeding patients. The aim of this study was to investigate how different combinations of blood components affect in vitro whole blood clotting measured by thromboelastography. Packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets from fresh and old blood components were mixed in vitro, in proportions of 4:4:1, 5:5:2, 8:4:1 and 2:1:0, and analysed with thromboelastography. For the ratio 4:4:1 the experiment was done at both 37 °C and 32 °C. Thromboelastography curves were within normal reference values for the blood component proportions of 4:4:1 and 5:5:2. For 8:4:1, the angle and maximal amplitude were reduced below normal values, indicating low levels of fibrinogen and/or platelets. For the 2:1:0 proportion, all parameters were affected resulting in severely impaired in vitro clot formation. The reaction-time, reflecting the coagulation factor-dependent, initial clot formation, was slightly increased at a low temperature. Prolonged storage of the components did not affect the curve. With the introduction of guidelines on the management of massive bleeding it is important to have tools for the assessment of the new protocols. In vitro evaluation of mixtures of packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets by thromboelastography may be relevant in the prediction of in vivo clot formation and haemostasis.

  7. Effects of the gene carrier polyethyleneimines on structure and function of blood components.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Dagen; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Nan; Zuo, Qinhua; Wang, Qian; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua

    2013-01-01

    As a synthetic polycation, polyethylenimine (PEI) is currently one of the most effective non-viral gene carriers. For in vivo applications, PEI will enter systemic circulation and interact with various blood components and then affect their individual bio-functions. Up to now, overall and systematic investigation on the interaction of PEI with multiple blood components at cellular, membrane, and molecular levels is lacking, even though it is critically important for the in vivo safety of PEI. To learn a structure-activity relationship, we investigated the effects of PEI with different molecular weight (MW) and shape (branched or linear) on key blood components and function, specifically, on RBC aggregation and morphological change, platelet activation, conformation change of albumin (as a representative of plasma proteins), and blood coagulation process. Additionally, more proteins from plasma were screened and identified to have associations with PEI by a proteomic analysis. It was found that, the PEIs have severe impact on RBC membrane structure, albumin conformation, and blood coagulation process, but do not significantly activate platelets at low concentrations. Furthermore, 41 plasma proteins were identified to have some interaction with PEI. This indicates that, besides albumin, PEI does interact with a variety of blood plasma proteins, and could have unexplored effects on their structures and bio-functions. The results provide good insight into the molecular design and blood safety of PEI and other polycations for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flow rate calibration to determine cell-derived microparticles and homogeneity of blood components.

    PubMed

    Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Kittisares, Kulvara; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-07-18

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator. The concentration of MPs and their origins in whole blood (n=100), PRBCs (n=100), and PCs (n=92) were determined using a FACSCalibur. The MPs' fold-changes were calculated to assess the homogeneity of the blood components. Comparing the platelet counts conducted by automated counting and flow-rate calibration showed an r(2) of 0.6 (y=0.69x+97,620). The CVs of the within-run and between-run variations of flow-rate calibration were 8.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean bias of -31,142platelets/μl. MP enumeration revealed both the difference in MP levels and their origins in whole blood, PRBCs, and PCs. Screening the blood components demonstrated high heterogeneity of the MP levels in PCs when compared to whole blood and PRBCs. The results of the present study suggest the accuracy and precision of flow-rate calibration for enumerating MPs. This flow-rate approach is affordable for assessing the homogeneity of MPs in blood components in routine laboratory practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrimination between red blood cell and platelet components of blood clots by MR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Jernej; Sersa, Igor; Kralj, Eduard; Tratar, Gregor; Blinc, Ales

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pulmonary emboli obtained ex vivo, verified by immunohistochemistry, showed that platelet layers display brighter signal intensity than areas containing predominantly red blood cells (RBC) in T1-weighted MRI. These results were surprising since platelets do not contain paramagnetic haemoglobin that would enhance magnetic relaxation. Our assumption was that the fibrin meshwork areas with entrapped RBC retain abundant extracellular space filled with serum, whereas platelets regroup into tight aggregates lacking serum, essentially mimicking solid tissue structure, rich with cellular proteins that enhance T1-relaxation. Our hypothesis was examined by MRI and NMR relaxometry of in vitro RBC suspensions and sedimented platelets, as well as by MRI of model clots and pulmonary emboli obtained ex vivo. Pure sedimented platelets exhibited shorter proton spin lattice relaxation times (T1 = 874 +/- 310 ms) than those of venous blood of a healthy male with 40% haematocrit (T1 = 1277 +/- 66 ms). T1-values of RBC samples containing high haematocrit (> or = 80%) resembled T1 of platelet samples. In T1-weighted spin-echo MRI echo time and repetition time (TE/TR = 10/120 ms) the ratio of signal intensities between a non-retracted whole blood clot (with a haematocrit of 35%) and a pure platelet clot was 3.0, and the ratio between a retracted whole blood clot with an estimated haematocrit of about 58% and a pure platelet clot was 2.6. We conclude that T1-weighted MRI can discriminate between platelet layers of thrombi and RBC-rich areas of thrombi that are not compacted to a haematocrit level of > or = 80%.

  10. Evaluation of the quality of blood components obtained after automated separation of whole blood by a new multiunit processor.

    PubMed

    Lagerberg, Johan W; Salado-Jimena, Jose A; Löf, Helena; Bontekoe, Ido J; Nielsen, Connie; Verheggen, Caroline; van Waeg, Geert; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Hansen, Morten B; Knutson, Folke

    2013-08-01

    The Reveos system (Terumo BCT) is a fully automated device able to process four whole blood (WB) units simultaneously into a plasma unit, a red blood cell (RBC) unit, and an interim platelet (PLT) unit (IPU). Multiple IPUs can be pooled to form a transfusable PLT product. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of components made with the Reveos system from either fresh (2-8 hr) or overnight-held WB. A prototype of the Reveos system was used to process WB. RBCs were resuspended in SAGM, leukoreduced, and assayed for in vitro quality variables during a 42-day storage period at 2 to 6 °C. Twenty-four-hour in vivo recovery was determined on Day 42. Plasma was assayed for cellular contamination and activation variables. IPUs were pooled with SSP+ additive solution for in vitro quality assessments during a 7-day storage period at room temperature. Reveos-produced RBCs and plasma units met the predefined requirements. RBC recovery was superior to control units. On Day 42, hemolysis was below 0.8% and in vivo recovery was above 75% for all RBCs. Cellular contamination was lower for Reveos-produced plasma. PLT yield was higher with overnight-stored WB. PLT quality was well maintained during storage with no significant differences between the two groups. Blood components prepared with the Reveos from fresh or overnight-held WB meet quality criteria without any relevant difference between the two groups. The Reveos system has the potential to increase efficacy and standardization of blood component preparation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of a Magnetic Field on Human Blood Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazin, V. N.; Makaryin, V. V.; Guzov, E. A.; Moshareva, V. A.; Kovchiy, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have used electronic spectroscopy and optical aggregometry to study the effect of a constant magnetic fi eld on blood components. Based on the absorption spectra, we observe a decrease in optical density for both plasma and whole blood samples. Based on the results of platelet aggregation studies, we identifi ed two groups of test subjects with opposite types of responses to exposure to a magnetic fi eld. The observed behavior is probably associated with changes in the spatial structure of the proteins.

  12. Tissue perfusion in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery using autologous umbilical cord blood or donor blood components.

    PubMed

    Chasovskyi, K; Fedevych, O; McMullan, D M; Mykychak, Y; Vorobiova, G; Zhovnir, V; Yemets, I

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the hemoglobin-oxygen relationship and tissue perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery using autologous umbilical cord blood or donor blood components. We compared perioperative hematocrit (Hct), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), p(50)O(2), pH, pCO(2), serum lactate, duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery using autologous umbilical cord blood (Group I, N=45) or donor blood components (Group II, N=65). The groups were similar with respect to diagnosis, weight, type of procedure, duration of CPB and duration of myocardial ischemia. Mean p(50)O(2) was significantly lower in Group I during CPB (19.7 vs. 22.3 mmHg, p=0.004) and at the end of CPB (20.1 vs. 22.8 mmHg, p=0.003). Median peak lactate during CPB was higher in Group I (4.8 vs. 2.2 mmol/l, p<0.001). Carbon dioxide tension was identified as an independent predictor of higher p(50)O(2) during CPB in Group I (β=0.88, p=0.002), but not Group II. Bodyweight, Hct, duration of CPB, pre-CPB lactate level and pCO(2) affected peak lactate level during CPB. Although mean duration of ventilation was longer in Group II (mean 51 vs. 43, p=0.004), the groups experienced similar duration of ICU stay (5.8 vs. 5.9 days, p=0.280). Despite the fact that the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted leftward in patients who receive autologous umbilical cord blood, tissue oxygen delivery appears to be preserved in neonates who undergo open-heart surgery using autologous umbilical cord blood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Research opportunities for pathogen reduction/inactivation of blood components: summary of an NHLBI workshop.

    PubMed

    Klein, Harvey G; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M; Blajchman, Morris A

    2009-06-01

    In July 2008, a workshop sponsored by the Division of Blood Diseases and Resources of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) was convened to identify potential research opportunities that could advance our understanding of both the biologic and the clinical impact of the various available pathogen reduction/inactivation (PR/PI) methods of blood components (platelets [PLTs], red blood cells, and plasma) intended for allogeneic transfusion. These discussions resulted in consensus that, even though several PR/PI technologies have already been licensed and are being used in Europe and elsewhere for PLTs and plasma, concerns about possible side effects, particularly component quality and pulmonary toxicity, have impeded regulatory approval in North America (United States and Canada). Such concerns thus threaten to stall further development of these technologies. As a consequence, the NHLBI workshop participants focused on formulating a series of research-related recommendations to better understand, mitigate, and prevent these adverse effects. Other important issues identified included the need for a single method to inactivate pathogens in whole blood without damaging the various blood components; new ways to monitor the efficacy of treated components, including animal models to screen for safety; a better understanding of the effect of PR/PI-treated products on recipient alloimmunization, tolerance, and immune modulation; understanding the impact of PR/PI on various other noninfectious hazards of transfusion; and establishing methods to evaluate risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness, in particular with reference to emerging pathogens. The working group also discussed issues related to specific blood components, such as improving the process of clinical evaluation, investigating the impact of PR/PI on component storage lesions, understanding mechanisms that reduce component viability, and addressing the underlying resistance to the adoption of PR

  14. Assessing advantages of sequential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model with normalized blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Ana J; Thorp, Silvia I; Portu, Agustina M; Saint Martin, Gisela; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Heber, Elisa M; Bortolussi, Silva; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Garabalino, Marcela A; Altieri, Saverio; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic success of sequential boron neutron capture therapy (Seq-BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. It consists of BPA-BNCT followed by GB-10-BNCT 24 or 48 hours later. Additionally, we proved that tumor blood vessel normalization with thalidomide prior to BPA-BNCT improves tumor control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and explore potential boron microdistribution changes in Seq-BNCT preceded by tumor blood vessel normalization. Tumor bearing animals were treated with thalidomide for tumor blood vessel normalization, followed by Seq-BNCT (Th+ Seq-BNCT) or Seq-Beam Only (Th+ Seq-BO) in the window of normalization. Boron microdistribution was assessed by neutron autoradiography. Th+ Seq-BNCT induced overall tumor response of 100%, with 87 (4)% complete tumor response. No cases of severe mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue were observed. Differences in boron homogeneity between tumors pre-treated and not pre-treated with thalidomide were observed. Th+ Seq-BNCT achieved, for the first time, response in all treated tumors. Increased homogeneity in tumor boron microdistribution is associated to an improvement in tumor control.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of the Blood Component Utilization in a University Hospital of Maximum Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, R. Georg; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Krakowitzky, Petra; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Van Aken, Hugo; Kessler, Torsten; Berdel, Wolfgang; Sibrowski, Walter; Schlenke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Demographic data illustrate clearly that people in highly developed countries get older, and the elderly need more blood transfusions than younger patients. Additionally, special extensive therapies result in an increased consumption of blood components. Beyond that the aging of the population reduces the total number of preferably young and healthy blood donors. Therefore, Patient Blood Management will become more and more important in order to secure an increasing blood supply under fair-minded conditions. Methods At the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilization of all conventional blood components was performed including all medical and surgical disciplines. In parallel, a new medical reporting system was installed to provide a monthly analysis of the transfusional treatments in the whole infirmary, in every department, and in special blood-consuming cases of interest, as well. Results The study refers to all UKM in-patient cases from 2009 to 2011. It clearly demonstrates that older patients (>60 years, 35.2–35.7% of all cases, but 49.4–52.6% of all cases with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, 36.4–41. 6% of all cases with platelet (PTL, apheresis only) transfusions, 45.2–48.0% of all cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions) need more blood products than younger patients. Male patients (54.4–63.9% of all cases with transfusions) are more susceptible to blood transfusions than female patients (36.1–45.6% of all cases with transfusions). Most blood components are used in cardiac, visceral, and orthopedic surgery (49.3–55.9% of all RBC units, 45.8–61.0% of all FFP units). When regarding medical disciplines, most transfusions are administered to hematologic and oncologic patients (12.9–17.7% of all RBC units, 9.2–12.0% of all FFP units). The consumption of PTL in this special patient cohort (40.6–50.9% of all PTL units) is more pronounced than in all other surgical or

  16. The Contact Activation System (CAS) in cord blood: Measurement of CAS components and comparison with mother's blood. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Uszyński, Mieczysław; Kuczyński, Jarosław; Żekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Waldemar

    2015-11-01

    Classical reference data concerning the coagulation system and fibrinolysis in fetuses and newborns date back to the 1990 s. Since that time a number of methodological or other improvements have been implemented, which may cast some doubt on timeliness of the data. The study objective was to measure the levels of Contact Activation System (CAS) components by antigen, i.e. factors XII and XI (FXII, FXI), prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) in cord blood and maternal blood. The study group consisted of 35 healthy parturient women with an uneventful pregnancy and birth. The samples of cord blood and maternal blood were obtained immediately after delivery, before clumping the umbilical cord. The CAS components were measured by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). The median concentrations of CAS components in cord blood plasma and mother's plasma were as follow: FXII: 1.02 (0.60- 2.58) ng/mg protein vs. 0.94 (0.66-1.86) ng/mg protein (p>0.05); FXI: 2.71(0.03-8.0) ng/mg protein vs. 0.92 (0.03-10.44) ng/mg protein (p>0.05); PK: 168.78 (104.28-261.16) pg/mg protein vs. 113.44 (79.94-146.70) pg/mg protein (p>0.05); HMWK: 2169.45 (1530.64- 2539.83) ng/mg protein vs. 2857.96 (2541.52-3161.04) ng/mg protein (p<0.001). 1. The antigen levels of the three contact factors, i.e. FXII, FXI and PK in the cord blood of full-term and healthy fetuses were similar to those observed in mother's blood immediately after delivery. Only high molecular weight kininogen was found to be lower (accounting for 84% of the values noted in mothers). 2. Based on our measurements, we claim that the cited reference data concerning the contact factors in full-term and healthy newborns are underestimated; hence, new reference values need to be determined for each antigen and activity contact factor level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Role of quality control for improvement of blood components in the Regional Blood Centre of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, 2014].

    PubMed

    Nebie, K; Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Bationo, E M; Dahourou, H; Ouattara, S; Kienou, K; Nana, S; Kaba, L; Fretz, C; Murphy, E L

    2017-06-02

    In Burkina Faso, blood components must comply with national standards. Then, all Transfusion services must implement a quality control process to ensure compliance. Our study aims to establish the main characteristics of blood components of the regional transfusion center of Ouagadougou, and evaluate the capability of this center to improve its manufacturing process. We conducted from marsh to December 2014 a pre-post study, assessing blood components' characteristics before and after the implementation of a six months' improvement plan. The assessed parameters were: volume, hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in RBCs; volume and the number of platelets in PPCs; and volume and concentration of clotting factor VIII in fresh frozen plasma (FFP), respectively. Three hundred and twelve RBCs and 280 PCs were randomly selected for the first series of controls, and 215 RBCs, 54 PCs and 60 FFP were selected for the second series of controls. We compared the mean values of the components parameters and the overall non-compliance rates for each series. The average Hb level of RBCs was respectively 47.8±8.9g and 54.7±7.2g in the first and second series compare to a standard of≥40g. Non-compliance rates of Hb level decreased significantly from 17.6% to 1.4%. For PCs units, the mean number of platelets was 0.14±0.10×10(11) and 0.30±0.15×10(11) in the first and second period compare to a standard of 0.5×10(11). Non-compliance rates for platelets number were high 97.1% and 72.2%. The study demonstrates that only RBCs complied with national standards. The study also demonstrates the capability of CRTSO to improve blood components' processing even if for PCs and FFP, NC rates remain high. QC must be maintained and expanded to the others regional blood centers of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring bacterial contamination of blood components in Germany: effect of contamination reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Walther-Wenke, G; Wirsing von König, C H; Däubener, W; Heiden, M; Hoch, J; Hornei, B; Volkers, P

    2011-05-01

    National guidelines for monitoring bacterial contamination of blood components were introduced in Germany in 1997. Between 1998 and 2002, numerous measures were implemented to prevent bacterial contamination. This study investigates their impact on contamination rates. Culture-based testing for bacterial detection on a random sample of blood components is part of routine quality control in German blood establishments. Using standardized questionnaires, data from the production periods 1998, 2001 and 2005/2006 were collected and analysed. The bacterial contamination rate of RBCs was reduced from 0·157% in 1998 to 0·029% in 2005/2006 (P<0·001). While the contamination rate of apheresis PCs remained nearly unchanged over the years, it dramatically decreased for pooled PCs by 70% to a contamination rate of 0·158% (P=0·001) within the last observation period, similar to that of apheresis PCs. The contamination rate of plasma decreased from 0·100% in 1998 to 0·019% in 2005/2006 (P=0·002). Precautionary measures significantly reduced bacterial contamination rates of blood components. Long-term monitoring with standardized methods is appropriate to evaluate the cumulative effect of contamination-preventing measures. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with 99mTc-GH.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan

    2011-10-01

    People consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ((99m)Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. GH was labeled with (99m)Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl2 and (99m) Tc. Radiochemical yield of (99m)Tc-GH is 98.46±1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine.

  20. DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF DIFFERENT BLOOD COMPONENTS IN GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Maslove, David M; Marshall, John C

    2016-03-01

    Most gene expression studies of sepsis have used either whole blood or specific leukocyte fractions as source tissues for RNA. Data regarding the relative utility of these different tissue sources are lacking. To evaluate the utility of different source tissues in studying gene expression in sepsis. We undertook a systematic analysis of sepsis gene expression studies, including both adult and pediatric cohorts. We used clustering methods to partition samples according to gene expression levels, and compared expression cluster labels to clinical diagnoses. We also quantified the strength of cluster formation based on expression data from different tissue sources using average silhouette widths as a measure of cluster cohesiveness. We included 22 separate expression datasets. Whole blood was used as the source tissue in 15 studies, while leukocyte isolates were used in seven studies. Whole blood samples yielded greater specificity for the diagnosis of sepsis than data from leukocyte isolates (94% vs 78%, P = 0.03). Whole blood-derived data also yielded more cohesive clusters (median silhouette widths 0.28 and 0.19 for whole blood and leukocyte isolates respectively, P < 0.01). Our results support the use of whole blood to derive gene expression data in sepsis studies investigating novel diagnostics and subtype discovery. This strategy has a number of practical advantages, and the resulting data also have potential utility in developing molecular classifications of sepsis syndromes.

  1. Change in metabolic status of glutathione by palladium nitrate in blood components.

    PubMed

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Badshah, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This piece of research work present the toxicological impact of varied concentrations of palladium nitrate [Pd (NO3)2] by changing the chemical status of glutathione and the way how glutathione plays its role in detoxification and conjugation processes of [Pd (NO(3))(2))] in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction). The impact of different concentration of [Pd (NO3)2] on reduced glutathione level in whole blood component (plasma and cytosolic fraction) were measured spectrophotometrically following Standard Ellman's method. Compared with control sample, significant decrease in the GSH content in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction) was obtained with various concentrations (100µM-1000µM) of palladium nitrate. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with time incubation period (0-90) minutes. These finding shows that changes in the GSH status produced by palladium nitrate could either be due to palladium nitrate and glutathione( Pd-SG) complex formation or by conversion of reduce glutathione (2GSH + Pd(+2) - GSSG). This change in the GSH metabolic status provides information regarding the mechanism of palladium, in blood components.

  2. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Observation charts with overlapping blood pressure and heart rate graphs do not yield the performance advantage that health professionals assume: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Christofidis, Melany J; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether overlapping blood pressure and heart rate graphs improve chart-users' ability to recognize derangements in these vital signs on hospital observation charts. Many health professionals prefer blood pressure and heart rate graphs to overlap. One justification is the use of a visual cue called the 'Seagull Sign' to detect physiological abnormalities. A 3 × 2 × 2 mixed-design experiment, with three independent variables: participant group, graph format (separate vs. overlapping) and alerting system (integrated colour-based track-and-trigger system present vs. absent). Over 64 experimental trials, 'Seagull-trained' nurses and novices randomly assigned to receive 'Seagull training' or remain untrained, viewed sequences of blood pressure and heart rate observations recorded on four different chart design extracts. The designs represented a crossing of the graph format and alerting system variables. For each design, eight cases contained normal data and eight contained an abnormal systolic blood pressure or heart rate observation (half of which yielded a Seagull Sign on overlapping plots). Participants (tested between January-May 2011) judged whether observations were physiologically normal or abnormal. Across all cases, participants from all groups responded faster and made fewer errors when blood pressure and heart rate observations were graphed separately, especially when a track-and-trigger system was present. Even for 'Seagull-trained' participants viewing 'Seagull Sign available' cases, no advantage of overlapping graphs was found. These findings suggest that overlapping graphs do not yield the performance advantage that many health professionals assume, either for novices or experienced nurses, even when the Seagull Sign is used. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The contemporary role of blood products and components used in trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2010-11-24

    There is renewed interest in blood product use for resuscitation stimulated by recent military experience and growing recognition of the limitations of large-volume crystalloid resuscitation. An editorial review of recent reports published by investigators from the United States and Europe is presented. There is little prospective data in this area. Despite increasing sophistication of trauma care systems, hemorrhage remains the major cause of early death after injury. In patients receiving massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours after injury, administration of plasma and platelets in a ratio equivalent to packed red blood cells is becoming more common. There is a clear possibility of time dependent enrollment bias. The early use of multiple types of blood products is stimulated by the recognition of coagulopathy after reinjury which may occur as many as 25% of patients. These patients typically have large-volume tissue injury and are acidotic. Despite early enthusiasm, the value of administration of recombinant factor VIIa is now in question. Another dilemma is monitoring of appropriate component administration to control coagulopathy. In patients requiring large volumes of blood products or displaying coagulopathy after injury, it appears that early and aggressive administration of blood component therapy may actually reduce the aggregate amount of blood required. If recombinant factor VIIa is given, it should be utilized in the fully resuscitated patient. Thrombelastography is seeing increased application for real-time assessment of coagulation changes after injury and directed replacement of components of the clotting mechanism.

  5. The contemporary role of blood products and components used in trauma resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction There is renewed interest in blood product use for resuscitation stimulated by recent military experience and growing recognition of the limitations of large-volume crystalloid resuscitation. Methods An editorial review of recent reports published by investigators from the United States and Europe is presented. There is little prospective data in this area. Results Despite increasing sophistication of trauma care systems, hemorrhage remains the major cause of early death after injury. In patients receiving massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours after injury, administration of plasma and platelets in a ratio equivalent to packed red blood cells is becoming more common. There is a clear possibility of time dependent enrollment bias. The early use of multiple types of blood products is stimulated by the recognition of coagulopathy after reinjury which may occur as many as 25% of patients. These patients typically have large-volume tissue injury and are acidotic. Despite early enthusiasm, the value of administration of recombinant factor VIIa is now in question. Another dilemma is monitoring of appropriate component administration to control coagulopathy. Conclusion In patients requiring large volumes of blood products or displaying coagulopathy after injury, it appears that early and aggressive administration of blood component therapy may actually reduce the aggregate amount of blood required. If recombinant factor VIIa is given, it should be utilized in the fully resuscitated patient. Thrombelastography is seeing increased application for real-time assessment of coagulation changes after injury and directed replacement of components of the clotting mechanism. PMID:21106098

  6. Estimation of blood pressure variability using independent component analysis of photoplethysmographic signal.

    PubMed

    Abe, Makoto; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Sugita, Norihiro; Tanaka, Akira; Chiba, Shigeru; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    The maximum cross-correlation coefficient rho(max) between blood pressure variability and heart rate variability, whose frequency components are limited to the Mayer wave-related band, is a useful index to evaluate the state of the autonomic nervous function related to baroreflex. However, measurement of continuous blood pressure with an expensive and bulky measuring device is required to calculate rho(max). The present study has proposed an easier method for obtaining rho(max) with measurement of finger photoplethysmography (PPG). In the proposed method, independent components are extracted from feature variables specified by the PPG signal by using the independent component analysis (ICA), and then the most appropriate component is chosen out of them so that the rho(max) based on the component can fit its true value. The results from the experiment with a postural change performed in 17 healthy subjects suggested that the proposed method is available for estimating rho(max) by using the ICA to extract blood pressure information from the PPG signal.

  7. Blood borne: bacterial components in mother’s blood influence fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Allister J.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial or viral infection of the mother during the course of pregnancy can cross the placenta and actively infect the fetus. However, especially for bacteria, it is more common for mothers to experience an infection that can be treated without overt fetal infection. In this setting, it is less well understood what the risk to fetal development is, particularly in terms of neurological development. This research highlight reviews recent findings indicating that bacterial components generated during infection of the mother can cross the placenta and activate the fetal innate immune system resulting in changes in the course of brain development and subsequent progression to postnatal cognitive disorders. Bacterial cell wall is a ubiquitous bacterial PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) known to activate inflammation through the stimulation of TLR2. Cell wall is released from bacteria during antibiotic treatment and new work shows that embryos exposed to cell wall from the mother demonstrate anomalous proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in a TLR2 dependent manner. Such proliferation increases the neuronal density of the cortical plate and alters brain architecture. Although there is no fetal death, subsequent cognitive development is significantly impaired. This model system suggests that bacterial infection of the mother and its treatment can impact fetal brain development and requires greater understanding to potentially eliminate a risk factor for cognitive disorders such as autism.

  8. Evaluation of a volumetric intravenous fluid infusion pump for transfusion of blood components containing red cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H W; Lasky, L C; Polesky, H F

    1986-01-01

    A method was devised to evaluate the suitability of an infusion pump for transfusing components containing red cells. With simulated transfusions of units of whole blood tested before or after the expiration date there was no increase in the plasma hemoglobin level in pumped blood compared with blood that was put through a standard blood transfusion set. With outdated units of red cells there was an increased level of plasma hemoglobin after pumping. The increases were greatest at maximum pump rates, but were not statistically or clinically significant. The authors' evaluation indicates that this pump causes minimal damage to the red cells, although care should be exercised when rapidly transfusing red cells with high hematocrit values.

  9. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infection associated with leucodepleted blood components.

    PubMed

    Seed, C R; Wong, J; Polizzotto, M N; Faddy, H; Keller, A J; Pink, J

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus poses a risk to transfusion safety as its transmission to an immunocompromised recipient may lead to significant clinical sequelae. Once infection is established, it is lifelong and generally asymptomatic. Strategies to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV) include donor serological testing and blood component leucodepletion to deplete the transmissible reservoir. We estimate the residual risk for non-CMV antibody screened, leucodepleted (LD-only) fresh blood components. We established an approach to estimate the risk of TT-CMV under various scenarios. We estimated the probability of an infectious component, for both red cells and platelets, as a function of the observed WBC filter failure rate and the probability that such a unit was also contaminated with infectious virus. Using this model, the estimated combined residual risk of LD-only red cell and platelet units was very low, 1 in 13 575 000 (95%CI:1 in 1 344 167 000-1 in 1 730 000) as was the individual residual risk estimate for LD-only red cells, 1 in 7 790 000 (95%CI: 1 in 771 307 000-1 in 993 000) and LD-only platelets, where a zero risk was estimated (95%CI: 0-1 in 1 074 000). We describe a novel approach to assess the residual risk of LD-only components. This can be applied generally using local data. Our risk estimate for LD-only blood components in Australia is below the threshold of 1 in 1 million, generally considered negligible. This provides a useful indicator of the relative safety of LD-only components to assist clinical decisions when serologically screened inventory is unavailable. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Alan N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB), leukoreduced (LR), and non-leukoreduced (NLR) components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood. PMID:24358838

  11. Perioperative use of allogenic blood components in live-related donor orthotopic liver transplantation: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prashant; Tiwari, Aseem K; Sharma, Jyoti; Srivastava, Divyajyoti; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of many improvements that have reduced the blood component requirements, substantial numbers of transfusions are still needed in liver transplantation. The objective of the present study was to analyze the perioperative usage of allogenic blood components and predict the preoperative factors as predictors of red cell transfusion in live-related donor liver transplant recipients. The retrospective data on utilization of allogenic blood components were analyzed for a total of 150 liver transplant procedures. The data on utilization of blood components during surgery and till 48 hours of ICU stay was collected from the blood bank record and hospital information system (HIS). Red cell concentrate was commonest blood component used in liver transplant recipient and most of the transfusion took place during surgery. During intraoperative period 92.7% (N = 139) of the cases utilized red cell components with the median number of five whereas in postoperative period only 38% (N = 57) of patients received blood with the median number of one. This study demonstrates that the preoperative hemoglobin and platelet count are the predictors of utilization of red cell concentrates during surgery. There were a total of 11 (7.3%) recipients who didn't receive allogeneic blood transfusion in any form. Utilization of blood components was negligible among organ donors. Our study demonstrates the pattern and predictors of usage of allogeneic blood components in liver transplant recipients at a tertiary healthcare center in India.

  12. Blood component therapy in trauma guided with the utilization of the perfusionist and thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark; Thomas, Scott G; Howard, Janet C; Evans, Edward; Guyer, Kirk; Medvecz, Andrew; Swearingen, Andrew; Navari, Rudolph M; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J

    2011-09-01

    25-35% of all seriously injured multiple trauma patients are coagulopathic upon arrival to the emergency department, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention on this subset of patients is important. In addition to standard plasma based tests of coagulation, the thromboelastogram (TEG) has resurfaced as an ideal test in the trauma population to help guide the clinician in the administration of blood components in a goal directed fashion. We describe how thromboelastographic analysis is used to assist in the management of trauma patients with coagulopathies presenting to the emergency department, in surgery, and in the postoperative period. Indications for the utilization of the TEG and platelet mapping as point of care testing that can guide blood component therapy in a goal directed fashion in the trauma population are presented with emphasis on the more common reasons such as massive transfusion protocol, the management of traumatic brain injury with bleeding, the diagnosis and management of trauma in patients on platelet antagonists, the utilization of recombinant FVIIa, and the management of coagulopathy in terminal trauma patients in preparation for organ donation. The TEG allows for judicious and protocol assisted utilization of blood components in a setting that has recently gained acceptance. In our program, the inclusion of the perfusionist with expertise in performing and interpreting TEG analysis allows the multidisciplinary trauma team to more effectively manage blood products and resuscitation in this population.

  13. [Sulfonylureas in today's blood glucose lowering therapy. New data on advantages and potential barriers of an "old" antidiabetic group].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gábor

    2015-03-29

    Sulfonylurea compounds have been basic elements of antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetes for a long time. However, with the introduction of incretin type insulin secretagogues it is often arises, whether is still there a place for sulfonylureas in the today's therapy. To answer this question the author overviews general pharmaceutical characteristics of the sulfonylurea compounds as well as individual particularities of the second generation derivatives used at present in Hungary. The author details also the most important differences between incretin type drugs - first of all dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors - and sulfonylureas. On the basis of available data it can be concluded in accordance with the latest international guidelines, that sulfonylureas have still role in the blood glucose lowering therapy of type 2 diabetes, though they became somewhat pushed back among insulin secretagogue type drugs. If a sulfonylurea compound is the drug of choice, it is important to select the appropriate molecule (in case of normal renal function gliclazide or glimepiride). It is also important to re-educate the patient, as well as to apply the minimal dose providing the desired glycaemic effect.

  14. Potassium influx in human neonatal red blood cells. Partition into its major components.

    PubMed

    Serrani, R E; Venera, G; Gioia, I A; Corchs, J L

    1990-03-01

    The potassium influx in human neonatal red blood cells (nRBC) shows an approximately 25% lower value compared to the total potassium influx in adult red blood cells (aRBC). The ouabain-sensitive potassium influx component represents approximately 70-75% of the total potassium influx for both types of cells but with an absolute value significantly lower in nRBC. In nRBC, the half maximum inhibitory effect for ouabain was obtained at a 10(-9) M concentration. The ouabain-insensitive nRBC potassium influx fractions showed two components: (i) a bumetanide-sensitive component, significantly lower than that of aRBC, (ii) a ouabain-bumetanide-insensitive (leak) component with a similar value in both cell types. The sum of the ouabain-sensitive and furosemide-sensitive components amounted in nRBC to a greater value than the total potassium influx. This behaviour could be interpreted as a superposition of the action of the inhibitors on the components affected.

  15. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions.

    PubMed

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P; Holovati, Jelena L

    2015-05-01

    Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 ± 0.83% vs. human 0.34 ± 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/µl and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 ± 0.68% vs. 0.87 ± 0.39%; p = 0.028). Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs.

  16. Association of body mass index with arterial stiffness and blood pressure components: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Bogl, Leonie H; Medda, Emanuela; Fagnani, Corrado; Nisticò, Lorenza; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Brescianini, Sonia; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Boatta, Emanuele; Zini, Chiara; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Baracchini, Claudio; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Osztovits, Janos; Jermendy, Gyorgy; Kiss, Robert Gabor; Preda, Istvan; Karlinger, Kinga; Lannert, Agnes; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Berczi, Viktor; Pucci, Giacomo; Baffy, Gyorgy; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, blood pressure and arterial stiffness are heritable traits interconnected to each other but their possible common genetic and environmental etiologies are unknown. We studied 228 monozygotic and 150 dizygotic twin pairs aged 18-82 years from Italy, Hungary and the United States, of which 45 monozygotic and 38 dizygotic pairs were discordant for body mass index (BMI; intrapair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥ 3 kg/m(2)). Blood pressure components and arterial stiffness were measured by TensioMed Arteriograph. Hypertension was more prevalent among obese than non-obese individuals (55% vs. 29%, p < 0.001). Age-, sex- and country-adjusted heritability estimates were high for hemodynamic measures (45%-58%) and BMI (78%). According to bivariate Cholesky decomposition, phenotypic correlations between BMI and blood pressure components (r = -0.15 to 0.24, p < 0.05) were largely explained by additive genetic factors (65%-77%) with the remaining explained by the unique environment. When controlling for genetic factors within all monozygotic pairs, ΔBMI was significantly correlated with Δbrachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Δmean arterial pressure, and Δaortic SBP (r = 0.15-0.17, p < 0.05). For the same measures, heavier co-twins of BMI-discordant monozygotic pairs had significantly higher values than their leaner counterparts (p < 0.05). Blood pressure components are moderately correlated with BMI, largely because of shared genetic factors. However, for the association of BMI with brachial SBP and DBP, aortic SBP and mean arterial pressure, acquired, modifiable factors were also found to be important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Contributions of the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee to the determination of rules for the selection of donors of blood and blood components and the study of sexual behaviors having an impact on blood safety].

    PubMed

    Behr-Gross, M-E; Heiden, M; Norda, R

    2013-05-01

    In November 2009, the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee created a group of experts to explore the problem of behaviors having an impact on the management of donors of blood and blood components and on blood transfusion safety in Europe. This ad hoc group sought a harmonised interpretation of temporary exclusion (or temporary deferral), as opposed to permanent exclusion (or permanent deferral), in the context of the selection of donors of blood and blood components. It was also given the mandate to assess, on the basis of available data, the possibility of differentiating "at risk" behaviours from behaviours "at high risk" of contamination by serious infectious diseases transmitted by blood, blood components or derived therapeutic products. The primary objective of this work was to ensure the safety of blood, blood components and derived therapeutic products for future recipients by promoting a risk analysis-based approach, given that some countries envisaged amending their provisions for donor selection. However, a risk analysis can only be performed on groups, not individuals, which may give the impression of a discriminatory approach, so it needed to be justified in the context of transfusion safety. A collaborative project, which included an investigation phase, led to the drafting of a technical memorandum that summarised the data collected in ten Council of Europe member states on the selection criteria for blood donors and the epidemiology of infectious diseases (with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus) in the general population and among blood donors. The technical memorandum was published in 2011 on the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare website dedicated to this project. A draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe was then developed by the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee. This text was circulated among member and observer states of the Council

  18. Concomitant lipopolysaccharide-induced transfer of blood-derived components including immunoglobulins into milk.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-02-01

    of blood l-lactate concentration. The concomitant changes of all investigated components suggest that they were blood derived. However, the increase in blood components in the milk is not necessarily supportive of the mammary immune system, and likely a side effect of reduced blood-milk barrier integrity.

  19. Unanswered questions in the use of blood component therapy in trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven R; Kashuk, Jeffry L

    2011-01-17

    Recent advances in our approach to blood component therapy in traumatic hemorrhage have resulted in a reassessment of many of the tenants of management which were considered standards of therapy for many years. Indeed, despite the use of damage control techniques, the mortality from trauma induced coagulopathy has not changed significantly over the past 30 years. More specifically, a resurgence of interest in postinjury hemostasis has generated controversies in three primary areas: 1) The pathogenesis of trauma induced coagulopathy 2) The optimal ratio of blood components administered via a pre-emptive schedule for patients at risk for this condition, ("damage control resuscitation"), and 3) The appropriate use of monitoring mechanisms of coagulation function during the phase of active management of trauma induced coaguopathy, which we have previously termed "goal directed therapy". Accordingly, recent experience from both military and civilian centers have begun to address these controversies, with certain management trends emerging which appear to significantly impact the way we approach these patients.

  20. [Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease guideline on gamma irradiation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Landi, E P; de Oliveira, J S

    1999-01-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare and usually fatal syndrome. Clinical manifestations are fever, maculopapular skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis and pancytopenia owing to bone marrow hypoplasia. It can occur in recipients with severe immunosuppression and in immunocompetent recipients after transfusion of cellular components from HLA homozygous donor to recipients heterozygous for that HLA haplotype. The diagnosis is made by clinical manifestation and skin biopsy. Antithymocyte globulin and high dose systemic corticosteroids are both the most used therapy. The back of knowledge about this syndrome, the rapid evolution and the absence of treatment response are related to patients bad evolution. Gamma irradiation of blood products has been the mainstay of TA-GVHD prevention. Dose of 2500 cGy is required to completely inactivate T cells. Irradiation damage red cells membrane and the red celis units can not be storage for long time after irradiation. High potassium levels is the mainly change in red cells units. White cell-reduction filters do not prevent TA-GVHD and gamma irradiation does not prevent alloimmunization or blood reactions. Only cellular components like whole blood, red cells, platelets and granulocytes need be irradiated. Ali blood components should be irradiated to: first or second-degree relatives, patients need HLA-matched platelets, recipients of allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, patients with Hodgkin's disease, patients treated with purine analogue drugs, intrauterine transfusion, pre-term infants and when congenítal immunodeficiency states is suspected. It is recommended irrradiated blood to patients with neoplastic disease when they receive intensive chemotherapy.

  1. Atomistic modeling of the structural components of the blood-brain barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Grishina, O. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Blood-brain barrier, which is a barrage system between the brain and blood vessels, plays a key role in the "isolation" of the brain of unnecessary information, and reduce the "noise" in the interneuron communication. It is known that the barrier function of the BBB strictly depends on the initial state of the organism and changes significantly with age and, especially in developing the "vascular accidents". Disclosure mechanisms of regulation of the barrier function will develop new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in the newborn. The aim of this work is the construction of atomistic models of structural components of the blood-brain barrier to reveal the mechanisms of regulation of the barrier function.

  2. Current concepts on the transmission of bacteria and parasites by blood components.

    PubMed

    Wendel Neto, S

    1995-01-01

    Several bacterial and parasite transfusion-transmitted diseases have been described in the medical literature. This review deals with the main bacterial (Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gram positive and Gram negative agents), parasite (Chagas disease, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and babesiosis) and rickettsial diseases that are carried by blood products. Preventional aspects (e.g. storage, screening tests, use of leukocyte-depleted components), diagnosis, geographical distribution and the incidence of these transfusional hazards are also discussed.

  3. Pretreatment Method Research of Near-Infrared Spectra in Blood Component Non-Invasive Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li Na; Zhang, Guang Jun; Li, Qing Bo

    Blood component non-invasive measurement based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a favorite topic in the field of biomedicine. However, the various noises from instrument measurement and the varying background from absorption of other components (except target analyte) in blood are the main causes, which influenced the prediction accuracy of multivariable calibration. Thinking of backgrounds and noises are always found in high-scale approximation and low-scale detail coefficients. It is possible to identify them by wavelet transform (WT), which has multi-resolution trait and can break spectral signals into different frequency components retaining the same resolution as the original signal. Meanwhile, associating with a criterion of uninformative variable elimination (UVE), it is better to eliminate backgrounds and noises simultaneously and visually. Basic principle and application technology of this pretreatment method, wavelet transform with UVE criterion, were presented in this paper. Three experimental near-infrared spectra data sets, including aqueous solution with four components data sets, plasma data sets, body oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data sets, which, including glucose (the target analyte in this study), have all been used in this paper as examples to explain this pretreatment method. The effect of selected wavelength bands in the pretreatment process were discussed, and then the adaptability of different pretreatment method for the uncertainty complex NIR spectra model in blood component non-invasive measurements were also analyzed. This research indicates that the pretreatment methods of wavelet transform with UVE criterion can be used to eliminate varying backgrounds and noises for experimental NIR spectra data directly. Under the spectra area of 1100 to 1700 nm, utilizing this pretreatment method is helpful for us to get a more simple and higher precision multivariable calibration for blood glucose non-invasive measurement

  4. [Effects of the effective components group of xiaoshuantongluo formula on rat acute blood stasis model].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Xin; Shi, Li-Li; Chen, Bai-Nian; Wang, Shao-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Effects of the effective components group of Xiaoshuantongluo formula (XECG) on rat acute blood stasis model were studied under the guidance of the concept of effective components group. Rat acute blood stasis model was induced by subcutaneous injection of epinephrine combined with ice water bath. Hemorheology indices such as whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index and platelet aggregation rate; coagulation parameters including PT, APTT, TT and FIB; 6-keto-PGF1alpha, TXB2 and D-dimer levels were determined to evaluate the effects of XECG. The results showed that XECG significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but showed little influence on the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation rate. XECG extended PT and TT slightly, but had no effects on APTT and FIB content. D-dimer levels significantly decreased after administration of XECG with a little decrease of TXB2, but the content of 6-keto-PGF1alpha did not change significantly. The results suggest that the role of XECG of anti-aggregation is more prominent.

  5. Factors affecting drug and gene delivery: effects of interaction with blood components.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Nishikawa, Makiya; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2002-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems have been used extensively to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic activities of a wide variety of drugs and genes. In this article, we summarize the factors determining the tissue disposition of delivery systems: the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the delivery system and the anatomic and physiological characteristics of the tissues. There are several modes of drug and gene targeting, ranging from passive to active targeting, and each of these can be achieved by optimizing the design of the delivery system to suit a specific aim. After entering the systemic circulation, either by an intravascular injection or through absorption from an administration site, however, a delivery system encounters a variety of blood components, including blood cells and a range of serum proteins. These components are by no means inert as far as interaction with the delivery system is concerned, and they can sometimes markedly effect its tissue disposition. The interaction with blood components is known to occur with particulate delivery systems, such as liposomes, or with cationic charge-mediated delivery systems for genes. In addition to these rather nonspecific ones, interactions via the targeting ligand of the delivery system can occur. We recently found that mannosylated carriers interact with serum mannan binding protein, greatly altering their tissue disposition in a number of ways that depend on the properties of the carriers involved.

  6. How do we transfuse blood components in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal procedures?

    PubMed

    Yates, Sean G; Gavva, Chakri; Agrawal, Deepak; Sarode, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in hemostasis. Consequently, patients with cirrhosis frequently demonstrate abnormal coagulation profiles on routine laboratory tests. These tests mainly reflect decreased procoagulant proteins. However, in cirrhosis, complex changes also occur in anticoagulant and fibrinolytic pathways. Recent evidence demonstrates that patients with cirrhosis exist in a state of hemostatic rebalance. Accordingly, routine tests inadequately represent hemostatic alterations in these patients. Unfortunately, these tests are regularly used to guide the transfusion of blood components with the assumption that they will correct laboratory abnormalities and improve hemostasis in a bleeding patient or prevent excessive bleeding following a procedure. With an absence of both accurate laboratory testing to assess hemostasis and evidence-based guidelines to direct the transfusion of blood components, management of patients with cirrhosis poses a significant challenge to clinicians. Therefore, we developed multidisciplinary guidelines for the periprocedural transfusion of blood components in patients with cirrhosis based on concurrent evidence and personal experience at our medical center. © 2016 AABB.

  7. [Equalization of whole-band signal's SNR in the blood components noninvasive measurement].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Ling; Wu, Xiao-rong; Zhang, Bao-ju

    2012-02-01

    To fully extend the category of blood components that can be noninvasively measured by dynamic spectrum (DS) method and to increase its measuring precision, an overall consideration of light source, tissue absorption and sensor's sensitivity was made. Compensating the light source and adding the telecentric lens not only expand the spectral effective detecting range, but also balance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the photoelectric pulse in the whole band equalization. The integral SNR of DS signal was increased and the measurement bandwidth was expanded. The effectiveness of this method was validated by the quality evaluation criterion of DS data: the effective detecting range of visible DS was widened from 600-1 000 nm to 500-1 135 nm; the effective detecting range of near-infrared DS was widened from 900-1 100 nm to 900-1 700 nm. The results show that the design can create the condition for detection of new blood components noninvasively, and enhance the prediction accuracy of the blood components, for which noninvasive measuring using DS method has been achieved.

  8. Thiol-Reactive Star Polymers Display Enhanced Association with Distinct Human Blood Components.

    PubMed

    Glass, Joshua J; Li, Yang; De Rose, Robert; Johnston, Angus P R; Czuba, Ewa I; Khor, Song Yang; Quinn, John F; Whittaker, Michael R; Davis, Thomas P; Kent, Stephen J

    2017-04-12

    Directing nanoparticles to specific cell types using nonantibody-based methods is of increasing interest. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles can enhance the efficiency of cargo delivery into specific cells through interactions with cell-surface proteins. However, studies to date using this technique have been largely limited to immortalized cell lines or rodents, and the utility of this technology on primary human cells is unknown. Herein, we used RAFT polymerization to prepare pyridyl disulfide (PDS)-functionalized star polymers with a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) brush corona and a fluorescently labeled cross-linked core using an arm-first method. PDS star polymers were examined for their interaction with primary human blood components: six separate white blood cell subsets, as well as red blood cells and platelets. Compared with control star polymers, thiol-reactive nanoparticles displayed enhanced association with white blood cells at 37 °C, particularly the phagocytic monocyte, granulocyte, and dendritic cell subsets. Platelets associated with more PDS than control nanoparticles at both 37 °C and on ice, but they were not activated in the duration examined. Association with red blood cells was minor but still enhanced with PDS nanoparticles. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles represent a useful strategy to target primary human immune cell subsets for improved nanoparticle delivery.

  9. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.

  10. A linked donor-recipient study to evaluate parvovirus B19 transmission by blood component transfusion.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven H; Glynn, Simone A; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Tobler, Leslie H; Schlumpf, Karen S; Todd, Deborah S; Qiao, Hannah; Yu, Mei-Ying W; Busch, Michael P

    2009-10-22

    Parvovirus B19V infection can be a serious infection for hematology patients with underlying hemolysis or compromised erythropoiesis syndromes. Although case reports of B19V transmission by blood component transfusion (as contrasted to manufactured plasma derivatives) are rare, no studies have systematically determined a rate of transmission to recipients transfused with B19V DNA-positive components. We used a linked donor and recipient repository and a sensitive, quantitative B19V DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to assess such transmission in B19V-susceptible (ie, anti-B19V immunoglobulin G [IgG] negative) recipients. We assessed 112 B19V DNA-positive components from 105 donors (of 12 529 tested donations) transfused into a population of surgical patients with a pretransfusion B19V IgG seroprevalence of 78%. We found no transmission to 24 susceptible recipients from transfusion of components with B19V DNA at concentrations less than 10(6) IU/mL (upper 95% confidence interval, 11.7%). We found an anamnestic IgG response in one pretransfusion seropositive recipient transfused with a component containing greater than 10(10) IU/mL B19V DNA. These findings show either that transmission from components with less than 10(6) IU/mL does not occur, or, if it does, it is an uncommon event. These data do not support the need to routinely screen blood donations with a sensitive B19V DNA nucleic acid assay.

  11. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  12. Set-up and routine use of a database of 10,555 genotyped blood donors to facilitate the screening of compatible blood components for alloimmunized patients.

    PubMed

    Perreault, J; Lavoie, J; Painchaud, P; Côté, M; Constanzo-Yanez, J; Côté, R; Delage, G; Gendron, F; Dubuc, S; Caron, B; Lemieux, R; St-Louis, M

    2009-07-01

    Large-scale genotyping of blood donors for red blood cell and platelet antigens has been predicted to replace phenotyping assays in the screening of compatible blood components for alloimmunized patients. Although several genotyping platforms have been described, novel procedures and processes are needed to perform genotyping efficiently and to maximize its benefits for blood banks. Here we describe the processes and procedures developed to introduce large-scale genotyping in our routine operations. Preliminary cost-benefit analysis indicated that genotyping must target frequent blood donors (> 3 donations/year) to be efficiently used. A custom-designed computer application was developed to manage the whole project. It selects frequent donors among recent donations, prints coded labels to identify blood samples sent to the external genotyping laboratory, and stores genotyping results. It can search for donors compatible for any combination of the 22 genotyped antigens as well as consult the current inventory for the presence of the corresponding blood components. The phenotype of recovered components is confirmed by standard serology techniques prior to shipment to hospitals. Since October 2007, 10 555 blood donors have been genotyped. The database is used on a regular basis to find compatible blood components with a genotype-phenotype concordance of 99.6%.

  13. A review of blood component usage in a large UK emergency department after implementation of simple measures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah-Louise; Reed, Matthew J; Innes, Catherine J; Manson, Lynn

    2013-10-01

    To review clinical indications and demographics of transfusion and the patterns of blood component ordering, transfusion, wastage and traceability, before (2007) and after (2011) implementation of simple improvement strategies. Retrospective case note review of all patients presenting to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (RIE) Emergency Department (ED) for whom a blood component was requested and historic comparison. Improvement measures implemented between 2007 and 2011 included (1) formal staff education, (2) use of e-learning Module One Safe Transfusion Practice (traceability update, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) traceability regulations and importance of returning completed blood component tags), (3) an ED resuscitation room blood fridge, (4) introduction of a dedicated ED transfusion consultant and ED transfusion link nurse and (5) the presence of an ED consultant on the Hospital Transfusion Group. Between 1st January and 31st December 2011, blood components were requested for 255 patient episodes, totalling 1034 individual units. 687 units (66.4%) of blood component were transfused, 248 components (24.0%) were recycled, 90 components (8.7%) were discarded and nine units (0.9%) were unaccounted for. There was a 64% reduction in blood component ordering (3209 vs 1034 units), a 39% reduction in blood component transfusion (1131 vs 687 units) and a 96% reduction in unaccounted units (214 vs 9 units) between 2007 and 2011. There was a rise in the median age of the patient for whom a transfusion request was made from 63.9 years in 2007 to 67.0 years in 2011. Blood component ordering, usage and traceability within the ED have improved significantly since 2007 following implementation of simple strategies. The age of ED transfusion recipients is increasing.

  14. Critical re-appraisal of blood component quality after overnight hold of whole blood outside current room temperature limits.

    PubMed

    Bontekoe, I J; van der Meer, P F; de Korte, D

    2017-02-01

    According to European guidelines, the temperature of whole blood (WB) has to be maintained at 20-24°C until processing within 24 h, but in blood bank practice, WB is frequently held at temperatures between 18-25°C. We aimed to assess the impact of these small temperature deviations on the quality of the blood components. After rapid cooling, 7 WB units were held overnight at 18°C and 8 units at 25°C, reflecting worst case holding conditions, and separated into a red cell concentrate (RCC), plasma and buffy coat (BC). RCCs were filtered at test temperature and stored for 42 days at 2-6°C. BCs were processed to single-BC platelet concentrates (sPC) and stored up to Day 8 at 20-24°C. After overnight hold at 18°C, 2,3-DPG in WB decreased by 34 ± 9%, while at 25°C the decrease was 82 ± 6%. Accordingly, the 2,3-DPG levels in the RCCs in the 25°C group were significantly lower than in the 18°C group (2·2 ± 1·4 vs. 10·4 ± 2·9 μmol/g Hb). RCCs and sPCs in the 25°C group showed higher initial lactate levels and lower pH compared to the 18°C group, but these differences levelled off at the end of storage. RCCs showed small differences in ATP levels and haemolysis. Plasma in both groups showed comparable Factor VIII:C levels. The temperature of WB during overnight hold strongly affects initial 2,3-DPG levels of RCCs and supports the maintenance of temperature limits between 20 and 24°C. Other in vitro effects of the temperature deviations were small and of no practical relevance. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Neutrophil function is preserved in a pooled granulocyte component prepared from whole blood donations.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Saber; Stanworth, Simon; Massey, Edwin; Goddard, Fred; Cardigan, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    Whole blood-derived granulocytes (buffy coats) are issued as an alternative to apheresis donations, but are heavily contaminated with red cells and platelets and there is minimal in vitro data describing their functionality. We developed a purer pooled granulocyte component (PGC) from whole blood donations by pooling 10 ABO-matched buffy coats with 400 ml of platelet additive solution (SSP+) and re-centrifuging. The PGC was irradiated (25-50 Gy) and neutrophil viability, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity were determined by flow cytometry. Results from 13 PGC at 16-20 h following donation were compared with those obtained from 20 standard individual buffy coats and with fresh whole blood. The PGC contained similar numbers of neutrophils (approximately 0.9 x 10(10)) with a reduced volume and haemoglobin content when compared with 10 individual buffy coats. Neutrophils in the PGC maintained >90% viability, oxidative burst and phagocytic activity and their ability to migrate towards a chemoattractant 16-20 h following donation, which is similar to results obtained with either fresh whole blood or standard buffy coats. Therefore, neutrophil function in the PGC was preserved 16-20 h following donation, but this product had significantly lower red cell contamination compared with 10 buffy coats, which are currently transfused.

  16. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response.

    PubMed

    Punsawad, Chuchard

    2013-09-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  17. The taphonomy of blood components in decomposing bone and its relevance to physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Annalisa; Bertoglio, Barbara; Castoldi, Elisa; Maderna, Emanuela; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Andreola, Salvatore; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    The variation and persistence of blood components, in particular red blood cells (RBCs), within bone tissue during the decomposition process, especially at the early stages and in different taphonomic conditions, has never been thoroughly investigated, regardless of the fact that knowing how blood survives or degrades within bone could be of help in solving many anthropological issues, such as trauma analysis and interpretation. This research investigated the influence of time and taphonomy on the persistence and detectability of blood components in parietal bone fragments (of different post mortem periods and taphonomic conditions) through histological (Hematoxilin and Eosin, HE) and immunohistochemical (Glycophorin A, GYPA) analyses. The immunohistochemical investigation for GYPA showed the presence of RBCs under the form of erythrocyte debris or residues otherwise morphologically unidentifiable using only HE staining. Hence, while well-defined RBCs can be observed only in the first week of decomposition, afterward these structures can be detectable with certainty only by immunohistochemical analysis, which reveals discrete quantities of RBC residues also in dry bone (post mortem interval, or PMI, of 15 years), but not in archaeological samples, in which the greater PMI and the different taphonomic conditions together could be the answer behind such difference. This study highlights the usefulness and potential of immunohistochemical detection of GYPA in RBC investigation and gives a realistic idea of the persistence and detectability of erythrocytes in different osteological taphonomic conditions, in contrast to results reported by some authors in literature. Another important result concerns the detection of RBC residues in dry bone, which opens the way to the possible use of RBCs in trauma interpretation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of a bifunctional filter for prion protein and leukoreduction of red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Tomo; Kai, Takako; Miura, Morikazu; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Leukofiltration of blood components is currently implemented worldwide as a precautionary measure against white blood cell-associated adverse effects and the potential transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). A newly developed bifunctional filter (Sepacell Prima, Asahi Kasei Medical) was assessed for prion removal, leukoreduction (LR), and whether the filter significantly affected red blood cells (RBCs). Sepacell Prima's postfiltration effects on RBCs, including hemolysis, complement activation, and RBC chemistry, were compared with those of a conventional LR filter (Sepacell Pure RC). Prion removal was measured by Western blot after spiking RBCs with microsomal fractions derived from scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenate. Serially diluted exogenous prion solutions (0.05 mL), with or without filtration, were injected intracerebrally into Golden Syrian hamsters. LR efficiency of 4.44 log with the Sepacell Prima was comparable to 4.11 log with the conventional LR filter. There were no significant differences between the two filters in hemoglobin loss, hemolysis, complement activation, and RBC biomarkers. In vitro reduction of exogenously spiked prions by the filter exceeded 3 log. The titer, 6.63 (log ID50 /mL), of prefiltration infectivity of healthy hamsters was reduced to 2.52 (log ID50 /mL) after filtration. The reduction factor was calculated as 4.20 (log ID50 ). With confirmed removal efficacy for exogenous prion protein, this new bifunctional prion and LR filter should reduce the residual risk of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion without adding complexity to component processing. © 2014 AABB.

  19. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  20. Association of peptic ulcer disease with obesity, nutritional components, and blood parameters in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho; Lee, Bum Ju

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disorder, but whether an association exists between PUD and anthropometric indicators remains controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of PUD with anthropometric indices, blood parameters, and nutritional components have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters, nutritional components, and lifestyle factors with PUD in the Korean population. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters and nutritional components among patients with PUD. Age was the factor most strongly associated with PUD in women (p = <0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.770 [0.683-0.869]) and men (p = <0.0001, OR = 0.715 [0.616-0.831]). In both crude and adjusted analyses, PUD was highly associated with weight (adjusted p = 0.0008, adjusted OR = 1.251 [95%CI: 1.098-1.426]), hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.005, adjusted OR = 1.198 [1.056-1.360]), and body mass index (adjusted p = 0.0001, adjusted OR = 1.303 [1.139-1.490]) in women and hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.0199, adjusted OR = 1.217 [1.031-1.435]) in men. PUD was significantly associated with intake of fiber (adjusted p = 0.0386, adjusted OR = 1.157 [1.008-1.328], vitamin B2 (adjusted p = 0.0477, adjusted OR = 1.155 [1.001-1.333]), sodium (adjusted p = 0.0154, adjusted OR = 1.191 [1.034-1.372]), calcium (adjusted p = 0.0079, adjusted OR = 1.243 [1.059-1.459]), and ash (adjusted p = 0.0468, adjusted OR = 1.152 [1.002-1.325] in women but not in men. None of the assessed blood parameters were associated with PUD in women, and only triglyceride level was associated with PUD in men (adjusted p = 0.0169, adjusted OR = 1.227 [1.037-1.451]). We found that obesity was associated with PUD in the Korean population; additionally, the

  1. [Effect of water on silica gel adsorption of blood plasma components].

    PubMed

    Gall', L N; Malakhova, M Ia; Melenevskaia, E Iu; Podosenova, N G; Sharonova, L V

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the study of properties of silica gel as an adsorbent for plasmasorption has been performed. Investigations have been realized of the effect of silica gel preliminary treatment conditions and a period of plasma with silica gel contact on plasmasorption characteristics of human blood plasma components, such as protein, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density and low-density one). The results obtained can be used for variation of silica gel adsorption properties, in situ at the adsorbent preparation process. For explanation of the experimental concentration and kinetic (temporal) characteristics of plasmasorption, the model of silica gel grains charging at the hydration was used.

  2. Principle component analysis on photoplethysmograms: blood oxygen saturation estimation and signal segmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Most pulse oximeters determine blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) after calculating a coefficient, R, that represents the normalized ratiometric contributions of the pulsatile red and near-infrared photoplethysmograms (PPGs) acquired by the sensor. This paper presents a new approach that uses principle component analysis (PCA) to separate the signal and noise components of unfiltered PPGs and provide the determination of R. Also, rather than use peak-to-valley time intervals to obtain R, this technique uses eigenvalue and eigenvector data obtained during PCA to optimize these time intervals and improve the R calculation. Early analyses on unfiltered PPGs from 16 subjects indicate that these R values compare to those obtained from FFT-based methods and yield SpO(2) values consistent with those reported by a commercial unit. All signal data are considered during the PCA process, so this technique shows promise to precisely segment clean versus noise-corrupted PPGs.

  3. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components.

    PubMed

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2017-06-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of blood components separated from donated whole blood after an overnight holding at room temperature with the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fa Qiang; Kang, Wei; Peng, Yu; Wang, Wei Ming

    2011-10-01

    With buffy coat (BC) processing of whole blood (WB) donations, increase in WB storage time to facilitate overnight holding before the separation of blood components would be a logistically attractive development. This study undertakes a comparative in vitro characterization of blood components prepared from WB samples that were either processed within 8 hours or stored overnight at room temperature before processing by the BC method. The WB units (400 mL) collected were either processed within 8 hours (fresh blood) or stored overnight (overnight blood) at room temperature. WB units were separated into individual-component red blood cells (RBCs), BC, and plasma. The in vitro quality of these blood components (RBCs, pooled platelet concentrates [PCs], and plasma) was analyzed during storage. Levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were found to be significantly lower immediately after processing, compared with the fresh WB samples, in RBCs that had been separated from an overnight-hold sample. However, this difference was not apparent after 14 days of storage. In pooled PCs, measurements for glucose, lactate, PO(2), PCO(2), extent of shape change, and hypotonic shock response were similar. The platelet yield in PCs prepared from an overnight-hold WB sample was significantly higher, while CD62P expression and annexin V binding were lower (p < 0.05). For frozen plasma (FP), no significant differences were observed for the coagulation factors (F)II, FVII, FV, F IX, FX, and FXI; fibrinogen; and von Willebrand factor content between the 8- and 24-hour FP. The FVIII was the component that was most sensitive to the prolongation of production time and it only had 80% of the activity of the 8-hour FP. These data suggest that blood components (RBCs, pooled PCs, and FP) separated from WB that has been stored overnight at room temperature by the BC method are of acceptable quality. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Use of non-irradiated blood components in Campath (alemtuzumab)-treated renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hui, Y M T; Regan, F; Willecombe, M; Taube, D

    2016-04-01

    The prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GvHD) through the irradiation of components is key as there is no effective treatment. Universal leucodepletion reduces but may not eliminate TA-GvHD; therefore, irradiation is still recommended. In 2010, Campath (alemtuzumab) was added as an indication for irradiation but was not implemented everywhere. To identify any cases of TA-GvHD in our Campath-conditioned renal transplant patients, who were transfused with non-irradiated components. Retrospective study of Campath-conditioned renal transplant patients transfused with non-irradiated components. In those transfused up to 9 months following Campath who survived to 1-year follow-up, TA-GvHD was excluded. For patients not followed-up for a full year, we reviewed medical records for features of TA-GvHD. For patients transfused after 9 months following Campath, survival of at least 3 months following last transfusion excluded TA-GvHD. Six hundred and forty-seven Campath-conditioned renal transplant patients were transfused; 616 were transfused within 9 months following Campath; 601 were alive at 1 year, excluding TA-GvHD. Twelve died and three were not followed-up for a full year, but a review of medical records excluded TA-GvHD. The 31 patients transfused 9 months or longer following Campath were all alive 6 months following the last transfusion, excluding TA-GvHD. Despite receiving non-irradiated components, none of the 647 Campath-conditioned renal transplant patients developed TA-GvHD. Further reviews to replicate our data could enable change to guidance, at least in UK where components are leucodepleted, as an unnecessary requirement for irradiated components has both clinical delay and cost implications. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Microfluidic cytometers with integrated on-chip optical components for blood cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-10-01

    In the last two decades, microfluidic technologies have shown the great potential in developing portable and point-of care testing blood cell analysis devices. It is challenging to integrate all free-space detecting components in a single microfluidic platform. In this paper, a microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical components was demonstrated. To facilitate on-chip detection, the device integrated optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on one polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact design increased the sensitivity of the device and also eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments. Polystyrene particles, together with red blood cells and platelets, were measured in the microfluidic cytometer by small angle forward scatter. Experimental results indicated that the performance of the microfluidic device was comparable to a conventional cytometer. And it was also demonstrated its ability to detect on-chip optical signals in a highly compact, simple, truly portable and low cost format which was perfect suitable for point-of-care testing clinical hematology diagnostics.

  7. [The analysis for improving the SNR of blood components noninvasive measurement with DS method].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhao, Zhe; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2012-08-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of blood components measurement and enhance the stability of prediction model, the quantitative signal-noise-ratio (SNR) analysis of measuring instruments based on dynamic spectrum (DS) and preprocessing method was conducted. The SNR of DS is increased after adding boxcar integrator, decreasing wavelength revolution, balancing the DS's SNR and excluding gross errors in preprocessing according to experiment results. Two volunteers were tested continuously for many times using the DS data acquiring system. The correlation coefficients of the each volunteer's DS data was increased from 0.934 and 0.953 to 0.991 and 0.987, respectively. Moreover, the gap between the correlation coefficient of the same volunteer's DS and different volunteers' DS is increased too, which shows that the SNR can be improved by these methods. The quantitative SNR analysis can guide the way of choosing preprocessing method efficiently, which will create the condition for clinical application of the blood components noninvasive measurement.

  8. Evaluation of the interaction of vanadium with glutathione in human blood components.

    PubMed

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Asim-ur-Rehman

    2012-07-01

    Metallo-elements including Vanadium (V) have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including Glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of this fact it was of interest to further investigate the interaction of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] with Glutathione as a biomarker of toxicity and the role of Glutathione in the detoxification and conjugation pr(o)Cesses in whole blood components including plasma and cytosolic fraction. Effects of different concentrations of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] on the level of reduced Glutathione in whole blood components (Plasma and Cytosolic fraction) were examined. GSH depletion in plasma and cytosolic fraction was Ammonium Vanadate's concentration-dependent. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with more incubation time period. These findings show that changes in the GSH status produced by Ammonium Vanadate could be due to either by adduct formation of Vanadium and glutathione i.e. (V-SG) or by increased production of oxidized Glutathione (2GSH +V(+5) → GSSG). This change in GSH metabolic status provides some information regarding the mechanism of toxicity by Ammonium Vanadate and the protective role of glutathione.

  9. The molecular, cellular, and morphological components of blood-brain barrier development during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nellwyn; Ben-Zvi, Ayal

    2015-02-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of blood vessels in the brain and functions to protect the brain from unwanted blood born materials, support the unique metabolic needs of the brain, and define a stable environment crucial for brain homeostasis. The temporal profile of BBB development was long debated until recent studies produced convincing evidence demonstrating that the BBB is established and functional during embryogenesis. Here we review research focused on the molecular, cellular and morphological characteristics of BBB development. Our review discusses the precise temporal profile of BBB formation, the development of endothelial cell ultrastructure and the molecular components that provide sealing and transporting properties, the molecular pathways involved in the induction of BBB specific endothelial cell differentiation, the signaling pathways driving developmental angiogenesis versus barrier-genesis, and finally the contribution of other cell types to BBB formation. We examine aspects of BBB development that are still unresolved while highlighting research tools that could provide new insight to answer these open questions.

  10. Changes in cellular and molecular components of peripheral blood in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gaddale, Reetika; Mudda, Jayashree A; Karthikeyan, Ilangovan; Desai, Shrikar R; Shinde, Harshada; Deshpande, Pavan

    2016-02-01

    The association between periodontitis and systemic health is evident; however, until recently, there has been a lack of scientific evidence to define the relationship between aggressive periodontitis and systemic conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the white blood cell count and levels of serum proteins in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) and to compare it with periodontally-healthy controls. Patients with GAP (n = 60) and periodontally-healthy controls (n = 60) were recruited. Clinical parameters, including probing depth and clinical attachment level, were examined. Blood cell variables, including leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and serum protein parameters, including total protein, albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), ALB/GLB (A/G) ratio, and C-reactive protein levels, were analyzed. The results showed a statistically-significant increase in neutrophil numbers and serum GLB and C-reactive protein levels in patients with GAP compared to the controls (P < 0.001), whereas the ALB level and A/G ratio were significantly lower compared to the control group. The results showed possible changes in the cellular and molecular components of peripheral blood in patients with GAP compared to periodontally-healthy controls. These changes might represent the contribution of periodontal infections to systemic inflammation in relatively young individuals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Adjuncts to Blood Component Therapies for the Treatment of Bleeding in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Quinones, Quintin J; Bartz, Raquel R; Welsby, Ian

    2017-10-01

    Patients who are critically ill following surgical or traumatic injury often present with coagulopathy as a component of the complex multisystem dysfunction that clinicians must rapidly diagnose and treat in the intensive care environment. Failure to recognize coagulopathy while volume resuscitation with crystalloid or colloid takes place, or an unbalanced transfusion strategy focused on packed red blood cell transfusion can all significantly worsen coagulopathy, leading to increased transfusion requirements and poor outcomes. Even an optimized transfusion strategy directed at correcting coagulopathy and maintaining clotting factor levels carries the risk of a number of transfusion reactions including transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-related circulatory overload, anaphylaxis, and septic shock. A number of adjunctive strategies can be used either to augment a balanced transfusion approach or as alternatives to blood component therapy. Coupled with an appropriate and timely laboratory testing, this approach can quickly diagnose a patient's specific coagulopathy and work to correct it as quickly as possible, minimizing the requirement of blood transfusion and the pathophysiologic effects of excessive bleeding and fibrinolysis. We will review the literature supporting this approach and provide insight into how these approaches can be best used to care for bleeding patients in the intensive care unit. Finally, the increasing use of several novel oral anticoagulants, novel antiplatelet drugs, and low-molecular weight heparin to clinical practice has complicated the care of the coagulopathic patient when these drugs are involved. Many clinicians familiar with heparin and warfarin reversal are not familiar with the optimal way to reverse the action of these new drugs. Patients treated with these drugs for a wide variety of conditions including atrial fibrillation, stroke, coronary artery stent, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism will present

  12. Amustaline (S-303) treatment inactivates high levels of Zika virus in red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Laughhunn, Andrew; Santa Maria, Felicia; Broult, Julien; Lanteri, Marion C; Stassinopoulos, Adonis; Musso, Didier; Aubry, Maite

    2017-03-01

    The potential for Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion-transmission (TT) has been demonstrated in French Polynesia and Brazil. Pathogen inactivation (PI) of blood products is a proactive strategy to inactivate TT pathogens including arboviruses. Inactivation of West Nile, dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses was previously demonstrated by photochemical treatment with amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination. In this study, we evaluated ZIKV inactivation in red blood cell (RBC) components by a chemical approach that uses amustaline (S-303) and glutathione (GSH). RBC components were spiked with a high titer of ZIKV. Viral titers (infectivity) and ZIKV RNA loads (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were measured in spiked RBCs before and after S-303 and GSH treatment and confirmed using repetitive passages in cell culture. A mock-treated arm validated the approach by demonstrating stability of the virus (infectivity and RNA load) during the process. The mean ZIKV infectivity titer and RNA load in RBCs were 5.99 ± 0.2 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 )/mL and 7.75 ± 0.16 log genomic equivalents/mL before inactivation. No infectivity was detected immediately after S-303 and GSH treatment and after five serial passages in cell culture. Complete ZIKV inactivation of more than 5.99 log TCID50 /mL in RBCs was achieved using S-303 and GSH at levels higher than those found in asymptomatic ZIKV-infected blood donors. Therefore, the S-303 and GSH PI system is promising for mitigating the risk of ZIKV TT. © 2016 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  13. Traumatic Abdominal Solid Organ Injury Patients Might Benefit From Thromboelastography-Guided Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D.; Phillips, Jessica L.; Ryon, Andrew; Simpson, Scott; Ford, Jonathan R.; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Duane, Therese M.; Putty, Bradley; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Thromboelastography (TEG) has been utilized for the guidance of blood component therapy (BCT). We aimed to investigate the association between emergent TEG-guided BCT and clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic abdominal solid organ (liver and/or spleen) injuries. Methods A single center retrospective study of patients who sustained traumatic liver and/or spleen injuries receiving emergent BCT was conducted. TEG was ordered in all these patients. Patient demographics, general injury information, outcomes, BCT, and TEG parameters were analyzed and compared in patients receiving TEG-guided BCT versus those without. Results A total of 166 patients were enrolled, of whom 52% (86/166) received TEG-guided BCT. A mortality of 12% was noted among patients with TEG-guided BCT when compared with 19% of mortality in patients with non-TEG-guided BCT (P > 0.05). An average of 4 units of packed red blood cell (PRBC) was received in patients with TEG-guided BCT when compared to an average of 9 units of PRBC received in non-TEG-guided BCT patients (P < 0.01). A longer hospital length of stay (LOS, 19 ± 16 days) was found among non-TEG-guided BCT patients when compared to the TEG-guided BCT group (14 ± 12 days, P < 0.05). TEG-guided BCT showed as an independent factor associated with hospital LOS after other variables were adjusted (coefficiency: 5.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 10.18). Conclusions Traumatic abdominal solid organ injury patients receiving blood transfusions might benefit from TEG-guided BCT as indicated by less blood products needed and less hospitalization stay among the cohort. PMID:28392864

  14. Distribution of dipyridamole in blood components among post-stroke patients treated with extended release formulation.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor; Sabaeva, Elena; Booze, Christopher; Atar, Oliver D; Eisert, Christian; Hanley, Dan

    2009-09-01

    Extended release dipyridamole (ERD) is widely used in patients after ischaemic stroke; however, the ability of this antithrombotic agent to be stored in different blood cells has never been explored in post-stroke patients. We hypothesised that since ERD is known to be highly lipophilic, the drug may be present not only in plasma, but also accumulated in platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. Fifteen patients after documented ischaemic stroke were treated with Aggrenox (ERD and low-dose aspirin combination) BID for 30 days, and 12 of them completed the study. ERD concentrations in blood cells and platelet-poor plasma were measured by spectrofluorimetry at Baseline, Day 14, and Day 30 after the initiation of therapy. The background level of spectrofluorometry readings differs slightly among the blood components (132-211 ng/ml) due to the differences in the preparation of samples and cell isolation techniques. As expected, two weeks of ERD therapy produced steady-state plasma concentration of dipyridamole already at Day 14 (1,680 +/- 542 ng/ ml), followed by a slight not significant decrease at one month (1,619 +/- 408 ng/ml). Two weeks of therapy was sufficient to achieve a consistent dipyridamole accumulation in erythrocytes (361 +/- 43 ng/ml), but not in platelets (244 +/- 78 ng/ml), or leukocytes (275 +/- 49 ng/ml). In fact, white blood cells continued dipyridamole intake beyond 14 days period, and this increase (398 +/- 66 ng/ml) was significant (p = 0.02) at 30 days. Treatment with ERD in post-stroke patients resulted not only in achievement of therapeutic plasma dipyridamole concentrations, but also deposition of the drug in erythrocytes and leukocytes, but not in platelets. If confirmed, these data will affect our better understanding of dipyridamole pleiotropy, and may explain long-term benefit of ERD formulation.

  15. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood... blood establishments with recommendations for pre-storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  16. Blood pressure components and the risk for proteinuria in Japanese men: The Kansai Healthcare Study.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mikiko; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Uehara, Shinichiro; Koh, Hideo; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Oue, Keiko; Kambe, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Michio; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2017-11-01

    We examined prospectively which of the four blood pressure (BP) components (systolic BP [SBP], diastolic BP [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) was best in predicting the risk of proteinuria. This prospective study included 9341 non-diabetic Japanese middle-aged men who had no proteinuria and an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and were not taking antihypertensive medications at entry. Persistent proteinuria was defined if proteinuria was detected two or more times consecutively and persistently at the annual examination until the end of follow-up. We calculated the difference in values of Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC) in comparison of the BP components-added model to the model without them in a Cox proportional hazards model. During the 84,587 person-years follow-up period, we confirmed 151 cases of persistent proteinuria. In multiple-adjusted models that included a single BP component, the hazard ratios for persistent proteinuria for the highest quartile of SBP, PP, and MAP were 3.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-5.39), 1.87 (95% CI, 1.18-2.94), and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.33-3.69) compared with the lowest quartile of SBP, PP, and MAP, respectively. The hazard ratio for the highest quartile of DBP was 2.69 (95% CI, 1.65-4.38) compared with the second quartile of DBP. Of all models that included a single BP component, those that included SBP alone or DBP alone had the highest values of ΔAIC (14.0 and 13.1, respectively) in predicting the risk of persistent proteinuria. Of all BP components, SBP and DBP were best in predicting the risk of persistent proteinuria in middle-aged Japanese men. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency components of systolic blood pressure variability reflect vasomotor and cardiac sympathetic functions in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Eguchi, Kunihiro; Sakurai, Hiroki; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuyuki; Ohmichi, Mika; Morimoto, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Ushida, Takahiro; Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Kumazawa, Takao

    2011-09-01

    In this study, after confirming the suppression of autonomic nervous function by isoflurane anesthesia using autonomic antagonists, we pharmacologically investigated the involvement of vasomotor and cardiac sympathetic functions in systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) frequency components in conscious rats at rest and during exposure to low-ambient temperature (LT-exposure, 9°C for 90 min). Under unanesthesia, phentolamine administration (α-adrenoceptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg) decreased the mid-frequency component (MF 0.33-0.73 Hz) and inversely increased the high-frequency component (HF 1.3-2.5 Hz). The increased HF was suppressed by subsequent treatment with atenolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), but not with atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg). Moreover, phentolamine administration after atenolol decreased MF, but did not increase HF. LT-exposure increased MF and HF; however, phentolamine pretreatment suppressed the increased MF during LT-exposure, and atenolol pretreatment dose-dependently decreased the increased HF. These results suggest that MF and HF of SBPV may reflect α-adrenoceptor-mediated vasomotor function and β-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac sympathetic function, respectively, in the conscious state.

  18. The association between changes in blood pressure components and incident cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Parizadeh, Donna; Ghahvehchian, Hosein; Asgari, Samaneh; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2017-07-14

    To determine the association of changes in blood pressure (BP) components between baseline examination (1999-2001) and a second visit (2002-2005) with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In 3569 (2048 female) Iranian subjects ≥30 y, systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were evaluated in two consecutive visits. Subjects were then followed for cardiovascular events. Multivariate sex-adjusted Cox Proportional-Hazards models were built for each BP component's change, and further adjusted for baseline BP values, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and their changes. During a median follow-up of 6.09 years after the second examination, 303 CVD cases occurred. A 1 SD increase in systolic BP, diastolic BP and MAP were significantly associated with 21%, 22%, and 95% increased CVD risk after adjustments for baseline values of BP components and other common risk factors (all p-values <0.05). Importantly, diastolic BP change resisted after further adjustment with systolic BP change (hazard ratio 1.21, CI 95% 1.05-1.39). PP change showed no significant association with CVD. In a middle-aged population, three-year rises in systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, but not PP were associated with increased incident CVD. The significant association between diastolic BP change and CVD was shown independent of systolic BP change.

  19. Drug-induced blood consumption: the impact of adverse drug reactions on demand for blood components in German departments of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Rottenkolber, Dominik; Schmiedl, Sven; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Thuermann, Petra A; Hasford, Joerg

    2012-10-01

    Therapy for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) often results in the application of blood components. This study aims to assess the demand for blood components and the resulting economic burden (hospital perspective) in German hospitals induced by ADRs leading to admissions to departments of internal medicine. In this prospective study, ADRs leading to hospitalization were surveyed in four regional pharmacovigilance centres in Germany during the years 2000-2007. ADRs assessed as 'possible', 'likely' or 'very likely' were included. Market prices for blood components and hospitalization data were determined by desktop research. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. A total of 6099 patients were admitted to internal medicine departments because of an outpatient ADR of whom 1165 patients (19.1%; mean age, 73.0 ± 13.0 years) required treatment with blood components owing to major bleeding events. Overall consumption was 4185 erythrocyte concentrates (EC), 426 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 48 thrombocyte (TC) units. On the basis of statistical hospital data, we estimated a nationwide demand of approximately 132,020 EC, 13,440 FFP and 1515 TC units, resulting in total costs of €12.66 million per year for all German hospitals. Some 19.2% of all ADR cases were assessed as preventable. Theoretically, a nationwide decreased demand for blood components and a savings potential of €2.43 million per year could be achieved by preventing ADRs in Germany. Blood components are used in one-fifth (mainly gastrointestinal bleeding) of all ADRs, leading to hospitalizations in internal medicine departments. Both blood demand and hospital procurement costs can be significantly lowered by preventing ADRs.

  20. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners.

  1. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners.

  2. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of

  3. Utilisation of blood components in cardiac surgery: a single-centre retrospective analysis with regard to diagnosis-related procedures.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-03-01

    More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of transfused cases was observed

  4. Relationship between white blood cell count and components of metabolic syndrome among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Lin, Juinn-Diann; Su, Ching-Chieh; Wang, Kwo-Syin; Chu, Yi-Min; Lee, Li-Hsiu; Wang, Kun; Hsia, Te-Lin; Pei, Dee

    2010-03-01

    Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been associated with several inflammatory factors, including white blood cell count (WBCC). In the present study, the relationships between WBCC and aspects of MetS in young adolescents were investigated. We enrolled 596 participants (328 males and 268 females) from 10 to 13 years of age and with normal WBCC in this study. They were divided into four quartiles according to WBCC (WBCC1-4, from lowest to highest WBCC). The mean values of MetS components for each group were compared in males and females separately. Multivariate linear regression analysis between the WBCC and the components of MetS after adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) were also evaluated. In the male group, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 was significantly lower than WBCC4. The total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) of WBCC2 were significantly higher than WBCC1 and WBCC4. Triglyceride (TG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 and WBCC4, and TG levels of WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC4. Alternatively, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC3 in the female group. Finally, the TG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 or WBCC4, respectively. After multivariate linear regression, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and TG, but negatively correlated to FPG in males whereas in young adolescent females, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and FPG. In conclusion BMI was positively correlated with WBCC in young adolescent females and males. Thus, BMI is the most important component of MetS in this age group. In addition, TG levels in males and FPG in females were significantly related to WBCC. These findings could be regarded an early indication for the future development of full-blown MetS or cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  6. The effect of holding times of whole blood and its components during processing on in vitro and in vivo quality.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood is not usually collected close to the processing site, which results in a holding time between collection and processing. In some countries, the holding time is limited to 8 hours, after which the units are cooled, rendering them useless for platelet preparation. Other countries allow a 24-hour (“overnight”) ambient hold to allow platelet preparation. The impact of this holding time on subsequent blood components will be reviewed in this article. In addition, there are various “in-process” holding times that further prolong the time before the final blood component is ready. Particularly, these in-process holding times are not well defined and poorly controlled,but can nevertheless affect the biochemical and functional characteristics of blood components. Furthermore, current, non–evidence-based, guidelines have restricted the length of some of these holding times. This article summarizes the evidence and fills gaps where evidence is lacking.

  7. Activated clotting time of thrombelastography (T-ACT) predicts early postinjury blood component transfusion beyond plasma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hunter B; Moore, Ernest E; Chin, Theresa L; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Chapman, Michael P; Walker, Carson B; Sauaia, Angela; Banerjee, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    Rapid thrombelastography (rTEG) has been advocated as a point-of-care test to manage trauma-induced coagulopathy. rTEG activated clotting time (T-ACT) results become available much sooner than other rTEG values, thus offering an attractive tool to guide blood component transfusion in a hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesize that patients with a prolonged T-ACT require replacement of platelets (Plts) and cryoprecipitate (Cryo) in addition to plasma to correct trauma-induced coagulopathy. A prospective trauma registry was reviewed for patients with an r-TEG available within 3 hours of injury. Blood was collected via a standardized protocol for rTEG. Patients were stratified into quartiles: low (T-ACT <113 seconds), mild (T-ACT 113-120 seconds), moderate (T-ACT 121-140 seconds), and severe (T-ACT >140 seconds). Transfusion requirements were evaluated during the first 6 hours after injury. A total of 114 patients were included. Median age was 39 years, injury severity score 20, base-deficit 10, and mortality rate 13%. T-ACT cohorts had similar age (P = .11), injury severity score (P = .55), and base deficit (P = .38). An T-ACT >140 seconds predicted a lower angle (median 57 vs 70, P < .000) and maximum amplitude (46 vs 60, P = .002), and patients received more Cryo (0.5 vs 0, P ≤ .000) and Plts (1 vs 0, P = .006). Injured patients requiring resuscitation with blood transfusion that have a T-ACT >140 seconds are polycoagulopathic and may benefit from early Cryo and Plts. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanomedicine: Interaction of biomimetic apatite colloidal nanoparticles with human blood components.

    PubMed

    Choimet, Maëla; Hyoung-Mi, Kim; Jae-Min, Oh; Tourrette, Audrey; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This contribution investigates the interaction of two types of biomimetic-apatite colloidal nanoparticles (negatively-charged 47nm, and positively-charged 190nm NPs) with blood components, namely red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins, with the view to inspect their hemocompatibility. The NPs, preliminarily characterized by XRD, FTIR and DLS, showed low hemolysis ratio (typically lower than 5%) illustrating the high compatibility of such NPs with respect to RBC, even at high concentration (up to 10mg/ml). The presence of glucose as water-soluble matrix for freeze-dried and re-dispersed colloids led to slightly increased hemolysis as compared to glucose-free formulations. NPs/plasma protein interaction was then followed, via non-specific protein fluorescence quenching assays, by contact with whole human blood plasma. The amount of plasma proteins in interaction with the NPs was evaluated experimentally, and the data were fitted with the Hill plot and Stern-Volmer models. In all cases, binding constants of the order of 10(1)-10(2) were found. These values, significantly lower than those reported for other types of nanoparticles or molecular interactions, illustrate the fairly inert character of these colloidal NPs with respect to plasma proteins, which is desirable for circulating injectable suspensions. Results were discussed in relation with particle surface charge and mean particle hydrodynamic diameter (HD). On the basis of these hemocompatibility data, this study significantly complements previous results relative to the development and nontoxicity of biomimetic-apatite-based colloids stabilized by non-drug biocompatible organic molecules, intended for use in nanomedicine.

  9. Can blood components with age-related changes influence the ageing of endothelial cells?

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji Yeon; Oh, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju Hee; Kwon, Yeon Sook; Ryu, Dong Jin; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2010-04-01

    Research on vascular endothelial cell ageing helps elucidate the pathogenesis of diseases associated with cell ageing. To investigate endothelial senescence, we used 2-DE coupled with MS to perform a proteomic analysis of: (i) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors in their 20 s ('young') or 60 s ('old') and (ii) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) treated with sera from young and old donors. Identified proteins could be classified into several functional categories: (i) cytoskeletal regulators: CapG and cofilin 1; (ii) stress response and signal pathway proteins: TXNDC5 and RSU-1; and (iii) apoptosis proteins: Annexin V. We confirmed by Western blot a decrease of RSU-1, CapG and TXNDC5 in PBMCs from old donors. RSU-1, which regulates signal transduction of the downstream Ras, showed decreased mRNA and protein levels in PBMCs from old donors and decreased mRNA levels in HDMECs treated with sera from old donors. In addition, Ras protein levels were increased in PBMCs from old donors. These data indicate that reduced RSU-1 might induce Ras expression, which subsequently could provoke Ras-induced senescence. In conclusion, our data suggest that blood components that exhibit age-related changes, such as alterations in cytoskeletal regulators and stress proteins, may be associated with endothelial cell ageing.

  10. Interaction of pHPMA-pLMA copolymers with human blood serum and its components.

    PubMed

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Mohr, Kristin; Fischer, Karl; Zentel, Rudolf; Schmidt, Manfred

    2013-10-07

    Immediately after administration, polymer therapeutics are exposed to complex biological media like blood which may influence and alter their physicochemical properties due to interactions with proteins or serum components. Among such interactions those leading to larger sized aggregates can be sensitively detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a pre in vivo screening method. Random copolymers from N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide and lauryl methacrylate p(HPMA-co-LMA) and copolymers loaded with the model drug domperidone were characterized by DLS in isotonic salt solution and in blood serum. The bare amphiphilic copolymer micelles (Rh=30 nm in isotonic salt solution) formed large aggregates in serum of over 100 nm radius which were shown to originate from interactions with very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Encapsulation of the hydrophobic drug domperidone resulted, at first, in drug-copolymer formulations with larger hydrodynamic radii (39 nm

  11. Fatal TRALI associated with neutrophil antibodies in a recipient of pre-storage leukocyte-reduced blood components.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Kadota, Eiji; Shimizu, Michiomi; Nomura, Shosaku

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old man developed possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) after red cell component transfusion. The patient developed autoimmune neutropenia with the expression of neutrophil antibodies. Neutrophil aggregation, endothelial damage, and development of a large thrombus containing platelets were observed post mortem in his pulmonary vessels. The patient also had subacute organizing pneumonia. He received blood components treated with universal pre-storage leuko-reduction. Even though leukocytes in the blood components are reduced to a few million by this process, TRALI can be fatal, as was the case for this recipient, who had subacute organizing pneumonia in conjunction with immune-mediated neutropenia.

  12. Analysis of leucocyte antibodies, cytokines, lysophospholipids and cell microparticles in blood components implicated in post-transfusion reactions with dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, K; Uhrynowska, M; Łopacz, P; Wróbel, A; Smoleńska-Sym, G; Guz, K; Lachert, E; Ostas, A; Brojer, E

    2015-01-01

    Post-transfusion reactions with dyspnoea (PTR) are major causes of morbidity and death after blood transfusion. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) are most dangerous, while transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD) is a milder respiratory distress. We investigated blood components for immune and non-immune factors implicated in PTR. We analysed 464 blood components (RBCs, PLTs, L-PLTs, FFP) transfused to 271 patients with PTR. Blood components were evaluated for 1/antileucocyte antibodies, 2/cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, sCD40L, 3/lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), 4/microparticles (MPs) shed from plateletes (PMPs), erythrocytes (EMPs) and leucocytes (LMPs). Anti-HLA class I/II antibodies or granulocyte-reactive anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 18.2% of blood components (RBC and FFP) transfused to TRALI and in 0.5% of FFP transfused to TAD cases. Cytokines and LysoPCs concentrations in blood components transfused to PTR patients did not exceed those in blood components transfused to patients with no PTR. Only EMPs percentage in RBCs transfused to patients with TRALI was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in RBCs transfused to patients with no PTR. Immune character of PTR was confirmed mainly in 1/5 TRALI cases. Among non-immune factors, only MPs released from stored RBCs are suggested as potential mediators of TRALI. Our results require further observations in a more numerous and better defined group of patients. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Use of additive solutions and pathogen inactivation treatment of platelet components in a regional blood center: impact on patient outcomes and component utilization during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Isola, Hervé; Waller, Chantal; Mendel, Isabelle; Kientz, Daniel; Laforêt, Michel; Raidot, Jean-Pierre; Kandel, Gérard; Wiesel, Marie-Louise; Corash, Laurence

    2011-03-01

    The Etablissement Français du Sang Alsace (EFS Alsace) successively implemented universal use of platelet additive solutions (PASs) and pathogen inactivation (PI) for platelet components (PCs). To assess the impact of these changes, EFS Alsace evaluated PC use, red blood cell (RBC) component use, and transfusion-related adverse events after implementation of these new technologies. EFS Alsace prospectively collects data on production, distribution, and response to transfusion of all blood components with greater than 99.5% data acquisition. Adverse events attributed to platelet (PLT) transfusions were collected through a mandatory, active hemovigilance program. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted covering three periods: 1) apheresis and whole blood-derived PCs in plasma, 2) apheresis and whole blood-derived PCs with PAS, and 3) PCs prepared with PI and PAS. Data on component utilization were analyzed for all patients receiving PCs in each period and for the subset of hematology-oncology patients to evaluate PC use in an intensely transfused population. Values for all continuous variables were summarized as mean and standard deviation, median, and range. Approximately 2000 patients received PCs in each period. PLT and RBC use per patient was not increased after PI (analysis of variance, F = 1.9 and 2.9, respectively) and the incidence of acute transfusion reactions was significantly reduced (p < 0.001). Universal use of PI was implemented without impacting component use, as indicated by total dose of PLTs per patient, and outcomes to transfusion were improved. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Hemovigilance survey of pathogen-reduced blood components in the Warsaw Region in the 2009 to 2013 period.

    PubMed

    Łętowska, Magdalena; Przybylska, Zofia; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Lachert, Elżbieta; Rosiek, Aleksandra; Rzymkiewicz, Lech; Cardoso, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    In 2009 the Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) was introduced to the routine blood component production of the Regional Blood Transfusion Center in Warsaw (RBTCW). The goal of this study was to investigate the safety of Mirasol-treated blood components. The accumulated passive hemovigilance data of Mirasol-treated blood components collected at the RBTCW are presented and compared to historical and contemporary data. Furthermore, active hemovigilance data collected from patients with different hematologic disorders transfused with Mirasol-treated or untreated blood components at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM) are presented and discussed. The adverse reaction (AR) reporting rate by hospitals to the RBTCW after the implementation of the Mirasol technology was 0.39% for Mirasol-treated platelet concentrates (M-PCs) and 0.05% for Mirasol-treated fresh-frozen plasma. When comparing contemporary rates of ARs recorded by RBTCW in the time period 2011 to 2012, no statistical difference was observed between Mirasol-treated and untreated blood components. No serious AR was attributed to Mirasol-treated components. At the IHTM a lower rate of ARs after transfusion of M-PCs was observed than with untreated PCs. Despite the fact that very large amounts of Mirasol-treated plasma have been transfused to patients with congenital or acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, no significant increase in AR rates was observed. Treatment of blood components with the Mirasol PRT System has proven to be safe for patients and is not associated with increased rates and grades of adverse events in patients of hospitals in the Warsaw Region. © 2015 AABB.

  15. Reconstituted fresh whole blood improves clinical outcomes compared with stored component blood therapy for neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Colleen E; McCrindle, Brian W; Crawford-Lean, Lynn; Holtby, Helen; Parshuram, Christopher; Massicotte, Patricia; Van Arsdell, Glen

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects of reconstituted fresh whole blood against standard blood component therapy in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients less than 1 month of age were randomized to receive either reconstituted fresh whole blood (n = 31) or standard blood component therapy (n = 33) to prime the bypass circuit and for transfusion during the 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary outcome was chest tube drainage; secondary outcomes included transfusion needs, inotrope score, ventilation time, and hospital length of stay. Patients who received reconstituted fresh whole blood had significantly less postoperative chest tube volume loss per kilogram of body weight (7.7 mL/kg vs 11.8 mL/kg; P = .03). Standard blood component therapy was associated with higher inotropic score (6.6 vs 3.3; P = .002), longer ventilation times (164 hours vs 119 hours; P = .04), as well as longer hospital stays (18 days vs 12 days; P = .006) than patients receiving reconstituted fresh whole blood. Of the different factors associated with the use of reconstituted fresh whole blood, lower platelet counts at 10 minutes and at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, older age of cells used in the prime and throughout bypass, and exposures to higher number of allogeneic donors were found to be independent predictors of poor clinical outcomes. Reconstituted fresh whole blood used for the prime, throughout cardiopulmonary bypass, and for all transfusion requirements within the first 24 hours postoperatively results in reduced chest tube volume loss and improved clinical outcomes in neonatal patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  16. Different chronological patterns of appearance of blood derived milk components during mastitis indicate different mechanisms of transfer from blood into milk.

    PubMed

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Lüttgenau, Johannes; Bollwein, Heinrich; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to describe chronological patterns of changes of various candidate blood components in milk during the acute phase of a mammary immune response in detail. Eight dairy cows were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in one udder quarter. Milk from challenged and control quarters and blood samples were taken before, and 1 and 2 h after challenge and then every 15 min until 5 h after challenge. The SCC, serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and L-lactate in milk and blood, and α-lactalbumin in blood were analysed. All selected parameters in milk increased in challenged quarters but did not increase in control quarters. Milk IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin, and LDH were already significantly increased at 2 h after challenge whereas a significant increase of SCC was detectable at 2.75 h and L-lactate was increased at 2.25 h after challenge. In blood L-lactate was increased at 3.75 h after challenge, however, other factors in blood did not change significantly within the 5 h of experiment. In conclusion, the increase of blood components in milk during inflammation follows two different patterns: There is a rapid increase for IgG1, IgG2, or LDH, before the increase of SCC, and their concentrations reach a plateau within 3 h. On the other hand, SCC and L-lactate show a slower but consistent increase not reaching a plateau within 5 h after LPS challenge. L-lactate increases to higher concentrations in milk than in blood. This clearly shows that the increase of blood components follows different patterns and is therefore a controlled and compound-specific process and not exclusively an unspecific type of leakage.

  17. All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD

    PubMed Central

    de Wolf, Christopher; Tan, Boon Chin; Smith, Antony; Groschup, Martin H.; Hunter, Nora; Hornsey, Valerie S.; MacGregor, Ian R.; Prowse, Christopher V.; Turner, Marc; Manson, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Variant CJD (vCJD) is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents). Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. PMID:21858015

  18. [Relationship between weight status, physical fitness levels and blood pressure components in young women].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Galeano, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Miota Ibarra, José; Fuentes Chacón, Rosa; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2012-10-01

    As far as we know there are not studies that analyze jointly the relationship between obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength with blood pressure (BP).We aimed to determine the relationship between BMI and physical fitness with components of BP in young women. cross-sectional study in 407 women aged 18-to-30 years. weight, height, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP: DBP+[0,333× (SBP-DBP)]) and pulse pressure (PP: SBP-DBP), and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength). Mean age of participants was 20.1 ± 4.4 years. Mean SBP, DBP, MAP and PP were respectively: women with normal weight 108,0 ± 8.9, 67.7 ± 6.7, 81.1 ± 6.8 and 40.3 ± 6, 6 mmHg; in obese women 123.1 ± 8.9, 80.5 ± 6.2, 94.7 ± 6.5 and 42.5 ± 6.2 mmHg; in those with low aerobic capacity 110.9 ± 9.9, 70.5 ± 7.6, 84.0 ± 7.7 and 40.3 ± 7.3 mmHg, and in those with high aerobic capacity 107.4 ± 9.3, 67.0 ± 7.0, 80.4 ± 7.2 and 40.4 ± 6.6 mmHg. Muscle strength was not statistically associated with any of the components of PA (p> 0.05). In multiple linear regression models of SBP was associated with BMI and muscle strength index (p = ≤ 0.05), DBP and MAP with BMI, index of muscle strength and aerobic capacity (p = ≤ 0.05), and PP with BMI (p = <0.05). In young women BMI and muscle strength have a direct relationship with BP, and cardiorespiratory fitness an inverse relationship; however the latter is not associated with SBP and PP.

  19. Components of Height and Blood Pressure among Ellisras Rural Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramoshaba, Nthai; Monyeki, Kotsedi; Hay, Leon

    2016-01-01

    To date, there has been no study done investigating the relationship between the components of height and blood pressure (BP) in rural South African children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between height, sitting height (SH), leg length (LL), and SH-to-height ratio (SH/H) with BP in Ellisras rural children. All children underwent anthropometric and BP measurements using standard procedure. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between height, SH, LL, SH/H, and BP. The regression showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association between systolic BP (SBP) with height and SH (β ranged from 0.127 to 0.134 and 95% CI ranged from 0.082 to 0.415). Diastolic BP (DBP) also showed a positive significant (p < 0.001) association with height and SH (β ranged from 0.080 to 0.088 and 95% CI ranged from 0.042 to 0.259). After having been adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference, DBP showed a positive significant (p < 0.05) association with height. There was a positive significant association between DBP and SBP together with the components of height amongst Ellisras rural children. PMID:27618907

  20. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood...

  1. Resolving the lateral component of blood flow velocity based on ultrasound speckle size change with scan direction and speed.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiantian; Bashford, Gregory R

    2009-01-01

    Conventional blood flow velocity measurement using ultrasound is capable of resolving the axial component (i.e., that aligned with the ultrasound propagation direction) of the blood flow velocity vector. However, these Doppler-based methods are incapable of detecting blood flow in the direction normal to the ultrasound beam. In addition, these methods require repeated pulse-echo interrogation at the same spatial location. In this paper, we introduce a method which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame using the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to the blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is "smeared") if the blood is moving in the same direction as the electronically-controlled transducer line selection in a 2D image. The situation is analogous to the observed elongation of a subject photographed with a moving camera. Here, we develop a relationship between speckle size, scan speed, and blood flow velocity. Experiments were performed with a blood flow phantom and high-frequency transducer of a commercially available ultrasound machine. Data was captured through an interface allowing access to the raw beam formed data. Blood flow with velocities ranging from 15 to 40 cm/s were investigated in this paper. Results show that there is a linear relationship between the reciprocal of the stretch factor and blood flow velocity. Two scan speeds were used in our experiments. When the scan velocity is 64.8 cm/s, compared with the theoretical model, fitting results based on experimental data gave us a linear relationship with average flow estimation error of 1.74+/-1.48 cm/s. When the scan velocity is 37.4 cm/s, the average estimation error is 0.65+/-0.45 cm/s.

  2. Modelling the effects of blood component storage lesions on the quality of haemostatic resuscitation in massive transfusion for trauma.

    PubMed

    Mays, James A; Hess, John R

    2017-03-01

    All blood components undergo loss of potency during storage. These loss-of-potency storage lesions are important in trauma resuscitation because they reduce the haemostatic capacity of mixtures of components that attempt to reconstitute whole blood. Even red cell storage-related loss of potency, which averages 17% with modern additive solutions, is important because 6 units of red cells must be given to achieve the effect of 5 fully potent units. Loss of potency of stored units of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate were summed for dilutional, storage-related, pathogen reduction-related, and splenic sequestration-related causes and expressed as fractional plasma coagulation factor concentrations and platelet counts. Production of reconstituted whole blood from 1:1:1 unit ratios of red cells:plasma:platelets is associated with a 38% loss of plasma coagulation factor concentration and 56% loss of platelets. Storage losses of 17% for red cells, 10% for coagulation factors, and 30% for platelets are additive to pathogen reduction-related losses of 18% for coagulation factors and 30% for platelets. Component preparation and storage-related losses of potency for all blood components are serious problems for trauma resuscitation. Even red cell storage contributes to this problem and this can be made better in ways that can save many lives each year.

  3. Modelling the effects of blood component storage lesions on the quality of haemostatic resuscitation in massive transfusion for trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mays, James A.; Hess, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Background All blood components undergo loss of potency during storage. These loss-of-potency storage lesions are important in trauma resuscitation because they reduce the haemostatic capacity of mixtures of components that attempt to reconstitute whole blood. Even red cell storage-related loss of potency, which averages 17% with modern additive solutions, is important because 6 units of red cells must be given to achieve the effect of 5 fully potent units. Materials and methods Loss of potency of stored units of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate were summed for dilutional, storage-related, pathogen reduction-related, and splenic sequestration-related causes and expressed as fractional plasma coagulation factor concentrations and platelet counts. Results Production of reconstituted whole blood from 1:1:1 unit ratios of red cells:plasma:platelets is associated with a 38% loss of plasma coagulation factor concentration and 56% loss of platelets. Storage losses of 17% for red cells, 10% for coagulation factors, and 30% for platelets are additive to pathogen reduction-related losses of 18% for coagulation factors and 30% for platelets. Discussion Component preparation and storage-related losses of potency for all blood components are serious problems for trauma resuscitation. Even red cell storage contributes to this problem and this can be made better in ways that can save many lives each year. PMID:28263173

  4. Evaluate an impact of incident alpha particle and gamma ray on human blood components: A comparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Asaad H.; Yaba, Sardar P.; Ismail, Haider J.

    2015-07-01

    An impact of alpha and gamma irradiation on human blood components have been evaluated and compared for healthy blood samples (male and females). Irradiation dose and time of irradiation calibrated and considered as a main comparison factors. Density of blood components measured for each in vitro irradiation before and after irradiation for males and females. Survey radiation dosimeter (Inspector Exp) and nuclear track detectors type CR-39 used to evaluate exposure dose rate and incident density of alpha particles, respectively. Experiment results verified that the irradiation of blood makes ionizing of blood components, either alpha or gamma irradiation dose, and the impacts of ionizing radiation were relativity for WBC, RBC, and PLT. Limited irradiation doses of 1-5 μSv/hr considered as a low radiation dose of alpha and gamma radiation sources ({sup 226}Ra, and {sup 137}Cs). Density of alpha particles accumulated on the blood surface was 34 (alpha particle/cm{sup 2}) for selected dose of incident alpha particle. Optimum value of irradiation dose and time of irradiation were 5 μSv/hr and 4 second for males and females. On the other hands, the values of irradiation dose and time of irradiation were 2.1 μSv/hr and 2 second for males and females for gamma irradiation. Thus, present results demonstrated that densities of RBC and WBC cells are capable of inducing reproduction in vitro for both type of irradiation. (authors)

  5. Pulsatile and steady components of blood pressure and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Cheung, Ken; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B

    2015-10-01

    To assess whether pulse pressure (PP) is associated, independently of mean arterial pressure (MAP), with perivascular spaces (PVS), lacunar lesions presumably ischemic (LPI), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) seen on brain MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study had their blood pressure (BP) taken during their baseline enrollment visit and again during a visit for a brain MRI a mean of 7 years later. We assessed small and large PVS, lacunar LPI, and WMHV on MRI. We examined the association of SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP at baseline with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease using generalized linear models and adjusting for vascular risk factors. Imaging and BP data were available for 1009 participants (mean age 68 ± 8 years, 60% women, 60% Hispanic). DBP was associated with lacunar LPI and WMHV, whereas SBP was associated with small and large PVS. Using MAP and PP together disclosed that the effect size for PP was greater for large PVS, whereas the effect of MAP was greater for lacunar LPI and WMHV. The effects of DBP were flat or negative at any degree of SBP higher than 120 mmHg for small and large PVS, whereas a positive association was noted for lacunar LPI and WMHV with any DBP increase over any degree of SBP. We report here a segregated association between the pulsatile and steady components of the BP with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease. These differential associations may reflect the underlying disease of these biomarkers.

  6. Look-back study on recipients of Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA-positive blood components.

    PubMed

    Juhl, D; Özdemir, M; Dreier, J; Görg, S; Hennig, H

    2015-11-01

    To assess the relevance of Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA at low to intermediate concentrations in blood donors for the recipients of their blood components. We studied recipients of B19V DNA-positive blood components [red blood cell concentrates (RBCs), pooled platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma]. This included archived pretransfusion samples as well as follow-up samples investigated by ELISA or NAT and genome sequence analysis. In 132 out of 424 recipients, we could detect no anti-B19V IgG before transfusion. In 67 out of 132 sero-negative recipients, a follow-up sample was available. Sixty-five of these received blood components from donors with <10(4) IU B19V DNA/ml plasma and had no evidence of transfusion-transmitted (TT)-B19V infection. Homology in genome sequences in donor and recipient provided evidence for a TT-B19V infection in two recipients. Both patients received RBC containing 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.8 × 10(4) IU B19V DNA/ml plasma, respectively. The anti-B19V IgG titres in the donors were 2 and 76 IU/ml plasma, respectively. The antibodies in the second donor were directed against capsid proteins and are thus considered as potential neutralizing antibodies. TT-B19V infections through blood components with low (<10(4) IU/ml plasma) B19V DNA concentrations did not occur in our study. One of the TT-B19V infections occurred from RBC with intermediate B19V DNA concentration despite the presence of potential neutralizing antibodies in the donor, but its clinical significance was low. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  8. A major haemorrhage protocol improves the delivery of blood component therapy and reduces waste in trauma massive transfusion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sirat; Allard, Shubha; Weaver, Anne; Barber, Colin; Davenport, Ross; Brohi, Karim

    2013-05-01

    Major haemorrhage protocols (MHP) are required as part of damage control resuscitation regimens in modern trauma care. The primary objectives of this study were to ascertain whether a MHP improved blood product administration and reduced waste compared to traditional massive transfusion protocols (MTP). Datasets on adult trauma admissions 1 year prior and 1 year post implementation of a MHP at a Level 1 trauma centre were obtained from the trauma registry. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively including mechanism of injury, physiological observations, ICU admission and length of stay. The volume of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, cryoprecipitate and fresh frozen plasma) issued, transfused, returned to stock and wasted within the first 24h was gathered retrospectively. Over the 2-year study period 2986 patient records were available for analysis. 40 patients required a 10+ Units of packed red blood ells transfusion in the MTP group vs. 56 patients post MHP implementation. The administration of blood component therapy improved significantly post MHP implementation. FFP:PRBC transfusion improved from 1:3 to 1:2 (p<0.01) and CRYO:PRBC improved from 1:10 to 1:7 (p<0.05). We reported a significant reduction in the waste of platelets from 14% to 2% (p<0.01). Outcomes had improved: Median hospital length of stay was reduced from 54 days to 26 days (p<0.05). Implementation of a MHP results in improved delivery of blood components and a reduction in the waste of blood products compared to the older model of MTP. In combination with educational programmes MHP can significantly improve blood product administration and patient outcomes in trauma haemorrhage. Level III diagnostic test study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Purification and characterization of PCR-inhibitory components in blood cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Soud, W A; Rådström, P

    2001-02-01

    In a recent study, immunoglobulin G in human plasma was identified as a major inhibitor of diagnostic PCR (W. Abu Al-Soud, L. J. Jönsson, and P. Rådström. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:345-350, 2000). In this study, two major PCR inhibitors in human blood cells were purified using size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatographic procedures. Based on N-terminal amino acid sequencing and electrophoretic analysis of the purified polypeptides, hemoglobin and lactoferrin were identified as PCR-inhibitor components in erythrocytes and leukocytes, respectively. When different concentrations of hemoglobin or lactoferrin were added to PCR mixtures of 25 microl containing 10 different thermostable DNA polymerases and 1 ng of Listeria monocytogenes DNA as template DNA, AmpliTaq Gold, Pwo, and Ultma were inhibited in the presence of < or = 1.3 microg of hemoglobin and < or = 25 ng of lactoferrin, while rTth and Tli were found to resist inhibition of at least 100 microg of hemoglobin. In addition, the quantitative effects of seven low-molecular-mass inhibitors, present in blood samples or degradation products of hemoglobin, on real-time DNA synthesis of rTth using the LightCycler Instrument were investigated. A reaction system based on a single-stranded poly(dA) template with an oligo(dT) primer annealed to the 3' end was used. It was found that the addition of 0.25 to 0.1 mg of bile per ml, 2.5 mM CaCl2, 0.25 mM EDTA, 5 microM FeCl3, and 0.01 IU of heparin per ml reduced the fluorescence to approximately 76, 70, 46, 17, and 51%, respectively. Finally, the effects of nine amplification facilitators were studied in the presence of hemoglobin and lactoferrin. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the most efficient amplification facilitator, so that the addition of 0.4% (wt/vol) BSA allowed AmpliTaq Gold to amplify DNA in the presence of 20 instead of 1 microg of hemoglobin and 500 instead of 5 ng of lactoferrin. Including 0.02% (wt/vol) gp32, a single-stranded-DNA binding protein, in the

  10. Purification and Characterization of PCR-Inhibitory Components in Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Rådström, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In a recent study, immunoglobulin G in human plasma was identified as a major inhibitor of diagnostic PCR (W. Abu Al-Soud, L. J. Jönsson, and P. Rådström. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:345–350, 2000). In this study, two major PCR inhibitors in human blood cells were purified using size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatographic procedures. Based on N-terminal amino acid sequencing and electrophoretic analysis of the purified polypeptides, hemoglobin and lactoferrin were identified as PCR-inhibitor components in erythrocytes and leukocytes, respectively. When different concentrations of hemoglobin or lactoferrin were added to PCR mixtures of 25 μl containing 10 different thermostable DNA polymerases and 1 ng of Listeria monocytogenes DNA as template DNA, AmpliTaq Gold, Pwo, and Ultma were inhibited in the presence of ≤1.3 μg of hemoglobin and ≤25 ng of lactoferrin, while rTth and Tli were found to resist inhibition of at least 100 μg of hemoglobin. In addition, the quantitative effects of seven low-molecular-mass inhibitors, present in blood samples or degradation products of hemoglobin, on real-time DNA synthesis of rTth using the LightCycler Instrument were investigated. A reaction system based on a single-stranded poly(dA) template with an oligo(dT) primer annealed to the 3′ end was used. It was found that the addition of 0.25 to 0.1 mg of bile per ml, 2.5 mM CaCl2, 0.25 mM EDTA, 5 μM FeCl3, and 0.01 IU of heparin per ml reduced the fluorescence to approximately 76, 70, 46, 17, and 51%, respectively. Finally, the effects of nine amplification facilitators were studied in the presence of hemoglobin and lactoferrin. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the most efficient amplification facilitator, so that the addition of 0.4% (wt/vol) BSA allowed AmpliTaq Gold to amplify DNA in the presence of 20 instead of 1 μg of hemoglobin and 500 instead of 5 ng of lactoferrin. Including 0.02% (wt/vol) gp32, a single-stranded-DNA binding protein, in the reaction mixture of

  11. Processing and Structural Advantages of the Sylramic-iBN SiC Fiber for SiC/SiC Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; Dicarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. T.; Hurst, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    The successful high-temperature application of complex-shaped SiC/SiC components will depend on achieving as high a fraction of the as-produced fiber strength as possible during component fabrication and service. Key issues center on a variety of component architecture, processing, and service-related factors that can reduce fiber strength, such as fiber-fiber abrasion during architecture shaping, surface chemical attack during interphase deposition and service, and intrinsic flaw growth during high-temperature matrix formation and composite creep. The objective of this paper is to show that the NASA-developed Sylramic-iBN SiC fiber minimizes many of these issues for state-of-the-art melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/BN/SiC composites. To accomplish this, data from various mechanical tests are presented that compare how different high performance SiC fiber types retain strength during formation of complex architectures, during processing of BN interphases and MI matrices, and during simulated composite service at high temperatures.

  12. Business continuity in blood services: two case studies from events with potentially catastrophic effect on the national provision of blood components.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Rackham, R A; Penny, S; Lawson, J R; Walsh, R J; Ismay, S L

    2015-02-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) are national blood establishments providing blood components to England and North Wales, and Australia, respectively. In 2012, both services experienced potentially catastrophic challenges to key assets. NHSBT suffered a flood that closed the largest blood-manufacturing centre in Europe, whilst ARCBS experienced the failure of a data centre network switch that rendered the national blood management system inaccessible for 42 h. This paper describes both crisis events, including the immediate actions, recovery procedures and lessons learned. Both incidents triggered emergency response plans. These included hospital reprovisioning and recovery from the incident. Once normal services had been restored, both events were subjected to root cause analysis (RCA) and production of 'lessons learned' reports. In both scenarios, the key enablers of rapid recovery were established emergency plans, clear leadership and the support of a flexible workforce. Product issues to hospitals were unaffected, and there were no abnormal trends in hospital complaints. RCA identified the importance of risk mitigations that require co-operation with external organizations. Reviews of both events identified opportunities to enhance business resilience through prior identification of external risks and improvements to contingency plans, for example by implementing mass messaging to staff and other stakeholders. Blood establishment emergency plans tend to focus on responding to mass casualty events. However, consolidation of manufacturing to fewer sites combined with a reliance on national IT systems increases the impact of loss of function. Blood services should develop business continuity plans which include prevention of such losses, and the maintenance of services and disaster recovery. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. SERS reveals the specific interaction of silver and gold nanoparticles with hemoglobin and red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Daniela; Büchner, Tina; McNaughton, Don; Kneipp, Janina

    2013-04-21

    The interaction of nanoparticles with hemoglobin (Hb), a major constituent of red blood cells, is important in nanotoxicity research. We report SERS spectra of Hb using gold and silver nanoparticles at very small nanoparticle : Hb molecule ratios, that is, under conditions relevant for SERS-based nanotoxicity experiments with red blood cells at high sensitivity. We show that the structural information obtained from the experiment is highly dependent on the type of SERS substrate and the conditions under which the interaction of nanoparticles with Hb molecules takes place. In experiments with isolated red blood cells, we demonstrate that the dependence of the spectra on the type of nanoparticle used as the SERS substrate extends to whole red blood cells and red blood cell components. Regarding the applicability of SERS to red blood cells in vivo, evidence is provided that the molecular information contained in the spectra is highly dependent on the material and size of the nanoparticles. The results indicate specific interactions of gold and silver nanoparticles with Hb and the red blood cell membrane, and reflect the hemolytic activity of silver nanoparticles. The results of this study help improve our understanding of the interactions of silver and gold nanoparticles with red blood cells.

  14. Tracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles component causes blood and pulmonary neutrophilia and enhances myocardial oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Syunji; Seki, Takayuki; Naito, Yukiko; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Hirabayashi, Naoyuki; Nakasaka, Toshiaki; Ohara, Naoki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-12-01

    The influences of inhaling particulate air-pollutants on hematopoiesis and myocardial oxidative stress were investigated in mice by intratracheal instillation (IT) of diesel exhaust particles (DEP), its dichloromethane soluble-component (DMSC) or residual particle-component (RPC). After IT, time courses of cytokine levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), peripheral blood cell count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and myocardial chemokine levels were observed for 24 hr. RPC caused sustained blood neutrophilia while that caused by DEP and DMSC was transient. RPC also caused sustained elevations of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in BALF. Furthermore, IL-1beta level in BALF in the RPC group was significantly elevated at 24 hr after IT. Significant positive correlations were observed between blood neutrophil count and IL-6/G-CSF levels in BALF. MPO activity in the myocardium was increased by RPC at 12 and 24 hr after IT while the activities in the kidney and the liver were not affected. Significant correlation was also observed between myocardial MPO activity and blood neutrophil count at 12 hr after IT, for all three substances. From these results, it was concluded that particle component of DEP may enhance myocardial oxidative stress via blood neutrophilia and the elevation of cytokine levels in BALF.

  15. Inventory management strategies that reduce the age of red blood cell components at the time of transfusion.

    PubMed

    Poisson, Jessica L; Tuma, Christopher W; Shulman, Ira A

    2016-07-01

    There has been interest concerning patient outcomes when older red blood cell (RBC) components are utilized. Inventory management is key to maintaining a stock of fresher RBCs for general transfusion needs. We have altered our practice for RBC management to reduce RBC age at the time of transfusion. Retrospective review of RBC age at time of transfusion at a tertiary care hospital with active trauma service was performed. The baseline nonirradiated RBC inventory was decreased from 12 to 15 days of stock to 7 to 10 days of stock, with request made to the blood supplier for fresher RBCs, specified at 75% of RBCs less than 14 days old. The age of RBCs at time of receipt and at time of transfusion was tracked on a monthly basis for the next 12 months. The mean age of RBCs at transfusion was decreased by 9 days on average for the year. Significant decreases in the mean age of RBCs at transfusion were seen in the second half of the year, with 4 of 6 months seeing a mean age of less than 20 days. There were no documented incidences of hospital blood shortages after the reduction in inventory; no surgery was canceled or delayed because of inventory. Inventory age depends on active management, combined with vendor cooperation to receive fresher components. Reducing the age of RBC components transfused is possible without experiencing blood component shortages. Longer periods of observation may allow for further adjustment of stocking levels on a seasonal basis. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Nandrolone decanoate interferes with testosterone biosynthesis altering blood-testis barrier components.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rappa, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Barone, Fulvio; Sangiorgi, Claudia; D'Amico, Daniela; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Cipolloni, Luigi; Di Felice, Valentina; Schiavone, Stefania; Rapisarda, Venerando; Sani, Gabriele; Tambo, Amos; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND) use affects testosterone production and testicular morphology in a model of trained and sedentary mice. A group of mice underwent endurance training while another set led a sedentary lifestyle and were freely mobile within cages. All experimental groups were treated with either ND or peanut oil at different doses for 6 weeks. Testosterone serum levels were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to determine gene and protein expression levels of the primary enzymes implicated in testosterone biosynthesis and gene expression levels of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) components. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were conducted for testicular morphological evaluation. The study demonstrated that moderate to high doses of ND induced a diminished serum testosterone level and altered the expression level of the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in testosterone biosynthesis. At the morphological level, ND induced degradation of the BTB by targeting the tight junction protein-1 (TJP1). ND stimulation deregulated metalloproteinase-9, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the tissue inhibitor of MMP-2. Moreover, ND administration resulted in a mislocalization of mucin-1. In conclusion, ND abuse induces a decline in testosterone production that is unable to regulate the internalization and redistribution of TJP1 and may induce the deregulation of other BTB constituents via the inhibition of MMP-2. ND may well be considered as both a potential inducer of male infertility and a potential risk factor to a low endogenous bioavailable testosterone. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Impact of graphene oxide on the structure and function of important multiple blood components by a dose-dependent pattern.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ru; Yu, Yueping; Shen, Chaoxuan; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2015-06-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have become great concern in biomedical fields. Though many investigations about their toxicity have been reported, systematic investigation on the interaction with multiple blood components is lacking. In this work, we studied the effects of the graphene oxide (GO) on the structure and function of the blood components, especially, on morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen conformation, complement activation, and blood coagulation function. Scanning electron microscopy observation and hemolysis test results showed that the GO can affect RBC morphology and membrane integrity in a concentration-dependent way. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra showed that GO could alter the secondary structures and conformation of BSA and fibrinogen. In addition, the presence of GO could also trigger complement activation by detecting their key biomarker molecules in plasma. In the blood clotting process, the GO showed significant adverse effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time but not on prothrombin time of the platelet-poor plasma. Meanwhile, the GO also caused abnormal thromboelastography parameters of the whole blood coagulation. The results obtained in this study provides good insight into understanding the biomedical application of GO in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantification of Transfusion Recipients at Risk of Receiving Hepatitis B Virus-Contaminated Blood Components: A Korean Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyeongsu; Chang, Sounghoon; Hur, Mina; Kim, Vitna; Jeong, Hyoseon; Seo, Dong Hee; Lee, SangWon; Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, Eunyoung; Kim, Young Tack

    2016-09-01

    Although there are lots of studies about the risk for the hepatitis B virus infection such as the residual risk for donated blood, there is no research on the risk of HBV infection, from the viewpoint of recipients in Korea. Using the data about HBsAg status of donated blood in 2008 and 2009, the distribution of blood components from the claim data of health insurance in 2009, the distribution of HBsAg and HBsAb of recipients, and some assumptions, we quantified the number of recipients in Korea that might be expected to receive HBV-contaminated blood components, as a proxy index for HBV infection by transfusion in 2009. Of the 376,211 recipients, the number who might be expected to receive blood components with HBV in 2009 was 23.2 (95 % CI 13.6, 36.8) in the basic model, 43.2 (95 % CI 25.4, 68.7) in extended model I, 55.2 (95 % CI 32.5, 87.7) in extended model II and 101.6 (95 % CI 59.8, 161.4) in extended model III. The number of HBV-positive samples per 100,000 transfused units was 0.6 in the basic model (95 % CI 0.3, 0.9), 1.1 in extended model I (95 % CI 0.6, 1.8), 1.4 in extended model II (95 % CI 0.8, 2.2), and 2.6 in extended model III (95 % CI 1.5, 4.1). This study showed that a few recipients might receive HBV-contaminated blood component by transfusion. These results could be used as a scientific evidence for health policy on HBV transfusion infection.

  19. Skin and muscle components of forearm blood flow in directly heated resting man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detry, J.-M. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Rowell, L. B.; Wyss, C.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in forearm muscle blood flow (FMBF) during direct whole-body heating were measured in 17 normal subjects using three different methods. We conclude that FMBF is not increased by direct whole-body heating. Since renal and splanchnic blood flow fall 30% under these conditions, maximal total skin blood flow in 12 previously studied subjects can be estimated from the rise in cardiac output to be 7.6 L/min (3.0-11.1 L/min).

  20. Skin and muscle components of forearm blood flow in directly heated resting man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detry, J.-M. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Rowell, L. B.; Wyss, C.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in forearm muscle blood flow (FMBF) during direct whole-body heating were measured in 17 normal subjects using three different methods. We conclude that FMBF is not increased by direct whole-body heating. Since renal and splanchnic blood flow fall 30% under these conditions, maximal total skin blood flow in 12 previously studied subjects can be estimated from the rise in cardiac output to be 7.6 L/min (3.0-11.1 L/min).

  1. Correlation Analysis between Complex Relative Permittivity and Biochemical Components for Blood of Dialysis Patients before and after Hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Akira; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nagao, Hirotomo; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    We previously measured for healthy subjects and patients who require hemodialysis the complex relative permittivity (εr´-jεr´´) of whole blood, and found that εr´-axis intercept εrt´ of straight line approximation to the Cole-Cole plots at frequencies from 200 MHz to 1GHz is significantly different with a level of less than 1% among its averaged values for healthy subjects and patients before and after dialysis, though any correlations between εrt´ and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine being used as main indices for hemodialysis evaluation have not so far been clarified. In this study, to make correlation analyses between the intercept εrt´ and blood biochemical components for nine patients before and after hemodialysis, we measured six kinds of their blood components including BUN and creatinine, and calculated their Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for εrt´ along with significant probability P based on a t-test. It should be noted that P is a reference probability to determine whether or not a null hypothesis can be rejected, and that the P value of 0.05 is commonly used as a significance level for statistical test. As a result, we found that a strong correlation with P < 0.05 is observed between εrt´ and albumin, while there are not always significant correlations with P > 0.05 between εrt´ and other blood components including BUN and creatinine. Although albumin is not used as an index for hemodialysis efficiency, it can reflect water amount in blood vessels and liver operation. This finding implies that εrt´ could be used as an index for evaluating blood viscosity and liver function.

  2. The optimum measurement precision evaluation for blood components using near-infrared spectra on 1000-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Sun, Di; Han, Tongshuai; Guo, Chao; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    In the non-invasive blood components measurement using near infrared spectroscopy, the useful signals caused by the concentration variation in the interested components, such as glucose, hemoglobin, albumin etc., are relative weak. Then the signals may be greatly disturbed by a lot of noises in various ways. We improved the signals by using the optimum path-length for the used wavelength to get a maximum variation of transmitted light intensity when the concentration of a component varies. And after the path-length optimization for every wavelength in 1000-2500 nm, we present the detection limits for the components, including glucose, hemoglobin and albumin, when measuring them in a tissue phantom. The evaluated detection limits could be the best reachable precision level since it assumed the measurement uses a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) signal and the optimum path-length. From the results, available wavelengths in 1000-2500 nm for the three component measurements can be screened by comparing their detection limit values with their measurement limit requirements. For other blood components measurement, the evaluation their detection limits could also be designed using the method proposed in this paper. Moreover, we use an equation to estimate the absorbance at the optimum path-length for every wavelength in 1000-2500 nm caused by the three components. It could be an easy way to realize the evaluation because adjusting the sample cell's size to the precise path-length value for every wavelength is not necessary. This equation could also be referred to other blood components measurement using the optimum path-length for every used wavelength.

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  4. Evaluation of shear stress accumulation on blood components in normal and dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, S; Maleki, H; Hassan, I; Kadem, L

    2012-10-11

    Evaluating shear induced hemodynamic complications is one of the major concerns in design of the mechanical heart valves (MHVs). The monitoring of these events relies on both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Currently, numerical approaches are mainly based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A more straightforward evaluation can be based on the Lagrangian analysis of the whole blood. As a consequence, Lagrangian meshfree methods are more adapted to such evaluation. In this study, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a fully meshfree particle method originated to simulate compressible astrophysical flows, is applied to study the flow through a normal and a dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). The SPH results are compared with the reference data. The accumulation of shear stress patterns on blood components illustrates the important role played by non-physiological flow patterns and mainly vortical structures in this issue. The statistical distribution of particles with respect to shear stress loading history provides important information regarding the relative number of blood components that can be damaged. This can be used as a measure of the response of blood components to the presence of the valve implant or any implantable medical device. This work presents the first attempt to simulate pulsatile flow through BMHVs using SPH method.

  5. Simulation and experimental determination of the online separation of blood components with the help of microfluidic cascading spirals

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Lisa; Dutz, Silvio; Schneider, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic spirals were used to successfully separate rare solid components from unpretreated human whole blood samples. The measured separation ratio of the spirals is the factor by which the concentration of the rare component is increased due to the Dean effect present in a flow profile in a curved duct. Different rates of dilution of the blood samples with a phosphate-buffered solution were investigated. The diameters of the spherical particles to separate ranged from 2 μm to 18 μm. It was found that diluting the blood to 20% is optimal leading to a separation ratio up to 1.97. Using two spirals continuously placed in a row led to an increase in separation efficacy in samples consisting of phosphate-buffered solution only from 1.86 to 3.79. Numerical investigations were carried out to display the flow profiles of Newtonian water samples and the shear-thinning blood samples in the cross-section of the experimentally handled channels. A macroscopic difference in velocity between the two rheologically different fluids could not be found. The macroscopic Dean flow is equally present and useful to help particles migrate to certain equilibrium positions in blood as well as lower viscous Newtonian fluids. The investigations highlight the potential for using highly concentrated, very heterogeneous, and non-Newtonian fluidic systems in known microsystems for screening applications. PMID:26339311

  6. Reactivity and Speciation of Anti-Diabetic Vanadium Complexes in Whole Blood and Its Components: The Important Role of Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Gasparini, Sylvia J; Nguyen, Annie; De Silva, W G Manori; Aitken, Jade B; Harris, Hugh H; Glover, Chris; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2015-08-17

    Reactions with blood components are crucial for controlling the antidiabetic, anticancer, and other biological activities of V(V) and V(IV) complexes. Despite extensive studies of V(V) and V(IV) reactions with the major blood proteins (albumin and transferrin), reactions with whole blood and red blood cells (RBC) have been studied rarely. A detailed speciation study of Na3[V(V)O4] (A), K4[V(IV)2O2(citr)2]·6H2O (B; citr = citrato(4-)); [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C; ma = maltolato(-)), and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D; dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato(2-)) in whole rat blood, freshly isolated rat plasma, and commercial bovine serum using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is reported. The latter two compounds are potential oral antidiabetic drugs, and the former two are likely to represent their typical decomposition products in gastrointestinal media. XANES spectral speciation was performed by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression techniques, and the distribution of V between RBC and plasma fractions was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Reactions of A, C, or D with whole blood (1.0 mM V, 1-6 h at 310 K) led to accumulation of ∼50% of total V in the RBC fraction (∼10% in the case of B), which indicated that RBC act as V carriers to peripheral organs. The spectra of V products in RBC were independent of the initial V complex, and were best fitted by a combination of V(IV)-carbohydrate (2-hydroxyacid moieties) and/or citrate (65-85%) and V(V)-protein (15-35%) models. The presence of RBC created a more reducing environment in the plasma fraction of whole blood compared with those in isolated plasma or serum, as shown by the differences in distribution of V(IV) and V(V) species in the reaction products of A-D in these media. At physiologically relevant V concentrations (<50 μM), this role of RBC may promote the formation of V(III)-transferrin as a major V carrier in the blood plasma. The results reported

  7. Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christine S; Chiou, Kevin; Ragheb, Daniel RT; Salman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahid M; Liu, Andrea J; Sinnis, Photini

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit ‘avascular motility’, defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.001 PMID:26271010

  8. What Physical Fitness Component Is Most Closely Associated With Adolescents' Blood Pressure?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Alves, Carlos A S; Gonçalves, Eliane C A; Silva, Diego A S

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which of four selected physical fitness variables, would be most associated with blood pressure changes (systolic and diastolic) in a large sample of adolescents. This was a descriptive and cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1,117 adolescents aged 14-19 years from southern Brazil. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by a digital pressure device, and the selected physical fitness variables were body composition (body mass index), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), muscle strength/resistance (manual dynamometer), and aerobic fitness (Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness and muscle strength/resistance best explained variations in systolic blood pressure for boys (17.3% and 7.4% of variance) and girls (7.4% of variance). Aerobic fitness, body composition, and muscle strength/resistance are all important indicators of blood pressure control, but aerobic fitness was a stronger predictor of systolic blood pressure in boys and of diastolic blood pressure in both sexes.

  9. Infectivity of blood components from donors with occult hepatitis B infection - results from an Australian lookback programme.

    PubMed

    Seed, C R; Maloney, R; Kiely, P; Bell, B; Keller, A J; Pink, J

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transfused blood components from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) are potentially infectious. This study reports the results of an Australian lookback programme for the period subsequent to the commencement of individual donation HBV NAT in July 2010 and estimates the HBV transmission rate for components from two categories of donors, confirmed OBI and HBV inconclusive (anti-HBc reactive with non-discriminated NAT result). Using the results of lookback investigations, we estimated HBV transmission rates by donor category and type of component transfused based on the prevalence of antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in recipients adjusted for the estimated prevalence in the general population. After subtracting the background anti-HBc rate, we derived an adjusted transmission rate (all components) with lower and upper bounds as follows: 0·85% (0·00-2·35%) for OBI donors, 2·83% (1·23-4·33%) for inconclusive donors and 1·81% (0·21-3·31%) for total (OBI and inconclusive) donors. The median adjusted transmission rate for total donors was higher (but not statistically) for plasma (3·01%) than RCCs (2·86%), but there was no evidence of transmission for cryoprecipitate or platelets (0% for both components). Our lookback study suggests a low (0·2-3·3%) but measurable rate of HBV transmission in Australia associated with donors with OBI and supports published evidence that at least some blood component types from OBI donors, including a proportion undetectable by ID-NAT can transmit HBV by transfusion. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Bacterial screening of platelet components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant, an effective risk reduction measure.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carl; Allen, Jennifer; Brailsford, Susan; Roy, Anjana; Ball, Joanne; Moule, Richard; Vasconcelos, Mariza; Morrison, Rachael; Pitt, Tyrone

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components remains a major cause of sepsis in transfusion medicine. Between 2006 and 2010 in the 5 years before the introduction of bacterial screening of platelet (PLT) components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), seven cases of PLT component-associated transmission of bacterial infection were recorded for 10 patients, three of which were fatal. Sampling of individual PLT components was undertaken at 36 to 48 hours after donation and tested in the BacT/ALERT system with 8 mL inoculated into each of aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Bottles were incubated until the end of the 7-day shelf life and initial reactive bottles were examined for contamination. Bacterial screened time-expired PLTs were tested as in the screen method. From February 2011 to September 2015, a total of 1,239,029 PLT components were screened. Initial-reactive, confirmed-positive, and false-positive rates were 0.37, 0.03, and 0.19%, respectively. False-negative cultures, all with Staphylococcus aureus, occurred on four occasions; three were visually detected before transfusion and one confirmed transmission resulted in patient morbidity. The NHSBT screening protocol effectively reduced the number of clinically adverse transfusion transmissions by 90% in this reporting period, compared to a similar time period before implementation. Delayed testing of 4515 time-expired PLT units after screening revealed no positives. The implementation of bacterial screening of PLT components with the NHSBT BacT/ALERT protocol was an effective risk reduction measure and increased the safety of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  11. Damage control resuscitation using blood component therapy in standard doses has a limited effect on coagulopathy during trauma hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sirat; Davenport, Ross; Raza, Imran; Glasgow, Simon; De'Ath, Henry D; Johansson, Pär I; Curry, Nicola; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of blood component therapy in the correction of trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. Severe hemorrhage remains a leading cause of mortality in trauma. Damage control resuscitation strategies target trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) with the early delivery of high-dose blood components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions. However, the ability of these products to correct TIC during hemorrhage and resuscitation is unknown. This was an international prospective cohort study of bleeding trauma patients at three major trauma centers. A blood sample was drawn immediately on arrival and after 4, 8 and 12 packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. FFP, platelet and cryoprecipitate use was recorded during these intervals. Samples were analyzed for functional coagulation and procoagulant factor levels. One hundred six patients who received at least four PRBC units were included. Thirty-four patients (32 %) required a massive transfusion. On admission 40 % of patients were coagulopathic (ROTEM CA5 ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 58 % after four PRBCs and 81 % after eight PRBCs. On average all functional coagulation parameters and procoagulant factor concentrations deteriorated during hemorrhage. There was no clear benefit to high-dose FFP therapy in any parameter. Only combined high-dose FFP, cryoprecipitate and platelet therapy with a high total fibrinogen load appeared to produce a consistent improvement in coagulation. Damage control resuscitation with standard doses of blood components did not consistently correct trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. There is an important opportunity to improve TIC management during damage control resuscitation.

  12. Detection and identification of microparticles/nanoparticles and blood components using optical resonance of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniavskaia, E. A.; Saetchnikov, V. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present experimental data on the dependence of optical resonance spectra of whispering-gallery modes in dielectric microspheres on the constituent composition of solutions modeling blood plasma and also containing disease indicators and virus ghosts. We observe substantial changes in the optical resonance spectra of whispering-gallery modes, associated both with a change in the macroscopic parameters of the microsphere environment and with possible interaction between the microsphere surface and components of the solution.

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  14. Aggregate blood pressure responses to serial dietary sodium and potassium intervention: defining responses using independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengsheng; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Gu, Chi C; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika; Hixson, James; Jacquish, Cashell; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K

    2015-06-20

    Hypertension is a complex trait that often co-occurs with other conditions such as obesity and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Aggregate indices such as principal components among these variables and their responses to environmental interventions may represent novel information that is potentially useful for genetic studies. In this study of families participating in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) Study, blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium interventions are explored. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to 20 variables indexing obesity and BP measured at baseline and during low sodium, high sodium and high sodium plus potassium dietary intervention periods. A "heat map" protocol that classifies subjects based on risk for hypertension is used to interpret the extracted components. ICA and heat map suggest four components best describe the data: (1) systolic hypertension, (2) general hypertension, (3) response to sodium intervention and (4) obesity. The largest heritabilities are for the systolic (64%) and general hypertension (56%) components. There is a pattern of higher heritability for the component response to intervention (40-42%) as compared to those for the traditional intervention responses computed as delta scores (24%-40%). In summary, the present study provides intermediate phenotypes that are heritable. Using these derived components may prove useful in gene discovery applications.

  15. An overview of the role of microparticles/microvesicles in blood components: Are they clinically beneficial or harmful?

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry; Chou, Ming-Li; Goubran, Hadi; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-10-01

    Blood cells and tissues generate heterogeneous populations of cell-derived vesicles, ranging from approximately 50 nm to 1 µm in diameter. Under normal physiological conditions and as an essential part of an energy-dependent natural process, microparticles (MPs) are continuously shed into the circulation from membranes of all viable cells such as megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells. MP shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement systems, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, MPs have a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine and expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. It was established that ex vivo processing of blood into its components, involving centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leucoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, can impact MP generation and content. This is mostly due to exposure of the collected blood to anticoagulant/storage media and due to shear stresses or activation, contact with artificial surfaces, or exposure to various leucocyte-removal filters and pathogen-reduction treatments. Such artificially generated MPs, which are added to the original pool of MPs collected from the donor, may exhibit specific functional characteristics, as MPs are not an inert element of blood components. Not surprisingly, MPs' roles and functionality are therefore increasingly seen to be fully relevant to the field of transfusion medicine, and as a parameter of blood safety that must be considered in haemovigilance programmes. Continual advancements in assessment methods of MPs and storage lesions are gradually leading to a better understanding of the impacts of

  16. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  17. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    PubMed

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  18. Addressing a vascular endothelium array with blood components using underlying microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Genes, Luiza I; V Tolan, Nicole; Hulvey, Matthew K; Martin, R Scott; Spence, Dana M

    2007-10-01

    Here, we show that an array of endothelial cells, addressable by an underlying microfluidic network of channels containing red blood cells, can be employed as an in vitro model of in vivo circulation to monitor cellular communication between different cell types in the drug discovery process.

  19. Properties of donated red blood cell components from patients with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Sut, Caroline; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Bost, Vincent; Aubrège, Christine; Acquart, Sophie; Vignal, Martine; Boutahar, Nadia; Arthaud, Charles Antoine; Ange Eyraud, Marie; Pozzetto, Bruno; Tiberghien, Pierre; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron, and periodic therapeutic phlebotomy is thus the main treatment for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, the donation of therapeutic phlebotomy products from asymptomatic patients for transfusion purposes remains controversial. In this study, we compared the quality of RBCs obtained from HH patients with those of non-HH RBCs, within the allowed 42-day storage period. RBCs were obtained from HH patient donors and random regular blood donors by whole blood collection. RBCs were stored for up to 42 days, according to national regulations and standard blood bank conditions in France. The following variables were assessed: hematologic and biochemical results, RBC membrane and soluble inflammatory markers, and the proinflammatory potential of HH RBC supernatant toward endothelial cells in an in vitro model. There were no major differences between the two groups in terms of biophysical, biochemical, or soluble immunomodulatory factors. However, we observed small but significant differences in changes in RBC membrane proteins during storage, including increased phosphatidylserine expression and decreased hemolysis in HH compared with normal RBCs. However, there were no differences in terms of bioactivity of soluble immunomodulatory factors in the RBC supernatant during storage between HH and control donors, as determined by their effects on endothelial cells in vitro. These in vitro studies suggest that RBCs from HH patients appear, while exhibiting subtle differences, to be suitable for transfusion purposes according to currently accepted criteria. © 2016 AABB.

  20. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Local wastewater treatment authorities charge non-residential customers, in part, based on measurements which indicate the pollutant load in the customer’s wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantificat...

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid deficiency and of erythorbic acid on blood components in the Cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J D; Sauberlich, H E; Omaye, S T

    1979-01-01

    Eight male Cynomolgus monkeys were fed an ascorbic acid-free total liquid diet until plasma levels decreased from a mean of 1.1 mg/dl to 0.04 mg/dl at 8 weeks. They showed no visible signs of scurvy. The animals were then given a daily oral dose of 10 mg ascorbic acid/kg body weight for 4 weeks, when the experiment was ended. Four of the animals were given, in addition, 200 mg erythorbic acid/kg body weight orally each day. In all animals repletion was accomplished in two to three weeks using return to initial plasma ascorbic acid levels as the criterion. During deficiency, blood cellular elements were found to be more resistant to depletion than plasma. For erythrocytes, this may be explained at least partially by the observation that in vitro uptake of ascorbic acid tended to be related inversely to blood ascorbic acid levels. However, no such relationship was seen in leucocytes or platelets. Other measurements made on blood did not vary in response to changing ascorbic acid levels. These include serum cholesterol; erythrocyte, leucocyte, or platelet counts; leucocyte differential; hemoglobin concentration; and hematocrit. Urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratios were also unchanged. Erythorbic acid, a stereoisomer of ascorbic acid and a common food additive, has been cited as a possible interferent in the determination of whole blood or plasma ascorbic acid, since in the guinea pig it is absorbed from the gut and no commonly used ascorbic acid analysis can distinguish between the isomers. Under conditions of the present experiment, however, no elevation of apparent whole blood or plasma ascorbic acid was produced by inclusion of high levels of erythorbic acid in the diet. Animals given erythorbic acid in addition to ascorbic acid during repletion did not differ from those given ascorbic acid alone in any aspect mentioned above.

  2. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. Brewer, William E.

    1999-02-01

    The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  3. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Red blood cell components: Meeting the quantitative and qualitative transfusion needs.

    PubMed

    Francis, Richard O; Spitalnik, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a very common therapeutic intervention. However, because of multiple recent studies improving our understanding of appropriate transfusion scenarios, the total number of RBC units transfused per year is actually decreasing in the developed world and there are no longer major shortages of RBC products for general use. Nonetheless, there are an increasing number of "special" uses, which can put strains on the blood supply for particular types of products; these may produce shortages of specific types of RBCs or require collections targeting certain types of donors. This review will focus on several broad topics, including providing some examples of "special" settings that require, or could require, special types of RBC products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction of graphene nanoribbons with components of the blood vascular system

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Fang, Justin; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The systemic administration of graphene nanoribbons for a variety of in vivo biomedical applications will result in their interaction with cellular and protein components of the circulatory system. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of graphene nanoribbons (O-GNR) noncovalently functionalized with PEG-DSPE (1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N [amino (polyethylene glycol)]) on some of the key hematological and vascular components of the circulatory system. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanoparticles. ELISA-based assays, bright-field microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and colorimetric assays were used to assess toxicological effects. Results: Our findings taken together indicate that low concentrations of O-GNR-PEG-DSPE (<80 µg/ml) are relatively nontoxic to the hematological components, and could be employed for diagnostic and therapeutic applications especially for diseases of the circulatory system. PMID:26925250

  6. [The use of blood and its components in two gynecological-obstetrical wards of selected Silesian hospitals in years 1996-2002].

    PubMed

    Dylag, Stanisław; Kucharz, Eugeniusz Józef

    2011-03-01

    Blood and its components are valuable medication that should be administered according to recommendation after consideration of expected benefits and adverse reactions to the patient. To analyze amount and form of blood components or whole blood transfused at gynecological-obstetrical wars of university hospital (UH) or regional hospital (RH). Age of the patients and clinical diagnosis were included into the analysis. Two gynecological-obstetrical wards were investigated. The appropriate data were obtained from the hospital documentation (there was no electronic data system). Amount and form of transfused blood components or whole blood, diagnosis at admission, patient's age and number of the treated patients were collected from the hospital transfusion book. The final clinical diagnosis, age of the patient, and transfusion details were obtained from the patient's medical records. The diagnoses were presented according to the ICD-10 classification. UH patients (29,759 patients) and 13,540 patients from RH from 1996 to 2002 were investigated. Blood and its components were used for transfusion in 1150 women (3.8%) treated in UH, and in 206 women (1.5%) hospitalized in RH. In years 1996-2002, there were transfused 2746 units of blood and its components, including: 371 units of whole blood (13.5%), 2073 units of red blood cells (75.5%), 281 units of fresh frozen plasma (10.2%) and 21 units of therapeutic platelet concentrate (0.8%) in RH there were transfused 527 units of blood and its components, including: 8 units of whole blood (1.5%), 450 units of red blood cells (85.4%), 63 units of fresh frozen plasma (12%), and 6 units of therapeutic platelet concentrate (1.1%). The age of patients in UH was between 14 and 92 years and in RH between 18 and 79 years. The rate of patients with the same diagnosis in whom the transfusion was made, was higher in University Hospital. There were no differences between the number of transfused blood and its components between the two

  7. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation.

  8. Extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and the role of blood component manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Almizraq, Ruqayyah J; Seghatchian, Jerard; Acker, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    There is an emerging interest in the risks posed by the ability of blood transfusion to modulate the immune system of recipients. Observational trials suggest that RBC transfusions may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, however studies demonstrating the deleterious consequences of transfusion-related immunomodulation have had conflicting results. Efforts to understand the biological mechanisms responsible for TRIM are under way, and are focusing on the role that the extracellular vesicles (EVs) that accumulate in a red cell concentrate (RCC) during storage may play. EVs are heterogeneous submicron-sized vesicles that vary in size, composition and surface biomarkers. The biophysical and biochemical parameters of EVs reflect their mechanism of formation and cell sources. RCCs have been shown to contain a mixed population of EVs and not all EVs in RCC are solely from the constituent RBCs. The concentration of the different EVs (the RBC EVs and the non-RBC EVs), their composition, as well as their effects on the quality of the blood product vary depending on the manufacturing methods used to produce the RCC units. This article will review current evidence of the role of extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and will discuss the impact that different methods used to collect, manufacture and store blood have on the composition and characteristics of EVs in RCCs.

  9. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies.

    PubMed

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-04-14

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.

  10. Absence of Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Pediatric and Adult Recipients of Leukoreduced and Gamma Irradiated Blood Components

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rosa; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Wen, Li; Montalvo, Leilani; Schechterly, Cathy; Colvin, Camilla; Alter, Harvey J.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Busch, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion-associated microchimerism (TA-MC), the persistence of significant levels of donor leukocytes in blood recipients for prolonged periods, has been demonstrated following non-leukoreduced and leukoreduced transfusion to patients with severe traumatic injury. Development of TA-MC has not been rigorously studied in settings that do not involve massive trauma where the blood is leukoreduced and irradiated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A cohort of 409 prospectively followed medical and surgical adult and pediatric female recipients of leukoreduced and mostly irradiated allogeneic red blood cell and platelet transfusions were evaluated to determine development of TA-MC. Four and eight-week post-transfusion samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Y-chromosome sequences in leukocyte DNA, the marker for microchimeric cells in female blood recipients. Repeat testing was performed on Y-chromosome positive samples to confirm microchimerism (MC), and subsequent post-transfusion samples were tested to investigate persistence of MC. RESULTS On initial testing, forty of 207 (19%) adult and forty-four of 202 (22%) pediatric female blood recipients demonstrated low level MC. On repeat testing of these and additional specimens, twelve (3%) recipients demonstrated low level transient MC, but none had persistent TA-MC similar to that seen in transfused trauma patients. CONCLUSION Persistence of MC was not demonstrated in adult and pediatric recipients of leukoreduced and mostly irradiated blood components. The risk of TA-MC appears to be dependent on the clinical setting and is rare other than in patients sustaining severe traumatic injury. PMID:21981710

  11. Quantitative trait loci identified for blood chemistry components of an advanced intercross line of chickens under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Angelica; Ashwell, Christopher M; Persia, Michael E; Rothschild, Max F; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-04-14

    Heat stress in poultry results in considerable economic losses and is a concern for both animal health and welfare. Physiological changes occur during periods of heat stress, including changes in blood chemistry components. A highly advanced intercross line, created from a broiler (heat susceptible) by Fayoumi (heat resistant) cross, was exposed to daily heat cycles for seven days starting at 22 days of age. Blood components measured pre-heat treatment and on the seventh day of heat treatment included pH, pCO2, pO2, base excess, HCO3, TCO2, K, Na, ionized Ca, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sO2, and glucose. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these traits and their calculated changes was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a 600 K SNP panel. There were significant increases in pH, base excess, HCO3, TCO2, ionized Ca, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and sO2, and significant decreases in pCO2 and glucose after 7 days of heat treatment. Heritabilities ranged from 0.01-0.21 for pre-heat measurements, 0.01-0.23 for measurements taken during heat, and 0.00-0.10 for the calculated change due to heat treatment. All blood components were highly correlated within measurement days, but not correlated between measurement days. The GWAS revealed 61 QTL for all traits, located on GGA (Gallus gallus chromosome) 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12-14, 17, 18, 21-28, and Z. A functional analysis of the genes in these QTL regions identified the Angiopoietin pathway as significant. The QTL that co-localized for three or more traits were on GGA10, 22, 26, 28, and Z and revealed candidate genes for birds' response to heat stress. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of levels and heritabilities of several blood components of chickens under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. Most components responded to heat treatment. Mapped QTL may serve as markers for genomic selection to enhance heat tolerance in poultry. The Angiopoietin pathway is likely involved in the

  12. Interaction of Jet Fuel Hydrocarbon Components with Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-24

    such study using benzene , a component of JP-8, indicated that bioactivation of the chemical led to the formation of ROS decreasing antioxidant...concomitant oxidative stress, benzene exposures have demonstrated strong associations with altered hemoglobin and red cell indices. Hematological...surveillance study of petrochemical workers exposed to benzene . Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. (2004) 40:67-73. 15. Andrade CT. Purification and

  13. Analyzing the adsorption of blood plasma components by means of fullerene-containing silica gels and NMR spectroscopy in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenevskaya, E. Yu.; Mokeev, M. V.; Nasonova, K. V.; Podosenova, N. G.; Sharonova, L. V.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    The results from studying the adsorption of blood plasma components (e.g., protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins of low and high density) using silica gels modified with fullerene molecules (in the form of C60 or the hydroxylated form of C60(OH) x ) and subjected to hydration (or, alternatively, dehydration) are presented. The conditions for preparing adsorbents that allow us to control the adsorption capacity of silica gel and the selectivity of adsorption toward the components of blood plasma, are revealed. The nature and strength of the interactions of the introduced components (fullerene molecules and water) with functional groups on the silica surface are studied by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy (NMR-SS). Conclusions regarding the nature of the centers that control adsorption are drawn on the basis of NMR-SS spectra in combination with direct measurements of adsorption. The interaction of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of silica gel with fullerene, leading to the formation of electron-donor complexes of C60-H, C60-OH, or C60-OSi type, is demonstrated by the observed changes in the NMR-SS spectra of silica gels in the presence of fullerene.

  14. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  15. [The antioxidant activity of components of blood serum of donors and recipients before liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Sazhina, N N; Titov, V N; Popov, I N; Solonin, S A; Godkov, M A

    2014-08-01

    The antioxidant activity is implemented in human blood serum by ascorbic acid, uric acid, amino acids, glucose, mono unsaturated fatty acids (in the first instance Ω-9 oleic acid), essential polyenoic fatty acids, thiol groups of albumins and proteins, tripeptide and pigment of bilirubin. The antioxidant activity of blood serum of donors and recipients before liver transplantation was determined The input of particular biochemical analytes into liver transplantation was determined too. The antioxidant parameters were detected using technique of termo-induced chemiluminescence under application of set of corresponding reagents. The analysis of antioxidant activity of blood serum in donors and recipients with hepatic pathology revealed in vivo a significant disorder in the syndrome of compensatory anti-inflammatory defense. Under hepatic pathology, absence of endogenous ascorbic acid, deficiency of exogenous ascorbic acid and disorder of antioxidant activity the uric acid and bilirubin become the major hydrophilic acceptors of active forms of oxygen and inhibitors of oxidative processes in vivo. In patients with physiological level of bilirubin the uric acid provides 40%-80% of antioxidant activity. In case of high hyperbilirubinemia in recipients only 9.6%. It is possible to consider hyperiricosuria under aphysiological processes as a nonspecific test of activation of biological reaction of inflammation, syndrome of compensatory anti-inflammatory defense and test of disorder of biological function of endoecology. To activate the syndrome of compensatory anti-inflammatory defense it is very important to decrease both hyperiricosuria and compensatory function of uric acid as an acceptor of active forms of oxygen by force of prolonged intake of optimal amount of ascorbic acid.

  16. A brief motivational interview with action and coping planning components enhances motivational autonomy among volunteer blood donors.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Fox, Kristen R; Livitz, Irina E; Ankawi, Brett; Slepian, P Maxwell

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to standard donor retention strategies (e.g., mailings, phone calls, text messages), we developed a brief telephone interview, based on motivational interviewing principles, that encourages blood donors to reflect upon their unique motivators and barriers for giving. This study examined the effect of this motivational interview, combined with action and coping plan components, on blood donor motivations. The design was to randomly assign blood donors to receive either a telephone-delivered motivational interview with action and coping plan components or a control call approximately 6 weeks after their most recent donation. Participants completed a series of surveys related to donation motivation approximately 3 weeks before telephone contact (precall baseline) and then repeated these surveys approximately 1 week after telephone contact (postcall). The sample was 63% female, included a majority (52.6%) of first-time blood donors, and had a mean age of 30.0 years (SD, 11.7 years). A series of analyses of variance revealed that, relative to controls (n = 244), donors in the motivational interview group (n = 254) had significantly larger increases in motivational autonomy (p = 0.001), affective attitude (p = 0.004), self-efficacy (p = 0.03), anticipated regret (p = 0.001), and intention (p = < 0.001), as well as larger decreases in donation anxiety (p = 0.01), from precall baseline to postcall assessment. This study supports motivational interviewing with action and coping planning as a novel strategy to promote key contributors to donor motivation. © 2016 AABB.

  17. A Brief Motivational Interview with Action and Coping Planning Components Enhances Motivational Autonomy Among Volunteer Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    France, Christopher R.; France, Janis L.; Carlson, Bruce W.; Kessler, Debra A.; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H.; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M.; Fox, Kristen R.; Livitz, Irina E.; Ankawi, Brett; Slepian, P. Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    Background In contrast to standard donor retention strategies (e.g., mailings, phone calls, text messages), we developed a brief telephone interview, based on motivational interviewing principles, which encourages blood donors to reflect upon their unique motivators and barriers for giving. The present study examined the effect of this motivational interview, combined with action and coping plan components, on blood donor motivations. Study Design and Methods The design was to randomly assign blood donors to receive either a telephone-delivered motivational interview with action and coping plan components or a control call approximately six weeks after their most recent donation. Participants completed a series of surveys related to donation motivation approximately 3 weeks before telephone contact (pre-call baseline) and then repeated these surveys approximately one week after telephone contact (post-call). Results The sample was 63% female, included a majority (52.6%) first-time blood donors, and had a mean age of 30.0 years (SD = 11.7). A series of ANOVAs revealed that, relative to controls (n=244), donors in the motivational interview group (n=254) had significantly larger increases in motivational autonomy (p=0.001), affective attitude (p=0.004), self-efficacy (p=0.03), anticipated regret (p=0.001), and intention (p=<0.001), as well as larger decreases in donation anxiety (p=0.01), from pre-call baseline to post-call assessment. Conclusion This study supports motivational interviewing with action and coping planning as a novel strategy to promote key contributors to donor motivation. PMID:26826054

  18. Evaluation of Risk Minimisation Measures for Blood Components - Based on Reporting Rates of Transfusion-Transmitted Reactions (1997-2013).

    PubMed

    Funk, Markus B; Heiden, Margarethe; Volkers, Peter; Lohmann, Annette; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of safety measures, we compared reporting rates of transfusion-related reactions before and after the implementation of six measures in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2009. Reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection (TTBI), viral infection (TTVI) and immune-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were calculated on the basis of confirmed annual reports and distributed blood components. The introduction of HCV NAT testing caused a significant reduction of HCV reporting rate from 1:0.6 to 1:83.16 million administered blood components (p < 0.0001), donor screening for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen caused a reduction of HBV reporting rate from 1:2.90 to 1:10.70 million units (p = 0.0168). A significant reduction from 1:0.094 to 1:2.42 million fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units could also be achieved by risk minimisation TRALI measures (p < 0.0001). Implementation of pre-donation sampling did not result in a significant decrease in TTBI, whereas limitation of shelf life for platelet concentrate (PC) minimised the TTBI reporting rate from 1:0.088 to 1:0.19 million PC units (p = 0.041). For HIV NAT pool testing, no significant reduction in HIV transmission was found due to very low reporting rates (1:10 million versus 1:27 million blood components, p = 0.422). On the basis of haemovigilance data, a significant benefit could be demonstrated for four of six implemented safety measures.

  19. A quality monitoring program for red blood cell components: in vitro quality indicators before and after implementation of semiautomated processing.

    PubMed

    Acker, Jason P; Hansen, Adele L; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Croteau, Ioana; Jenkins, Craig

    2014-10-01

    Canadian Blood Services has been conducting quality monitoring of red blood cell (RBC) components since 2005, a period spanning the implementation of semiautomated component production. The aim was to compare the quality of RBC components produced before and after this production method change. Data from 572 RBC units were analyzed, categorized by production method: Method 1, RBC units produced by manual production methods; Method 2, RBC units produced by semiautomated production and the buffy coat method; and Method 3, RBC units produced by semiautomated production and the whole blood filtration method. RBC units were assessed using an extensive panel of in vitro tests, encompassing regulated quality control criteria such as hematocrit (Hct), hemolysis, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels, as well as adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, extracellular K(+) and Na(+) levels, methemoglobin, p50, RBC indices, and morphology. Throughout the study, all RBC units met mandated Canadian Standards Association guidelines for Hb and Hct, and most (>99%) met hemolysis requirements. However, there were significant differences among RBC units produced using different methods. Hb content was significantly lower in RBC units produced by Method 2 (51.5 ± 5.6 g/unit; p < 0.001). At expiry, hemolysis was lowest in Method 2-produced RBC units (p < 0.05) and extracellular K(+) levels were lowest in units produced by Method 1 (p < 0.001). While overall quality was similar before and after the production method change, the observed differences, although small, indicate a lack of equivalency across RBC products manufactured by different methods. © 2014 AABB.

  20. Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Sofie Strand; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard; Reikvam, Håkon

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries. This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life. Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion. These embody: improved donors arms cleaning; bacterial avoidance by diversion of the first portion of collection; reducing bacterial growth through development of newer storage media for longer platelet shelf life; bacterial load reduction by leucoreduction/viral inactivation, in some countries and eliminating the use potentially contaminated units through screening, through current available testing procedures, though none are not yet fully secure. We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C. This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews. While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units

  1. Lytic and mechanical stability of clots composed of fibrin and blood vessel wall components.

    PubMed

    Rottenberger, Z; Komorowicz, E; Szabó, L; Bóta, A; Varga, Z; Machovich, R; Longstaff, C; Kolev, K

    2013-03-01

    Proteases expressed in atherosclerotic plaque lesions generate collagen fragments, release glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate [CS] and dermatan sulfate [DS]) and expose extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g. decorin) at sites of fibrin formation. Here we address the effect of these vessel wall components on the lysis of fibrin by the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen system and on the mechanical stability of clots. MMP-8-digested collagen fragments, isolated CS, DS, glycosylated decorin and its core protein were used to prepare mixed matrices with fibrin (additives present at a 50-fold lower mass concentration than fibrinogen). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the presence of ECM components resulted in a coarse fibrin structure, most pronounced for glycosylated decorin causing an increase in the median fiber diameter from 85 to 187 nm. Rheological measurements indicated that these structural alterations were coupled to decreased shear resistance (1.8-fold lower shear stress needed for gel/fluid transition of the clots containing glycosylated decorin) and rigidity (reduction of the storage modulus from 54.3 to 33.2 Pa). The lytic susceptibility of the modified fibrin structures was increased. The time to 50% lysis by plasmin was reduced approximately 2-fold for all investigated ECM components (apart from the core protein of decorin which produced a moderate reduction of the lysis time by 25%), whereas fibrin-dependent plasminogen activation by tPA was inhibited by up to 30%. ECM components compromise the chemical and mechanical stability of fibrin as a result of changes in its ultrastructure. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Comparison of longitudinal variance components and regression-based approaches for linkage detection on chromosome 17 for systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Mariza de; Olswold, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    We compare two methods to detect genetic linkage by using serial observations of systolic blood pressure in pedigree data from the Framingham Heart Study focusing on chromosome 17. The first method is a variance components (VC) approach that incorporates longitudinal pedigree data, and the second method is a regression-based approach that summarizes all longitudinal measures in one single measure. No evidence of linkage was found either using the VC longitudinal approach or the regression-based approach, except when all time points were used from Cohorts 1 and 2 and only subjects aged 25 and 75 years were included. PMID:14975085

  3. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E. Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  4. Dominance of the forward compression wave in determining pulsatile components of blood pressure: similarities between inotropic stimulation and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fok, Henry; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Jiang, Benyu; Li, Ye; Epstein, Sally; Alastruey, Jordi; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile components of blood pressure may arise from forward (ventricular generated) or backward wave travel in the arterial tree. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of forward and backward waves to pulsatility. We used wave intensity and wave separation analysis to determine pulsatile components of blood pressure during inotropic and vasopressor stimulation by dobutamine and norepinephrine in normotensive subjects and compared pulse pressure components in hypertensive (mean±SD, 48.8±11.3 years; 165±26.6/99±14.2 mm Hg) and normotensive subjects (52.2±12.6 years; 120±14.2/71±8.2 mm Hg). Dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg per minute) increased the forward compression wave generated by the ventricle and increased pulse pressure from 36.8±3.7 to 59.0±3.4 mm Hg (mean±SE) but had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or the midsystolic backward compression wave. By contrast, norepinephrine (50 ng/kg per minute) had no significant effect on the forward compression wave but increased the midsystolic backward compression wave. Despite this increase in the backward compression wave, and an increase in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine increased central pulse pressure less than dobutamine (increases of 22.1±3.8 and 7.2±2.8 mm Hg for dobutamine and norepinephrine, respectively; P<0.02). An elevated forward wave component (mean±SE, 50.4±3.4 versus 35.2±1.8 mm Hg, in hypertensive and normotensive subjects, respectively; P<0.001) accounted for approximately two thirds of the total difference in central pulse pressures between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Increased central pulse pressure during inotropic stimulation and in essential hypertension results primarily from the forward compression wave. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Allen, S; Chang, A P Y; Henderson, H; Hobson, G C; Karania, B; Morgan, K N; Pek, A S Y; Raghvani, K; Shee, C Y; Shikotra, J; Street, E; Abbas, Z; Ellis, K; Heer, J K; Alexander, S P H

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (-)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3-30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (-)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (-)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium.

  6. Comparative analysis of multilineage properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from fetal sources shows an advantage of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from cord blood in chondrogenic differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Alice; Scagliotti, Valeria; Russo, Francesca Maria; Azario, Isabella; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Marzorati, Simona; Erba, Eugenio; Giudici, Giovanni; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Vergani, Patrizia; Serafini, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Cord blood (CB) and amniotic fluid (AF) could represent new and attractive mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) sources, but their potential therapeutic applications are still limited by lack of standardized protocols for isolation and differentiation. In particular, chondrogenic differentiation has never been deeply investigated. Methods MSCs were obtained from CB and AF samples collected during cesarean sections at term and compared for their biological and differentiation properties, with particular interest in cartilage differentiation, in which quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Results We were able to isolate MSCs from 12 of 30 (40%) and 5 of 20 (25%) CB and AF units, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated the fetal origin of isolated MSC strains. Both populations expressed mesenchymal but not endothelial and hematopoietic markers, even though we observed a lower expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I in CB-MSCs. No differences in proliferation rate and cell cycle analysis could be detected. After osteogenic induction, both populations showed matrix mineralization and typical marker expression. Under chondrogenic conditions, pellets derived from CB-MSCs, in contrast with AF-MSCs pellets, were significantly larger, showed cartilage-like morphology and resulted positive for chondrocyte-associated markers, such as type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Conclusions Our results show that CB-MSCs and AF-MSCs collected at term differ from each other in their biological and differentiation properties. In particular, only CB-MSCs showed a clear chondrogenic potential and thus could represent an ideal candidate for cartilage-tissue engineering. PMID:24794181

  7. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon: ultrastructural observation and immunohistochemistry staining reveal the trapping of blood components.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Si-Ming; Hong, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Hai-Ni; Shen, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE), a borderline tumor of endothelial origin, is associated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, characterized by profound thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy resulting from the localized intravascular coagulation (LIC) in the tumor. Previous studies have suggested that the trapping of blood components, including platelets, may underlie the LIC in KHE. However, more evidence is needed to support this hypothesis. In this study, one case of a Chinese infant with a KHE in the left arm was complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. The tumor was partially resected and the sample was used for ultrastructural observation and immunohistochemistry staining of Glut-1. Ultrastructural observation found the trapping of erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the slit-like channels of the tumor nodules, and phagocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemistry staining further showed numerous Glut-1(+) erythrocytes in the channels. In conclusion, our results provided compelling morphological evidence of the trapping of blood components in KHE, which may interpret the LIC in the tumor and subsequent consumptive coagulopathy.

  8. Is Increased Intracellular Calcium in Red Blood Cells a Common Component in the Molecular Mechanism Causing Anemia?

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Laura; Huisjes, Rick; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Makhro, Asya; Danielczok, Jens G.; Egee, Stephane; del Mar Mañú-Pereira, Maria; van Wijk, Richard; Vives Corrons, Joan-Lluis; Bogdanova, Anna; Kaestner, Lars

    2017-01-01

    For many hereditary disorders, although the underlying genetic mutation may be known, the molecular mechanism leading to hemolytic anemia is still unclear and needs further investigation. Previous studies revealed an increased intracellular Ca2+ in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or Gardos channelopathy. Therefore we analyzed RBCs' Ca2+ content from 35 patients with different types of anemia (16 patients with hereditary spherocytosis, 11 patients with hereditary xerocytosis, 5 patients with enzymopathies, and 3 patients with hemolytic anemia of unknown cause). Intracellular Ca2+ in RBCs was measured by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 and subsequent single cell analysis. We found that in RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis the intracellular Ca2+ levels were significantly increased compared to healthy control samples. For enzymopathies and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause the intracellular Ca2+ levels in RBCs were not significantly different. These results lead us to the hypothesis that increased Ca2+ levels in RBCs are a shared component in the mechanism causing an accelerated clearance of RBCs from the blood stream in channelopathies such as hereditary xerocytosis and in diseases involving defects of cytoskeletal components like hereditary spherocytosis. Future drug developments should benefit from targeting Ca2+ entry mediating molecular players leading to better therapies for patients. PMID:28932200

  9. Is Increased Intracellular Calcium in Red Blood Cells a Common Component in the Molecular Mechanism Causing Anemia?

    PubMed

    Hertz, Laura; Huisjes, Rick; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Makhro, Asya; Danielczok, Jens G; Egee, Stephane; Del Mar Mañú-Pereira, Maria; van Wijk, Richard; Vives Corrons, Joan-Lluis; Bogdanova, Anna; Kaestner, Lars

    2017-01-01

    For many hereditary disorders, although the underlying genetic mutation may be known, the molecular mechanism leading to hemolytic anemia is still unclear and needs further investigation. Previous studies revealed an increased intracellular Ca(2+) in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or Gardos channelopathy. Therefore we analyzed RBCs' Ca(2+) content from 35 patients with different types of anemia (16 patients with hereditary spherocytosis, 11 patients with hereditary xerocytosis, 5 patients with enzymopathies, and 3 patients with hemolytic anemia of unknown cause). Intracellular Ca(2+) in RBCs was measured by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 and subsequent single cell analysis. We found that in RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis the intracellular Ca(2+) levels were significantly increased compared to healthy control samples. For enzymopathies and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in RBCs were not significantly different. These results lead us to the hypothesis that increased Ca(2+) levels in RBCs are a shared component in the mechanism causing an accelerated clearance of RBCs from the blood stream in channelopathies such as hereditary xerocytosis and in diseases involving defects of cytoskeletal components like hereditary spherocytosis. Future drug developments should benefit from targeting Ca(2+) entry mediating molecular players leading to better therapies for patients.

  10. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Himmlova, Lucie; Kubies, Dana; Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Stikarova, Jana; Suttnar, Jiri; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch.

  11. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-03-01

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising

  12. A randomized controlled pilot trial of modified whole blood versus component therapy in severely injured patients requiring large volume transfusions.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Bryan A; Podbielski, Jeanette; Camp, Elizabeth; Welch, Timothy; del Junco, Deborah; Bai, Yu; Hobbs, Rhonda; Scroggins, Jamie; Hartwell, Beth; Kozar, Rosemary A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether resuscitation of severely injured patients with modified whole blood (mWB) resulted in fewer overall transfusions compared with component (COMP) therapy. For decades, whole blood (WB) was the primary product for resuscitating patients in hemorrhagic shock. After dramatic advances in blood banking in the 1970s, blood donor centers began supplying hospitals with individual components [red blood cell (RBC), plasma, platelets] and removed WB as an available product. However, no studies of efficacy or hemostatic potential in trauma patients were performed before doing so. Single-center, randomized trial of severely injured patients predicted to large transfusion volume. Pregnant patients, prisoners, those younger than 18 years or with more than 20% total body surface area burns (TBSA) burns were excluded. Patients were randomized to mWB (1 U mWB) or COMP therapy (1 U RBC+ 1 U plasma) immediately on arrival. Each group also received 1 U platelets (apheresis or prepooled random donor) for every 6 U of mWB or 6 U of RBC + 6 U plasma. The study was performed under the Exception From Informed Consent (Food and Drug Administration 21 code of federal regulations [CFR] 50.24). Primary outcome was 24-hour transfusion volumes. A total of 107 patients were randomized (55 mWB, 52 COMP therapy) over 14 months. There were no differences in demographics, arrival vitals or laboratory values, injury severity, or mechanism. Transfusions were similar between groups (intent-to-treat analysis). However, when excluding patients with severe brain injury (sensitivity analysis), WB group received less 24-hour RBC (median 3 vs 6, P = 0.02), plasma (4 vs 6, P = 0.02), platelets (0 vs 3, P = 0.09), and total products (11 vs 16, P = 0.02). Compared with COMP therapy, WB did not reduce transfusion volumes in severely injured patients predicted to receive massive transfusion. However, in the sensitivity analysis (patients without severe brain injuries), use of mWB significantly

  13. Positive- and Negative-Control Pathways by Blood Components for Intermedilysin Production in Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Chiba, Shinya; Kusaka, Shingo; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen secreting a human-specific cytolysin called intermedilysin (ILY) as a major pathogenic factor. This bacterium can degrade glycans into monosaccharides using two glycosidases, multisubstrate glycosidase A (MsgA) and neuraminidase (NanA). Here, we detected a stronger hemolytic activity mediated by ILY when S. intermedius PC574 was cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS) than when it was grown in the standard culture medium. FBS-cultured cells also showed higher MsgA and NanA activity, although overproduction of ILY in FBS was undetectable in mutants nanA-null and msgA-null. Addition of purified MsgA and NanA to the FBS resulted in a release of 2.8 mM galactose and 4.3 mM N-acetylneuraminic acid; these sugar concentrations were sufficient to upregulate the expression of ILY, MsgA, and NanA. Conversely, when strain PC574 was cultured in human plasma, no similar increase in hemolytic activity was observed. Moreover, addition of human plasma to the culture in FBS appeared to inhibit the stimulatory effect of FBS on ILY, MsgA, and NanA, although there were individual differences among the plasma samples. We confirmed that human plasma contains immunoglobulins that can neutralize ILY, MsgA, and NanA activities. In addition, human plasma had a neutralizing effect on cytotoxicity of S. intermedius toward HepG2 cells in FBS, and a higher concentration of human plasma was necessary to reduce the cytotoxicity of an ILY-high-producing strain than an ILY-low-producing strain. Overall, our data show that blood contains factors that stimulate and inhibit ILY expression and activity, which may affect pathogenicity of S. intermedius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Identification of the components of a glycolytic enzyme metabolon on the human red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Anstee, David J; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S

    2013-01-11

    Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Because no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as "label transfer" that employs a photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled GAPDH, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction.

  15. Identification of the Components of a Glycolytic Enzyme Metabolon on the Human Red Blood Cell Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Anstee, David J.; Galan, Jacob A.; Tao, W. Andy; Low, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Because no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as “label transfer” that employs a photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled GAPDH, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction. PMID:23150667

  16. Biological consequences from interaction of nanosized titanium(iv) oxides with defined human blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Aaron

    The utility of engineered nanomaterials is growing, particularly the titanium(iv) oxide (titanium dioxide, TiO2) nanoparticles. TiO 2 is very useful for brightening paints, and coloring foods. Nano-sized TiO2 is also useful for sunscreens, cosmetics, and can be utilized as a photocatalyst. However, the nanometer size of the TiO2 nanoparticle is a characteristic that may contribute oxidative stress to red blood cells (RBCs) in humans. This study utilized screening methods to evaluate different forms of TiO2 nanoparticles which differ by primary particle size, specific surface area, crystalline phase, and surface polarity. RBCs are rich in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). HPLC analysis revealed that some TiO2 nanoparticles caused oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Vitamin E is a major membrane-bound antioxidant. Vitamin E levels were then determined by HPLC in the RBC membrane after exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. The HPLC results showed that each nanoparticle oxidized RBC glutathione and membrane vitamin E at different rates. When hemoglobin was mixed with each TiO2 nanoparticle, hemoglobin was adsorbed at varying rates to the surface of the nanoparticles. Similarly, the aminothiol homocysteine was also adsorbed at different rates by the TiO2 nanoparticles. Using light microscopy, some TiO2 nanoparticles caused the formation of RBC aggregates which significantly changed the RBC morphology. The aggregation data was quantified using a hemacytometer. The TiO2 nanoparticles also caused hemolysis of RBCs. Hemolysis is considered to be a toxic endpoint for RBCs. Changes in the nucleated lymphocyte gene expression of certain oxidative stress genes were also observed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The data indicates that RBCs can ultimately be hemolyzed by biological oxidative damage resulting from a combination of oxidative mechanisms. Additionally, the TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to adsorb biomolecules to

  17. Dissociated lateralization of transient and sustained blood oxygen level-dependent signal components in human primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Christoph; Herdener, Marcus; Schneider, Peter; Federspiel, Andrea; Bach, Dominik R; Esposito, Fabrizio; di Salle, Francesco; Scheffler, Klaus; Kretz, Robert; Dierks, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich

    2007-02-15

    Among other auditory operations, the analysis of different sound levels received at both ears is fundamental for the localization of a sound source. These so-called interaural level differences, in animals, are coded by excitatory-inhibitory neurons yielding asymmetric hemispheric activity patterns with acoustic stimuli having maximal interaural level differences. In human auditory cortex, the temporal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to auditory inputs, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), consists of at least two independent components: an initial transient and a subsequent sustained signal, which, on a different time scale, are consistent with electrophysiological human and animal response patterns. However, their specific functional role remains unclear. Animal studies suggest these temporal components being based on different neural networks and having specific roles in representing the external acoustic environment. Here we hypothesized that the transient and sustained response constituents are differentially involved in coding interaural level differences and therefore play different roles in spatial information processing. Healthy subjects underwent monaural and binaural acoustic stimulation and BOLD responses were measured using high signal-to-noise-ratio fMRI. In the anatomically segmented Heschl's gyrus the transient response was bilaterally balanced, independent of the side of stimulation, while in opposite the sustained response was contralateralized. This dissociation suggests a differential role at these two independent temporal response components, with an initial bilateral transient signal subserving rapid sound detection and a subsequent lateralized sustained signal subserving detailed sound characterization.

  18. NOTE: Wavelet analysis of blood flow dynamics: effect on the individual oscillatory components of iontophoresis with pharmacologically neutral electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veber, Mitja; Bandrivskyy, Andriy; Clarkson, Peter B. M.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2004-04-01

    Iontophoresis currents are used in the transcutaneous delivery of vasoactive substances for noninvasive assessment of skin vascular properties. The blood flow rate can be recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), its average value and the amplitudes of its oscillatory components being used to evaluate the effect of the drugs. Because non-drug-specific, current-induced, vasodilation could confound the interpretation of the response, we have investigated the effect of currents of both polarities on the spectral components of the LDF signal in the absence of vasoactive substances. It was recorded for healthy volunteers with both high conductance (5 mol/l NaCl) and low conductance (deionized water) electrolytes. The oscillatory components were analysed by wavelet transform within 0.0095 1.6 Hz, divided into five sub-intervals. Only cathodal iontophoresis with deionized water increased the oscillatory energy and amplitude. It did so at all frequencies, but none of the sub-intervals associated with vasodilation (0.0095 0.145 Hz) was selectively affected compared to the others.

  19. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  20. Trauma, Time, and Transfusions: A Longitudinal Analysis of Coagulation Markers in Severely Injured Trauma Patients Receiving Modified Whole Blood or Component Blood Products.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Elaheh; Cardenas, Jessica C; Matijevic, Nena; Del Junco, Deborah; Podbielski, Jeanette; Cohen, Mitchell J; Cotton, Bryan A; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E

    2015-11-01

    The current study leveraged data from the Early Whole Blood (EWB) trial to explore the effects of modified whole blood (mWB) versus component (COMP) transfusions on coagulation parameters over time using longitudinal statistical methods. The EWB study was a single-center randomized controlled trial, approved by the local IRB. Adult patients at highest-level trauma activations were randomized into mWB or COMP groups. Coagulation status was evaluated (at times 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h postadmission) using thrombelastography, platelet aggregometry, and calibrated automated thrombograms. Longitudinal statistical analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to evaluate the effects of group, time, transfusion types, and their respective interactions on changes in measured coagulation markers. A total of 59 patients were enrolled and adhered to protocol in the EWB trial, 25 in the mWB group, and 34 in the COMP group. Patients in both the mWB and COMP groups demonstrated a significant decline in their thrombelastography parameters during the first 3-6 h, specifically K-time, α-angle, maximum amplitude, G, and LY30. Patients receiving mWB exhibited improved thrombin potential than those receiving COMP. Platelet count and function declined over time in both mWB and COMP groups; however, platelet aggregation in response to ristocetin in the mWB group was significantly improved at 12 h compared with the COMP group. The longitudinal GEE model revealed significant group-time interactive effects on the changes in coagulation markers and significant effect of platelet transfusions on improvements in coagulation profile. We observed significant interactive group-time effects, indicating that the types of transfusion as well as the time of transfusion significantly affect the patient's coagulation status. Our pilot data suggest that there is an improvement in platelet function with mWB, but further studies are needed. Regardless, platelet transfusions were

  1. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  2. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as

  3. Counting of residual WBCs in WBC-reduced blood components: a multicenter evaluation of a microvolume fluorimeter by the United Kingdom National Blood Service.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, J; Krailadsiri, P; Scott, C S

    2001-01-01

    Implementation of universal WBC reduction of blood components means that automated analytical methods may be the only satisfactory way for production laboratories to meet increased testing requirements. A multicenter study on the performance of a microvolume fluorimeter (IMAGN 2000, Becton Dickinson) was undertaken on 519 RBC, 353 platelet, and 27 fresh plasma units. WBC counts for the RBC samples ranged from 0.02 to 6.94 x 10(6) per unit (mean, 0.57) as determined by FC and from 0.02 to 5.53 x 10(6) per unit (mean, 0.40) as determined by MVF with a mean FC bias of +0.15 x 10(6) WBCs per unit, and discrepancies outside the 95% limits of agreement were mainly associated with higher FC counts. The series of platelet samples showed means of 0.90 (range, 0.06-19.45) and 0.66 (range, 0.01-18.95) x 10(6) WBCs per unit for FC and MVF methods, respectively. FC and MVF results were in good agreement at low counts, although significant discrepancies were noted at higher counts. Overall, for the platelet units, there was a mean FC bias of +0.34 x 10(6) WBCs per unit. The intermethod agreement exceeded 99 percent for both types of blood component when the single (both UK and United States) decision point of 5.0 x 10(6) WBCs per unit was applied. The mean WBC counts for the 27 analyzed fresh plasma units were 61.8, 56.0, and 46.0 per microL by Nageotte hemocytometry, FC, and MVF, respectively. This evaluation found that the level of intersite consistency for FC was relatively poor compared to that for MVF. The results nevertheless validated the broad equivalence of FC and MVF results for the current Council of Europe and UK/US decision points of <1.0 and <5.0 x 10(6) WBCs per unit.

  4. Population-Wide Principal Component-Based Quantification of Blood-Brain-Barrier Dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Russell T.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Caffo, Brian S.; Gaitán, María Inés; Reich, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The processes by which new white-matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) develop are only partially understood. Much of this understanding has come through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain. One of the hallmarks of new lesion development in MS is enhancement on T1-weighted MRI scans following the intravenous administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent that shortens the longitudinal relaxation time of the tissue. Visible enhancement in the MRI results from the opening of the blood-brain barrier and reveals areas of active inflammation. The incidence and number of existing enhancing lesions are common outcome measures used in MS treatment clinical trials. Dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can estimate the rate at which contrast agents pass from the plasma to MS lesions. In this paper, we develop a principal component-based framework for the analysis of these data that provides biologically meaningful quantification of blood-brain barrier opening in new MS lesions. To accomplish this, we use functional principal components analysis to study directions of variation in the voxel-level time series of intensities both within and across subjects. The analysis reveals and allows quantification of typical spatiotemporal enhancement patterns in acute MS lesions, providing measures of magnitude, rate, shape (ring-like vs. nodular), and dynamics (centrifugal vs. centripetal). Across 10 subjects with relapsing-remitting and primary progressive MS, we found subjects to have between 0 and 12 gadolinium-enhancing lesions, the majority of which enhanced centripetally. We quantified the spatiotemporal behavior within each of these lesion using novel measures. Further application of these techniques will determine the extent to which these lesion measures can predict or track response to therapy or long-term prognosis in this disorder. PMID:21635955

  5. Provision of cellular blood components to CMV-seronegative patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the UK: survey of UK transplant centres.

    PubMed

    Morton, S; Peniket, A; Malladi, R; Murphy, M F

    2017-09-15

    To identify current UK practice with regards to provision of blood components for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative, potential, allogeneic stem cell recipients of seronegative grafts. Infection with CMV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). CMV transmission has been a risk associated with the transfusion of blood components from previously exposed donors, but leucocyte reduction has been demonstrated to minimise this risk. In 2012, the UK Advisory Committee for the Safety of Tissues and Organs (SaBTO) recommended that CMV-unselected components could be safely transfused without increased risk of CMV transmission. We surveyed UK aSCT centres to establish current practice. Fifteen adult and seven paediatric centres (75%) responded; 22·7% continue to provide components from CMV-seronegative donors. Reasons cited include the continued perceived risk of CMV transmission by blood transfusion, its associated morbidity and concerns regarding potential for ambiguous CMV serostatus in seronegative potential transplant recipients due to passive antibody transfer from CMV-seropositive blood donors, leading to erroneous donor/recipient CMV matching at transplant. The survey demonstrated a surprisingly high rate (22.7%) of centres continuing to provide blood components from CMV-seronegative donors despite SaBTO guidance. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  7. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with principal component analysis of titania-blood plasma interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Ricardo; Rossbach, Peggy; Keller, Beat; Anitua, Eduardo; Reviakine, Ilya

    2013-01-22

    Treatment of osseoimplant surfaces with autologous platelet-rich plasma prepared according to the plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) protocol prior to implantation yields promising results in the clinic. Our objective is to understand the organization of complex interfaces between blood plasma preparations of various compositions and model titania surfaces. Here we present the results of the morphological and chemical characterization of TiO(2) surfaces incubated with four types of blood plasma preparations devoid of leukocytes and red blood cells: either enriched in platelets (PRGF-Endoret) or platelet-depleted, and either activated with CaCl(2) to induce clotting, or not. Chemical characterization was done by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with principal component analysis (ToF-SIMS/PCA). The interface morphology was studied with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify platelets and infer their activation state. We observe clear differences among the four types of interfaces by ToF-SIMS/PCA. Some of these could be straightforwardly related to the differences in the sample morphology and known effects of platelet activation, but others are more subtle. Strikingly, it was possible to differentiate between these samples by ToF-SIMS/PCA of the protein species alone. This clearly indicates that the composition, orientation, and/or conformation of the proteins in these specimens depend both on the platelets' presence and on their activation. The ToF-SIMS imaging functionality furthermore provides unique insight into the distribution of phospholipid species in these samples.

  8. Fast and slow components of cerebral blood flow response to step decreases in end-tidal PCO2 in humans.

    PubMed

    Poulin, M J; Liang, P J; Robbins, P A

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the dynamics of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow response to hypocapnia in humans (n = 6) by using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. In a control protocol, end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) was held near eucapnia (1.5 Torr above resting) for 40 min. In a hypocapnic protocol, PETCO2 was held near eucapnia for 10 min, then at 15 Torr below eucapnia for 20 min, and then near eucapnia for 10 min. During both protocols, subjects hyperventilated throughout and PETCO2 and end-tidal PO2 were controlled by using the dynamic end-tidal forcing technique. Beat-by-beat values were calculated for the intensity-weighted mean velocity (VIWM), signal power (P), and their instantaneous product (P.VIWM). A simple model consisting of a delay, gain terms, time constants (tauf,on, tauf, off) and baseline levels of flow for the on- and off-transients, and a gain term (gs) and time constant (taus) for a second slower component was fitted to the hypocapnic protocol. The cerebral blood flow response to hypocapnia was characterized by a significant (P < 0.001) slow progressive adaptation in P.VIWM, with gs = 1.26 %/Torr and taus = 427 s, that persisted throughout the hypocapnic period. Finally, the responses at the onset and relief of hypocapnia were asymmetric (P < 0.001), with tauf,on (6.8 s) faster than tauf,off (14.3 s).

  9. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Protective action of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts against oxidative/nitrative damages of blood platelet and plasma components.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Głowacki, Rafał; Olas, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative/nitrative stress induced by different factors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Proanthocyanidins have antioxidative properties and may protect biomolecules (lipids, DNA, and proteins) exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The effects of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts on oxidative/nitrative protein damages (determined by such parameters as level of thiol groups, carbonyl groups, and nitrotyrosine residues) and on the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status; using HPLC) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite were studied in vitro. The preincubation of blood platelets and plasma with proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts (0.5-50 µg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, diminished oxidation of thiol groups, and decreased the level of carbonyl groups in proteins caused by 100 µM peroxynitrite. An action of tested plant fraction and ONOO(-) evoked a significant increase of GSH in platelets and plasma in comparison with platelets and plasma treated with ONOO(-) only. The proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts can be useful as a protecting factor against oxidative/nitrative stress associated with different diseases (cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases) and proanthocyanidins of M. argun nuts may be promising antioxidants.

  12. Bacteroidaceae in Thromboembolic Disease: Effects of Cell Wall Components on Blood Coagulation In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, H. S.; Hill, E. O.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of Bacteroides sp., Fusobacterium mortiferum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Sphaerophorus necrophorus on various parameters of blood coagulation in vivo and in vitro were determined and compared to the coagulation effects of Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota, wild type and R595. Intravenous injection of washed cells, culture filtrate, lipopolysaccharide, or lipid A of the anaerobic gram-negative microorganisms into mice resulted in acceleration of coagulation. Lipopolysaccharide and lipid A of the anaerobic microorganisms had no apparent effect on circulating platelets in mice or rabbits and did not cause aggregation of human platelets in vitro. Washed cells, lipopolysaccharide, and lipid A of Bacteroides sp. and F. mortiferum also significantly accelerated the clotting time of recalcified platelet poor normal human plasma and C6-deficient rabbit plasma. Lipid A, but not lipopolysaccharide, of E. coli and washed cells of S. minnesota R595 accelerated coagulation by a similar mechanism. These results indicated that Bacteroides sp. and F. mortiferum can accelerate blood coagulation in vivo and in vitro by a mechanism which does not involve platelets or terminal components of complement. PMID:4594118

  13. Manifestation of the Se, Cd and Mo levels in different components of the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Fang; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Bing; Wen, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo-Jian; Yan, Lai-Lai; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Lu, Qing-Bin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous element exposure via the respiratory tract on the Se, Cd and Mo concentrations in different components of the peripheral blood in rats as well as to determine the correlations of the three trace elements concentrations among the components. The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and several experimental groups treated with different doses. The rats were exposed to a mixed trace element solution through 10 days of intratracheal instillation. The whole blood of all rats was collected and separated into three parts with Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The Se, Cd and Mo levels in whole blood, plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the three trace elements increased together with the increase of the given doses (P<0.05), except Cd and Mo in the PBMCs. The three trace elements lacked linearity with the exposure doses in the PBMCs (r, 0.249-0.508), while the opposite was the case for the other components of the peripheral blood (r, 0.806-0.934). The correlation coefficients were higher (0.842-0.962) among the whole blood, plasma and RBCs than between PBMCs and other components, such as Se (0.376-0.529), Cd (0.495-0.604) and, especially, Mo (0.160-0.257). In conclusion, PBMCs might provide information about endogenous factors, and whole blood could more accurately reflect the effects of exogenous factors compared to other blood components.

  14. Association of Blood Component Ratio With Clinical Outcomes in Patients After Trauma and Massive Transfusion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Component ratios that mimic whole blood may produce survival benefit in patients massively transfused after trauma; other outcomes have not been reviewed. The purpose of this review was to systematically analyze studies where clinical outcomes were compared on the basis of the component ratios administered during massive transfusion in adult patients after trauma. PubMed, CINAHL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched for studies published in English between 2007 and 2015, performed at Level I or major trauma centers. Twenty-one studies were included in the analysis. We used an adapted 9-item instrument to assess bias risk. The average bias score for the studies was 2.86 ± 1.39 out of 16, indicating a low bias risk. The most common bias sources were lack of data about primary outcomes and adverse events. Those who received high ratios experienced not only greater survival benefit but also higher rates of multiple-organ failure; all other clinical outcomes findings were equivocal.

  15. The effects of captopril on cardiac regression, blood pressure and bradykinin components in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Kesavarao, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), total urinary kallikrein, total plasma kininogen and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MABP was significantly raised (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats compared to the respective controls. The LVWT was also significantly (P<0.01) increased in diabetic WKY rats than that of control WKY rats. The mean total urinary kallikrein level and the mean total plasma kininogen level were higher (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats, when these rats were treated with captopril (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) against the mean value obtained from control WKY rats. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that diabetes induced in these rats can cause hypertension, increased LVWT and changes in the BK-forming components. Captopril treatment caused reduction in MABP, regression of LVWT and alterations in bradykinin (BK)-forming components. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  16. Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examined the association between BP and CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. Methods We analysed data from three large population-based studies conducted between 2004–2011, (n=3,167 Chinese, 3,082 Malays and 3,228 Indians) aged 40–80 years. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Hypertension was defined as a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medication or systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. We also analysed the association of CKD with individual BP components. Results The prevalence of both hypertension and CKD was higher among Malays (68.6, 21%) compared to Chinese (57.9, 5.9%) and Indians (56.0, 7.4%), but treatment for hypertension was lower among Malays (53.4%) compared to Chinese (89.8%) and Indians (83.1%). Hypertension was associated with CKD in all three ethnic groups (OR [95% CI] = 2.71 [1.59-4.63], 2.08 [1.62-2.68], 2.43 [1.66-3.57] in Chinese, Malays and Indians). Among the BP components, both systolic and diastolic BP were associated with CKD in Malays whereas, systolic BP was not significantly associated with CKD, and diastolic BP showed an inverse association which was explained by anti-hypertensive medication use in Chinese and Indians. Conclusions Hypertension was associated with CKD in Chinese, Malays and Indians. However, the BP components were associated with CKD only in Malays. PMID:23590421

  17. Effects of dragon's blood resin and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Xiangming, Liu; Su, Chen; Shijin, Yin; Zhinan, Mei

    2004-08-01

    Using whole-cell patch clamp technique on the membrane of freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the effects of dragon's blood resin and its important component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) voltage-gated sodium currents were observed. The results show that both blood resin and loureirin B could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way. The peak current amplitudes and the steady-state activation and inactivation curves are also made to shift by 0.05% blood resin and 0.2 mmol/L loureirin B. These results demonstrate that the effects of blood resin on TTX-S sodium current may contribute to loureirin B in blood resin. Perhaps the analgesic effect of blood resin is caused partly by loureirin B directly interfering with the nociceptive transmission of primary sensory neurons.

  18. A BLOOD COAGULATION ABNORMALITY IN RABBITS DEFICIENT IN THE SIXTH COMPONENT OF COMPLEMENT (C6) AND ITS CORRECTION BY PURIFIED C6

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Theodore S.; Arroyave, Carlos M.; Müller-Eberhard, Hans J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence for the involvement of the sixth component of complement (C6) in normal blood coagulation is provided by the description of a coagulation abnormality in rabbits with a genetic C6 deficiency and by its correction with highly purified preparations of C6. Whole blood clotting time in glass or plastic was prolonged and prothrombin consumption was decreased in blood from the deficient animals. Other parameters of blood coagulation were normal, including prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, specific clotting factor activities, platelet factor III function, platelet count, and bleeding time. Clotting time and prothrombin consumption became normal when physiologic amounts of highly purified C6 were added to the deficient blood. Partial consumption of C6 hemolytic activity, with a time course similar to the consumption of prothrombin, was demonstrated during the clotting of normal human blood. PMID:5126641

  19. Protocol for a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components compared to other resuscitative fluids in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dretzke, Janine; Smith, Iain M; James, Robert H; Midwinter, Mark J

    2014-10-24

    There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may have benefits in terms of treating trauma-induced coagulopathy, which in turn may influence survival. The proposed systematic review will evaluate the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components (red blood cells and/or plasma or whole blood), in both civilian and military settings, compared with other resuscitation strategies in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. General medical and specialist databases will be searched; the search strategy will combine terms for the population, intervention and setting. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with major traumatic haemorrhage who receive blood components in a pre-hospital setting (civilian or military). Systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled observational studies will be included. Uncontrolled studies will be considered depending on the volume of controlled evidence. Quality assessment will be tailored to different study designs. Both patient related and surrogate outcomes will be considered. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analyses and subgroup analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use by emergency services of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base for this practice. As far as the authors are aware, the proposed systematic review will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO CRD42014013794.

  20. Cash component of conditional cash transfer program is associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in adults.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gertler, Paul J; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-11-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (<2500 inhabitants) communities assigned to immediate incorporation into the program in 1997 or incorporation 18 mo later. Adults (n = 1649 early, n = 2039 late intervention) aged 18-65 y were then assessed in 2003. All of the households included in the analysis reported here complied with Oportunidades's requirements for the entire period, but some received higher cumulative cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (beta = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P < 0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (beta = +1.19, 95% CI 0.09, 2.29; P = 0.03), and higher prevalence of overweight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.67; P < 0.0001), grade I obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.14, 1.75; P = 0.002), and grade II obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.05, 2.36; P = 0.03), while controlling for a wide range of covariates, including household composition at baseline. Oportunidades has been portrayed as a model for CCT programs worldwide, but the results reported here support the notion that the cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes.

  1. Cash Component of Conditional Cash Transfer Program Is Associated with Higher Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Gertler, Paul J.; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (<2500 inhabitants) communities assigned to immediate incorporation into the program in 1997 or incorporation 18 mo later. Adults (n = 1649 early, n = 2039 late intervention) aged 18–65 y were then assessed in 2003. All of the households included in the analysis reported here complied with Oportunidades's requirements for the entire period, but some received higher cumulative cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (β = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P < 0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (β = +1.19, 95% CI 0.09, 2.29; P = 0.03), and higher prevalence of overweight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.67; P < 0.0001), grade I obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.14, 1.75; P = 0.002), and grade II obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.05, 2.36; P = 0.03), while controlling for a wide range of covariates, including household composition at baseline. Oportunidades has been portrayed as a model for CCT programs worldwide, but the results reported here support the notion that the cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes. PMID:18936227

  2. Principal Component Analysis of Conformation and Blood Marker Traits at Pre- and Post-Weaning Stages of Growth in F2 Crossbred Nigerian Indigenous X Landrace Pigs.

    PubMed

    Okoro, V M; Ogundu, U E; Okani, M; Oziri, I; Eneowo, O; Olisenekwu, O T; Kadurumba, O; Ogbuewu, I P; Onyemauwa, S; Ukwu, H O; Ibe, S N

    2015-01-01

    Linear body measurements and blood hematology and biochemistry parameters were taken on 92 and 15 grower pigs, respectively, chosen randomly from a crossbred F2 population of Nigerian Indigenous (NI) x Landrace pigs to evaluate body conformation and blood marker traits using a multivariate approach. For linear body measurements at pre-weaning stage (4 weeks old), two principal components accounted for 91.63% of the total variation in body conformation traits, while at post weaning stage (12 weeks old), one principal component accounted for 73.63% of the total variations in body conformation traits. The first factor (principal component) accounted for 72.34% of the total variance (body weight) while the second factor accounted for 19.29% (ear length) at pre-weaning stage. While at post-weaning stage only one factor contributed to the total variability of the original six traits tested, with 73.63% (body length). For blood parameters, three principal components accounted for 81.85% of the total variation at pre-weaning stage while 89.44% of the total variation at post-weaning stage was accounted for by four principal components. The first factor (principal component) accounted for 38.048% (Packed cell volume), the second accounted for 24.72% (hemoglobin) and the third accounted for 19.08% (aspartate transaminase). While at the post-weaning stage, the first factor was influenced by red blood corpuscles (37.17%), the second factor had its loading for hemoglobin (25.80%), the third factor had loading for white blood corpuscles (13.67%), while the fourth factor had loading for alkaline phosphatase only (12.80%). Using communality extraction factors, ear length best described body conformation at the pre-weaning stage; whereas, at post-weaning stage, body length was the best descriptor. In blood parameters, packed cell volume best described blood marker traits at the pre-weaning stage; whereas, at the post-weaning stage, red blood corpuscles best described it. Hence, the

  3. The International Haemovigilance Network Database for the Surveillance of Adverse Reactions and Events in Donors and Recipients of Blood Components: technical issues and results.

    PubMed

    Politis, C; Wiersum, J C; Richardson, C; Robillard, P; Jorgensen, J; Renaudier, P; Faber, J-C; Wood, E M

    2016-11-01

    The International Haemovigilance Network's ISTARE is an online database for surveillance of all adverse reactions (ARs) and adverse events (AEs) associated with donation of blood and transfusion of blood components, irrespective of severity or the harm caused. ISTARE aims to unify the collection and sharing of information with a view to harmonizing best practices for haemovigilance systems around the world. Adverse reactionss and adverse events are recorded by blood component, type of reaction, severity and imputability to transfusion, using internationally agreed standard definitions. From 2006 to 2012, 125 national sets of annual aggregated data were received from 25 countries, covering 132.8 million blood components issued. The incidence of all ARs was 77.5 per 100 000 components issued, of which 25% were severe (19.1 per 100 000). Of 349 deaths (0.26 per 100 000), 58% were due to the three ARs related to the respiratory system: transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO, 27%), transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI, 19%) and transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD, 12%). Cumulatively, 594 477 donor complications were reported (rate 660 per 100 000), of which 2.9% were severe. ISTARE is a well-established surveillance tool offering important contributions to international efforts to maximize transfusion safety. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    PubMed

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  5. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    PubMed

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration.

  6. Experimental proof of contamination of blood components by (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan caused by filtration with cellulose filters in the manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Koichi; Yano, Tatsuyuki; Kitabayashi, Go; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Yamada, Yuji; Ohata, Atsushi; Usami, Makoto; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    The level of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in blood is a diagnostic index of fungal infection because it is released from the fungal cell wall. However, high levels of plasma (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in patients administered blood components may give false positive results. High levels of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan have been detected in blood components. We suspected that (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan from cellulose filters had been eluted into blood components by filtration in the manufacturing process. To investigate the contamination of blood components by (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan from cellulose filters, in vitro experiments were performed by using six cellulose filters and a nylon filter. Human serum albumin (HSA) solution (100 ml) was flowed through each filter after rinsing with 100 ml of distilled water, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in each fraction was determined by Fungitec G test MK. The concentration of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan eluted from cellulose filters in 100-ml distilled water fractions ranged from 6 to 207 pg/ml, and that of HSA fractions ranged from 33 to 20,784 pg/ml. These data showed that remarkably higher (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan levels were detected in HSA fractions flowed through cellulose filters in spite of advance rinsing with 100 ml of distilled water. In the case of a nylon filter, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan was not eluted in either fraction. These results indicate that (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan contamination in blood components is caused by filtration with cellulose filters in the manufacturing process.

  7. Blood Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman has about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have ... and treatment. back to top Plasma The liquid component of blood is called plasma, a mixture of ...

  8. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags

    PubMed Central

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Material and methods Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Results Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (−61.5%) and platelets (−86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (−26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). Discussion This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing. PMID:25545866

  9. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    PubMed

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  10. Effects of the blood components on the AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses in brain slices in the onset of hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mokrushin, Anatoly A; Pavlinova, Larisa I

    2013-12-01

    Blood-borne events play a major role in post bleeding disturbances of the neuronal network. However, very little is known about the early effects of blood plasma, leucocytes, and the red blood cells on the AMPA and NMDA-mediated synaptic responses in the onset of experimental intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we used the technique of on-line monitoring of electrophysiological parameters referred to synaptic activity in piriform cortex of SHR rat slice. We exposed the olfactory cortex slices to diluted autologous blood or its components and compared with effects of ferric chloride. Whole blood exerted a total inhibition of synaptic activity in piriform cortex within first 5 min. Dilution of blood induced prolonged epileptic synaptic activation of NMDA receptors. Blood plasma and fraction of leucocytes induced hyperactivation of neurons transforming to epileptiform discharges. Fraction of red blood cells acted biphasic, an initial sharp activity of AMPA- and NMDA-mediated receptors replaced by a following total depression. Our slice-based models of experimental stroke revealed the mechanism of the earliest pathophysiologic events occur in brain tissue during bleeding that may be relevant to the human ICH.

  11. Effect of instrumentation using curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Jackeline do Nascimento; Souto, Bráulio Henrique Marques; Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cézar; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2011-01-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces instrumented by curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. One hundred samples from 25 teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1) Curettes; 2) Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 3) Curettes plus piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser; 5) Curettes plus Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Ten samples from each group were used for analysis of root morphology and the other 10 were used for analysis of adhesion of blood components on root surface. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of 5%. The group treated with curettes showed smoother surfaces when compared to the groups were instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The surfaces instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, alone or in combination with hand scaling and root planing, did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among themselves. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among groups were found as to the adhesion of blood components on root surface. Ultrasonic instrumentation and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation produced rougher root surfaces than the use of curettes, but there were no differences among treatments with respect to the adhesion of blood components.

  12. Pulsatile blood pressure component as predictor of mortality in hypertension: a meta-analysis of clinical trial control groups.

    PubMed

    Gasowski, Jerzy; Fagard, Robert H; Staessen, Jan A; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Pocock, Stuart; Boutitie, Florent; Gueyffier, François; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Although current guidelines rest exclusively on the measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, the arterial pressure wave is more precisely described as consisting of a pulsatile (pulse pressure) and a steady (mean pressure) component. This study explored the independent roles of pulse pressure and mean pressure as predictors of mortality in a wide range of patients with hypertension. This meta-analysis, based on individual patient data, has combined results from the control groups of seven randomized clinical trials conducted in patients with systolo-diastolic or isolated systolic hypertension. The relative hazard rates associated with pulse pressure and mean pressure were calculated using Cox's proportional hazard regression models with stratification for the seven trials and with adjustment for sex, age, smoking and the other pressure. A 10 mmHg wider pulse pressure at baseline, which corresponds to approximately one-half of its standard deviation, was independently associated with an increase in risk by 6% for total mortality (P = 0.001), 7% for cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.01), and 7% for fatal coronary accidents (P = 0.03). The corresponding increase in risk of fatal stroke was similar (+6%, P = 0.27) but there were too few strokes to reach statistical significance. In similar analyses, mean pressure was not identified as an independent predictor of these outcomes. Significant interactions of pulse pressure or mean pressure with age suggested that the prognostic power of pulse pressure for fatal stroke was more important at higher age (P = 0.04), whereas the prognostic power of mean pressure for coronary mortality was greatest in the young (P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients pulse pressure, not mean pressure, is associated with an increased risk of fatal events. This appears to be true in a broad range of patients with hypertension.

  13. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  14. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  15. Supraphysiological oxytocin increases the transfer of immunoglobulins and other blood components to milk during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial mastitis causes pathogen-dependent changes of the blood-milk barrier, and these changes can influence the differential transfer of blood components to milk. It is well known that gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli can cause a greater activation of the immune system and thus a more comprehensive transfer of blood components including IgG than gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Supraphysiological doses of oxytocin (OT) have been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier; however, the effect of OT during experimentally induced mastitis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if intravenous administration of OT during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced mastitis could influence the transfer of blood components to milk. The hypothesis was that OT could induce a greater transfer of blood components during mastitis. Twenty-seven dairy cows were injected via the teat canal with LPS, LTA, or a saline control followed by an intravenous injection of OT 2h following intramammary challenge. Milk samples were collected every half hour and analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC), IgG, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serum albumin (SA). Due to the chosen dosage of LPS and LTA, there was no difference in SCC between quarters challenged with only LPS or LTA. Quarters challenged with LPS and OT had a higher SCC and a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA compared with quarters challenged with only LPS. Quarters challenged with LTA and OT had a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA, whereas the SCC increase did not differ from quarters only treated with LTA. In quarters treated only with OT, SCC, LDH, and SA increased, but no difference was observed in IgG concentration from untreated control quarters. In conclusion, there are pathogen-specific changes in the blood-milk barrier and OT can induce a greater transfer of blood components to milk in both LPS- and

  16. Surface modification of nanoparticles by PEO/PPO block copolymers to minimize interactions with blood components and prolong blood circulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, J S; Butterfield, D E; Voycheck, C L; Caldwell, K D; Li, J T

    1993-09-01

    The biological fate of injected foreign particles is believed to be closely related to their interactions with blood plasma proteins and cells. In order to verify this correlation, we have quantitatively measured protein adsorption and blood retention profiles in rats by using model polystyrene latex nanoparticles. The in vitro interactions of these non-biodegradable particles with plasma proteins and whole blood can be altered by modifying their surfaces with a family of amphiphilic polymeric surfactants, PEO/PPO Pluronic or Tetronic block copolymers. Protein adsorption was measured by several techniques, including photon correlation spectroscopy, centrifugation, high performance liquid chromatography and field-flow fractionation. Pluronic F108 and Tetronic 908 and 1508 copolymers (with PEO terminal block MWPEO > 5000, PPO middle block MWPPO > 3000, and HLB values > 24) were shown to be the most effective surface modifiers in reducing adsorption of plasma proteins on the particles. Minimum interaction of coated particles with whole blood was also observed by optical microscopy. The blood circulation half-life of the particles injected in rats was increased from 20 min to 13 h when the latex particles (75 nm) were precoated with these block copolymers. These results suggest that nanoparticles designed for use as injectable drugs or drug carriers should display similar surface characteristics provided by such amphiphilic surface modifiers.

  17. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion. PMID:26252809

  18. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.

  19. Pseudocatalytic scavenging of the nerve agent VX with human blood components and the oximes obidoxime and HI-6.

    PubMed

    Wille, Timo; von der Wellen, Jens; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Despite six decades of extensive research in medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning, a broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator is not yet available. One current approach is directed toward synthesizing oximes with high affinity and reactivatability toward butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma to generate an effective pseudocatalytic scavenger. An interim solution could be the administration of external AChE or BChE from blood products to augment pseudocatalytic scavenging with slower but clinically approved oximes to decrease nerve agent concentrations in the body. We here semiquantitatively investigate the ability of obidoxime and HI-6 to decrease the inhibitory activity of VX with human AChE and BChE from whole blood, erythrocyte membranes, erythrocytes, plasma, clinically available fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells. The main findings are that whole blood showed a VX concentration-dependent decrease in inhibitory activity with HI-6 being more potent than obidoxime. Using erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes again, HI-6 was more potent compared to obidoxime. With freshly prepared plasma, obidoxime and HI-6 showed comparable results for the decrease in VX. The use of the clinically available blood products revealed that packed red blood cells showed similar kinetics as fresh erythrocytes. Fresh frozen plasma resulted in a slower and incomplete decrease in inhibitory plasma compared to freshly prepared plasma. In conclusion, the administration of blood products in combination with available oximes augments pseudocatalytic scavenging and might be useful to decrease the body load of persistent, highly toxic nerve agents.

  20. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... is then separated into its components — red cells, plasma, platelets. Apheresis During apheresis, you are hooked up ... collect and separate blood components, including red cells, plasma, platelets, and return unused components back to the ...

  1. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  2. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly, symptoms are caused by decreases in the blood components. Decreased red blood cells and hemoglobin can cause ... bruising . Occasionally, symptoms may relate to increases in blood components. Increased red blood cells can cause headache and ...

  3. Advantages of Team Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  4. Creating Collaborative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Chris, Ed.

    Although interorganizational collaboration is becoming increasingly significant as a means of achieving organizational objectives, it is not an easy process to implement. Drawing on the work of authors with extensive experience, an accessible introduction to the theory and practice of creating collaborative advantage is presented in this volume.…

  5. Components of electroencephalographic responses to slaughter in halothane - anaesthetised calves : effects of cutting neck tissues compared with major blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T J; Johnson, C B; Murrell, J C; Chambers, J P; Stafford, K J; Mellor, D J

    2009-04-01

    To identify whether cutting neck tissues or cutting major blood vessels initiates the mechanisms responsible for electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to slaughter by ventral-neck incision without prior stunning in halothane-anaesthetised calves. Calves were assigned to two groups, viz transection of neck tissues with intact blood circulation through the brain (n=10), or transection of the major blood vessels of the neck but not most other neck tissues (n=7). They were minimally anaesthetised with halothane, using an established anaesthesia protocol. The animals in the neck-tissue transection group had their carotid arteries and jugular veins exposed and cannulated proximal and distal to the proposed site of subsequent ventral-neck incision; this diverted blood flow through these vessels so that cerebral perfusion and drainage were preserved. In animals in the blood-vessel transection group, the carotid arteries and jugular veins were exposed bilaterally by surgical dissection. They were then transected without further damage to the remaining structures of the neck. Changes in the median frequency (F50), 95% spectral edge frequency (F95), total power of the EEG (Ptot), and arterial blood pressure were compared within each group before and after neck-tissue or blood-vessel transection, and between groups following treatments. Neck-tissue transection resulted in little overall change in the F50, an increase in the F95, and an initial increase in Ptot followed by a transient decrease and eventual return to pre-treatment values. There was between-animal variation in these EEG parameters. Transection of the major blood vessels of the neck resulted in a decrease in F50 in most animals; changes in F95 were highly variable, and there was a decrease in Ptot. The EEG responses seen following neck-tissue and blood-vessel transection were qualitatively distinct, and suggested that cutting neck tissues caused greater noxious sensory input than transection of only the major

  6. Venous or arterial blood components trigger more brain swelling, tissue death after acute subdural hematoma compared to elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model rats.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Daisuke; Sato, Fumiya; Kawamura, Kenya; Sugiura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a frequent complication of severe head injury, whose secondary ischemic lesions are often responsible for the severity of the disease. We focused on the differences of secondary ischemic lesions caused by the components, 0.4ml venous- or arterial-blood, or saline, infused in the subdural space, evaluating the differences in vivo model, using rats. The saline infused rats are made for elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model. Our data showed that subdural blood, both venous- and arterial-blood, aggravate brain edema and lesion development more than SDE. This study is the first study, in which different fluids in rats' subdural space, ASDH or SDE are compared with the extension of early and delayed brain damage by measuring brain edema and histological lesion volume. Blood constituents started to affect the degree of ischemia underneath the subdural hemorrhage, leading to more pronounced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain damage. This indicates that further strategies to treat blood-dependent effects more efficiently are in view for patients with ASDH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Correlation between the organ blood flow, substrate absorption from blood, the activity of transport into mammary gland secretory cells and formation milk components in cow].

    PubMed

    Makar, Z N; Cherepanov, G G; Boiarshinov, I A; Korneeva, R I; Matiushenko, P V; Tokarev, T Iu

    2003-08-01

    Epithelial cells of mammary alveoles may he considered as a bioreactor that works being monitored by regulatory system maintaining balance between blood substrate supply and rate of macromolecular synthesis. In the trial performed on lactating cows assigned to feeding regimen with temporally altered level of nutrition, functioning of this system in the course of a transition period was studied. The earliest sign of adaptation was a decrease in volume blood flow through mammary gland provoking decline in uptake of water soluble substrates (glucose, amino N, P-hydroxybutyrate) with increase in arterio-venous difference across mammary gland and extraction efficiency. At the end of deprivation period, an activity of transport into the cell decreased for amino N from 7.5 to 4.5; l/min (p < 0.05), for P-hydroxyhutyrate from 16.0 to 13.8 l/min; activity of glucose transport was not changed. The data obtained indicate existence of defined points in the system monitoring organ blood supply and transport of substrates into the cell being adjusted during adaptation to alteration in the level of nutrition.

  8. Virtual blood bank.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  9. Blood gas analyses and other components involved in the acid–base metabolism of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Matheus D.; Vaucher, Rodrigo A.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Rech, Virginia C.; Sagrillo, Michele R.; Stainki, Daniel R.; França, Raqueli T.; Machado, Gustavo; Lopes, Sonia T.A.; Monteiro, Silvia G.; Stefani, Lenita M.; Da Silva, Aleksandro S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Trypanosoma evansi infections on arterial blood gases of experimentally infected rats. Two groups with eight animals each were used; group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Infected animals were daily monitored through blood smears that showed high parasitemia with 30 trypanosomes per field (1000×) on average, 5 days post-infection (PI). Arterial blood was collected at 5 days PI for blood gas analysis using an automated method based on dry-chemistry. Hydrogen potential (pH), partial oxygen pressure (pO2), oxygen saturation (sO2), sodium (Na), ionic calcium (Ca ionic), chlorides (Cl), partial dioxide carbon pressure (pCO2), base excess (BE), base excess in the extracellular fluid (BEecf), bicarbonate (cHCO3), potassium (K), lactate, and blood total dioxide the carbon (tCO2) were evaluated. The levels of pH, pCO2, BE, BEecf, cHCO3, and tCO2 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in group B compared to group A. Additionally, the same group showed increases in Cl and lactate levels when compared to uninfected group. Therefore, it is possible to state that the infection caused by T. evansi led to alterations in the acid–base status, findings that are correlated to metabolic acidosis. PMID:26644945

  10. [Application of wavelet transform on improving detecting precision of the non-invasive blood components measurement based on dynamic spectrum method].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Men, Jian-Long; Sun, Zhao-Min; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Bao-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Time-varying noises in spectra collection process have influence on the prediction accuracy of quantitative calibration in the non-invasive blood components measurement which is based on dynamic spectrum (DS) method. By wavelet transform, we focused on the absorbance wave of fingertip transmission spectrum in pulse frequency band. Then we increased the signal to noise ratio of DS data, and improved the detecting precision of quantitative calibration. After carrying out spectrum data continuous acquisition of the same subject for 10 times, we used wavelet transform de-noising to increase the average correlation coefficient of DS data from 0.979 6 to 0.990 3. BP neural network was used to establish the calibration model of subjects' blood components concentration values against dynamic spectrum data of 110 volunteers. After wavelet transform de-noising, the correlation coefficient of prediction set increased from 0.677 4 to 0.846 8, and the average relative error was decreased from 15.8% to 5.3%. Experimental results showed that the introduction of wavelet transform can effectively remove the noise in DS data, improve the detecting precision, and accelerate the development of non-invasive blood components measurement based on DS method.

  11. The SWIR advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard N.

    1995-09-01

    The advantage of panchromatic imaging at wavelengths between 1.1 - 2.5 micrometer [short-wave infrared (SWIR)] to that of 0.5 - 1.0 micrometer [visible and near wave infrared (NWIR)] is shown by analysis and experiment in this paper. At long ranges and under low visibility conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in the SWIR are significantly better than in the NWIR and visible spectral bands. This effect can be utilized to great advantage in airborne reconnaissance to extend the range of coverage and to improve the interpretability of the product. Such improvements apply to ground-based and space borne systems as well. Other system benefits are derived by utilizing SWIR in place of the NWIR wavelength region. Stabilization requirements can be relaxed; larger optical fabrication, alignment, environmental and boundary layer wavefront error can be tolerated; and less degradation occurs due to atmospheric turbulence and dispersion error. SWIR systems can be fabricated with some of the same optical materials available as in the NWIR and visible systems. All these effects lead to a simpler, less-expensive, and more capable imaging system that together comprise the SWIR Advantage.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of the human red-blood-cell urea-transporter polypeptide components. Possible homology with the Kidd blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Neau, P; Degeilh, F; Lamotte, H; Rousseau, B; Ripoche, P

    1993-12-01

    The tritiated urea analogue 1-(3-azido-4-chlorophenyl)-3methyl-2-thiourea ([3H]MeACPTU) was used as a probe to photolabel the human red-blood-cell membrane facilitated urea transporter. On irradiation, [3H]MeACPTU incorporated irreversibly into white ghost membranes. SDS/gel electrophoresis of membranes revealed radioactive incorporation in five major bands of 200, 110, 60, 40 and 14 kDa. The labeling of the 40-kDa and 60-kDa bands was partly prevented by the presence of a high concentration of other urea analogues such as thiourea and 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) 2-thiourea (DCPTU). The photolabeling pattern obtained with white ghosts of the Kidd blood-group type Jk(a-,b-) showed no labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide. Protecting experiments carried out with anti-Jka, anti-Jkb and anti-Jk3 sera prevented radioactive incorporation in the 60-kDa band and in the 110-kDa band. Urea permeability of pink ghosts of blood type Jk(a+,b+) measured in the presence of Jk3 antibodies was 19% lower than the control values. However, urea permeability of frog urinary bladder epithelial cells was not affected by the presence of Jk-reactive antibodies. These results support the hypothesis that the Kidd antigen and the facilitated urea transporter are the same protein. Our estimation of the number of copies in each cell is close to that of the previously published value of 14000.

  13. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  14. The influence of water versus carbohydrate-electrolyte hydration on blood components during a 16-km military march.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Moisés Vieira; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and to compare the effects of ingesting liquids during a 16-km military march under moderate environmental conditions. Twenty-six volunteer male subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Group GW received water (n=12), and group GP received an electrolytic carbohydrate solution (n=14). Blood and urine samples were obtained immediately before and after the march. No significant differences between the drinks were found for any of the measured variables. However, important results (p < 0.05) were observed by comparing variables before and after exercise. The variables included sodium, hematocrit, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and lactic acid levels and body weight (group GW) and sodium, potassium, hematocrit, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and lactic acid levels (group GP). Under the environmental conditions and hydration procedures applied, the results of this study showed similarities in the behavior of the variables, regardless of the kind of beverage consumed.

  15. Use of the Adaptive LASSO Method to Identify PM2.5 Components Associated with Blood Pressure in Elderly Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingzhen; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Schwartz, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is unclear whether specific PM2.5 components, particularly metals, may be responsible for cardiovascular effects. We aimed to determine which PM2.5 components are associated with blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort. We fit linear mixed-effects models with the adaptive LASSO penalty to longitudinal data from 718 elderly men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study, 1999-2010. We controlled for PM2.5 mass, age, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication (ACE inhibitors, non-ophthalmic beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin receptor antagonists), smoking status, alcohol intake, years of education, temperature, and season as fixed effects in the models, and additionally applied the adaptive LASSO method to select PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure. Final models were identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). For systolic blood pressure (SBP), nickel (Ni) and sodium (Na) were selected by the adaptive LASSO, whereas only Ni was selected for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). An interquartile range increase (2.5 ng/m3) in 7-day moving-average Ni was associated with 2.48-mmHg (95% CI: 1.45, 3.50 mmHg) increase in SBP and 2.22-mmHg (95% CI: 1.69, 2.75 mmHg) increase in DBP, respectively. Associations were comparable when the analysis was restricted to study visits with PM2.5 below the 75th percentile of the distribution (12 μg/m3). Our study suggested that exposure to ambient Ni was associated with increased blood pressure independent of PM2.5 mass in our study population of elderly men. Further research is needed to confirm our findings, assess generalizability to other populations, and identify potential mechanisms for Ni effects. Dai L, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Use of the adaptive LASSO method to identify PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure in

  16. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical components of soft-tissue ballistic wounding and their involvement in the generation of blood backspatter.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Peter L; Taylor, Michael C; Wilson, Suzanne J; Walsh, Kevan A J; Kieser, Jules A

    2012-09-01

    Gunshot backspatter comprises biological material expelled backward through bullet entry holes. Crime scene investigators analyze backspatter patterns to infer wounding circumstances. An understanding of the mechanism of backspatter generation, and the relationship between spatter patterns and bullet and tissue characteristics, would enhance the predictive value of such analysis. We examined soft-tissue ballistic wounding responses to determine the underlying components and how these might be relevant to the generation of backspatter. We identified five mechanistic components to ballistic wounding (elastic, viscous, crushing, cutting, and thermal), each related to mechanical disciplines (respectively, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, fracture mechanics, rheology, and thermodynamics). We identified potential roles for these five components in backspatter formation and provide a scenario whereby a sequence of events incorporating these components could lead to backspatter generation and expulsion. This research provides a framework for the mathematical representation, and subsequent computational predictive modeling, of backspatter generation and pattern formation.

  18. Dissecting the genetic components of a quantitative trait locus for blood pressure and renal pathology on rat chromosome 3

    PubMed Central

    Koh-Tan, H.H. Caline; Dashti, Mohammed; Wang, Ting; Beattie, Wendy; Mcclure, John; Young, Barbara; Dominiczak, Anna F.; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have previously confirmed the importance of rat chromosome 3 (RNO3) genetic loci on blood pressure elevation, pulse pressure (PP) variability and renal pathology during salt challenge in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat. The aims of this study were to generate a panel of RNO3 congenic sub-strains to genetically dissect the implicated loci and identify positional candidate genes by microarray expression profiling and analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Method and results: A panel of congenic sub-strains were generated containing Wistar–Kyoto (WKY)-introgressed segments of varying size on the SHRSP genetic background, focused within the first 50 Mbp of RNO3. Haemodynamic profiling during salt challenge demonstrated significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and PP variability in SP.WKYGla3a, SP.WKYGla3c, SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3e sub-strains. Only SBP and DBP were significantly reduced during salt challenge in SP.WKYGla3b and SP.WKYGla3f sub-strains, whereas SP.WKYGla3g rats did not differ in haemodynamic response to SHRSP. Those sub-strains demonstrating significantly reduced PP variability during salt challenge also demonstrated significantly reduced renal pathology and proteinuria. Microarray expression profiling prioritized two candidate genes for blood pressure regulation (Dnm1, Tor1b), localized within the common congenic interval shared by SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3f strains, and one candidate gene for salt-induced PP variability and renal pathology (Rabgap1), located within the region unique to the SP.WKYGla3d strain. Comparison of next-generation sequencing data identified variants within additional positional genes that are likely to affect protein function. Conclusion: This study has identified distinct intervals on RNO3-containing genes that may be important for blood pressure regulation and renal pathology during salt challenge. PMID:27755386

  19. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology® treatment does not affect acute lung injury in a two-event in vivo model caused by stored blood components

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, C. C.; Khan, S. Y.; Ball, J. Bradley; Kelher, M. R.; Marschner, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology® (PRT) treatment uses riboflavin and UV light to inactivate pathogens in blood components. Neutrophil [polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)] priming activity accumulates during routine storage of cellular blood components, and this activity has been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). We hypothesize that PRT-treatment of blood components affects the priming activity generated during storage of packed RBCs (PRBCs) or platelet concentrates (PCs), which can elicit ALI in vivo. Methods Plasma, PRBCs and PCs were isolated from healthy donor’s whole blood or by apheresis. Half of a collected unit was treated with PRT treatment and the remainder was left as an unmodified control. Supernatant was collected during storage of PCs and PRBCs and assayed for PMN priming activity and used as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Results PRT treatment did not induce priming activity in plasma or affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs as compared with the unmodified controls. The supernatants from stored, but not fresh, PCs and PRBCs did cause ALI as the second event in a two-event animal model of TRALI, which was unaffected by PRT treatment. We conclude that the PRT® treatment does not induce priming activity in plasma nor does it affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs or their ability to cause ALI as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Moreover, the amount of priming activity in TRIMA®-isolated PCs was significantly less than SPECTRA®-isolated PCs. PMID:19951305

  20. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  1. Advantages and guidelines for using isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Ludders, J W

    1992-03-01

    Isoflurane offers many advantages over other inhalational anesthetics. Its faster induction and recovery, relative sparing effect on cardiovascular function and cerebral blood flow autoregulation, and negligible metabolism make this drug particularly useful in the anesthetic management of the debilitated, aged, or unusual veterinary patient.

  2. Blood component usage during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: experience in 98 patients at a Latin-American tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Henríquez, Marcela; Kattan, Javier; Chang, Mayling; Pizarro, Isabel; Faunes, Miriam; Martinez, Claudia; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Pereira, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Hemorrhagic complications during ECMO may affect a large proportion of the patients depending on the clinical setting. To guarantee optimal delivery of blood products to these patients, blood banks require updated information on the transfusion requirements. Few studies to date provide this information. This work assesses transfusion requirements in neonates and children during ECMO during the past 9 years. We reviewed blood bank and hospital records of patients who underwent ECMO at our institution between May 2003 and May 2012. Data obtained included age, weight, diagnosis, type, length of ECMO, and daily transfusion requirements during ECMO. Descriptive and non-parametric inferential statistic analyses were performed. Our series included 98 patients. Mean time of patients on ECMO was 9.2 days, with the longest treatment spanning 22 days. Mean daily transfusion requirements were 39.5 ml/kg of RBC, 12.9 ml/kg of plasma, 34.3 ml/kg of platelets and 1.4 ml/kg of cryoprecipitate. Patients who underwent ECMO due to cardiac disease or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) required significantly higher transfusion volumes of plasma (p<0.05), platelets (p< 0.05) and cryoprecipitate (p<0.05) when compared to patients underwent ECMO due to respiratory disease. Concomitant with the aging of ECMO circuits, patients showed increased requirements of RBC, plasma, and CRYO around the seventh day of the ECMO run. This effect was not observed for platelets, which remained nearly consistent around 2.2 transfusions/day. ECMO patients required significant transfusion support, which was particularly higher among patients who underwent ECMO due to cardiac disease or congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  3. Non-invasive submilligram level quantification of in vivo blood components with slitless high-sensitivity spectrometer and noncooled NIR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2015-03-01

    By using a "slit-less" Fourier-transform spectrometer, we demonstrate that cardiac-pulsation amplitude of absorbance can be extracted from 3.5-level absorbance unit (AU) spectra of a human fingertip with a resolution of < 0.0005 AU and a spectral resolution of < several tens of nanometers, even with a low-cost "non-cooled" NIR detector. From the extracted spectrum over 1,000-1,400 nm, the average amounts of pulsating blood components (water, HbO2, and lipids/proteins) in a fingertip are deduced in the sub-milligram order. The results indicate the capacity of the spectrometer for a portable non-invasive blood monitor as well as for a high-end analytic instrument.

  4. Quantitation of residual WBCs in filtered blood components by high-throughput, real-time kinetic PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzong-Hae; Wen, Li; Chrebtow, Vera; Higuchi, Russell; Watson, Robert M; Sninsky, John J; Busch, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    The effort to eliminate transfusion complications associated with WBCs has led to the widespread use of filters able to reduce WBC concentrations to blood. This has necessitated sensitive QC methods to quantitate residual WBCs in filtered units. One fast, effective method is DNA amplification using real-time kinetic PCR (kPCR). Two methods of preparation of standards were compared and used for the optimization of quantitative kPCR. The first involved spiking genomic DNA cell lysate into a diluent, followed by a series of 1 in 10 dilutions. The second involved spiking serial 1 in 10 dilutions of WBCs into twice-filtered fresh whole blood. Two hundred fifty filtered frozen whole-blood samples were amplified in duplicate to show the kPCR assay's reproducibility. Another 359 filtered frozen whole blood samples were used to compare data from kPCR with data from a standard PCR protocol using (32)P-labeled probe and autoradiography. All specimens were amplified for conserved HLA DQ(alpha) sequences. Standards prepared by both methods gave reproducible and equivalent results. Quantitation of standards representing a dynamic range of 8 x 10(o) to 8 x 10(5) WBCs per mL, yielded standard deviations ranging from 0.59 cycle to 1.04 cycles (a one-cycle increase is equivalent to a twofold increase in WBC concentration). The scatter graph of the 250 samples tested in duplicate by kPCR generated a slope of 1.0122 and an R(2) value of 0.9265. The comparison of kPCR and (32)P-probe hybridization results on 359 clinical samples gave a scatter-graph slope of 0.9428 and an R(2) value of 0.8718, indicating excellent agreement of the methods over a 4-log dynamic range. kPCR is a high-throughput, sensitive assay that could prove useful in routine quality assurance of the WBC reduction process.

  5. Microdroplet fluorochromatic assay for the enumeration of white cells (WBCs) in WBC-reduced blood components: validation and application for evaluating newly developed WBC-reduction filters.

    PubMed

    Borzini, P; Dumont, L J

    1997-06-01

    Sensitive and accurate counting methods are required to assess the residual white cells (WBCs) in WBC-reduced blood components. The Nageotte hemocytometer, widely used for this purpose, is cumbersome, and its efficacy is dependent upon the skill of the operator. The performance of a simple fluorochromatic assay using tissue-typing microdroplet trays is presented here. Undiluted samples of blood components were mixed with a fluorochromatic dye in trays. WBCs were counted under an epifluorescence microscope. The accuracy and sensitivity of this method were compared with those of the reference Nageotte hemocytometer method by using serial dilution of samples of platelets and red cells containing known concentrations of WBCs and by calculating the standard curves. The Nageotte hemocytometer and the microdroplet fluorochromatic assay (MFA) were also compared in terms of count correlation and reproducibility in 320 paired counts of plateletpheresis samples. MFA was used to evaluate a newly developed WBC-reduction red cell filter. The MFA for platelets and red cells was linear to 0.1 and 0.03 WBCs per microL, respectively. The linear regression line of log10 MFA versus log10 Nageotte method had a slope of 0.963, intercept of -0.04, and r2 of 0.968. The Nageotte method gave an estimation of WBC content 12 to 20 percent greater than that of the MFA. The MFA, with a larger neat sample volume, showed precision comparable to that of the Nageotte method. The filters demonstrated a median WBC reduction of 4.8 log10. The MFA is a sensitive and accurate method for quality control processes to assess the residual WBCs in WBC-reduced blood components.

  6. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet

  7. The use of fresh whole blood in massive transfusion.

    PubMed

    Repine, Thomas B; Perkins, Jeremy G; Kauvar, David S; Blackborne, Lorne

    2006-06-01

    Most indications for whole blood transfusion are now well managed exclusively with blood component therapy, yet the use of fresh whole blood for resuscitating combat casualties has persisted in the U.S. military. Published descriptions of whole blood use in military and civilian settings were compared with use of whole blood at the 31st Combat Support Hospital (31st CSH) stationed in Baghdad in 2004-2005. Concerns about logistics, safety, and relative efficacy of whole blood versus component therapy have argued against the use of whole blood in most settings. However, military physicians have observed some distinct advantages in fresh warm whole blood over component therapy during the massive resuscitation of acidotic, hypothermic, and coagulopathic trauma patients. In this critical role, fresh whole blood was eventually incorporated as an adjunct into a novel whole-blood-based massive transfusion protocol. Under extreme and austere circumstances, the risk:benefit ratio of whole blood transfusion favors its use. Fresh whole blood may, at times, be advantageous even when conventional component therapy is available.

  8. [A new proposal on the neural component of the control system of renal blood flow. Analysis using digital simulation].

    PubMed

    Roa, L M; Garrachón, F; González-Barón, S

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical, non-lineal model for digital simulation of the neural control of blood renal flow (BRF) has been built, by using the system dynamic techniques. The control mechanisms considered have been the BRF regulation by means of a renal intrinsic system, and by means of an RNA-dependent system, being the latter a product of the peripheral sympathetic activity, of a tonic inhibitory system with a central origin, and of a system that inhibits this last one, which has an intrarenal origin. For the validation of the model, a spinal section has been simulated, and the data have been compared with the reported in the bibliography. The use of this model permits an approach to the study of different variables in physiological or pathological circumstances in man, especially of those involved in the neural regulation of the BFR, obviating the technical and ethical obstacles of experimental techniques and leading to the design of new animal trials.

  9. The 1-Carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine Component of ROS-Induced DNA Damage in White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Herbert; Patrzyc, Helen B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Freund, Harold G.; Box, Harold C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine is a known base modification produced in vitro by oxidative stress. However, the presence of this modification in vivo has not been established. In this study the introduction of this base modification into dinucleoside monophosphates was accomplished using the Fenton reaction. Subsequently, the modification was produced in short isotopically labeled oligomers. Labeled tetramers bearing the lesion were used as internal standards for LC-MS/MS determinations of the base modification in the DNA of white blood cells from healthy donors. The background level of the 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine was found to be larger than the levels of the formamide and thymine glycol base modifications. PMID:20681804

  10. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  11. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL−1, and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL−1. This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis. PMID:26819905

  12. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL(-1), and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL(-1). This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis.

  13. [In vitro effects of hemocoagulase atrix and its effective components on blood coagulation of patients with bleeding disorders].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Juan; Wang, Zhao-Yue; Jiang, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Li-Juan; Sun, Xiong-Hua; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Xia; Ruan, Chang-Geng

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the pro coagulation effects of hemocoagulase atrix and its effective components (batroxobin and factor X activator) on plasma of normal subjects and patients with bleeding disorders and their mechanisms. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) were measured. The factor (F)X activation and thrombin generation were analyzed by using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that the plasma APTT of normal subjects was shortened by hemocoagulase atrix, batroxobin and FX activator, and the effect of FX activator was found to be concentration-dependent (r = 0.889, P < 0.05). The prolonged APTT of plasma from patients with bleeding disorders could be corrected by hemocoagulase atrix, batroxobin and FX activator, but PT showed no great changes resulted from the treatments. FX activator could promote FX activation and thrombin generation, while neither hemocoagulase atrix nor batroxobin showed such abilities. It is concluded that hemocoagulase atrix promotes coagulation process, and corrects coagulation abnormalities in patients with bleeding disorders, its main component batroxobin directly acts on fibrinogen, and FX activator promotes thrombin generation through activating FX.

  14. Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniele; Cortegiani, Andrea; Chieregato, Arturo; Russo, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Concetta; De Blasio, Elvio; Mengoli, Francesca; Volpi, Annalisa; Grossi, Silvia; Gianesello, Lara; Orzalesi, Vanni; Fossi, Francesca; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was "very low", with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by "high" quality evidence

  15. Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniele; Cortegiani, Andrea; Chieregato, Arturo; Russo, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Concetta; De Blasio, Elvio; Mengoli, Francesca; Volpi, Annalisa; Grossi, Silvia; Gianesello, Lara; Orzalesi, Vanni; Fossi, Francesca; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. Results With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was “very low”, with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by

  16. [A computer simulation research for the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on sodium channel in dorsal root ganglion cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Liu, Xiangming

    2006-12-01

    Using patch clamp technique the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel currents in dorsal root ganglion cells were observed. The experimental data were simulated with Hodgkin-Huxley model and the corresponding parameters were estimated. In addition, computer-simulated neuron action potentials in the absence and presence of drugs were produced using Hodgkin-Huxley model. The results show that the conductance of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel was fitted with m3h model well, the half-activated potentials of the sodium channel in the presence of drugs were shifted to the depolarizing direction and the threshold intensity of the cells in the presence of drugs was increased. These results demonstrate that dragon's blood and loureirin B did not resemble the tetrodotoxin which inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel currents completely. Perhaps the analgesic effects of dragon's blood were partly caused by loureirin B affecting the activation, blocking the action potential generation and interfering with the transmission of painful signals into the central nervous system.

  17. Hydroxycarbamide modulates components involved in the regulation of adenosine levels in blood cells from sickle-cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Silva-Pinto, Ana C; Dias-Carlos, Carolina; Saldanha-Araujo, Felipe; Ferreira, Flávia I S; Palma, Patrícia V B; Araujo, Amélia G; Queiroz, Regina H C; Elion, Jacques; Covas, Dimas T; Zago, Marco A; Panepucci, Rodrigo A

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of adenosine (ADO) in sickle-cell anemia (SCA). ADO is produced by CD39 and CD73 and converted to inosine by adenosine deaminase (ADA). We evaluated the effects of hydroxycarbamide (HU) treatment on the modulation of adenosine levels in SCA patients. The expressions of CD39, CD73, and CD26 were evaluated by flow cytometry on blood cells in 15 HU-treated and 17 untreated patients and 10 healthy individuals. RNA was extracted from monocytes, and ADA gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. ADA activity was also evaluated. We found that ADA transcripts were two times higher in monocytes of HU-treated patients, compared with untreated (P = 0.039). Monocytes of HU-treated patients expressed CD26, while monocytes of controls and untreated patients did not (P = 0.023). In treated patients, a lower percentage of T lymphocytes expressed CD39 compared with untreated (P = 0.003), and the percentage of T regulatory (Treg) cells was reduced in the treated group compared with untreated (P = 0.017) and controls (P = 0.0009). Besides, HU-treated patients displayed increased ADA activity, compared with untreated. Our results indicate a novel mechanism of action of HU mediated by the reduction of adenosine levels and its effects on pathophysiological processes in SCA.

  18. [Comparative analysis of the promoting blood effects of the combination of different proportions of danggui and honghua by the principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jiao; Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shen, Juan; Shang, Er-Xin; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-09-01

    The combination of Danggui and Honghua (GH) is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinic for the treatment of blood stasis syndrome in China. To evaluate the activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of the combination of different proportions of Danggui and Honghua on acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the proportion of GH to have the best activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effect. Acute blood stasis rat model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline and ice water bath. The blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2 : 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1: 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) extracts. The whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), and high shear whole blood relative index (HSWBRI), low shear whole blood relative index (LSWBRI), and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI) were tested to observe the effects of GH on hemorheology of blood stasis rats. And the maximum aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was tested to observe the effect of GH on platelet aggregation index of blood stasis rats. In addition, the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were tested to observe the effects of GH on blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Then principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were both used to comprehensively evaluate the total activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of GH. The results showed that the hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group both had significant differences with normal group. Compared with model group, GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2: 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1 : 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) could improve all the blood hemorheology indexes and regulate part indexes of blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation in acute blood stasis rats. Based on principal component analysis and multi

  19. The effect of ambient exposure to PM2.5 on the transfusion usage of blood components and adverse transfusion reactions in the haze weather.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Lin, Hui-Jung; Sun, Jen-Tang; Li, Pei-Yu; Lee, Tai-Chen; Su, Ming-Jang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2016-10-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that ambient exposure to PM2.5, especially in the haze weather, increased the risk of various diseases. However, the association of air pollution status with blood transfusion utilization and the prevalence and severity of adverse transfusion reactions remain to be clarified. The data of monthly transfusion usage of blood components, adverse transfusion reactions, as well as PM2.5 and PM10 levels from 2013 to 2015 were obtained. During the study interval, both PM2.5 and PM10 levels were significantly increased in the haze weather when compared with the non-haze weather. The utilization of total blood components per patient-month in the haze weather was prone to be increased when compared with that in the non-haze weather (13.28 ± 1.66 vs. 12.33 ± 1.30, p = 0.068). The usage of RBC products per patient-month in the haze weather was significantly increased when compared with that in the non-haze weather (4.39 ± 0.39 vs. 4.07 ± 0.30, p = 0.009). There was no obvious difference between the haze and non-haze weathers for the usage of platelet and plasma products per patient-month. Besides, no definite differences of the prevalence and severity of transfusion-associated adverse reaction were observed between the haze and non-haze weathers. Our study first indicated that transfusion utilization, particularly the RBC products, was significantly increased in the haze weather when compared with that in the non-haze weather. There was no obvious association of air pollution with the prevalence and severity of adverse transfusion reactions and further research is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency alterations in key innate immune cell components in the peripheral blood of dengue patients detected by FACS analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jih-Jin; Jen, Yen-Hua; Chang, Jung-San; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Noisakran, Sansanee; Perng, Guey Chuen

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is a timing disease, and frequently dengue patients do not seek help until 2-3 days after prodrome. Thus, the innate immune parameters in dengue patients remain largely unexplored. A comprehensive FACS profiling of key innate immune cells in the peripheral blood of dengue patients was performed. Twenty-seven dengue patients varying in days of fever onset were enrolled and the majority of them had primary infection based on serological results. FACS panels were used to evaluate NK cells, platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA), inflammatory monocytes, and plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC). FACS results showed the following findings: (i) NK cells significantly dropped on day 5 after the onset of fever and gradually returned to normal within 2 weeks of illness; (ii) biphasic PLA were observed, maximum levels were reached on days 6-8 and 11-16, and platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA) were the most frequent event; (iii) inflammatory monocytes were consistently lower on days 5-8 and gradually returned to the normal level in the second week of illness, and (iv) pDC reached the maximum level on day 5 and gradually declined to the baseline level after 1 week of illness. In contrast, mDC fluctuated somewhat during the first week of illness and returned to the baseline level in the second week of illness. The most interesting finding was the biphasic PLA, in particular the PMA. These innate immunological parameters could be a crucial factor dictating the complicated pathogenesis of dengue disease.

  1. Expression polymorphism of the blood-brain barrier component P-glycoprotein (MDR1) in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Taku; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Ceroni, Mauro; Caporaso, Neil; Bernucci, Ilaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Martignoni, Emilia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2002-10-01

    Because drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1 ) gene, contribute to the function of the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized that differences in their expression could affect the uptake of neurotoxic xenobiotics, thereby modulating interindividual susceptibility for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In a pilot case-control study comprising 95 Parkinson's disease patients (25 early-onset patients with onset age < or = 45 years) and 106 controls we analysed the three common polymorphisms, 3435C >T in exon 26, 2677G > T,A in exon 21, and -129T > C in exon 1b. There were no statistically significant associations between any of these polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. However, a distribution pattern consistent with our hypothesis was observed in that the frequency of the 3435T/T genotype, which had previously been associated with decreased P-glycoprotein expression and function, was highest in the early-onset Parkinson's disease group (36.0%), second-highest in the late-onset Parkinson's disease group (22.9%), and lowest in the control group (18.9%). Furthermore, we confirmed that the MDR1 exon 21 and exon 26 polymorphisms are in significant linkage disequilibrium since the [2677G, 3435C] and [2677T, 3435T] haplotypes were far more frequently observed than expected. In conclusion, MDR1 and other drug transporters represent plausible candidates as Parkinson's disease risk genes. Larger studies are required to confirm this role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Comparison of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions in female and male patients receiving female or male blood components

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, S; Araki, N; Shimada, E; Saigo, K; Nishimura, K; Nose, Y; Bouike, Y; Hashimoto, M; Mito, H; Okazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between antibodies detected in patients’ and/or donors’ sera and the clinical features of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (ANHTRs), and to determine any gender-related difference. ANHTRs range from urticaria to transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), granulocytes, platelets, and/or plasma proteins are implicated in some of the ANHTRs. A higher antibody positivity is expected for females than for males. A comparative study of ANHTRs for antibody positivity and their clinical features between females and males for both patients and donors is helpful for characterizing ANHTRs including TRALI more clearly, but such studies are few and outdated. Two hundred and twenty-three ANHTR cases reported by 45 hospitals between October 2000 and July 2005 were analysed. The patients and 196 donors of suspect blood products were screened for antibodies to HLA Class I, HLA Class II, granulocytes, and platelets. The patients were also screened for anti-plasma protein antibodies. The types and severity of ANHTR did not differ significantly between female and male patients. The frequency of the anti-HLA antibodies, but not that of the non-HLA antibodies, was significantly higher in females. Non-HLA antibodies were significantly associated with severe reactions in females. All the TRALI cases had predisposing risk factors for acute lung injury, and 60% of the cases showed anti-leucocyte antibodies. Although the anti-HLA antibodies were detected more frequently in females than males, no significant association of ANHTRs including TRALI with gender, not only for patients, but also for donors, could be shown in this study. PMID:18067650

  3. Drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (MDR1), is an integrated component of the mammalian blood-testis barrier§

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Cheng, Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout spermatogenesis, leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium for continued development. At the same time, the integrity of the BTB, which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and desmosome-like junctions, must be maintained since a breach in barrier function can result in spermatogenic arrest and infertility. There is evidence to suggest that drug transporters may function at the BTB, but little is known about how they contribute to spermatogenesis. In this study, we investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump, in BTB dynamics. A survey by RT-PCR revealed several transport proteins to be expressed by the testis, including Mdr1 (gene symbol for P-gp), Mrp1, Abcc5 and Slc15a1. It was also demonstrated that P-gp localizes to the BTB in all stages of the epithelial cycle in the adult rat testis, as well as to the Sertoli cell elongated spermatid interface in stages VII–VIII. We continued our study by examining the levels of several transporters in the testis following oral administration of Adjudin, a compound known to affect Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. In this experiment, the steady-state levels of P-gp, MRP1, ABCG1 and SLC15A1 were all found to increase by several-fold within hours of Adjudin treatment during junction restructuring. More importantly, an increase in P-gp association with TJ proteins (e.g., occludin, claudin-11 and JAM-A) was noted when testis lysates from Adjudin-treated rats were used for co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting that P-gp may enhance BTB function during Sertoli-germ cell junction restructuring. PMID:19720156

  4. High-volume extraction of nucleic acids by magnetic bead technology for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria in blood components.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid isolation, the most technically demanding and laborious procedure performed in molecular diagnostics, harbors the potential for improvements in automation. A recent development is the use of magnetic beads covered with nucleic acid-binding matrices. We adapted this technology with a broad-range 23S rRNA real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for fast and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination of blood products. We investigated different protocols for an automated high-volume extraction method based on magnetic-separation technology for the extraction of bacterial nucleic acids from platelet concentrates (PCs). We added 2 model bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, to a single pool of apheresis-derived, single-donor platelets and assayed the PCs by real-time RT-PCR analysis with an improved primer-probe system and locked nucleic acid technology. Co-amplification of human beta(2)-microglobulin mRNA served as an internal control (IC). We used probit analysis to calculate the minimum concentration of bacteria that would be detected with 95% confidence. For automated magnetic bead-based extraction technology with the real-time RT-PCR, the 95% detection limit was 29 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/L for S. epidermidis and 22 x 10(3) CFU/L for E. coli. No false-positive results occurred, either due to nucleic acid contamination of reagents or externally during testing of 1030 PCs. High-volume nucleic acid extraction improved the detection limit of the assay. The improvement of the primer-probe system and the integration of an IC make the RT-PCR assay appropriate for bacteria screening of platelets.

  5. Blood component preferences of transfusion services supporting infant transfusions: a University HealthSystem Consortium benchmarking study.

    PubMed

    Fung, Mark K; Roseff, Susan D; Vermoch, Kathleen L

    2010-09-01

    The extent of acceptability of red blood cells (RBCs) containing additive solutions (ASs) for low-volume neonatal transfusions among hospitals is unknown. Also unknown is whether hospitals have policies that address the risk of hyperkalemia associated with prolonged storage either with or without irradiation for neonatal transfusions. A benchmarking survey of University HealthSystem Consortium members included questions regarding the acceptability of RBC units containing ASs for low-volume neonatal transfusions, policies addressing the length of RBC storage in AS, and policies regarding storage periods after irradiation. Twenty-eight of 47 respondents (60%) accept the use of at least one AS (AS-1, AS-3, or AS-5). Twenty-one (45%) accept the use of all three ASs for neonatal transfusions. Thirty-seven of 45 respondents (82%) do not have a policy requiring washing of RBCs used for low-volume transfusions beyond a specified number of days of storage or days after irradiation. Although the majority of institutions will use ASs, a significant number of institutions will not. The reasons for these policies were not elicited. Most respondents did not have a policy requiring washing beyond a specified number of days of storage or days after irradiation. Since RBCs stored for prolonged periods of time after irradiation have increased plasma potassium, it is important to develop policies to prevent clinically significant posttransfusion hyperkalemia in at-risk patients when RBCs are irradiated and not used immediately. More work still needs to be done to resolve these fundamental precepts of neonatal transfusion.

  6. Preanalytical treatment of EDTA-anticoagulated blood to ensure stabilization of the mean platelet volume and component measured with the ADVIA counters.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Brunso, Lucas; Pino, Marc; Navalon, Fulgencio; Jou, Josep M; Heras, Magda; White, James G; Escolar, Gines

    2010-07-01

    The mean platelet component (MPC) parameter calculated by the ADVIA blood cell analyzers provides direct information on density, or granularity, of platelets and could become a useful biomarker to detect in vivo platelet activation. Unfortunately, it is largely affected by time and storage conditions in standard anticoagulants based on EDTA. The present study was designed to improve the stability of the MPC in blood specimens to facilitate a more standardized use in different laboratories. Blood from healthy controls was collected into EDTA plus additives, and stored at different conditions. MPC and the mean platelet volume (MPV) were assessed at 30 min and at 1, 3, 6 and 24hours after blood drawing on the ADVIA 2120 system. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate platelet-activation proteins. Ultrastructural morphology of platelets was assessed using electron microscopy. Storage in EDTA increased MPV, decreased MPC, reduced the number of alpha-granules, and induced changes in the phosphorylation patterns of platelet proteins. A solution based on EDTA containing wortmanin and tyrphostin (ED-WORTY), both inhibitors of signaling pathways, provided good stability for most of the parameters tested up to 6 hours at room temperature. Storage at lower temperatures produced more favorable results. ED-WORTY solutions preserved adequate morphology and had minimal influence on other parameters provided by the ADVIA 2120 system. Thus, the additives included in ED-WORTY may be useful for maintaining the stability of MPC for prolonged periods and to facilitate the transport and exchange of samples among institutions and laboratories. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel peptide delivers plasmids across blood-brain barrier into neuronal cells as a single-component transfer vector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ailing; Zhang, Miaomiao; Gao, Feiyan; Xu, Xingran; Chen, Zhangbao

    2013-01-01

    There is no data up to now to show that peptide can deliver plasmid into brain as a single-component transfer vector. Here we show that a novel peptide, RDP (consisted of 39 amino acids), can be exploited as an efficient plasmid vector for brain-targeting delivery. The plasmids containing Lac Z reporter gene (pVAX-Lac Z) and BDNF gene (pVAX-BDNF) are complexed with RDP and intravenously injected into mice. The results of gel retardation assay show that RDP enables to bind DNA in a dose-dependent manner, and the X-Gal staining identity that Lac Z is specifically expressed in the brain. Also, the results of Western blot and immunofluorescence staining of BDNF indicate that pVAX-BDNF complexed with RDP can be delivered into brain, and show neuroprotective properties in experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) model. The results demonstrate that RDP enables to bind and deliver DNA into the brain, resulting in specific gene expression in the neuronal cells. This strategy provides a novel, simple and effective approach for non-viral gene therapy of brain diseases.

  8. Principal Components Analysis Based Unsupervised Feature Extraction Applied to Gene Expression Analysis of Blood from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Y-h.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) sometimes occurs after recovery from the disease caused by Dengue virus (DENV), and is often fatal. However, the mechanism of DHF has not been determined, possibly because no suitable methodologies are available to analyse this disease. Therefore, more innovative methods are required to analyse the gene expression profiles of DENV-infected patients. Principal components analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) was applied to the gene expression profiles of DENV-infected patients, and an integrated analysis of two independent data sets identified 46 genes as critical for DHF progression. PCA using only these 46 genes rendered the two data sets highly consistent. The application of PCA to the 46 genes of an independent third data set successfully predicted the progression of DHF. A fourth in vitro data set confirmed the identification of the 46 genes. These 46 genes included interferon- and heme-biosynthesis-related genes. The former are enriched in binding sites for STAT1, STAT2, and IRF1, which are associated with DHF-promoting antibody-dependent enhancement, whereas the latter are considered to be related to the dysfunction of spliceosomes, which may mediate haemorrhage. These results are outcomes that other type of bioinformatic analysis could hardly achieve. PMID:28276456

  9. Transfusion in CMV seronegative T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with CMV-unselected blood components results in zero CMV transmissions in the era of universal leukocyte reduction: a U.K. dual centre experience.

    PubMed

    Hall, S; Danby, R; Osman, H; Peniket, A; Rocha, V; Craddock, C; Murphy, M; Chaganti, S

    2015-12-01

    To establish rates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission with use of CMV-unselected (CMV-U), leukocyte-reduced blood components transfused to CMV-seronegative patient/CMV-seronegative donor (CMV neg/neg) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients including those receiving T-depleted grafts. CMV infection remains a major cause of morbidity following SCT. CMV-seronegative SCT recipients are particularly at risk of transfusion transmitted CMV (TT-CMV) and until recently they have received blood components from CMV-seronegative donors with significant resource implications. Although leukocyte reduction of blood components is reported to minimise risk of TT-CMV, its efficacy in high-risk situations, such as in T-depleted transplant recipients, is unknown. We retrospectively analysed the incidence of TT-CMV in CMV neg/neg allogeneic SCT recipients transfused with CMV-U, leukocyte-reduced blood components in two transplantation centres in the UK. Patients were monitored for CMV infection by weekly CMV polymerase chain reaction testing. Leukocyte reduction of blood components was in accordance with current UK standards. Among 76 patients, including 59 receiving in vivo T-depletion, no episodes of CMV infection were detected. Patients were transfused with 1442 CMV-unselected, leukocyte-reduced components, equating to 1862 donor exposures. Our findings confirm the safety of leukocyte reduction as a strategy in preventing TT-CMV in high-risk allogeneic SCT recipients. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Complete blood count risk score and its components, including RDW, are associated with mortality in the JUPITER trial.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Ridker, Paul M; Paynter, Nina P

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we showed that sex-specific complete blood count (CBC) risk scores strongly predicted risk of all-cause mortality in multiple sets of general medical patients. This study evaluated the CBC risk score in an independent, well-studied international primary risk population of lower-risk individuals initially free from cardiovascular (CV) disease. Observational secondary analysis of a randomized trial population. The previously derived and validated CBC score was evaluated for association with all-cause mortality among CV disease-free females (n = 6568) and males (n = 10,629) enrolled for up to 5 years in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Associations of the CBC score with CV mortality and with major CV disease were also tested. The CBC score predicted all-cause mortality, with univariable hazard ratio (HR) 4.83 (95% CI 3.70-6.31) for the third CBC score tertile vs. the first tertile, and HR 2.31 (CI 1.75-3.05) for the second tertile (p trend < 0.001). The CBC score retained significance after adjustment: HR 1.97 (CI 1.46-2.67) and 1.51 (CI 1.13-2.00) for tertiles 3 and 2 vs. 1, respectively (p trend < 0.001). The CBC score also predicted CV mortality (p trend = 0.025) and the primary JUPITER endpoint (p trend = 0.015). c-statistics for mortality were 0.729 among all, and 0.722 and 0.750 for females and males, respectively. The CBC risk score was strongly associated with all-cause mortality among JUPITER trial participants and had good discrimination. It also predicted CV-specific outcomes. This CBC score may be useful in identifying cardiac disease-free individuals at increased risk of mortality. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Association between maternal education and blood pressure: mediation evidence through height components in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Bensenor, Isabela M; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-05-01

    Maternal education influences skeletal growth and offspring adult blood pressure (BP). Height components are negatively associated with BP in high-income countries. To evaluate the association between maternal education and offspring adult systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), assessing whether different height components might mediate such an association. Simple mediation modelling was used to evaluate the maternal education-offspring SBP/DBP association, estimating the contribution of offspring height components, in a cross-sectional sample of 13 571 Brazilians aged 34-75 from the ELSA-Brasil study. After full adjustment for confounders, and compared to participants whose mothers received low education, those whose mothers received high education had, on average, 0.2 mm Hg lower SBP (95% CI = -0.274, -0.132), as result of the link between maternal education and offspring adult height which, in turn, influenced SBP. Thus, 18-26% of the maternal education-SBP association occurred indirectly, through height, trunk and leg length, alternatively. Better maternal education might influence higher leg and trunk lengths in offspring, which, in turn, might contribute to prevent higher BP in adults. The negative height-BP association reported in high-income countries is also present in a middle-income country with more recent economic development.

  12. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  13. Decomposing cerebral blood flow MRI into functional and structural components: A non-local approach based on prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Benjamin M.; Wang, Danny JJ; Detre, John A.; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.

    2014-01-01

    We present RIPMMARC (Rotation Invariant Patch-based Multi-Modality Analysis aRChitecture), a flexible and widely applicable method for extracting information unique to a given modality from a multi-modal data set. We use RIPMMARC to improve interpretation of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion images by removing the component of perfusion that is predicted by the underlying anatomy. Using patch-based, rotation invariant descriptors derived from the anatomical image, we learn a predictive relationship between local neuroanatomical structure and the corresponding perfusion image. This relation allows us to produce an image of perfusion that would be predicted given only the underlying anatomy and a residual image that represents perfusion information that cannot be predicted by anatomical features. Our learned structural features are significantly better at predicting brain perfusion than tissue probability maps, which are the input to standard partial volume correction techniques. Studies in test-retest data show that both the anatomically predicted and residual perfusion signal are highly replicable for a given subject. In a pediatric population, both the raw perfusion and structurally predicted images are tightly linked to age throughout adolescence throughout the brain. Interestingly, the residual perfusion also shows a strong correlation with age in select regions including the hippocampi (corr= 0.38, p-value < 10−6), precuneus (corr= −0.44, p < 10−5), and combined default mode network regions (corr= −0.45, p < 10−8) that is independent of global anatomy-perfusion trends. This finding suggests that there is a regionally heterogeneous pattern of functional specialization that is distinct from that of cortical structural development. PMID:25449745

  14. Decomposing cerebral blood flow MRI into functional and structural components: a non-local approach based on prediction.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2015-01-15

    We present RIPMMARC (Rotation Invariant Patch-based Multi-Modality Analysis aRChitecture), a flexible and widely applicable method for extracting information unique to a given modality from a multi-modal data set. We use RIPMMARC to improve the interpretation of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion images by removing the component of perfusion that is predicted by the underlying anatomy. Using patch-based, rotation invariant descriptors derived from the anatomical image, we learn a predictive relationship between local neuroanatomical structure and the corresponding perfusion image. This relation allows us to produce an image of perfusion that would be predicted given only the underlying anatomy and a residual image that represents perfusion information that cannot be predicted by anatomical features. Our learned structural features are significantly better at predicting brain perfusion than tissue probability maps, which are the input to standard partial volume correction techniques. Studies in test-retest data show that both the anatomically predicted and residual perfusion signals are highly replicable for a given subject. In a pediatric population, both the raw perfusion and structurally predicted images are tightly linked to age throughout adolescence throughout the brain. Interestingly, the residual perfusion also shows a strong correlation with age in selected regions including the hippocampi (corr = 0.38, p-value <10(-6)), precuneus (corr = -0.44, p < 10(-5)), and combined default mode network regions (corr = -0.45, p < 10(-8)) that is independent of global anatomy-perfusion trends. This finding suggests that there is a regionally heterogeneous pattern of functional specialization that is distinct from that of cortical structural development.

  15. Highlights of PBTI Coimbra Conference on PRT of Plasma & Current Opinions on Pathogen Reduction Treatment of Blood Components.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Gracinda; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    Two experts from Octapharma and from Cerus addressed, in very concise ways, the concerns about non-viral inactivated FFP and how they managed to obtain highest standard of safety margin for pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. The session was moderated by Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation (PIBT) consultant advisor [Jerard Seghatchian] with long standing familiarity and international recognition in PR technologies for plasma, platelets and WB/red cells. The focus of conference was mainly on the criteria of acceptability of PRT-FFP; added values of having diversity in choice without fears of liability, as both of PRT technologies provide an excellent safeguard margins, for more than a decade of usage. In most European countries, it is believed that patients' safety come first followed by the safe usage initiatives, in particular using locally available products. Portugal is finally going forward with the implementation PRT plasma using its own FFP for their clinical use. The round table Q&A session focused on the impacts of the additional processing, which is still continuously improving, on the residual/emerging pathogen infectivity; eliminating the clinical impacts of donors viable leukocytes; the degree of altered product potency in particular cold activation of FVII; and loss of endothelial permeability factors during fluid storage of plasma. Both speakers highlighted their product safety and clinical efficacy using both routine in vitro, including the modern proteomic tests to establish the relevant changes in various parameters and in the overall clinical outcomes. The advancements in pharmacovigilance and hemovigilance, regulatory aspects and cost effectiveness were also highlighted. A local speaker [from the PIBT] described the state of the art of local processing issues and overall required standards used both during validation and the intercept process scale up, which is going ahead smoothly to providing the highest safety standards

  16. Tissue Doppler indexes of left ventricular systolic function in relation to the pulsatile and steady components of blood pressure in a general population.

    PubMed

    Sakiewicz, Wojciech; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kloch-Badelek, Malgorzata; D'hooge, Jan; Ryabikov, Andrew; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Swierblewska, Ewa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Loster, Magdalena; Malyutina, Sofia; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-02-01

    To our knowledge, no population study described the association of the radial and longitudinal components of left ventricular strain with blood pressure (BP) components in continuous analyses. We therefore investigated these associations in participants randomly recruited from the general population in the framework of the family-based European Project on Genes in Hypertension. In 334 participants (55.4% women; mean age, 43.6 year), using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), we measured the end-systolic longitudinal strain (mean 20.9%) and peak systolic strain rate (1.29 s) from the basal portion of the left ventricular inferior and posterior free walls and radial stain (51.1%) and strain rate (3.40 s) of the left ventricular posterior wall. Models included in addition to covariables and confounders both SBP and DBP or both pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Effect sizes were expressed per 1-SD increase in BP. Longitudinal strain (-0.62%; P = 0.04 and -0.64%; P = 0.007), but not strain rate, decreased with DBP and MAP. Radial strain (4.0 and -3.4%; P ≤ 0.001) and strain rate (0.38 and -0.18 s; P ≤ 0.04) independently increased with SBP and decreased with DBP. Accordingly, radial strain (2.9%; P < 0.0001) and strain rate (0.22 s; P = 0.0005) increased with higher PP, but were not related to MAP. In the general population, BP is an independent determinant of left ventricular systolic function as measured by TDI. Radial function increased with PP, the pulsatile BP component, whereas longitudinal function decreased with the steady component of BP as expressed by MAP or DBP.

  17. Home advantage in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ruud H

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage.

  18. Changes in Central Aortic Pressure Levels, Wave Components and Determinants Associated with High Peripheral Blood Pressure States in Childhood: Analysis of Hypertensive Phenotype.

    PubMed

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marotta, Marco; Castro, Juan M; Arana, Maite; Peluso, Gonzalo; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to determine whether children's high peripheral blood pressure states (HBP) are associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize hemodynamic and vascular changes associated with HBP in terms of changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR) and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse amplitude. We included 154 subjects (mean age 11; range 4-16 years) assigned to one of two groups: normal peripheral BP (NBP, n = 101), defined as systolic and diastolic BP < 90th percentile, or high BP (HBP, n = 53), defined as average systolic and/or diastolic BP levels ≥90th percentile (curves for sex, age and body height). The HBP group included children with hypertensive and pre-hypertensive BP levels. After a first analysis, groups were compared excluding obese and dyslipidemic children. Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, forward and backward wave components' amplitude) were measured using gold-standard techniques, applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). Independent of the presence of dyslipidemia and/or obesity, aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in HBP than in NBP children. The increase in central BP could not be explained by an increase in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave, higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP would be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflected wave components.

  19. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Reverter, Joan Carles; Lopez-Farre, Antonio; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Badimon, Juan Jose; Escolar, Gines

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. Methods We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. Results In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis. PMID:28192448

  20. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Pujadas-Mestres, Lluis; Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Reverter, Joan Carles; Lopez-Farre, Antonio; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Badimon, Juan Jose; Escolar, Gines

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis.

  1. Detection of two-component mixtures of lognormal distributions in grouped, doubly truncated data: analysis of red blood cell volume distributions.

    PubMed

    McLaren, C E; Wagstaff, M; Brittenham, G M; Jacobs, A

    1991-06-01

    We have examined the statistical requirements for the detection of mixtures of two lognormal distributions in doubly truncated data when the sample size is large. The expectation-maximization algorithm was used for parameter estimation. A bootstrap approach was used to test for a mixture of distributions using the likelihood ratio statistic. Analysis of computer simulated mixtures showed that as the ratio of the difference between the means to the minimum standard deviation increases, the power for detection also increases and the accuracy of parameter estimates improves. These procedures were used to examine the distribution of red blood cell volume in blood samples. Each distribution was doubly truncated to eliminate artifactual frequency counts and tested for best fit to a single lognormal distribution or a mixture of two lognormal distributions. A single population was found in samples obtained from 60 healthy individuals. Two subpopulations of cells were detected in 25 of 27 mixtures of blood prepared in vitro. Analyses of mixtures of blood from 40 patients treated for iron-deficiency anemia showed that subpopulations could be detected in all by 6 weeks after onset of treatment. To determine if two-component mixtures could be detected, distributions were examined from untransfused patients with refractory anemia. In two patients with inherited sideroblastic anemia a mixture of microcytic and normocytic cells was found, while in the third patient a single population of microcytic cells was identified. In two family members previously identified as carriers of inherited sideroblastic anemia, mixtures of microcytic and normocytic subpopulations were found. Twenty-five patients with acquired myelodysplastic anemia were examined. A good fit to a mixture of subpopulations containing abnormal microcytic or macrocytic cells was found in two. We have demonstrated that with large sample sizes, mixtures of distributions can be detected even when distributions appear to

  2. Minimal variation in anti-A and -B titers among healthy volunteers over time: Implications for the use of out-of-group blood components.

    PubMed

    Sprogøe, Ulrik; Yazer, Mark H; Rasmussen, Mads Hvidkjær; Antonsen, Berit; Bistrup, Claus; Assing, Kristian

    2017-06-01

    Using potentially out-of-group blood components, like low titer A plasma and O whole blood, in the resuscitation of trauma patients is becoming increasingly popular. However, very little is known whether the donors' anti-A and/or anti-B titers change over time and whether repeated titer measurements on the same donor are required to ensure that each donation produces a low titer product. The anti-A and/or anti-B titers were measured on 56 healthy adult volunteers (47 blood donors; nine blood center personnel) every 3 months for 12 consecutive months using an automated solid phase analyzer. The results were expressed as log2 titer steps (e.g., titer 32 = 5 titer steps). Minor variations in the average anti-A and/or anti-B titers were seen over time; the maximum individual SD in each group was 1.50 (IgG anti-A) or 1.00 (IgM anti-A, IgM, and IgG anti-B). When the SDs for the four titer measurements from all 56 volunteers were combined as appropriate, the highest overall combined SD was 0.47 titer steps for IgG anti-A. This value corresponds to a 95% confidence interval for intraindividual variation in this antibody's titer over 12 months of 0.96 titer steps. Thus, based on one measurement, an IgG anti-A with a titer step of, for example, 6 would be expected to be in the range of titer step 5 to titer step 7 over the course of 1 year with 95% probability. The titers of anti-A and/or anti-B among healthy adults are stable over at least 1 year. This suggests that repeated titer measurements within a year on the same donor are not necessary if donations are made at 3 months or longer intervals. Diagnostic study, level V.

  3. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  4. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  5. Blood Transfusion Strategies for Hemostatic Resuscitation in Massive Trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Massive transfusion practices were transformed during the 1970s without solid evidence supporting the use of component therapy. A manual literature search was performed for all references to the lethal triad, acute or early coagulopathy of trauma, fresh whole blood, and component transfusion therapy in massive trauma, and damage control resuscitation. Data from recent wars suggest traditional component therapy causes a nonhemostatic resuscitation worsening the propagation of the lethal triad hastening death. These same studies also indicate the advantage of fresh whole blood over component therapy even when administered in a 1:1:1 replacement ratio. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. An MRI study of the differences in the rate of thrombolysis between red blood cell-rich and platelet-rich components of venous thrombi ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Jernej; Blinc, Aleš; Kralj, Eduard; Balažic, Jože; Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2011-11-01

    To test whether T(1)-weighted MRI can detect the differences in the rate of thrombolysis induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) between platelet-rich regions and red blood cell (RBC)-rich regions of venous thrombi ex vivo. Each of 21 venous thrombi ex vivo (8 pulmonary emboli and 13 in situ thrombi) was dissected along the longitudinal axis. Half of it was analyzed for the presence of platelet, fibrin, and RBC components by immunohistochemistry and the other half was imaged serially by high-resolution T(1)-weighted three-dimensional MRI to assess the progression of thrombolysis. The MR images were analyzed for proportions of the remaining platelet-rich and RBC-rich regions. Laminated platelet-rich regions, corresponding to Zahn lines, were confirmed immunohistochemically and by MRI in 18/21 venous thrombi. In T(1)-weighted MR images (TE/TR = 10/105 ms) the mean signal intensity of platelet-rich regions was on average 2.3 higher than that of RBC-rich regions. The rate of thrombolysis in platelet-rich regions was on average 30% lower than in RBC-rich regions. After 120 min of thrombolysis the proportion of lysed platelet-rich regions was 0.27 ± 0.04 versus 0.40 ± 0.08 in RBC regions, which resulted in 1.4% decrease of lysed thrombus volume per 1% increase of platelet-rich content. Venous thrombi are most often composed of interspersed platelet-rich and RBC-rich regions. T(1) -weighted MRI is capable of noninvasive discrimination between those two components of venous thrombi ex vivo which have a different susceptibility to thrombolysis by rt-PA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prognostic impact of clinic and ambulatory blood pressure components in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients: the Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Salles, Gil F; Leite, Nathalie C; Pereira, Basílio B; Nascimento, Emilia M; Cardoso, Claudia R L

    2013-11-01

    The prognostic importance of tight clinic blood pressure (BP) control is controversial in diabetic patients. The objective was to investigate the prognostic impact of clinic and ambulatory BPs for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. In a prospective cohort study, 565 type 2 diabetic patients had clinical, laboratory and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) data obtained at baseline and during follow-up. The primary endpoints were a composite of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Multivariable Cox survival and splines regression analyses assessed associations between each BP component [SBP, DBP and pulse pressure (PP)] and the endpoints. After a median follow-up of 5.75 years, 88 total cardiovascular events and 70 all-cause deaths occurred. After adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors, clinic SBP and DBPs were predictive of the composite endpoint but not of all-cause mortality, whereas all ambulatory BP components were predictors of both endpoints. Ambulatory systolic and PPs were the strongest predictors and achieved ambulatory BPs during follow-up improved risk prediction in relation to baseline values. When categorized at clinically relevant cut-off values, risk began only at clinic BPs at least 140/90 mmHg, whereas for ambulatory BPs it began at lower values (≥120/75 mmHg for the 24-h period). ABPM provides more valuable information regarding cardiovascular risk stratification than office BPs and should be performed, if possible, in every high-risk type 2 diabetic patient. Achieved 24-h ambulatory BPs less than 120/75 mmHg are associated with significant cardiovascular protection and, if confirmed by other studies, may be considered as BP treatment targets.

  8. Complement component 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003354.htm Complement component 4 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the ...

  9. Characterization of human fetal cord blood steroid profiles in relation to fetal sex and mode of delivery using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Clifton, Vicki L; Bisits, Andrew; Zarzycki, Paweł K

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, human male and female fetal cord blood samples were purified, selectively extracted and separated to examine a fraction of steroids ranging from polar estetrol to relatively non-polar progesterone using solid phase extraction based on C-18 tubes and beta-cyclodextrin driven temperature dependent inclusion chromatography. Resulting UV diode array chromatographic patterns revealed the presence of 27 peaks. Chromatographic patterns of UV detected steroids were analyzed using principal components analysis which revealed differences between male/female and labour/not-in-labour clusters. Quantitative analysis of nine identified steroids including: estetrol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were not significantly different between males and females. Significant differences between male and female fetuses were related to as yet unidentified compounds. Four peaks were significantly different with labour which corresponded with cortisol, cortisone and two unidentified compounds. This protocol may distinguish significant differences between clinical groups that are not readily identifiable using univariate measurements of single steroids or different low molecular mass biomarkers. Moreover, we have provided new evidence that despite the absence of testosterone there are number of steroids and low molecular mass compounds that differ between male and female fetuses.

  10. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  11. A multicenter study evaluating three methods for counting residual WBCs in WBC-reduced blood components: Nageotte hemocytometry, flow cytometry, and microfluorometry.

    PubMed

    Dzik, S; Moroff, G; Dumont, L

    2000-05-01

    A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of flow cytometry and microfluorimetry for counting low concentrations of WBCs and to compare the results with Nageotte hemocytometry. A two-phase study involving 10 centers located in the United States and in Europe was performed. Coded samples of RBCs and platelets were distributed by 24-hour (Phase 1) or 2-day (Phase 2) courier service to each test site for analysis. Samples were prepared to include concentrations of WBCs slightly above and below the concentration corresponding to the threshold standards for WBC-reduced RBCs and platelets. All centers tested samples by Nageotte hemocytometry plus one or both of two automated methods. Both flow cytometry and microfluorometry gave better results than Nageotte hemocytometry in testing freshly prepared samples. At WBC concentrations >5 per microL (RBCs) or >3 per microL (platelets), the intersite CV was <20 percent for the automated methods but >30 percent for the Nageotte hemocytometer method (p<0.001). Accuracy was greater for the automated methods than for the Nageotte hemocytometer method (p<0. 001). Nageotte hemocytometry showed a bias to underestimation relative to the results obtained with the automated methods. All methods had poorer performance in testing samples that required > or =2 days' shipment than in testing of those requiring overnight shipment. Automated methods for counting residual donor WBCs in WBC-reduced cellular components offer advantages of improved precision and greater accuracy than are seen with the Nageotte hemocytometer method. Automated methods are less labor-intensive but more costly than microscopic methods. Preparation and shipping methods will need further refinement for samples to be counted more than 24 hours after sample collection.

  12. Whole blood: the future of traumatic hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Alan D; Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Strandenes, Geir; Lunde, Turid Helen

    2014-05-01

    Toward the end of World War I and during World War II, whole-blood transfusions were the primary agent in the treatment of military traumatic hemorrhage. However, after World War II, the fractionation of whole blood into its components became widely accepted and replaced whole-blood transfusion to better accommodate specific blood deficiencies, logistics, and financial reasons. This transition occurred with very few clinical trials to determine which patient populations or scenarios would or would not benefit from the change. A smaller population of patients with trauma hemorrhage will require massive transfusion (>10 U packed red blood cells in 24 h) occurring in 3% to 5% of civilian and 10% of military traumas. Advocates for hemostatic resuscitation have turned toward a ratio-balanced component therapy using packed red blood cells-fresh frozen plasma-platelet concentration in a 1:1:1 ratio due to whole-blood limited availability. However, this "reconstituted" whole blood is associated with a significantly anemic, thrombocytopenic, and coagulopathic product compared with whole blood. In addition, several recent military studies suggest a survival advantage of early use of whole blood, but the safety concerns have limited is widespread civilian use. Based on extensive military experience as well as recent published literature, low-titer leukocyte reduced cold-store type O whole blood carries low adverse risks and maintains its hemostatic properties for up to 21 days. A prospective randomized trial comparing whole blood versus ratio balanced component therapy is proposed with rationale provided.

  13. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  14. Racial Differences in Associations of Blood Pressure Components in Young Adulthood With Incident Cardiovascular Disease by Middle Age: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Reis, Jared P; Tedla, Yacob G; Goff, David C; Jacobs, David R; Sidney, Stephen; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2017-04-01

    Data are sparse regarding which blood pressure (BP) components in young adulthood optimally determine cardiovascular disease (CVD) by middle age. To assess which BP components best determine incident CVD events in young adults and determine whether these associations vary by race and age at BP measurement. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, this study assessed the longitudinal race-stratified associations between BP and cardiovascular outcomes. CARDIA is a community-based cohort that recruited black and white individuals (age range, 18-30 years) from March 26, 1985, through June 7, 1986. CARDIA followed up participants for up to 28 years, and 94% of the surviving cohort completed at least 1 telephone interview or examination from August 2009 through August 2014. Blood pressures measubred at baseline (Y0) and 15 years later (Y15). Composite CVD events, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and other vascular diseases. A total of 4880 participants participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.9 [3.6] years at Y0 and 25.0 [3.6] years at Y15; 2223 male [45.6%] at Y0 and 1800 [44.2%] at Y15; 2657 female [54.4%] at Y0 and 2277 [55.8%] at Y0; 2473 black individuals [50.7%] at Y0 and 1994 [48.9%] at Y15; and 2407 white individuals [49.3%] at Y0 and 2083 [51.1%] at Y15). The mean SBP/DBP was 112/69 mm Hg in blacks and 109/68 mm Hg in whites at Y0 and 117/77 mm Hg in blacks and 110/72 mm Hg in whites at Y15. During a 25-year follow-up from Y0, 210 CVD events occurred (twice as many events in blacks [n = 140] compared with whites), of which 131 (87 in blacks) occurred after Y15. With adjustments for covariates, results from Cox proportional hazards models, including SBP and DBP, jointly suggested that, at Y0, SBP (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increase, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) but not DBP (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.88-1.26) was associated with CVD risk in blacks, whereas DBP (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.21-2.50) but not

  15. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Increase Endothelial Paracellular Permeability by Altering Components of Endothelial Tight Junctions, and Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Hao; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Jhan, Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chi-Hao; Liu, Chen-Wei; Lee, Chen-Chen; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are being increasingly used as constituents in cosmetics, biosensors, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and targeted drug delivery. This elevated exposure to Au-NPs poses systemic risks in humans, particularly risks associated with the biodistribution of Au-NPs and their potent interaction with biological barriers. We treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells with Au-NPs and comprehensively examined the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5, junctional adhesion molecules, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), as well as endothelial paracellular permeability and the intracellular signaling required for TJ organization. Moreover, we validated the effects of Au-NPs on the integrity of TJs in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and obtained direct evidence of their influence on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in vivo. Treatment with Au-NPs caused a pronounced reduction of PKCζ-dependent threonine phosphorylation of occludin and ZO-1, which resulted in the instability of endothelial TJs and led to proteasome-mediated degradation of TJ components. This impairment in the assembly of TJs between endothelial cells increased the permeability of the transendothelial paracellular passage and the BBB. Au-NPs increased endothelial paracellular permeability in vitro and elevated BBB permeability in vivo. Future studies must investigate the direct and indirect toxicity caused by Au-NP-induced endothelial TJ opening and thereby address the double-edged-sword effect of Au-NPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  18. [Indices of static and dynamic components of pressure load (assessed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring) and the state of renal function in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zelveian, P A; Buniatian, M S; Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V; Rogoza, A N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship between parameters of blood pressure (BP) profile and glomerular filtration rate in patients (pts) with I-II stage essential hypertension (EH). Material and methods. We studied 120 pts (97 men), aged 23-65 (50,2+/-0,6) years with I (n=98) and II (n=22) stage EH. In BP profile (SL-90207) we calculated 24-hour, daytime, nighttime values of systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures (SBP, DBP, PP), time load (TL), variability and nocturnal fall (NF) of BP. The state of renal function was assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated by the Cockcroft formula. Results. After nonlinear statistical analysis by Gauss-Newton all patients were divided into three groups according to GFR tertiles. Significant differences were found between these groups by 24-hour, nighttime and daytime values of SBP and DBP. Values of SBP were the lowest in group II. In group II lowest values of PP were also observed, but statistically significant differences were found only in nocturnal PP values between groups II and III. There were no significant differences between groups by TL and NF of BP. In group Ill (high GFR) variability of daytime values of SBP and DBF were significantly higher. Univariate correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative relationship between GFR and nocturnal PP in patients with lowest level of GFR. Positive correlations between nocturnal values of PP and GFR in groups II and III were also observed. Conclusion. These results indicated the presence of strong relationship between high values of nocturnal PP and decreasing of glomerular filtration rate in patients with EH and thus confirmed significance of "constant" and "dynamic" components of pressure load as a marker of impairment of renal function.

  19. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  20. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  1. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  2. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  3. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  4. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  5. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  6. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  7. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  8. Core Bioactive Components Promoting Blood Circulation in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Xueshuantong Capsule (CXC) Based on the Relevance Analysis between Chemical HPLC Fingerprint and In Vivo Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  9. Core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in the traditional Chinese medicine compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) based on the relevance analysis between chemical HPLC fingerprint and in vivo biological effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  10. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning.

  11. Nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debasis; Pramanik, Tanumoy; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A bipartite state is said to be steerable if and only if it does not have a single-system description, i.e., the bipartite state cannot be explained by a local hidden state model. Several steering inequalities have been derived using different local uncertainty relations to verify the ability to control the state of one subsystem by the other party. Here, we derive complementarity relations between coherences measured on mutually unbiased bases using various coherence measures such as the l1-norm, relative entropy, and skew information. Using these relations, we derive conditions under which a nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence can be achieved and the state is steerable. We show that not all steerable states can achieve such an advantage.

  12. Soluble CD40 ligand accumulates in stored blood components, primes neutrophils through CD40, and is a potential cofactor in the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Samina Yasmin; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Heal, Joanna M.; Blumberg, Neil; Boshkov, Lynn K.; Phipps, Richard; Gettings, Kelly F.; McLaughlin, Nathan J.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a form of posttransfusion acute pulmonary insufficiency that has been linked to the infusion of biologic response modifiers (BRMs), including antileukocyte antibodies and lipids. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a platelet-derived proinflammatory mediator that accumulates during platelet storage. We hypothesized that human polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) express CD40, CD40 ligation rapidly primes PMNs, and sCD40L induces PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Levels of sCD40L were measured in blood components and in platelet concentrates (PCs) implicated in TRALI or control PCs that did not elicit a transfusion reaction. All blood components contained higher levels of sCD40L than fresh plasma, with apheresis PCs evidencing the highest concentration of sCD40L followed by PCs from whole blood, whole blood, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs). PCs implicated in TRALI reactions contained significantly higher sCD40L levels than control PCs. PMNs express functional CD40 on the plasma membrane, and recombinant sCD40L (10 ng/mL-1 μg/mL) rapidly (5 minutes) primed the PMN oxidase. Soluble CD40L promoted PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of HMVECs as the second event in a 2-event in vitro model of TRALI. We concluded that sCD40L, which accumulates during blood component storage, has the capacity to activate adherent PMNs, causing endothelial damage and possibly TRALI in predisposed patients. PMID:16772606

  13. Implicit mechanistic role of the collagen, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue components in strengthening the air and blood capillaries of the avian lung.

    PubMed

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A; Hosie, Margo

    2010-11-01

    To identify the forces that may exist in the parabronchus of the avian lung and that which may explain the reported strengths of the terminal respiratory units, the air capillaries and the blood capillaries, the arrangement of the parabronchial collagen fibers (CF) of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus was investigated by discriminatory staining, selective alkali digestion, and vascular casting followed by alkali digestion. On the luminal circumference, the atrial and the infundibular CF are directly connected to the smooth muscle fibers and the elastic tissue fibers. The CF in this part of the parabronchus form the internal column (the axial scaffold), whereas the CF in the interparabronchial septa and those associated with the walls of the interparabronchial blood vessels form the external, i.e. the peripheral, parabronchial CF scaffold. Thin CF penetrate the exchange tissue directly from the interparabronchial septa and indirectly by accompanying the intraparabronchial blood vessels. Forming a dense network that supports the air and blood capillaries, the CF weave through the exchange tissue. The exchange tissue, specifically the air and blood capillaries, is effectively suspended between CF pillars by an intricate system of thin CF, elastic and smooth muscle fibers. The CF course through the basement membranes of the walls of the blood and air capillaries. Based on the architecture of the smooth muscle fibers, the CF, the elastic muscle fibers, and structures like the interparabronchial septa and their associated blood vessels, it is envisaged that dynamic tensional, resistive, and compressive forces exist in the parabronchus, forming a tensegrity (tension integrity) system that gives the lung rigidity while strengthening the air and blood capillaries. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Ecology. The advantages of togetherness.

    PubMed

    Cox, E; Bonner, J

    2001-04-20

    What would be the advantage of unicellular organisms becoming multicellular? For organisms that feed on organic food (heterotrophs), the most efficient way to produce energy is to metabolize the food by aerobic respiration, but the fastest way is to metabolize it by fermentation. In their Perspective, Cox and Bonner discuss a mathematical model (Pfeiffer et al.), which shows that when these two kinds of organisms (respirators and fermenters) compete for a limited food source, the respirators manage best when they are grouped in clusters rather than remaining as separate cells. In this way, multicellularity could have originated.

  15. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    PubMed

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase.

  16. Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

  17. Blood Compatibility Evaluations of Fluorescent Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua

    2015-09-02

    Because of their unique advantages, fluorescent carbon dots are gaining popularity in various biomedical applications. For these applications, good biosafety is a prerequisite for their use in vivo. Studies have reported the preliminary biocompatibility evaluations of fluorescent carbon dots (mainly cytotoxicity); however, to date, little information is available about their hemocompatibility, which could impede their development from laboratory to bedside. In this work, we evaluated the hemocompatibility of fluorescent carbon dots, which we prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of α-cyclodextrin. The effects of the carbon dots on the structure and function of key blood components were investigated at cellular and molecular levels. In particular, we considered the morphology and lysis of human red blood cells, the structure and conformation of the plasma protein fibrinogen, the complement activation, platelet activation, and in vitro and in vivo blood coagulation. We found that the carbon dots have obvious concentration-dependent effects on the blood components. Overall, concentrations of the fluorescent carbon dots at ≤0.1 mg/mL had few adverse effects on the blood components, but at higher doses, the carbon dots impair the structure and function of the blood components, causing morphological disruptions and lysis of red blood cells, interference in the local microenvironments of fibrinogen, activation of the complement system, and disturbances in the plasma and whole blood coagulation function in vitro. However, the carbon dots tend to activate platelets only at low concentrations. Intravenous administration of the carbon dots at doses up to 50 mg/kg did not impair the blood coagulation function. These results provide valuable information for the clinical application of fluorescent carbon dots.

  18. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  20. Taking advantage of natural biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, W.A.; Bartlett, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    A chemical manufacturing facility in central New Jersey evaluated alternatives to address low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater. Significant natural attenuation of VOCs was observed in groundwater, and is believed to be the result of natural biodegradation, commonly referred to as intrinsic bioremediation. A study consisting of groundwater sampling and analysis, field monitoring, and transport modeling was conducted to evaluate and confirm this phenomenon. The primary conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that observed natural attenuation of VOCs in groundwater is due to natural biodegradation. Based on the concept that natural biodegradation will minimize contaminant migration, bioventing has been implemented to remove the vadose-zone source of VOCs to groundwater. Taking advantage of natural biodegradation has resulted in significant cost savings compared to implementing a conventional groundwater pump-and-treat system, while still protecting human health and the environment.

  1. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  2. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  3. Differential phase analysis of laser images of a polycrystalline component of blood plasma in diagnostics of pathological changes in mammary gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintser, O. P.; Zabolotna, N. I.; Oliinychenko, B. P.; Komada, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is devoted to investigation of diagnostic potentiality of differential phase tomography of blood plasma. The data of further statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of phase tomograms for determining objective criteria of diagnostics of physiological state of a patient is provided.

  4. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both o