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Sample records for blood count thromboxane

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  2. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  3. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  4. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  5. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  6. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Nocun, Marek; Ulicna, Olga; Muchova, Jana; Durackova, Zdenka; Watala, Cezary

    2008-03-01

    The protective effect of Pycnogenol against cardiovascular diseases was clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, little is known about its antithrombotic effect, especially in diabetes associated with enhanced thromboxane synthesis leading to severe vascular complications. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term Pycnogenol intake on synthesis of prothrombotic thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes. The levels of main plasma TXA(2) metabolite, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes was induced in Wistar male rats by single injection of streptozotocin, resulting after 8 weeks in significant body weight reduction, increased plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased plasma C-peptide levels, compared to non-diabetic animals. There was no significant reduction of plasma glucose concentrations after Pycnogenol ingestion. It was found, however, that daily administration of either Pycnogenol (5mg/kg b.wt.) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 10mg/kg b.wt.) significantly reduced plasma TXB(2) concentrations, and this inhibitory effect was higher in the latter case. Nonetheless, simultaneous administration of Pycnogenol and ASA did not improve effectiveness of ASA-mediated decrease in TXB(2) generation. The results of the present study suggest that Pycnogenol might have a beneficial antithrombotic effect when administered alone or as a supplementation of standard antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients.

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. [Myocardial ischemia during exertion. Correlations between blood levels of thromboxane B2 and changes in coronary flow and resistance].

    PubMed

    De Servi, S; Vidale, E; Mussini, A; Cafiso, A; Gavazzi, A; Falcone, C; Bramucci, E; Angoli, L; Ferrario, M; Ghio, S

    1985-01-01

    Platelet activation, with the subsequent generation of Thromboxane (Tx) A2, has been implied as a possible cause of resting as well as exercise induced myocardial ischemia. To verify the latter hypothesis, we measured the exercise release of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in 9 patients with exertional angina and left anterior descending coronary artery disease. Three of the patients also suffered from angina at rest, due to coronary vasospasm. The great cardiac vein flow, venous efflux from the myocardial territory supplied by the left anterior descending, was determined by the thermodilution technique in the basal conditions, at peak exercise when angina and/or significant ST changes occurred, and 20 min after exercise. Simultaneous blood samples were drawn from the great cardiac vein and a peripheral artery for TxB2 measurements. Regional coronary resistances were calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure and coronary flow. At peak exercise the great cardiac vein flow increased and regional coronary resistances decreased in all patients, except in one who showed exercise induced coronary spasm. An increase in TxB2 release was found in 3 patients, a decrease in 3, while the remaining 3 patients did not show significant changes. After exercise the great cardiac vein flow and regional coronary resistances returned to control values in all, whereas both great cardiac vein and arterial TxB2 levels were increased in 6 patients. Our data show that no apparent relation exists between exercise-induced changes in coronary resistances and generation of TxB2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  14. Role of the cyclooxygenase 2-thromboxane pathway in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced decrease in mesencephalic vein blood flow in the zebrafish embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraoka, Hiroki Kubota, Akira; Dong, Wu; Kawai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Koji; Mori, Chisato; Harada, Yoshiteru; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) evoked developmental toxicity required activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2), using zebrafish embryos. However, the downstream molecular targets of AHR2 activation are largely unknown and are the focus of the present investigation. TCDD induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis in certain cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the COX2-thromboxane pathway in causing a specific endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in the zebrafish embryo, namely, a decrease in regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain. It was found that the TCDD-induced reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow was markedly inhibited by selective COX2 inhibitors, NS-398 and SC-236, and by a general COX inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a selective COX1 inhibitor, SC-560. Gene knock-down of COX2 by two different types of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, but not by their negative homologs, also protected the zebrafish embryos from mesencephalic vein circulation failure caused by TCDD. This inhibitory effect of TCDD on regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain was also blocked by selective antagonists of the thromboxane receptor (TP). Treatment of control zebrafish embryos with a TP agonist also caused a reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow and it too was blocked by a TP antagonist, without any effect on trunk circulation. Finally, gene knock-down of thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS) with morpholinos but not by the morpholinos' negative homologs provided significant protection against TCDD-induced mesencephalic circulation failure. Taken together, these results point to a role of the prostanoid synthesis pathway via COX2-TBXS-TP in the local circulation failure induced by TCDD in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo.

  15. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  16. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  17. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. The differential count measures the percentages of each type of leukocyte present. WBC's are composed of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, ...

  18. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells. PMID:26554882

  19. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out.

  20. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, J.F.; Marlow, D.; Kamath, R.K.; Harbert, J.; Torrisi, J.R.; Barnes, W.A.; Potkul, R.K.; Newsome, J.T.; Delgado, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.

  1. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  2. Increased reticulocyte count from cord blood samples using hypotonic lysis.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian T; Scheetz, Emily A; Erickson, John J; Bales, Jacquelyn M; David, Makindi; Daum-Woods, Kathleen; King, Christopher L; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    Human reticulocytes are one of the fundamental components needed to study the in vitro invasion processes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Additionally examinations of reticulocytes and their binding proteins are difficult in areas of the world that do not have access to advanced equipment or stem cell lines. These issues are particularly relevant to malaria vaccine candidate studies that are directed against surface proteins that the parasites use to gain entry into erythrocytes. Described here is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the reticulocyte count of cord blood samples. Exposure of cord blood to hypotonic saline (0.2%) for 5 min selectively lyses the non-reticulocytes resulting in an average 3.6-fold increase in reticulocyte count. Our studies show that this enrichment process does not damage the hemoglobin of the remaining erythrocytes which are still capable of supporting Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth. This economical and rapid method of enrichment could facilitate studies of in vitro laboratory culturing of other malaria parasite species which preferentially invade reticulocytes such as P. vivax.

  3. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  4. Smoking, allergy, and the differential white blood cell count.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R G; Gross, E; Joyce, H; Holland, F; Pride, N B

    1985-01-01

    Dutch workers have proposed that people with asthma and those smokers who develop chronic airflow obstruction share a common allergic constitution. To study whether smoking itself is associated with indicators of allergy, we have examined 237 men aged 51-61 years (120 smokers, 73 ex-smokers, and 44 non-smokers) who were recruited to a long term study of lung function in 1974, at which time men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were excluded. Smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers did not differ in personal or family history of allergic disease, but the prevalence of positive responses to skinprick tests was greater in ex-smokers (59%) than in the other two groups (33% and 34%). In men with negative responses to skinprick tests total serum IgE was greater in smokers (log10 mean 1.41 IU/ml) and in ex-smokers (log10 mean 1.53 IU/ml) than in non-smokers (log10 mean 1.12 IU/ml). In men with positive skin test responses serum IgE was similar in the three groups (log10 mean ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 IU/ml). Geometric mean total white cell counts in the peripheral blood were higher in smokers (7.34 X 10(9)/l) than in non-smokers (5.82 X 10(9)/l); the value in ex-smokers (6.16 X 10(9)/l) was intermediate. Absolute blood eosinophil counts were increased in smokers disproportionately to the increase in total white cell count. Thus smoking is associated with small increases in some markers of allergy. These changes are probably acquired after the onset of smoking but sequential studies are required to amplify these cross sectional observations. Smokers whose skin test responses are positive appear more likely to give up smoking. PMID:3969651

  5. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease.

  6. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease. PMID:27651947

  7. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  8. Blood sample stability at room temperature for counting red and white blood cells and platelets.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, S A; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D; Kluft, C

    2002-08-01

    Blood handling required for different cellular variables is different. In a practical setting of blood sampling approximately 4 h separated from the first analysis, we compared the analysis of blood cell variables at this 4-h point with analysis of blood stored for approximately 48 h (over the weekend) at room temperature. Blood was collected from 304 apparently healthy individuals aged between 17 and 70 years, with a female/male ratio of 1.8, in K3EDTA. Measurement was performed with a Beckman Coulter Counter Maxm. In addition to the comparison of the data and their correlation on the two time points, we investigated agreement between the data using analysis according to Bland and Altman. Counts of white and red blood cells and platelets were found stable over time and agreement of data was excellent. Platelet mean volume increased as expected between the two time points from 8.8 to 10.3 fl. The white blood cell subpopulations, however, changed over time with a decrease in neutrophils and monocytes and increases in lymphocytes and eosinophils. Apparently, ageing of the sample resulted in the alteration of certain cell characteristics leading to a change in automated cell classification without changing the total number of cells. Among the preanalytical variables recorded, only the time of the year and gender were found to be minor determinants (r < .25) of some of the differences between approximately 4 and approximately 48 h analysis delay. It is concluded that after storage at room temperature over approximately 48 h counts of red, total white cells, platelets and analysis of platelet volume can be combined in one assay session.

  9. Effects of increased white blood cell count on endothelin-induced vasoconstriction in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Told, Reinhard; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard

    2012-04-01

    It is known that administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is followed by an increase of white blood cell count. There is evidence from other vascular beds that an increase in white blood cell count impairs blood flow regulation especially in the microcirculation. Whether this also holds true for the ocular circulation is unknown. In the following study we investigated whether an increase in white blood cell count alters the endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction in humans. Neither granulocyte-colony stimulating factor nor endothelin-1 had any consistent effect on blood pressure, pulse rate or intraocular pressure. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced a pronounced increase in retinal white blood cell density (p < 0.01). Administration of endothelin-1 decreased choroidal (p < 0.01) and retinal blood flow (p < 0.01). The change in choroidal blood flow in response to endothelin-1 was not altered by pre-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. By contrast, the decrease in retinal blood flow was more pronounced during an increase in white blood cell count (p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. Our data indicates that during pronounced vasoconstriction, as induced by administration of endothelin-1, vascular regulation can be altered by the number of circulating white blood cells. Whether this effect is caused by an interaction of red and white blood cells in the microcirculation or a yet unknown mechanism needs further investigation.

  10. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  11. The beneficial effects of a thromboxane receptor antagonist on spinal cord perfusion following experimental cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tempel, G E; Martin, H F

    1992-06-01

    The eicosanoids thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin have opposing actions causing vasoconstriction and vasodilation respectively. The ratio of these two eicosanoids is thus an important determinant of circulatory homeostasis. An increase in this ratio occurs in certain inflammatory conditions with dramatic consequences in organ perfusion. In spinal cord trauma, in addition to direct physical perturbation of the spinal cord, it is likely that further structural and functional loss occurs as a result of decreased tissue perfusion precipitated by an increase in the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio. This study evaluated hemodynamics and organ perfusion, 3 h following 24 g-cm spinal cord trauma in the rat. The role of thromboxane was investigated with an inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis (Dazoxiben) and with a receptor antagonist (13-APT). Cardiac output and blood pressure were unaffected by Dazoxiben, 13-APT, or spinal cord trauma. Injury effected approximately a 40% decrease in spinal cord perfusion from 0.41 to 0.25 ml/min/g which was not improved by the thromboxane synthase inhibitor, Dazoxiben. 13-ATP completely abrogated the decline in spinal cord blood flow flowing injury. Perfusion of other selected organs demonstrated little change as a result of the spinal trauma. Brain flow remained constant at 0.78 ml/min/g brain. Coronary blood flow, however, declined from 3.2 to 2.0 ml/min/g heart tissue. The data suggest consideration of the importance of thromboxane in therapeutic attempts to reduce secondary injury arising in spinal cord trauma. PMID:1386102

  12. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  13. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  14. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  15. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  16. Nutrient intake, blood pressure, serum and urinary prostaglandins and serum thromboxane B2 in a controlled trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Mahoney, D P; Margetts, B M; Armstrong, B K; Record, S J; Vandongen, R; Barden, A

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-nine healthy omnivores volunteered for a randomized crossover trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (L-O-V) diet. Twenty-one 1-day diet records were kept throughout the project as a means of assessing food and nutrient intakes, and samples of serum and urine were assayed to evaluate change in prostanoid metabolism. While on the L-O-V diet subjects ate more vegetable protein, wholegrain cereals, polyunsaturated oils, fruits and vegetables, and avoided eating meat, fish or poultry. The L-O-V diet contained significantly more polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium and potassium, and less total protein, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and vitamin B12 than the control omnivore diet. Changes in nutrient intakes were subjected to principal components analysis to identify dimensions of change in nutrient intakes. Three Factors accounted for 83% of the total variation in dietary intake. Blood pressure changes were significantly and negatively (F = 17.4, P less than 0.001 for systolic; F = 6.09, P = 0.02 for diastolic pressure) related to individual scores for only one Factor--that representing an increase in intake of polyunsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium, and a fall in intake of protein and vitamin B12. Blood pressure changes were unrelated to change in body weight or sodium intake. Serum and urinary prostanoids were not affected by eating the L-O-V diet.

  17. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC = 0.691; AUC = 0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC = 0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172

  18. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R

    2015-12-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1 x 10(-3)). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0 x 10(-9) in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4 x 10(-6) in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6 x 10(-5) in Caucasians, p=4.5 x 10(-5) in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  19. Increased thromboxane biosynthesis in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Rocca, B; Ciabattoni, G; Tartaglione, R; Cortelazzo, S; Barbui, T; Patrono, C; Landolfi, R

    1995-11-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis in essential thrombocythemia (ET), we measured the urinary excretion of the major enzymatic metabolites of TXB2, 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2 in 40 ET patients as well as in 26 gender- and age-matched controls. Urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in thrombocythemic patients (4,063 +/- 3,408 pg/mg creatinine; mean +/- SD) than in controls (504 +/- 267 pg/mg creatinine), with 34 patients (85%) having 11-dehydro-TXB2 > 2 SD above the control mean. Patients with platelet number < 1,000 x 10 (9)/1 (n = 25) had significantly higher (p < 0.05) 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion than patients with higher platelet count (4,765 +/- 3,870 pg/mg creatinine, n = 25, versus 2,279 +/- 1,874 pg/mg creatinine, n = 15). Average excretion values of patients aging > 55 was significantly higher than in the younger group (4,784 +/- 3,948 pg/mg creatinine, n = 24, versus 2,405 +/- 1,885 pg/mg creatinine, n = 16, p < 0.05). Low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 7 days) largely suppressed 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion in 7 thrombocythemic patients, thus suggesting that platelets were the main source of enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis. The platelet count-corrected 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion was positively correlated with age (r = 0.325, n = 40, p < 0.05) and inversely correlated with platelet count (r = -0.381, n = 40, p < 0.05). In addition 11 out of 13 (85%) patients having increased count-corrected 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion, belonged to the subgroup with age > 55 and platelet count < 1,000 x 10(9)/1. We conclude that in essential thrombocythemia: 1) enhanced 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion largely reflects platelet activation in vivo; 2) age as well as platelet count appear to influence the determinants of platelet activation in this setting, and can help in assessing the thrombotic risk and therapeutic strategy in individual patients. PMID:8607099

  20. Endogenous biosynthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin in 2 distinct murine models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Cyrus, T; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2000-12-01

    Thromboxane A(2) is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet agonist; prostacyclin is a potent platelet inhibitor and vasodilator. Altered biosynthesis of these eicosanoids is a feature of human hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. This study examined whether in 2 murine models of atherosclerosis their levels are increased and correlated with the evolution of the disease. Urinary 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha), metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, respectively, were assayed in apoliprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice on chow and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice on chow and a Western-type diet. Atherosclerosis lesion area was measured by en face method. Both eicosanoids increased in apoE-deficient mice on chow and in LDLR-deficient mice on a high-fat diet, but not in LDLR-deficient mice on chow by the end of the study. Aspirin suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation, serum thromboxane B(2), and 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2), and significantly reduced the excretion of 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha) in these animals. This study demonstrates that thromboxane as well as prostacyclin biosynthesis is increased in 2 murine models of atherogenesis and is secondary to increased in vivo platelet activation. Assessment of their generation in these models may afford the basis for future studies on the functional role of these eicosanoids in the evolution and progression of atherosclerosis. (Blood. 2000;96:3823-3826)

  1. Antagonism of P2Y₁₂ reduces physiological thromboxane levels.

    PubMed

    Bhavaraju, Kamala; Georgakis, Alexander; Jin, Jianguo; Gartner, Theodore Kent; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Nurden, Alan; Nurden, Paquita; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2010-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy for the management of patients with cardiovascular risks often includes a combination therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel, acting through inhibition of thromboxane generation and blockade of G(i)-coupled P2Y₁₂ receptor, respectively. We hypothesized that ADP acting through P2Y₁₂ regulates physiological thromboxane levels. The serum thromboxane levels in mice (n = 3) dosed with clopidogrel and prasugrel were decreased by 83.1 ± 5.3% and 94.26 ± 1.75% respectively compared to untreated mice. Pre-treatment of human blood (n = 3) ex vivo with active metabolites of clopidogrel or prasugrel led to a reduction in thromboxane levels to 16.3 ± 3.2% and 4.9 ± 0.8% respectively, compared to untreated human serum. We also evaluated serum thromboxane levels in P2Y receptor null mice (n = 4). Whereas serum thromboxane levels in P2Y₁ null mice were similar to those in wild type littermates, those in the P2Y₁₂ null mice were inhibited by 83.15 ± 3.8%. Finally, in a pilot study, serum thromboxane levels were reduced by 76.05 ± 8.41% in healthy human volunteers (n = 6) upon dosing with clopidogrel, compared to the levels before dosing. In conclusion, P2Y₁₂ antagonism alone can decrease physiological thromboxane levels. Thus, this study could pave way the for newer/modified treatment regimens for the management of patients with thrombotic complications who are allergic or non-responsive to aspirin. PMID:21067313

  2. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dombkowski, Alan A.; Caldwell, J. Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C.; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H.; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:27536776

  3. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Holly; Rubenstein, Mara; Dombkowski, Alan A; Caldwell, J Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

  4. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  5. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  6. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  7. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  8. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  9. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  10. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  11. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  12. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  13. Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls. PMID:24009939

  14. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  15. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  16. Ten-year treatment outcomes including blood cell count disturbances in patients with simple renal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Bryniarski, Piotr; Kaletka, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Marcin; Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Muskała, Bartosz; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background The simple renal cyst is the most common benign kidney disease. It may cause pain and hypertension, especially if significantly enlarged. As in polycystic kidney disease, blood cell count disturbances are frequently observed in simple renal cysts. The aim of our study was to assess such disturbances, changes in blood pressure, and complication rate in our patients undergoing surgery due to simple renal cyst in the last 10 years. Material/Methods 210 patients with simple renal cysts were underwent surgery between 2002 and 2012. Two different kinds of operation were conducted: aspiration of cyst fluid with injection of sclerosing agent, and laparoscopic/retroperitoneoscopic decortications of the cyst wall. A control group comprised 134 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. The following data were obtained: cyst burden, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, thrombocytes, occurrence of pain, and blood pressure before and after the operation. Complications were collected and presented in Clavien score. Results Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cells were significantly increased in the experimental group. A positive correlation was observed between cyst burden and the parameters mentioned above. Of 91 patients with hypertension, 56 (61.7%) had blood pressure reduction after the operation. Treatment relieved the loin pain in 132 (88%) patients. Complications occurred in 15 (7.4%) patients. Conclusions Patients with simple renal cysts have high values of red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Treatment decreases blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Complications after treatment are rare and mild. PMID:23811552

  17. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  18. Automated white blood cell counting via classification-free granulometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe an application of the granulometric mixing theorem to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, an iterative algorithm based on the mixing theorem can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. Therefore, a new algorithm based on the theorem is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive mixing theorem to each initial component. Applying the mixing theorem to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the proposed algorithm on 6 classes of cell -- Myeloblast, Promyelocyte, Myelocyte, Metamyelocyte, Band, and PMN -- are very close to the actual numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is not larger than deviation of counts produced by human experts. An important technical point is that, unlike previous algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require prior knowledge of the total number of cells in an image.

  19. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-07-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information.

  20. [Effect of processed blood volume, leukocyte count and concentration of CD34-positive cells in peripheral blood on efficiency of stem cell apheresis].

    PubMed

    Matic, G B; Ullrich, H; Barlage, S; Rothe, G; Schmitz, G

    1997-01-01

    Despite many published studies no parameter could be identified yet to acceptably and individually predict collection results in stem cell apheresis. We analyzed leukocyte counts and processed blood volume, absolute and relative CD34+ cell counts, and overall collection efficiency in 120 patients with hematological and solid malignancies (354 leukaphereses using the Cobe Spectra cell separator, a median of 3 per patient, span 1-9). Stem cells were mobilized into peripheral blood by conventional chemotherapy followed by daily doses of G-CSF. CD34+ progenitor cell counts were monitored through multiparametric flow cytometry. Blood and collection flows varied in the range of 45-90 ml/min and 0.7-1.5 ml/min, respectively. CD34+ progenitor cells were enriched 38-fold in the apheresis product as compared to peripheral blood at a processed blood volume lower than one total blood volume. Efficiency continuously declined, on to a 25-fold concentration at a processed blood volume above the 3-fold total blood volume. Total collection efficiency, calculated from the absolute content of CD34+ progenitor cells in peripheral blood and apheresis concentrate (a parameter for progenitor cell mobilization during the apheresis), reached a plateau at a processed blood volume above the 3-fold total blood volume. However, variation among individual patients was high. The concentration rate of CD34+ cells at a leukocyte count below 5,000/microliter averaged 50 and declined continuously to 8 at leukocyte counts between 45,000 and 50,000/microliter. To summarize, in 70% of patients with leukocyte counts below 5,000/microliter and CD34+ progenitor cell counts above 10,000/ml, more than 1.5 x 10(6) progenitors per kg body weight could be collected in a single leukapheresis. According to the presented data, the variation in overall collection efficiency is mainly due to: 1) varying mobilization of progenitors during the apheresis procedures itself and 2) dependence on peripheral leukocyte

  1. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1

  2. Effectiveness using higher inhaled corticosteroid dosage in patients with COPD by different blood eosinophilic counts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil counts have been documented as a good biomarker for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of prescribing high or medium dose of ICS for patients with different eosinophil counts are unknown. Methods A post hoc analysis of a previous prospective randomized study was performed for COPD patients using higher dose (HD: Fluticasone 1,000 μg/day) or medium dose (MD: Fluticasone 500 μg/day) of ICS combined with Salmeterol (100 μg/day). Patients were classified into two groups: those with high eosinophil counts (HE ≥3%) and those with low eosinophil counts (LE <3%). Lung function was evaluated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and COPD assessment test. Frequencies of acute exacerbation and pneumonia were also measured. Results Two hundred and forty-eight patients were studied and classified into higher eosinophil (HE) (n=85, 34.3%) and lower eosinophil (LE) groups (n=163, 65.7%). The levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased in patients of HE group treated with HD therapy, compared with the other groups (HE/HD: 125.9±27.2 mL vs HE/MD: 94.3±23.7 mL, vs LE/HD: 70.4±20.5 mL, vs LE/MD: 49.8±16.7 mL; P<0.05) at the end of the study. Quality of life (COPD assessment test) markedly improved in HE/HD group than in MD/LE group (HE/HD: 9±5 vs LE/MD: 16±7, P=0.02). The frequency of acute exacerbation was more decreased in HE/HD group patients, compared with that in LE/MD group (HE/HD: 13.5% vs LE/MD: 28.7%, P<0.01). Pneumonia incidence was similar in the treatment groups (HE/HD: 3.2%, HE/MD: 2.6%, LE/HD: 3.5%, LE/MD 2.8%; P=0.38). Conclusion The study results support using blood eosinophil counts as a biomarker of ICS response and show the benefits of greater improvement of lung function, quality of life, and decreased exacerbation frequency in COPD patients with blood eosinophil

  3. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  4. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

  5. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  6. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  7. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  9. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUÑOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  10. Counting leukocytes from whole blood using a lab-on-a-chip Coulter counter.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhe; Cho, Sung Hwan; Zhang, Arthur; Dai, Jie; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip Coulter counter was demonstrated to count micro particles and leukocytes from whole blood. Instead of electroplated or deposited metal electrodes, off-the-shelf gold pins were used as electrodes to simplify fabrication process, reduce cost, enhance device durability, and above all, achieve superior uniformity in E-field distribution for improved signal quality. A custom-designed, low-cost demodulation circuit was developed to detect the AC impedance signals of the particles and cells passing the detection area defined by the microfluidic channels. A mixture of polystyrene beads with three different sizes was used to characterize the device. The results showed high throughput at 2000 particles/s and clear separation among different sizes of beads with coefficients of variation (CV) of 13.53%, 10.35% and 5.67% for 7.66 µm, 10.5 µm and 14.7 µmbeads, respectively. To demonstrate the potential for a point-of-care or self-administered device for cancer patients going through chemotherapy, we have used the lab-on-a-chip device to count leukocytes from whole blood, generating encouraging preliminary results comparable to the results from a commercial flow cytometer.

  11. The Relationship Between Some Complete Blood Count Parameters and Myocardial Perfusion: A Scintigraphic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Semra; Barutcu, Ahmet; Gazi, Emine; Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Turkon, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there is a relationship between some inflammatory and biochemical markers derived from complete blood count (CBC) such as neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet/lymphocyte (P/L) ratio, platelet distribution width (PDW), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine N/L ratio, P/L ratio, PDW values, and RDW values, which are associated with myocardial perfusion in patients diagnosed with CAD. This study included 262 patients (149 with myocardial ischemia/infarction and 113 with normal myocardial perfusion) undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) with CBC within 90 days of MPS. Myocardial perfusion parameters such as summed stress score and summed difference score (SDS) were compared with N/L ratio, P/L ratio, PDW values, and RDW values. Neutrophil counts and N/L ratios were significantly higher in patients diagnosed with myocardial ischemia and/or infarct. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and P/L ratio, PDW values, and RDW values. This study showed that N/L ratio is related to myocardial ischemia/infarction and correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). PMID:26420991

  12. Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9 years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese. PMID:23317415

  13. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  15. An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2014-09-01

    Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians.

  16. Clinical relevance and contemporary methods for counting blood cells in body fluids suspected of inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chérina; Russcher, Henk; Lindemans, Jan; de Jonge, Robert

    2015-10-01

    In many inflammatory diseases, the cellular components in body fluids [cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serous fluids] are increased, rendering essential diagnostic information. The diagnostic value of the total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential count has been evaluated extensively over the years, and a remarkable amount of knowledge has been gained; yet, there is a great deal of clinical uncertainty whether the diagnosis should be based solely on these variables. In some diseases, such as peritonitis, the total WBC and differential count has high sensitivity; whereas, in differentiating pleural effusions, it lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful. Nevertheless, many guidelines consider these tests as cornerstone parameters, and in combination with clinical variables, they can successfully guide clinical decision making in initiating or postponing a treatment course for infection and/or inflammatory diseases while awaiting culture results. Although other methods are available for detecting and differentiating WBCs in body fluids, manual microscopy is still considered the gold standard despite its many limitations. During the last decade, automated analyzers have become a popular method for first line screening. Continued progress in their design has led to major improvements including their speed, improved accuracy and lower variability compared with microscopy. Disadvantages of this method include high imprecision in low ranges (depending on the method) and interfering factors. In a time where automation is at the front line in clinical laboratories, it is essential the results obtained are precise, accurate and reproducible. This review provides an overview of the relevance for cell counting in a variety of diagnostic body fluids, and highlights the current technologies used.

  17. Components of the complete blood count as risk predictors for coronary heart disease: in-depth review and update.

    PubMed

    Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

  18. Diagnosing joint infections: synovial fluid differential is more sensitive than white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sean; Price, Connie; Hak, David J

    2014-12-01

    In order to identify the predictive value of synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and differential white blood cell count in identifying nonprosthetic joint infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed populations, we retrospectively reviewed 96 adult patients who underwent hip or knee aspiration because of symptoms suggesting a possible nonprosthetic joint infection. Medical history, including immunosuppressive disease or drugs, was recorded, and synovial fluid cell count, differential, and culture results were compared. There were 44 patients with positive synovial cultures. Of 36 patients who had a synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³, 89% had positive cultures. The sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.727 (95% CI 0.570-0.845), and specificity was 0.923 (95% CI 0.806-0.975). There were 12 patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ that had positive cultures. The sensitivity of percentage polymorphonuclear cells (%PMNs) to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.932, 0.886, and 0.818, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.598, 0.577, and 0.673, respectively. Among the 29% of immunocompromised patients, the sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.714 (95% CI 0.420-0.904), and specificity was 1.000 (95% CI 0.732-1.000). Twenty-nine percent of patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ had positive cultures. The sensitivity of %PMNs to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 1.000, 0.929, and 0.786, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.500, 0.643, and 0.714, respectively. We found that the synovial WBC differential (percentage synovial fluid PMNs) is a more sensitive predictor for nonprosthetic adult joint infection than the synovial absolute WBC count. This was true in both the general population and the immunosuppressed population.

  19. The source of thromboxane and prostaglandins in experimental inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, G. A.; Moncada, S.; Salmon, J. A.; Seager, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although cyclo-oxygenase products have been detected at inflammatory sites the tissue of origin remains uncertain. Inflammatory exudates were collected from rats 4, 6, 8, 12 or 24 h after subcutaneous implantation of carrageenin-impregnated sponges. Concentrations of the cyclo-oxygenase products prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in inflammatory exudates and serum (obtained from blood clotted at 37 degrees C) were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. TXB2 concentrations in exudates increased to about 100 ng ml-1 at 8 h but decreased to less than 20 ng ml-1 after 24 h. PGE2 concentrations increased from 4-12 h and remained between 80 and 120 ng ml-1 from 12-24 h. 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha had the same time course as that of PGE2 but concentrations were approximately one third of PGE2 values. TXB2 concentrations in serum from thrombocytopaenic rats were less than 5% of control values. Thrombocytopaenia did not affect TXB2, PGE2 or 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha concentrations or total leukocyte numbers in inflammatory exudates. Methotrexate-induced neutropaenia did not affect serum TXB2 concentrations but cyclo-oxygenase products (including TXB2) in 6 h inflammatory exudates were reduced by 60-95%. Colchicine (1.0 mg kg-1 s.c.) prevented leukocyte accumulation in sponge exudates and this was accompanied by a reduction in TXB2, PGE2 and 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha concentrations at 6 h. These results indicate that platelets are the source of TXB2 in clotting blood but do not contribute to cyclo-oxygenase activity in experimental inflammation. The results also suggest that migrating leukocytes are the major source of thromboxane and to a lesser degree prostaglandins in acute 6 h inflammatory exudates. PMID:6652359

  20. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (μm/hr) and 3.8 (μm3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important

  1. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  2. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  3. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts.

  4. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  5. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  6. Relationship between Age and Peripheral White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Parsa, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Total white blood cells (WBCs) decrease slightly in the elderly. In response to an acute infection, the number of WBCs increases and in sepsis, the increase is very dramatic. There are some reports about the effects of increased number of WBCs as a predisposing factor of bacteremia. An association between neutrophilia and eucopenia and increased mortality rate in the elderly has also been observed. We compared peripheral WBC counts in young and elderly patients with sepsis. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 130 admitted patients who were divided into two groups based on age, ≥ 65 years (case group) and < 65 years (control group). All patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of sepsis in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006. Results: Mean WBC counts at admission time were 17061.5 ± 14240.2 /μl in the case group and 13567.7 ± 9888.0 /ml in the control group. There were statistically significant associations between age and history of infection and history of hospitalization during the last month in the case group and also between age and source of infection (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The history of infection and the history of hospitalization during the last month with sepsis are important risk factors in elders. PMID:22174963

  7. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  8. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  9. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection.

  10. Transient Ischemic Attack Versus Seizure: Use of Complete Blood Count Parameters for Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bayramoglu, Atif; Ihsanyüce; Lütfiözel; Tezel, Onur; Acar, Yahya Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Seizures are an important group of diagnoses in the differential evaluation of Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)because of their variable and temporary signs and symptoms. Physicians must frequently rule out TIA in asymptomatic patients with normal diagnostic neuroimaging. Aim The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Complete Blood Count (CBC) components in the differential diagnosis of TIA and seizures. Materials and Methods Our study was a retrospective case-control study. Patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) and hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of TIA or seizure at the neurology clinic of Erzurum Ataturk University Training Hospital between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, were recruited for the study. Patients with inaccessible or missing data were excluded. Results We identified 1,459 ED admissions that resulted in neurology clinic hospitalizations of patients with initial diagnoses of TIA (n=911) and seizure (n=420) over a 24-month time period. A total of 128 patients were excluded from the study. Conclusion We conclude that CBC may have a diagnostic value on TIA and seizure differentiation, but this is limited because of statistical and clinical incompatibility. Elevated White Blood Cells (WBC) values of seizure patients compared with TIA patients’ may help clinicians at the preliminary phase of diagnostic studies. We conclude that age is a remarkable and valuable demographic parameter in addition to physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies. PMID:27656486

  11. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  12. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    PubMed Central

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  13. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  14. Prediction of outcome in breast cancer patients using test parameters from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PINGPING; ZONG, YULONG; LIU, MOHAN; TAI, YANHONG; CAO, YUAN; HU, CHENGIIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of test parameters from pretreatment complete blood count (CBC) for predicting outcome in breast cancer patients. A total of 162 patients with breast cancer and a long follow-up were enrolled in this study. Red cell indices (RCIs) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) from CBC prior to treatment, as well as related clinical data, were retrospectively collected. We evaluated the association of RCI and NLR with tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. We further performed survival analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by RCI and NLR median values, to evaluate their prognostic effects. In the disease-free survival (DFS) analysis, patients in the higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and NLR groups exhibited shorter DFS times compared with those in the lower MCH and NLR groups (P=0.017 for MCH and P=0.039 for NLR). The univariate analysis revealed that both MCH and NLR were significantly associated with DFS. The Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that only MCH was an independent predictor associated with disease relapse (hazard ratio = 1.975, 95% confidence interval: 1.118–3.487, P=0.019), whereas no index was associated with overall survival. Our results suggest that MCH prior to treatment may be a predictive marker associated with DFS in breast cancer. PMID:27284423

  15. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Meredith E.; Myers, David R.; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T.; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G.; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J.; Switz, Neil A.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  16. Evaluation of the veterinary application of a point-of-care device measuring white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2012-10-01

    A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717

  17. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  18. Aspirin therapy and thromboxane biosynthesis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Ingrid; Chung, Cecilia P; Oeser, Annette; Milne, Ginger L; Borntrager, Holly; Morrow, Jason D; Raggi, Paolo; Solus, Joseph; Stein, C Michael

    2007-01-01

    Incomplete suppression of thromboxane biosynthesis during aspirin therapy is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Since systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with platelet activation and increased cardiovascular mortality, we compared thromboxane and prostacyclin biosynthesis in patients with SLE and control subjects, and measured inhibition of thromboxane excretion in aspirin-treated subjects. We measured the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro thromboxane B( 2) (TXB(2)) and 2,3-dinor 6-ketoPGF(1alpha) (PGI-M), the stable metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin, respectively, in 74 patients with SLE and 70 controls. In subjects who were not receiving aspirin, TXB(2) excretion was higher in patients with SLE [0.40 ng/mg creatinine (0.26-0.64), median (interquartile range)] than controls [0.31 ng/mg creatinine (0.23-0.44)] (P = 0.04), and in these patients, TXB(2) excretion correlated with disease activity (rho = 0.28, P = 0.03) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (rho = 0.48, P < 0.001). Aspirin therapy resulted in significantly lower TXB(2) excretion in controls (P = 0.01), but not in patients with SLE (P = 0.10), compared with subjects not receiving aspirin. Prostacyclin biosynthesis did not differ among patients and controls, and was not affected by aspirin (P all >0.35). Thromboxane biosynthesis is increased in SLE and is associated with disease activity. Additionally, response to aspirin may be attenuated in some patients with SLE. PMID:18042592

  19. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on blood eosinophil count in steroid-naïve patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, James L; Watkins, Michael L; Lettis, Sally; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Locantore, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Results and conclusion The data show that the ICS-containing treatment arms (containing fluticasone propionate) had a small effect on peripheral blood eosinophils in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT00358358; Post-results. PMID:27651909

  20. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on blood eosinophil count in steroid-naïve patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, James L; Watkins, Michael L; Lettis, Sally; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Locantore, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Results and conclusion The data show that the ICS-containing treatment arms (containing fluticasone propionate) had a small effect on peripheral blood eosinophils in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT00358358; Post-results.

  1. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  2. Reference range evaluation of complete blood count parameters with emphasis on newer research parameters on the complete blood count analyzer Sysmex XE-2100.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Kunal K; Tina, Dadu; Choksey, Urmi; Dalal, Reeta J; Shanaz, Khodaiji J

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of automation in the field of hematological cell counters there has been a constant refinement of the technology and increase in the number of newer parameters available on CBC analysers. Many novel parameters are being put into routine clinical use and both clinical evaluation and monitoring critically depend on knowledge of laboratory reference ranges. Here, we present reference interval for the Sysmex XE-2100, with emphasis on the novel or newer research parameters. Blood samples from a total of 122 clinically asymptomatic and apparently healthy subjects were evaluated and a final of 100 subjects (54-M, 46-F) were included in the study. A broad spectrum of parameters available with the analyser was assessed and reference ranges for the same evaluated. PMID:24056647

  3. Admixture mapping of white cell count: genetic locus responsible for lower white blood cell count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart studies.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Michael A; Wilson, James G; Patterson, Nick J; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A; Patel, Kushang V; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Files, Joe C; Hardy, Cheryl L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Taylor, Herman A; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across >or= 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10(-12)). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained approximately 20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

  4. Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ≥ 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10−12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ∼20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications. PMID:18179887

  5. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  6. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  7. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  8. High oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production in the rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Feng, Guo-Gang; Li, Jiazheng; Nakamura, Emi; Hayashi, Hisaki; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Whether high oxygen is harmful to the vascular function is unclear. The present study examined if high oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production. Rat mesenteric arteries with endothelium at 95 or 50 % oxygen were subjected to isometric force recordings, measurement of thromboxane B2 levels, determination of superoxide and peroxynitrite levels and evaluation of NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression, respectively. L-cysteine (0.01-3 mM) constricted or dilated arteries at 95 and 50 % oxygen, respectively. Thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ-29,548 (1 μM) abolished the constriction at 95 % oxygen. L-cysteine (3 mM) increased levels of thromboxane B2 in arteries upon 95 % oxygen application. L-cysteine relaxed arteries treated with superoxide inhibitor tiron (2 mM) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat (1 μM) irrespective of the oxygen concentration while ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (1 μM) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (10 mM) similarly abolished the relaxation. L-cysteine (3 mM) with 95 % oxygen augmented levels of superoxide as well as nitrotyrosine within the artery, concomitantly with enhanced membrane protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The higher concentration of oxygen attenuates L-cysteine-induced vasodilation via superoxide production mediated by NADPH oxidase along with thromboxane A2 production, resulting in vasoconstriction. The increased levels of superoxide, as well as peroxynitrite, coexist with the impaired vasodilation related to ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and CSE. Higher oxygen with plasma cysteine may cause oxidative stress and vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in blood vessels.

  9. High oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production in the rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Feng, Guo-Gang; Li, Jiazheng; Nakamura, Emi; Hayashi, Hisaki; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Whether high oxygen is harmful to the vascular function is unclear. The present study examined if high oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production. Rat mesenteric arteries with endothelium at 95 or 50 % oxygen were subjected to isometric force recordings, measurement of thromboxane B2 levels, determination of superoxide and peroxynitrite levels and evaluation of NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression, respectively. L-cysteine (0.01-3 mM) constricted or dilated arteries at 95 and 50 % oxygen, respectively. Thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ-29,548 (1 μM) abolished the constriction at 95 % oxygen. L-cysteine (3 mM) increased levels of thromboxane B2 in arteries upon 95 % oxygen application. L-cysteine relaxed arteries treated with superoxide inhibitor tiron (2 mM) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat (1 μM) irrespective of the oxygen concentration while ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (1 μM) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (10 mM) similarly abolished the relaxation. L-cysteine (3 mM) with 95 % oxygen augmented levels of superoxide as well as nitrotyrosine within the artery, concomitantly with enhanced membrane protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The higher concentration of oxygen attenuates L-cysteine-induced vasodilation via superoxide production mediated by NADPH oxidase along with thromboxane A2 production, resulting in vasoconstriction. The increased levels of superoxide, as well as peroxynitrite, coexist with the impaired vasodilation related to ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and CSE. Higher oxygen with plasma cysteine may cause oxidative stress and vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in blood vessels. PMID:27389323

  10. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 μL, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible.

  11. Assessment of Blood Collection from the Lateral Saphenous Vein for Microfilaria Counts in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Infected with Brugia pahangi

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Berghaus, Roy D; Kelly, Lisa M; Supakorndej, Prasit; Burkman, Erica J; Savadelis, Molly D; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Gregory W; Harvey, Stephen B; Moorhead, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The NIH guidelines for survival bleeding of mice and rats note that using the retroorbital plexus has a greater potential for complications than do other methods of blood collection and that this procedure should be performed on anesthetized animals. Lateral saphenous vein puncture has a low potential for complications and can be performed without anesthesia. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are the preferred rodent model for filarial parasite research. To monitor microfilaria counts in the blood, blood sampling from the orbital plexus has been the standard. Our goal was to refine the blood collection technique. To determine whether blood collection from the lateral saphenous vein was a feasible alternative to retroorbital sampling, we compared microfilaria counts in blood samples collected by both methods from 21 gerbils infected with the filarial parasitic worm Brugia pahangi. Lateral saphenous vein counts were equivalent to retroorbital counts at relatively high counts (greater than 50 microfilariae per 20 µL) but were significantly lower than retroorbital counts when microfilarial concentrations were lower. Our results indicate that although retroorbital collection may be preferable when low concentrations of microfilariae need to be enumerated, the lateral saphenous vein is a suitable alternative site for blood sampling to determine microfilaremia and is a feasible refinement that can benefit the wellbeing of gerbils. PMID:26678366

  12. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  13. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  14. T-cell count

    MedlinePlus

    Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count; T cell count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

  15. Consecutive results of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry: useful tools of health protection regulation for radiation workers

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seongjae; Lee, Jin Kyung; Cho, Minsu; Yang, Su San; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Wan Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Since the law was enacted, however, few follow-up studies have been carried out based on the obtained results. Objectives To ascertain the clinical usefulness of complete blood cell count (CBC) results and suggest a proper protocol of health protection for radiation workers. Methods After reviewing all the consecutive results of CBC and TLD doses from radiation workers registered nationwide, we selected two groups of high-risk radiation workers, CBC-high risk (CBC-HR) and TLD-high risk (TLD-HR) groups. A control group of unexposed healthy adults was also included. We compared the absorbed doses calculated by cytogenetic biodosimetry among those three groups, and examined possible confounding factors for each group. Results Both groups of high-risk radiation workers, CBC-HR and TLD-HR, showed higher chromosome aberrations than the control group. In the control group, previous medical history of a CT scan increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations. In contrast, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the high-risk radiation workers was affected not by the previous CT history but only by the duration of their work. Conclusions We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and cytogenetic biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of biodosimetry results. PMID:27466611

  16. White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

    2013-03-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

  17. Platelet thromboxane (11-dehydro-Thromboxane B2) and aspirin response in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Luis R; Guyer, Kirk E; Torre, Ignacio Garcia De La; Pitts, Kelly R; Matsuura, Eiji; Ames, Paul Rj

    2014-04-15

    Aspirin (ASA) irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) leading to decreased thromboxane-mediated platelet activation. The effect of ASA ingestion on thromboxane generation was evaluated in patients with diabetes (DM) and cardiovascular disease. Thromboxane inhibition was assessed by measuring the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2. The mean baseline urinary 11dhTxB2 of DM was 69.6% higher than healthy controls (P = 0.024): female subjects (DM and controls) had 50.9% higher baseline 11dhTxB2 than males (P = 0.0004), while age or disease duration had no influence. Daily ASA ingestion inhibited urinary 11dhTxB2 in both DM (71.7%) and controls (75.1%, P < 0.0001). Using a pre-established cut-off of 1500 pg/mg of urinary 11dhTxB2, there were twice as many ASA poor responders (ASA "resistant") in DM than in controls (14.8% and 8.4%, respectively). The rate of ASA poor responders in two populations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients was 28.6 and 28.7%, in spite of a significant (81.6%) inhibition of urinary 11dhTxB2 (P < 0.0001). Both baseline 11dhTxB2 levels and rate of poor ASA responders were significantly higher in DM and ACS compared to controls. Underlying systemic oxidative inflammation may maintain platelet function in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease irrespective of COX-1 pathway inhibition and/or increase systemic generation of thromboxane from non-platelet sources. PMID:24748925

  18. Segmentation technique of complex image scene for an automatic blood-cell-counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

    1996-04-01

    The paper presents a method for automatic localization and segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated leukocyte counter by using pattern recognition-based slide readers. The segmentation techniques consist of the following steps. On the first a smear image acquired at the low magnification. The next is extraction of WBC nuclei by chromatic properties and image mapping. After this the cells clustered according to the distances between them and regions of interest (ROI) determined. Image of ROI captured at the high magnification and its validity checked. Then nucleus segments extracted and grouped into prospective cells. The detection of blood cells is based on the intensity of G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity of the nuclei. A cytoplasm region approximated by a circle area around the nucleus center. Finally, the cytoplasm area cleaned considering a priori knowledge of background color and possible cell occlusions. The result of the segmentation is presented in the form of a cell location list and image template in which every pixel is assigned to a label such as Background, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Hole, etc. The proposed technique has yielded correct segmentation of complex image scenes for blood smears prepared by ordinary manual staining methods in 99% of tested images.

  19. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70◦C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Results: No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the

  20. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. Results White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Conclusions Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). PMID:27136467

  1. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  2. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values.

  3. Rare cancer cell analyzer for whole blood applications: microcytometer cell counting and sorting subcircuits.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, C; Kokoris, M; Nabavi, M; Clemmens, J; Maloney, P; Capadanno, J; Gerdes, J; Battrell, C F

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate sorting of rare cancer cells from blood using a thin ribbon monolayer of cells within a credit-card sized, microfluidic laboratory-on-a-card ("lab card") structure. This enables higher cell throughput per minute thereby speeding up cell interrogation. In this approach, multiple cells are viewed and sorted, not individually, but as a whole cell row or section of the ribbon at a time. Gated selection of only the cell rows containing a tagged rare cell provides enrichment of the rare cell relative to background blood cells. We also designed the cell injector for laminar flow antibody labeling within 20s. The approach combines rapid laminar flow cell labeling with monolayer cell sorting thereby enabling rare cell target detection at sensitivity levels 1000 to 10,000 times that of existing flow cytometers. Using this method, total cell labeling and data acquisition time on card may be reduced to a few minutes compared to 30-60 min for standard flow methods. PMID:16199174

  4. Genetic Modifiers of White Blood Cell Count, Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Jonathan M.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Nelson, Stephen C.; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A.; George, Alex; Roberts, Carla W.; Piccone, Connie M.; Howard, Thad A.; Davis, Barry R.; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery and validation of genetic variants that influence disease severity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) could lead to early identification of high-risk patients, better screening strategies, and intervention with targeted and preventive therapy. We hypothesized that newly identified genetic risk factors for the general African American population could also impact laboratory biomarkers known to contribute to the clinical disease expression of SCA, including variants influencing the white blood cell count and the development of albuminuria and abnormal glomerular filtration rate. We first investigated candidate genetic polymorphisms in well-characterized SCA pediatric cohorts from three prospective NHLBI-supported clinical trials: HUSTLE, SWiTCH, and TWiTCH. We also performed whole exome sequencing to identify novel genetic variants, using both a discovery and a validation cohort. Among candidate genes, DARC rs2814778 polymorphism regulating Duffy antigen expression had a clear influence with significantly increased WBC and neutrophil counts, but did not affect the maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea therapy. The APOL1 G1 polymorphism, an identified risk factor for non-diabetic renal disease, was associated with albuminuria. Whole exome sequencing discovered several novel variants that maintained significance in the validation cohorts, including ZFHX4 polymorphisms affecting both the leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as AGGF1, CYP4B1, CUBN, TOR2A, PKD1L2, and CD163 variants affecting the glomerular filtration rate. The identification of robust, reliable, and reproducible genetic markers for disease severity in SCA remains elusive, but new genetic variants provide avenues for further validation and investigation. PMID:27711207

  5. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  6. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease.

  7. ICSH guidelines for the evaluation of blood cell analysers including those used for differential leucocyte and reticulocyte counting.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C; Culp, N; Davis, B; d'Onofrio, G; Zini, G; Machin, S J

    2014-12-01

    This revision is intended to update the 1994 ICSH guidelines. It is based on those guidelines but is updated to include new methods, such as digital image analysis for blood cells, a flow cytometric method intended to replace the reference manual 400 cell differential, and numerous new cell indices not identified morphologically are introduced. Haematology analysers are becoming increasingly complex and with technological advancements in instrumentation with more and more quantitative parameters are being reported in the complete blood count. It is imperative therefore that before an instrument is used for testing patient samples, it must undergo an evaluation by an organization or laboratory independent of the manufacturer. The evaluation should demonstrate the performance, advantages and limitations of instruments and methods. These evaluations may be performed by an accredited haematology laboratory where the results are published in a peer-reviewed journal and compared with the validations performed by the manufacturer. A less extensive validation/transference of the equipment or method should be performed by the local laboratory on instruments prior to reporting of results.

  8. Radioactive (131)Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-09-01

    Radioactive(131) iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071-0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008-0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016-0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8-8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44-286 MBq (1.2-7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1-27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083-0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057-0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069-0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059-0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in females-about 10% for

  9. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  10. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  11. Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Hänscheid, Thomas; Längin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Pötschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited

  12. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq I (ranging 2220-7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance.The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up.WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females was more obvious

  13. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq 131I (ranging 2220–7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance. The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up. WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females

  14. Immediate Blood Draw for CD4+ Cell Count Is Associated with Linkage to Care in Durban, South Africa: Findings from Pathways to Engagement in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Levin, Bruce; Singh, Dinesh; Mantell, Joanne E.; Blanchard, Kelly; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely linkage to care by newly-diagnosed HIV+ individuals remains a significant challenge to achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend initiating anti-retroviral treatment (ART) regardless of CD4+ count, with priority given to those with CD4+ <350 cells/μl. We evaluated the impact of not having a day-of-diagnosis CD4+ count blood draw, as recommended by South African guidelines, on time to linkage, using data from a prospective cohort study. Methods Individuals (N = 2773) were interviewed prior to HIV counseling and testing at three public sector primary care clinics in the greater Durban area; 785 were newly-diagnosed and eligible for the cohort study; 459 (58.5%) joined and were followed for eight months with three structured assessments. Linkage to care, defined as returning to clinic for CD4+ count results, and day-of-diagnosis blood draw were self-reported. Results Overall, 72.5% did not have a day-of-diagnosis CD4+ count blood draw, and 19.2% of these never returned. Compared with a day-of-diagnosis blood draw, the adjusted hazard ratio of linkage (AHRlinkage) associated with not having day-of-diagnosis blood draw was 0.66 (95%CI: 0.51, 0.85). By 4 months, 54.8% of those without day-of-diagnosis blood draw vs. 75.2% with one were linked to care (chi-squared p = 0.004). Of those who deferred blood draw, 48.3% cited clinic-related and 51.7% cited personal reasons. AHRlinkage was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.44, 0.82) for clinic-related and 0.53 (95%CI: 0.38, 0.75) for personal reasons relative to having day-of-diagnosis blood draw. Conclusions Newly-diagnosed HIV+ individuals who did not undergo CD4+ count blood draw on the day they were diagnosed—regardless of the reason for deferring—had delayed linkage to care relative to those with same-day blood draw. To enhance prompt linkage to care even when test and treat protocols are implemented, all diagnostic testing required before ART initiation should be

  15. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway.

  16. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  17. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  18. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  19. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet

  20. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Specialist Financial Support Online Chats Support Groups Peer-to-Peer Support LLS Community Blogs Caregiver Support Other Helpful ... Information Specialist Financial Support Online Chats Support Groups Peer-to-Peer Support LLS Community Blogs Caregiver Support ...

  1. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  2. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    PubMed

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  3. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  4. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  5. CSF cell count

    MedlinePlus

    The normal white blood cell count is between 0 and 5. The normal red blood cell count is 0. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about ... use different measurements or may test different specimens.

  6. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  7. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  8. [Effect of triamcinolone acetonide, montelukast, nedocromil sodium and formoterol on eosinophil blood counts, ECP serum levels and clinical progression of asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Eosinophil-mediated damage to the respiratory epithelium is a major pathogenetic mechanism in asthma. Glucocorticoids have confirmed antiinflammatory properties and effect of formoterol, montelukast and nedocromil on markers of inflammation has been studied. Eosinophil blood counts and eosinophil cation protein (ECP) serum level are often use as markers of clinical monitoring of the disease activity. To evaluate the effect of treatment on allergic inflammation, we measured eosinophil blood counts and ECP serum level, and clinical parameters before and after 4 weeks treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast, nedocromil, formoterol. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 154 children with moderate atopic asthma. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 400 mg triamcinolon (n = 28), 5 or 10 mg (according to age) montelukast (n = 27), 16 mg nedocromil (n = 26), 24 micrograms formoterol (n = 28) or placebo (n = 45). 140 children completed the study. After treatment with triamcinolon and montelukast eosinophil blood counts significantly decreased, after treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast and nedocromil ECP serum level significantly decreased; all clinical parameters improved after treatment with each drug; treatment with triamcinolon had the strongest effect on most parameters (except of FEV1). Mean eosinophil blood counts before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 277.4 and 187.2 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 279.6 and 250.7 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.002); with nedocromil were 181.7 and 170.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.183); with formoterol were 276.4 and 264.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.2). Mean ECP serum levels before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 94.3 and 63.5 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 85.1 micrograms/l and 71.2 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with nedocromil were 92.6 and 80.1 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with

  9. Transcriptional regulation of human thromboxane synthase gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.D.; Baek, S.J.; Fleischer, T

    1994-09-01

    The human thromboxane synthase (TS) gene encodes a microsomal enzyme catalyzing the conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxane A{sub 2}(TxA{sub 2}), a potent inducer of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. A deficiency in platelet TS activity results in bleeding disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Increased TxA{sub 2} has been associated with many pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and thrombosis in sickle cell patients. Since the formation of TxA{sub 2} is dependent upon TS, the regulation of TS gene expression may presumably play a crucial role in vivo. Abrogation of the regulatory mechanism in TS gene expression might contribute, in part, to the above clinical manifestations. To gain insight into TS gene regulation, a 1.7 kb promoter of the human TS gene was cloned and sequenced. RNase protection assay and 5{prime} RACE protocols were used to map the transcription initiation site to nucleotide A, 30 bp downstream from a canonical TATA box. Several transcription factor binding sites, including AP-1, PU.1, and PEA3, were identified within this sequence. Transient expression studies in HL-60 cells transfected with constructs containing various lengths (0.2 to 5.5 kb) of the TS promoter/luciferase fusion gene indicated the presence of multiple repressor elements within the 5.5 kb TS promoter. However, a lineage-specific up-regulation of TS gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells induced by TPA to differentiate along the macrophage lineage. The increase in TS transcription was not detectable until 36 hr after addition of the inducer. These results suggest that expression of the human TS gene may be regulated by a mechanism involving repression and derepression of the TS promoter.

  10. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  11. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated

  12. Increased thromboxane production in women with a history of venous thromboembolic event: effect of heparins.

    PubMed

    Kaaja, R; Pettilä, V; Leinonen, P; Ylikorkala, O

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane in pregnant women with a previous venous thromboembolic event before, during and after the use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). Twenty women were studied before starting heparin prophylaxis (before 20 weeks of gestation), during heparin prophylaxis (at 30 weeks of gestation) and after heparin prophylaxis (16 weeks after delivery). Ten pregnant women with no history of thromboembolism were studied as the control group. Urinary output of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha) and that of thromboxane A2 (2,3-dinor-TxB2), as well as a number of markers of thrombophilia were measured and expressed as mean (+/-SEM). Women with a history of thromboembolism were characterized by normal prostacyclin production but elevated thromboxane production (44.0 +/- 4.1 versus 19.0 +/- 3.6 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Heparin prophylaxis (regardless of the type) had abolished elevated thromboxane concentrations at 30 weeks of gestation. Four months after delivery, thromboxane dominance had returned (25.2 +/- 3.5 versus 13.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.01). The presence of hereditary thrombophilia (9/20) was not associated with any changes in prostanoid concentrations. Thus, women with a history of venous thromboembolic events have thromboxane dominance during and after pregnancy, but this dominance can be eliminated through the use of heparins. PMID:11552994

  13. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Robinette, J B; Conger, J D

    1990-01-01

    The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129

  14. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  15. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M

    2015-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—β) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—β levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—β levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes.

  16. iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood of Caucasian children and adolescent: the absolute iNKT cell count is stable from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bienemann, K; Iouannidou, K; Schoenberg, K; Krux, F; Reuther, S; Feyen, O; Bienemann, K; Schuster, F; Uhrberg, M; Laws, H-J; Borkhardt, A

    2011-10-01

    Human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariantly rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) and are involved in a variety of immunoregulatory processes. We assessed the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells in 64 healthy Caucasian children from 7 months to 18 years of age and five cord blood samples by flow cytometry. iNKT cells were measured as CD3(+) cells co-expressing TCRVα24 and TCRVβ11 and using the monoclonal antibody 6B11, which recognizes specifically their invariant TCR rearrangement. The absolute number of iNKT cells ranged from 86 to 10,499 (CD3(+) /TCRVα24(+) / TCRVβ11(+)) and 233 to 11,167 (CD3(+) /6B11(+)) iNKT cells per millilitre of blood. This range is stable from birth to adulthood. The relative iNKT cell count was found to be 0.003-0.71% (CD3(+) /TCRVα24/TCRVβ11) and 0.019-0.776% (CD3/6B11) of peripheral blood T cells and shows only a slight increase with age.

  17. Thromboxane synthase regulates the migratory phenotype of human glioma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giese, A.; Hagel, C.; Kim, E. L.; Zapf, S.; Djawaheri, J.; Berens, M. E.; Westphal, M.

    1999-01-01

    The capacity of glial tumor cells to migrate and diffusely infiltrate normal brain compromises surgical eradication of the disease. Identification of genes associated with invasion may offer novel strategies for anti-invasive therapies. The gene for TXsyn, an enzyme of the arachidonic acid pathway, has been identified by differential mRNA display as being overexpressed in a glioma cell line selected for migration. In this study TXsyn mRNA expression was found in a large panel of glioma cell lines but not in a strain of human astrocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated TXsyn in the parenchyma of glial tumors and in reactive astrocytes, whereas it could not be detected in quiescent astrocytes and oligodendroglia of normal brain. Glioma cell lines showed a wide range of thromboxane B2 formation, the relative expression of which correlated with migration rates of these cells. Migration was effectively blocked by specific inhibitors of TXsyn, such as furegrelate and dazmegrel. Other TXsyn inhibitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitors were less effective. Treatment with specific inhibitors also resulted in a decrease of intercellular adhesion in glioma cells. These data indicate that TXsyn plays a crucial role in the signal transduction of migration in glial tumors and may offer a novel strategy for anti-invasive therapies. PMID:11550298

  18. 3D pharmacophore models for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing

    2009-10-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine model was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop model contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These models describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists. PMID:19263096

  19. 3D pharmacophore models for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing

    2009-10-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine model was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop model contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These models describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists.

  20. Various laboratory protocols for measuring thromboxane A2 generation to detect the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid therapy: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rozalski, Marcin; Watala, Cezary; Golanski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    A reliable and simple laboratory assay for predicting clinical effectiveness of antiplatelet acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy is needed. We have compared various laboratory protocols for measuring blood thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation used to detect the effects of ASA administration. Healthy volunteers (n = 15) were given 150 mg per day ASA for 10 days, followed by ASA at 75 mg per day for 10 days. Five protocols tested for measuring TXA2 generation were: baseline TXB2 determination in plasma; static generation of TXA2 in anticoagulated blood (1 h incubation at room temperature or 37°C, respectively); dynamic generation of TXA2 in anticoagulated blood (1 h in rotary mixer); and generation of TXA2 in blood without anticoagulant (serum-generated TXA2). Platelet aggregation in whole blood was also measured using arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, and ADP as agonists. All five protocols showed significant reduction in TXB2 levels in individuals taking ASA. However, only the assay of TXA2 generation in serum was significantly different compared with the other protocols (P < 0.002). Moreover, the strongest and most significant correlation was observed between TXA2 generation in serum and AA-induced aggregation parameters (for 75 mg per day ASA).Serum TXA2 generation is the best laboratory protocol to detect the effects of ASA, based on serum markers of prostanoid metabolism.

  1. Functional significance of renal prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Patrono, C; Ciabattoni, G; Remuzzi, G; Gotti, E; Bombardieri, S; Di Munno, O; Tartarelli, G; Cinotti, G A; Simonetti, B M; Pierucci, A

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the urinary excretion of stable immunoreactive eicosanoids in 23 female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 16 patients with chronic glomerular disease (CGD), and 20 healthy women. SLE patients had significantly higher urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 excretion and significantly lower 6-keto-PGF1 alpha than did healthy women. In contrast, CGD patients only differed from controls for having reduced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion. The group of SLE patients with active renal lesions differed significantly from the group with inactive lesions for having a lower creatinine clearance and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and higher urinary TXB2. Higher urinary TXB2 excretion was associated with comparable platelet TXB2 production in whole blood, undetectable TXB2 in peripheral venous blood, and unchanged urinary excretion of 2,3-dinor-TXB2. A significant inverse correlation was found between urinary TXB2 and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). In contrast, the urinary excretion of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha showed a significant linear correlation with both CCr and para-aminohippurate clearance rate (CPAH). In four SLE and seven CGD patients, inhibition of renal cyclooxygenase activity by ibuprofen was associated with a significant reduction in urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and TXB2 and in both CCr and CPAH. However, the average decrease in both clearances was 50% lower in SLE patients than in CGD patients, when fractionated by the reduction in urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha or PGE2 excretion. We conclude that the intrarenal synthesis of PGI2 and TXA2 is specifically altered in SLE. Such biochemical alterations are associated with changes in glomerular hemodynamics and may play a role in the progression of SLE nephropathy. PMID:3900132

  2. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  3. Light-scattering changes caused by RBC aggregation: physical basis for new approach to noninvasive blood count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Leonid D.; Fine, Ilya

    2001-06-01

    We develop theoretical models of light transmission through whole blood considering RBC aggregation. RBC aggregates are considered to be the main centers of scattering in red/near- infrared spectral region. In pulsatile blood flow the periodic changes of aggregate geometry cause oscillations of light scattering. Thus scattering-assisted mechanism has to be taken into account in pulse oximeter calibration. In case of over-systolic vessel occlusion the size of aggregates grows, and the light transmission rises. Light diffraction on a single scatterer makes the transmission growth non- monotonic for certain spectral range. For the most typical set of aggregate parameters this range corresponds to wavelengths below 760 nm, and this prediction fits well both in vivo and in vitro experimental results. This spectral range depends on the refraction index mismatch and the geometry of aggregates. Both of them may be affected by the chemistry of blood. For instance, changes of glucose and hemoglobin have different effect on light transmission time response. Consequently, their content may be determined from time evolution of optical transmission.

  4. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  5. Use of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and white blood cell counts in monitoring the treatment and predicting the survival of horses with septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kidd, J A; Barr, A R S; Tarlton, J F

    2007-09-01

    Thirty-nine samples of synovial fluid were collected from the joints of 32 horses with suspected septic arthritis and 39 samples were collected from horses euthanased for non-orthopaedic conditions. The white blood cell counts (WBCC) were determined and the pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 were measured by gelatin zymography and image analysis in each sample. The initial measurements of the ratio of proMMP9:proMMp2 and WBCC were good prognostic indicators of the survival of the horses. There was no significant relationship between the interval between the injury and the horse being referred for treatment and either the WBCC or the levels of MMP2 and MMP9 initially, and no evidence that this interval significantly affected the chances of the horses surviving.

  6. Thromboxane-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and superoxide anion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Paul A.; Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The present renal hemodynamic study tested the hypothesis that CD38 and superoxide anion (O2·−) participate in the vasoconstriction produced by activation of thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors in the mouse kidney. CD38 is the major mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase contributing to vasomotor tone through the generation of cADP-ribose, a second messenger that activates ryanodine receptors to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. We evaluated whether the stable thromboxane mimetic U-46619 causes less pronounced renal vasoconstriction in CD38-deficient mice and the involvement of O2·− in U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our results indicate that U-46619 activation of TP receptors causes renal vasoconstriction in part by activating cADP-ribose signaling in renal resistance arterioles. Based on maximal renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance responses to bolus injections of U-46619, CD38 contributes 30–40% of the TP receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We also found that the antioxidant SOD mimetic tempol attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction by U-46619 in both groups of mice, suggesting mediation by O2·−. The degree of tempol blockage of U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction was greater in wild-type mice, attenuating renal vasoconstriction by 40% compared with 30% in CD38-null mice. In other experiments, U-46619 rapidly stimulated O2·− production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in isolated mouse afferent arterioles, an effect abolished by tempol. These observations provide the first in vivo demonstration of CD38 and O2·− involvement in the vasoconstrictor effects of TP receptor activation in the kidney and in vitro evidence for TP receptor stimulation of O2·− production by the afferent arteriole. PMID:23884143

  7. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  8. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3′ terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  9. Human thromboxane synthase: comparative modeling and docking evaluation with the competitive inhibitors Dazoxiben and Ozagrel.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Santana, Marcos; Lourenço, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Abreu, Paula; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; Castro, Helena Carla

    2014-08-01

    Thromboxane synthase (TXAS) is a P450 epoxygenase that synthesizes thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent mediator of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction. This enzyme plays an important role in several human diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, septic shock, asthma and cancer. Despite of the increasing interest on developing TXAS inhibitors, the structure and activity of TXAS are still not totally elucidated. In this study, we used a comparative molecular modeling approach to construct a reliable model of TXAS and analyze its interactions with Dazoxiben and Ozagrel, two competitive inhibitors. Our results were compatible with experimental published data, showing feasible cation-π interaction between the iron atom of the heme group of TXAS and the basic nitrogen atom of the imidazolyl group of those inhibitors. In the absence of the experimental structure of thromboxane synthase, this freely available model may be useful for designing new antiplatelet drugs for diseases related with TXA2.

  10. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  11. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT).

    PubMed

    Reiner, Alexander P; Lettre, Guillaume; Nalls, Michael A; Ganesh, Santhi K; Mathias, Rasika; Austin, Melissa A; Dean, Eric; Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J David; Eaton, Charles B; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F A; Harris, Tamara B; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D; Papanicolaou, George J; Patel, Kushang V; Singleton, Andrew B; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B; Folsom, Aaron R; Evans, Michele K; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M; Snively, Beverly M; Wilson, James G

    2011-06-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8)). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can

  12. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  13. ICSH Guideline for worldwide point-of-care testing in haematology with special reference to the complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C; Carter, J; Lee, S-H; Sandhaus, L; Simon-Lopez, R; Vives Corrons, J-L

    2008-04-01

    These guidelines provide information on how to develop and manage a point-of-care (POCT) service so that reliable haematology results are produced regardless of where the test is performed. Many of the issues addressed here are relevant to POCT within hospitals or health centres; however, the principles are equally applicable to care in the community and doctors' offices. Other aspects discussed in this guideline are the initiation of the service (including indications for and limitations of a POCT service), staff training, type of haematology equipment selected, the blood results, monitoring of quality, accreditation, safety and cost. Equipment selected should generate results that are comparable to those of the local reference laboratory. If a complete independent evaluation of the POCT device has not been performed, the purchaser should perform a local assessment according to the protocol in this document. A literature search should also be undertaken to find independent peer reviewed evaluations on POCT equipment. Often the ideals discussed here may not be achievable in some developing countries but long-term training and education of POCT workers needs to be supported and constantly kept on government agendas to reach the recommendations advised here. Users should interpret these recommendations for their particular POCT needs and setting.

  14. Melittin stimulates liver glycogenolysis and the release of prostaglandin D2 and thromboxane B2.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M; Macías-Silva, M

    1990-01-01

    Melittin stimulates glycogenolysis and induces vasoconstriction in perfused rat liver. The effect was rapid and associated with production and release of prostaglandin D2 and thromboxane B2. Indomethacin blocked the release of these eicosanoids and the stimulation of glycogenolysis induced by melittin. Ibuprofen blocked the release of prostaglandin D2 induced by melittin and markedly attenuated that of thromboxane B2. Interestingly, the initial burst of glucose output induced by melittin was not inhibited by ibuprofen, although the duration of the glycogenolytic action of the peptide was greatly diminished. PMID:2375756

  15. Effects of dazoxiben on transcardiac thromboxane levels and haemodynamics in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, I.; Tweddel, A. C.; Rankin, A. C.; Walker, I. D.; Davidson, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    1 Plasma thromboxane levels were obtained from both the coronary sinus and aorta in patients with stable angina pectoris paced to angina, and in unstable angina patients before and after dazoxiben 100 mg. 2 Although there was a wide range of values in the different groups, dazoxiben significantly reduced plasma thromboxane levels in all patients. 3 Dazoxiben had no adverse effect on coronary and systemic haemodynamics, and atrial pacing time to angina was increased from 245±41 to 308±48 s (P<0.01). PMID:6681709

  16. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  17. Standardization and harmonization of the blood count: the role of International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M

    1990-01-01

    Scientific principles of standardization were first applied in haematology in 1963 when the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology was established with a primary objective to improve the measurement of haemoglobin. Subsequently, ICSH has established Expert Panels on a wide range of haematological topics, including especially a Panel on Cytometry. The purpose of haematological standardization is to obtain precision, accuracy, specificity and harmonization of results between different laboratories in all countries and also between different instruments or methods in the same laboratory. To achieve these objectives ICSH sponsors collaborative studies by scientists from academic centres and from industry and uses a consensus procedure for establishing standards on the basis of the scientific data, followed by an educational programme to ensure that the standards are adopted worldwide. ICSH defines material standards and standardized methods. Material standards are classified as primary international standards, certified reference materials, secondary standards and calibrators. These must be distinguished from control preparations which are intended exclusively for quality control. Standardization of methods must also be considered at four levels: definitive, reference, selected and routine. Each has a place in practice but their roles must be clearly defined. ICSH has an established protocol for evaluation of automated blood cell counters. This defines the levels of precision and accuracy of instrument performance. It is also necessary to assess "clinical utility". The main requirement of the practising haematologist is clinical reliability and harmonization of results for comparability. One of the major functions of ICSH is to provide an interface for collaboration between the manufacturers who develop the instruments and the users in order to achieve this goal.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute

  19. Characterization of a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor in guinea pig lung membranes using a radioiodinated thromboxane mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.; Mais, D.E.; Dube, G.P.; Magee, D.E.; Brune, K.A.; Kurtz, W.L.; Williams, C.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) are potent constrictors of airway smooth muscle and may mediate some of the pulmonary effects of leukotrienes. To date, the TXA2/PGH2 receptor in lung has not been well characterized. In this report, we describe the evaluation of the TXA2/PGH2 receptor in guinea pig lung membranes using the new radiolabeled TXA2 mimetic (1S(1 alpha,2 beta(5Z),3 alpha(1E,3S*),4 alpha))-7-(3-(3-hydroxy-4-(4'- iodophenoxy)-1-butenyl)-7-oxabicyclo-(2.2.1)heptan-2-yl)-5-h eptenoic acid (IBOP). IBOP elicited a dose-dependent contraction of guinea pig lung parenchymal strips (EC50 = 3.03 +/- 0.97 nM, three experiments), which was blocked by the TXA2/PGH2 antagonists SQ29548 (pKB = 7.44 +/- 0.2, three experiments), BM13505 (pKB = 6.29 +/- 0.26, three experiments), and I-PTA-OH (pKB = 5.82 +/- 0.36, three experiments). In radioligand binding studies, the binding of (125I)IBOP to guinea pig lung membranes prepared from perfused lungs was saturable, displaceable, and dependent upon protein concentration. Binding was optimal at pH 6.5 and was enhanced by the addition of mono- and divalent cations. The standard assay buffer was 25 mM 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid, pH 6.5, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgCl2. Binding was inhibited by pretreatment with dithiothreitol, N-ethylmaleimide, or beta-mercaptoethanol. Binding was unaffected by the addition of guanine nucleotide analogs at concentrations up to 300 microM. Analysis of the time course of binding of (125)IBOP at 30 degrees yielded k-1 = 0.0447 min-1, k1 = 2.49 x 10(8) M-1 min-1, and Kd = k-1/k1 = 180 pM. Computer analysis of equilibrium binding studies using nonlinear methods (LUNDON-1) revealed a single class of noninteracting binding sites with a Kd of 86.9 +/- 11.9 pM and a Bmax of 81.8 +/- 7.7 fmol/mg of protein (three experiments).

  20. Evidence for homogeneity of thromboxane A2 receptor using structurally different antagonists.

    PubMed

    Swayne, G T; Maguire, J; Dolan, J; Raval, P; Dane, G; Greener, M; Owen, D A

    1988-08-01

    Nine structurally dissimilar thromboxane antagonists (SQ 29548, ICI 185282, AH 23848, BM 13505 (Daltroban), BM 13177 (Sulotroban), SK&F 88046, L-636499, L-640035 and a Bayer compound SK&F 47821) were studied for activity as thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists. The assays used were inhibition of responses induced by the thromboxane mimetic, U46619, on human washed platelet aggregation, rabbit platelet aggregation, rabbit aortic strip contraction, anaesthetised guinea-pig bronchoconstriction, and a radio-labelled ligand (125I-PTA-OH) binding assay as a measure of affinity for the human platelet receptor. The results of the present study, with activities spanning at least four orders of magnitude along with statistically significant correlations (at least P less than 0.01), strongly suggests that between assays, antagonists and species a homogenous population of thromboxane A2 receptors exists. This finding is in contrast to those of a close series of 13-azapinane antagonists studied by other workers which have suggested receptor heterogeneity.

  1. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Warner, Timothy D.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2009-10-15

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB{sub 2}) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB{sub 2} but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  2. National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2–24 months in the PCV-7 era

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced. PMID:23603643

  3. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway.

  4. Characterization of 5' end of human thromboxane receptor gene. Organizational analysis and mapping of protein kinase C--responsive elements regulating expression in platelets.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, D D; Davis, M G; Houser, W A; Eubank, J J; Ritchie, M E; Dorn, G W

    1995-09-01

    Platelet thromboxane receptors are acutely and reversibly upregulated after acute myocardial infarction. To determine if platelet thromboxane receptors are under transcriptional control, we isolated and characterized human genomic DNA clones containing the 5' flanking region of the thromboxane receptor gene. The exon-intron structure of the 5' portion of the thromboxane receptor gene was determined initially by comparing the nucleotide sequence of the 5' flanking genomic clone with that of a novel human uterine thromboxane receptor cDNA that extended the mRNA 141 bp further upstream than the previously identified human placental cDNA. A major transcription initiation site was located in three human tissues approximately 560 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon and 380 bp upstream from any previously identified transcription initiation site. The thromboxane receptor gene has neither a TATA nor a CAAT consensus site. Promoter function of the 5' flanking region of the thromboxane receptor gene was evaluated by transfection of thromboxane receptor gene promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) chimera plasmids into platelet-like K562 cells. Thromboxane receptor promoter activity, as assessed by CAT expression, was relatively weak but was significantly enhanced by phorbol ester treatment. Functional analysis of 5' deletion constructs in transfected K562 cells and gel mobility shift localized the major phorbol ester-responsive motifs in the thromboxane receptor gene promoter to a cluster of activator protein-2 (AP-2) binding consensus sites located approximately 1.8 kb 5' from the transcription initiation site. These studies are the first to determine the structure and organization of the 5' end of the thromboxane receptor gene and demonstrate that thromboxane receptor gene expression can be regulated by activation of protein kinase C via induction of an AP-2-like nuclear factor binding to upstream promoter elements. These findings strongly suggest

  5. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  6. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  7. Monoclonal B lymphocytes with the characteristics of "indolent" chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in 3.5% of adults with normal blood counts.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, Andy C; Green, Michael J; Kuzmicki, Anita; Kennedy, Ben; Fenton, James A L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Richards, Stephen J; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2002-07-15

    Molecular and cellular markers associated with malignant disease are frequently identified in healthy individuals. The relationship between these markers and clinical disease is not clear, except where a neoplastic cell population can be identified as in myeloma/monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). We have used the distinctive phenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to determine whether low levels of these cells can be identified in individuals with normal complete blood counts. CLL cells were identified by 4-color flow cytometric analysis of CD19/CD5/CD79b/CD20 expression in 910 outpatients over 40 years old. These outpatients were age- and sex-matched to the general population with normal hematologic parameters and no evident history of malignant disease. CLL phenotype cells were detectable in 3.5% of individuals at low level (median, 0.013; range, 0.002- 1.458 x 10(9) cells/L), and represented a minority of B lymphocytes (median, 11%; range, 3%-95%). Monoclonality was demonstrated by immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in all cases with CLL phenotype cells present and confirmed in a subset of cases by consensus-primer IgH-polymerase chain reaction. As in clinical disease, CLL phenotype cells were detected with a higher frequency in men (male-to-female ratio, 1.9:1) and elderly individuals (2.1% of 40- to 59-year-olds versus 5.0% of 60- to 89-year-olds, P =.01). The neoplastic cells were identical to good-prognosis CLL, being CD5+23+20(wk)79b(wk)11a(-)22(wk)sIg(wk)CD38-, and where assessed had a high degree (4.8%-6.6%) of IgH somatic hypermutation. The monoclonal CLL phenotype cells present in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a very early stage of indolent CLL and should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  8. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  9. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louie, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually.

  10. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.

  11. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  12. An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J

    2013-08-01

    Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34⁺ stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34⁺ stem cell count (PBCD34) ≤8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34⁺ targets in ≤3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34⁺ target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies.

  13. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  14. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  15. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral smear; Complete blood count - peripheral; CBC - peripheral ... Bain BJ. The peripheral blood smear. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 157. ...

  16. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Powell, Katie L; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H; McCracken, Sharon A; Simpson, Ann M; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M; Ashton, Anthony W

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans.

  17. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Katie L.; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H.; McCracken, Sharon A.; Simpson, Ann M.; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M.; Ashton, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans. PMID:27363493

  18. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Powell, Katie L; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H; McCracken, Sharon A; Simpson, Ann M; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M; Ashton, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans. PMID:27363493

  19. The accuracy of platelet counting in thrombocytopenic blood samples distributed by the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for General Haematology.

    PubMed

    De la Salle, Barbara J; McTaggart, Paul N; Briggs, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Doré, Caroline J; Longair, Ian; Machin, Samuel J; Hyde, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the limitations of automated platelet counting is essential for the effective care of thrombocytopenic patients and management of platelet stocks for transfusion. For this study, 29 external quality assessment specimen pools with platelet counts between 5 and 64 × 10(9)/L were distributed to more than 1,100 users of 23 different hematology analyzer models. The same specimen pools were analyzed by the international reference method (IRM) for platelet counting at 3 reference centers. The IRM values were on average lower than the all-methods median values returned by the automated analyzers. The majority (~67%) of the automated analyzer results overestimated the platelet count compared with the IRM, with significant differences in 16.5% of cases. Performance differed between analyzer models. The observed differences may depend in part on the nature of the survey material and analyzer technology, but the findings have implications for the interpretation of platelet counts at levels of clinical decision making.

  20. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    West, James D; Voss, Bryan M; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R; Carrier, Erica J

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling.

  1. AGN 191976: a novel thromboxane A2-mimetic with ocular hypotensive properties.

    PubMed

    Krauss, A H; Woodward, D F; Chen, J; Gibson, L L; Lai, R K; Protzman, C E; Shan, T; Williams, L S; Gac, T S; Burk, R M

    1995-01-01

    The possible subdivision of thromboxane A2-sensitive (TP) receptors is currently a controversial subject. We report herein on a novel thromboxane A2 mimetic, AGN 191976, which has almost identical pharmacological activity to the well-characterized prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 (PGH2/TxA2) mimetic U-46619, but its effects on intraocular pressure are quite distinct from U-46619. Prostanoid receptor activity was determined in vitro using different smooth muscle assays and platelets. Intraocular pressure was measured tonometrically in ocular normotensive Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys. Conjunctival microvascular permeability was determined in guinea pigs. Despite closely resembling U-46619 as a potent and selective TP receptor agonist, AGN 191976 was a potent ocular hypotensive in dogs and monkeys whereas U-46619 did not lower IOP in either species. The ocular hypotensive effect of AGN 191976 in dogs was attenuated by pretreatment with the TP receptor antagonist SQ 29548. Thus, the ocular hypotensive effects of AGN 191976 are consistent with TP receptor stimulation. Both TxA2-mimetics caused plasma leakage in the guinea pig conjunctiva. The disparate activities of U-46619 and AGN 191976 in our studies suggest the existence of heterogeneous populations of TP-receptors in the eye.

  2. Binding of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 agonists to human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Halushka, P. V.; Kochel, P. J.; Mais, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The competition of [125I]-9, 11 dimethylmethano-11, 12 methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13, 14-dihydro-13-aza 15 alpha beta-omega-tetranor-thromboxane A2 ([125I]-PTA-OH), a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist, with a series of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) mimetics for binding to the putative TXA2/PGH2 receptor in washed human platelets was studied. The rank order potency for the series of mimetics to compete with [125I]-PTA-OH for binding was compared with their rank order potency for induction of platelet aggregation. The rank order potency for the mimetics to compete with [125I]-PTA-OH for binding was ONO-11113 greater than SQ-26655 greater than U44069 greater than U46619 = 9, 11-azo PGH2 greater than MB28767. This rank order potency was highly correlated with their rank order potency for inducing platelet aggregation (r = 0.992). Changes in the intra or extracellular concentrations of Na+ did not have a significant effect on the competition between U46619 and [125I]-PTA-OH for binding to the putative receptor. In summary, it appears that these TXA2/PGH2 mimetics activate human platelets through the putative TXA2/PGH2 receptor. PMID:3594077

  3. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³⁷Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.

  4. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  5. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  6. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  7. Predictors of thromboxane levels in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes on chronic aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Giubilato, Simona; Leo, Andrea; Cosentino, Nicola; Fracassi, Francesco; Cataneo, Leonardo; Porto, Italo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Biasucci, Luigi Marzio; Narducci, Maria Lucia; Pulcinelli, Fabio Maria; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    High levels of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a key mediator of platelet activation and aggregation, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. We aimed at assessing the predictors of higher plasma levels of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in consecutive patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) on previous aspirin (ASA) treatment undergoing coronary angiography. Ninety-eight consecutive patients (age 61 ± 11, 75% males) with NSTE-ACS, on previous chronic ASA treatment, were prospectively enrolled in this study. Coronary disease extent was assessed by angiography according to the Bogaty score. In all patients, admission plasma levels of TxB2 (pg/ml) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients showing TxB2 levels in the fourth quartile were compared to patients showing TxB2 levels in the lower quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that platelet count (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.63, p=0.04), multivessel coronary disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-3.67, p=0.03), and coronary atherosclerosis extent index (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.45-6.79, p=0.001) were independent predictors of TxB2 level upper quartile. Of note, C-reactive protein serum levels were similar in patients with TxB2 levels in the upper quartile as compared to those in the lower quartiles (p=0.49). In conclusion, NSTE-ACS patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis may have incomplete suppression of TxA2 production despite chronic ASA therapy. This finding suggests that additional efforts should be made to lower TxA2 levels in patients with widespread coronary artery disease. PMID:22535468

  8. White blood cell count and incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in African-American and White men and women: atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Lee, C D; Folsom, A R; Nieto, F J; Chambless, L E; Shahar, E; Wolfe, D A

    2001-10-15

    The authors examined the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in 13,555 African-American and White men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Blood was drawn at the ARIC baseline examination, beginning in 1987-1989. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (through December 1996), there were 488 incident coronary heart disease events, 220 incident strokes, and 258 deaths from cardiovascular disease. After adjustment for age, sex, ARIC field center, and multiple risk factors, there was a direct association between WBC count and incidence of coronary heart disease (p < 0.001 for trend) and stroke (p for trend < 0.001) and mortality from cardiovascular disease (p for trend < 0.001) in African Americans. The African Americans in the highest quartile of WBC count (> or =7,000 cells/mm(3)) had 1.9 times the risk of incident coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 3.09), 1.9 times the risk of incident ischemic stroke (95% CI: 1.03, 3.34), and 2.3 times the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (95% CI: 1.38, 3.72) as their counterparts in the lowest quartile of WBC count (<4,800 cells/mm(3)). These associations were similar in Whites and in never smokers. An elevated WBC count is directly associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in African-American and White men and women.

  9. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    West, James D; Voss, Bryan M; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R; Carrier, Erica J

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling. PMID:27252848

  10. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Bryan M.; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R.; Carrier, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling. PMID:27252848

  11. Thromboxane prostanoid receptors enhance contractions, endothelin-1 and oxidative stress in microvessels from mice with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Luo, Zaiming; Kohan, Donald; Wellstein, Anton; Jose, Pedro A.; Welch, William J.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Wang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been related to angiotensin II (ANG II), endothelin-1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since activation of thromboxane prostanoid receptors (TP-Rs) can generate ROS which can generate ET-1, we tested the hypothesis that CKD induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 whose products activate TP-Rs to enhance ET-1 and ROS generation and contractions. Mesenteric resistance arterioles were isolated from C57/BL6, or TP-R +/+ and TP-R −/− mice 3 months after SHAM-operation (SHAM) or surgical reduced renal mass (RRM, n=6/group). Microvascular contractions were studied on a wire myograph. Cellular (ethidium: dihydroethidium) and mitochondrial (mitoSOX) ROS were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Mice with RRM had increased excretion of markers of oxidative stress, thromboxane, and microalbumin, increased plasma ET-1 and increased microvascular expression of p22phox, COX-2, TP-Rs, preproendothelin and endothelin-A receptors and increased arteriolar remodeling. They had increased contractions to U-46,619 (118±3 vs. 87±6, P<0.05) and ET-1 (108±5 vs. 89±4, P<0.05), which were dependent on cellular and mitochondrial ROS, COX-2, and TP-Rs. RRM doubled the ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS generation (P<0.05). TP-R −/− mice with RRM lacked these abnormal structural and functional microvascular responses and lacked the increased systemic and the increased microvascular oxidative stress and circulating ET-1. In conclusion, RRM leads to microvascular remodeling and enhanced ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS and contractions that are mediated by COX-2 products activating TP-Rs. Thus, TP-Rs can be upstream from enhanced ROS, ET-1, microvascular remodeling and contractility and may thereby coordinate vascular dysfunction in CKD. PMID:25733239

  12. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

  13. Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/μL overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Gomes, Luciano T; Ribatski-Silva, Daniele; Mendes, Clebson Rodrigues J; Leal-Santos, Fabio A; Simões, Luciano R; Mello, Marcia Beatriz C; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/μL and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/μL to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/μL, and 5,500 cells/μL in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/μL could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

  14. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  15. Effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor on feline infectious peritonitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Watari, T; Kaneshima, T; Tsujimoto, H; Ono, K; Hasegawa, A

    1998-05-01

    Two cats with abdominal effusion and anorexia were diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). We tried to evaluate the effect of thromboxane (Tx) synthetase inhibitor, ozagrel hydrochloride, on the progression of symptoms and clinicopathologic data characteristic to FIP. After administration of Tx synthetase inhibitor, improvement of appetite and activity, decreases of peritoneal effusion, reduction of leukocyte number to normal level, and improvement of hyper gamma-globulinemia were found in 2 cats with FIP. These findings suggest that the vasculitis in FIP can be successfully treated with Tx synthetase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation.

  16. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  17. Brain-Penetrant Tetrahydronaphthalene Thromboxane A2-Prostanoid (TP) Receptor Antagonists as Prototype Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark pathological feature of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is the presence of senile plaques, which comprise amyloid β (Aβ) peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The plaque-containing AD brain is thought to be under oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased lipid oxidation products that include isoprostane-F2αIII (iPF2αIII). IPF2αIII can bind to and activate the thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptor, and TP receptor activation causes increased Aβ production through enhancement of APP mRNA stability. Moreover, TP receptor antagonists have been shown to block iPF2αIII-induced increases of Aβ secretion. Thus, the TP receptor may be a potential drug target for AD therapy. However, here we show that existing TP receptor antagonists have poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, likely due to the presence of a carboxylic acid moiety that is believed to be important for receptor interaction, but which may hamper passive diffusion across the BBB. We now report selected analogues of a known tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonist, wherein the carboxylic acid moiety has been replaced by heterocyclic bioisosteres. These heterocyclic analogues retained relatively high affinity for the mouse and human TP receptors, and, unlike the parent carboxylic acid compound, several examples freely diffused across the BBB into the brain upon administration to mice. These results reveal that brain-penetrant tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonists can be developed by substituting the carboxylic acid moiety with a suitable nonacidic bioisostere. Compounds of this type hold promise as potential lead structures to develop drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23173073

  18. Statin therapy and thromboxane generation in patients with coronary artery disease treated with high-dose aspirin.

    PubMed

    Bliden, K P; Singla, A; Gesheff, M G; Toth, P P; Tabrizchi, A; Ens, G; Guyer, K; Singh, M; Franzese, C J; Stapleton, D; Tantry, U S; Gurbel, P A

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin and statin therapy are mainstay treatments in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The relation between statin therapy, in vivo thromboxane (Tx) generation; a marker of inflammation, and blood thrombogenicity has never been explored. Urinary 11-dehydro (dh) TxB2 was determined in patients with suspected CAD on 325 mg daily aspirin therapy prior to undergoing cardiac catheterisation (n=281). Thrombogenicity was estimated by thrombelastographic measurement of thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (TIP-FCS) and lipids/lipoproteins were determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation/ELISA. The influence of statin therapy and dose was analysed by the atorvastatin equivalent dose (5-10 mg, 20-40 mg, or 80 mg daily). Statin therapy (n=186) was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in urinary 11-dh TxB2 (p=0.046) that was independent of LDL and apo B100 levels but was strongly related to TIP-FCS (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis, no statin therapy (n=95) and female gender were independently associated with high urinary 11-dh TxB2 [OR=2.95 (0.1.57-5.50, p=0.0007); OR=2.25 (1.24-4.05, p=0.007)], respectively. In aspirin-treated patients, statin therapy was independently and inversely associated with inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Elevated 11-dh TxB2 was associated with a prothrombotic state indicated by high TIP-FCS. Our data suggest that measurement of urinary 11-dTxB2 may be a useful method to optimise statin dosing in order to reduce thrombotic risk. PMID:24763965

  19. The association of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity, peak expiratory flow parameters, and blood eosinophil counts in exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Fulya; Gungor, Hatice Eke

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise, is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the most commonly used spirometric test in the diagnosis of EIB in exercise challenge in asthma. Other parameters such as forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50%) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) are used less often in the diagnosis of EIB. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of FEV1 and FEF50%, PEF parameters, blood eosinophil counts in EIB in children with mild asthma. Methods Sixty-seven children (male: 39, female: 28) with mild asthma were included in this study. Pulmonary functions were assessed before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after exercise. The values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, PEF, and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in EIB in children with mild asthma. Results There was a positive correlation between FEV1 with FEF50% and PEF values (p<0.05; FEF50%, r=0.68; PEF, r=0.65). Also, a positive correlation was found between blood eosinophil counts and the values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, and PEF (p<0.05; FEV1, r=0.54; FEF50%, r=0.42; PEF, r=0.26). In addition to these correlations, in the exercise negative group for FEV1, the FEF50% and PEF values decreased more than the cutoff values in 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Conclusion According to the presented study, eosinophil may play a major role in the severity of EIB in mild asthma. FEF50% and PEF values can decrease in response to exercise without changes in FEV1 in mild asthmatic patients. PMID:25938074

  20. Effects of tetrandrine and fangchinoline on human platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Zhang, Y H; Fang, L H; Yun, Y P; Lee, H K

    1999-08-01

    Tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN) are two major components of the radix of Stephania tetrandra. The effects of TET and FAN on human platelet aggregation and formation of thromboxane (TX) B2, a stable metabolite of TXA2, were examined in the aspect of platelet aggregation. TET and FAN inhibited platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced human platelet aggregation. IC50 values for TET and FAN were 28.6+/-3.24 microM and 21.7+/-2.61 microM, respectively. In the PAF-receptor binding assay, neither TET nor FAN showed any inhibitory effects on the specific bindings of PAF to its receptor. TET and FAN also inhibited PAF-, thrombin- and arachidonic acid-induced thromboxane B2 formation in human washed platelet. These results indicate that TET and FAN inhibit the platelet aggregation by interfering with the intracellular messengers system, but not by inhibiting the binding of PAF to PAF-receptor on the platelet membrane directly, and the suppression of TXA2 formation by TET and FAN may be responsible for their inhibitory activities on the platelet aggregation and further on the thrombosis. PMID:10433485

  1. Thromboxane A{sub 2} increases endothelial permeability through upregulation of interleukin-8

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Su-Ryun; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Koanhoi; Park, Shi-Young; Jang, Hye-Ock; Yun, Il; Kim, Yung-Jin; Yoo, Mi-Ae; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2010-07-02

    Thromboxane A{sub 2} (TXA{sub 2}), a major prostanoid formed from prostaglandin H{sub 2} by thromboxane synthase, is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of vascular diseases. In this study, we report that TXA{sub 2} mimetic U46619 significantly increases the endothelial permeability both in vitro and in vivo. U46619 enhanced the expression and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major inducer of vascular permeability, in endothelial cells. Promoter analysis showed that the U46619-induced expression of IL-8 was mainly regulated by nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). U46619 induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B through I{kappa}B kinase (IKK) activation, I{kappa}B phosphorylation and NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation. Furthermore, the inhibition of IL-8 or blockade of the IL-8 receptor attenuated the U46619-induced endothelial cell permeability by modulating the cell-cell junctions. Overall, these results suggest that U46619 promotes vascular permeability through the production of IL-8 via NF-{kappa}B activation in endothelial cells.

  2. Tritium labeled amino acid conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes as labeled ligands in prostanoid radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Sautebin, L.; Kindahl, H.; Kumlin, M.; Granstroem, E.

    1985-09-01

    Conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with tritium labeled amino acids were prepared and employed as labeled ligands in prostaglandin and thromboxane radioimmunoassays. Assays for PGF2 alpha, 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 were evaluated in comparative studies using either these heterologous ligands or the corresponding homologous tritiated eicosanoid as tracers. Binding properties for the respective antibodies were found to be similar using either tracer. Three biological studies were also conducted, viz. study of the release of TXB2 during collagen induced platelet aggregation, of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 during guinea pig pulmonary anaphylaxis, and of PGF2 alpha during bovine luteolysis. The analyses gave comparable results using either the heterologous or the homologous assay. Thus, this type of labeled prostanoid conjugates may serve as a convenient alternative to homologous tracers in radioimmunoassay. Heterologous tracers may even in certain cases provide the only simple solution to the problem of preparing a labeled ligand of high specific activity.

  3. Ethanol increase PGE and thromboxane production in mouse pregnant uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, R.F.; Becker, H.C.; Randall, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The teratogenic effect of ethanol in the C57BL/6J mouse can be attenuated by pretreatment with aspirin (ASA). One prominent effect of ASA is to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE) and thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}) production. We examined the effect in vivo ethanol exposure on PGE and TXB{sub 2} production in a uterine-embryo tissue sample of C57BL/6J mice either before or after in vivo ASA pretreatment on day 10 of gestation. Ethanol increase both PGE and TXB{sub 2} production by approximately 20%. ASA caused a marked reduction of PGE and TXB{sub 2} in both control and ethanol groups by approximately 80-90%. The mouse strain, gestation time, and study parameters used in this study were the same as in the previously reported ASA attenuation of the teratogenic effect of ethanol. Therefore, the present data add additional support to the hypothesis that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production may be involved in at least some aspects of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  4. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induction of the prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 gene causes thromboxane-dependent pulmonary hypertension in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Delong, P; O'Sullivan, M G; Huggins, E; Hubbard, C L; McCall, C

    1999-03-01

    Two genes encode proteins with prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS) activity. PGHS-1 is primarily a constitutively expressed gene, whereas inflammatory agents such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin rapidly induce the PGHS-2 gene in leukocytes. Both PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 are rate-limiting enzymes for the production of prostaglandins and thromboxane following release of arachidonic acid by phospholipases. We previously reported that LPS perfusion into the circulation of isolated perfused rabbit lung (IPL) results in thromboxane-dependent pulmonary hypertension and lung edema when the LPS-primed lung is subsequently stimulated with platelet activating factor (PAF) (J. Clin. Invest. 1990;85:1135). In this study, we showed that the mechanism by which LPS primes IPL for enhanced production of thromboxane and pulmonary hypertension in response to PAF depends on specific upregulation of the PGHS-2 gene in the rabbit lung. LPS perfusion of IPL induced PGHS-2 gene expression, which correlated with the conversion of free arachidonic acid to thromboxane-B2 (TXB2) and the onset of pulmonary hypertension. LPS-induced PGHS-2 expression, TXB2 release, and pulmonary hypertension were inhibited by actinomycin D (an inhibitor of transcription) and cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis). The constitutively expressed PGHS-1 remained unchanged with LPS perfusion, and did not convert free arachidonic acid to TXB2, suggesting that PGHS-1 does not contribute to the induction of pulmonary hypertension by LPS. These studies reveal a pathogenic role for induction of PGHS-2 in lung injury.

  5. Influence of Thromboxane A2 on the Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Seok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Kim, Sang Hyung; Na, Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A2 on the regulation of KATP channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. Subjects and Methods Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at −60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. Results In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619, decreased the KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced KATP channel activity. Conclusion Thromboxane A2 may inhibit KATP channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:27482267

  6. Differential light scattering cuvettes for the measurement of thromboemboli in high shear blood flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, L.O.; Solen, K.A.; Mohammad, S.F.; Pantalos, G.M.; Kim, J. )

    1990-07-01

    Newly developed optical scattering cuvettes were constructed as a modification of our existing 1.0 mm and 3.0 mm internal diameter (ID) cuvettes to facilitate the measurement of platelet microemboli ranging from 20 microns to 1,000 microns diameter in whole blood in 0.9 mm ID flows ranging from 250 to 4,000 ml/min. A perturbation solution to the one-speed radiative transport equation was used in the design and calibration of these cuvettes. A series of tests were performed with these cuvettes in an extracorporeal left ventricular assist device bovine model, and in a recirculating closed-loop flow system containing anticoagulated whole baboon blood, to determine to what extent they affect platelet and erythrocyte function ex vivo and in vitro. Serial hemolysis tests, thromboxane radioimmunoassay measurements, platelet counts, and activated partial thromboplastin times were measured. All of these tests with cuvettes in the extracorporeal and in vitro circuits were statistically indistinguishable from baseline measurements, suggesting the usefulness of this system for the measurement of microemboli in blood-contacting materials of extracorporeal circuits and cardiac assist devices.

  7. Excretion of metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane by rats with nephrotoxic nephritis: effects of interleukin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. S.; Fuller, R. W.; Ritter, J. M.; Cashman, S. J.; Rees, A. J.; Dollery, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. To obtain direct evidence of abnormal eicosanoid biosynthesis in rats injected with anti-glomerular-basement-membrane antibodies (a-GBM), products derived from thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) were measured in 24 h urine collections before and after a-GBM. 2. Administration of a-GBM (9.5 mg) caused albuminuria, decreased creatinine clearance, increased numbers of intra-glomerular neutrophils and increased excretion of TXB2, 2,3-dinor-TXB2 (products of TXA2) and 6-oxo-PGF 1 alpha and 2,3-dinor-6-oxo-PGF 1 alpha (products of PGI2) at 24 h. 3. Interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta; 5 micrograms) alone caused an increase in PGI2 metabolite excretion but had no effect on TXA2 metabolites. It had no effect on creatinine clearance but increased numbers of glomerular neutrophils by approximately 4-5 fold compared to a-GBM. 4. Pretreatment of rats with IL-1 beta before a-GBM synergistically increased albumin excretion but only additively increased eicosanoid excretion. Numbers of intra-glomerular neutrophils and creatinine clearance were unchanged compared to IL-1 beta alone. 5. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen (10 mgkg-1 i.p., twice daily for 4 days) inhibited both serum TXB2 production and urinary prostaglandin excretion. It also caused an almost complete attenuation of albumin excretion. Creatinine clearance and glomerular neutrophils remained unchanged after a-GBM/IL-1 beta. 6. We conclude that the 50% inhibition of thromboxane production induced by ibuprofen does not modify the fall in creatinine clearance of accumulation of neutrophils in the glomerulus caused by the a-GBM. This degree of inhibition of eicosanoid production was associated with a striking decrease in proteinuria, but this may reflect a haemodynamic rather than a disease modifying action. PMID:1933130

  8. Inverse agonism of SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban on Thromboxane A2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Hwa, John; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show some level of basal activity even in the absence of an agonist, a phenomenon referred to as constitutive activity. Such constitutive activity in GPCRs is known to have important pathophysiological roles in human disease. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) is a GPCR that promotes thrombosis in response to binding of the prostanoid, thromboxane A2. TP dysfunction is widely implicated in pathophysiological conditions such as bleeding disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported the characterization of a few constitutively active mutants (CAMs) in TP, including a genetic variant A160T. Using these CAMs as reporters, we now test the inverse agonist properties of known antagonists of TP, SQ 29,548, Ramatroban, L-670596 and Diclofenac, in HEK293T cells. Interestingly, SQ 29,548 reduced the basal activity of both, WT-TP and the CAMs while Ramatroban was able to reduce the basal activity of only the CAMs. Diclofenac and L-670596 showed no statistically significant reduction in basal activity of WT-TP or CAMs. To investigate the role of these compounds on human platelet function, we tested their effects on human megakaryocyte based system for platelet activation. Both SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban reduced the platelet hyperactivity of the A160T genetic variant. Taken together, our results suggest that SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban are inverse agonists for TP, whereas, L-670596 and Diclofenac are neutral antagonists. Our findings have important therapeutic applications in the treatment of TP mediated pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24465800

  9. Rat kidney thromboxane receptor: molecular cloning, signal transduction, and intrarenal expression localization.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, T; Takeuchi, K; Takahashi, N; Tsutsumi, E; Taniyama, Y; Abe, K

    1995-01-01

    Thromboxane (TX) plays important roles in control of renal hemodynamics and water and electrolyte metabolism, and is involved in the pathophysiology of many renal diseases. The aim of the present study is to isolate a rat kidney cDNA encoding functional TX receptor, and to reveal its intrarenal expression localization. A clone (rTXR2) was isolated from a rat kidney cDNA library by a homology screening approach. rTXR2 was shown to encode the amino acid sequence containing seven transmembrane spanning domains representing rat (r) TX receptor. The membrane from COS-7 cells transiently transfected with rTXR2 cDNA was shown to be specifically bound by a thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ29548. Either in Xenopus oocyte expression or in transfected COS-7 cells, rTX receptor was shown to be linked with Ca2+ messenger system. TX receptor-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was also observed in cultured glomerular mesangial cells. In situ hybridization showed that rTX receptor mRNA was detected in renal glomeruli, smooth muscle cells in renal arterioles, and transitional cell epithelium of renal pelvis. Reverse transcription linked to PCR applied to microdissected nephron segments indicated the presence of rTX receptor mRNA exclusively in the glomerulus. In conclusion, we have cloned a functional rat kidney TX receptor, which is expressed specifically in renal glomerulus, arterial smooth muscle cells, and transitional cell epithelium of renal pelvis. The present study will provide important insights into the etiology and pathophysiology of renal diseases with relation to TX metabolism. Images PMID:7635958

  10. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  15. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response. A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6–115). Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABLIS value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABLIS > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABLIS at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to

  16. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  17. Use of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to distinguish between lower limb erysipelas and deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rast, Anna C; Knobel, Demian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Laukemann, Svenja; Steiner, Deborah; Haubitz, Sebastian; Fux, Christoph A; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Early differentiation of erysipelas from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is challenging. There is a lack of data regarding the usefulness of the inflammatory biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count in the diagnosis of localized cutaneous infections. Herein, we investigated the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in a prospective at-risk patient population. This is an observational quality control study including consecutive patients presenting with a final diagnosis of either erysipelas or DVT. The association of PCT (μg/L) and CRP (mg/L) levels and WBC counts (g/L) with the primary outcome was assessed using logistic regression models with area under the receiver-operator curve. Forty-eight patients (erysipelas, n = 31; DVT, n = 17) were included. Compared with patients with DVT, those with erysipelas had significantly higher PCT concentrations. No significant differences in CRP concentrations and WBC counts were found between the two groups. At a PCT threshold of 0.1 μg/L or more, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) for erysipelas were 82.4% and 85.7%, respectively, and increased to 100% and 100% at a threshold of more than 0.25 μg/L. Levels of PCT also correlated with the severity of erysipelas, with a stepwise increase according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We found a high discriminatory value of PCT for differentiation between erysipelas and DVT, in contrast to other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. Whether the use of PCT levels for early differentiation of erysipelas from DVT reduces unnecessary antibiotic exposure needs to be assessed in an interventional trial.

  18. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and reduced formation of thromboxane and lipoxygenase products in platelets by oil of cloves.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Justesen, U

    1987-09-01

    Oil of cloves (OC) was found to be a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and epinephrine; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by OC seems to be mediated through a reduced formation of thromboxane as indicated by the following experimental evidence. (i) OC inhibited TxB2 formation in intact as well as lysed platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it inhibited the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after activation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187. The formation of lipoxygenase derived products was dependent on the concentration of OC used; at its lower concentration their amounts increased but this was found to be reversed at higher concentrations. At all concentrations thromboxane was decreased with a concomitant increase in unused AA. PMID:3118394

  19. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  20. [ROLE OF THROMBOXANE AND LEUKOTRIENES IN MECHANISMS OF CONTRACTILE REACTIONS OF PORTAL VEIN, INDUCED BY ACETYLCHLINE AND PHENYLEPHRINE].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, O O; Yanchuk, P I; Pasichnichenko, O M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of picotamide and zileuton on tonic contractile activity of the rat portal vein preparations, induced by acetylcholine (2.10(-5) mol/1) and phenylephrine (5.10(-7) mol/1) were investigated. Conversion of arachidonic acid products (prostaglandins, leukotrienes) synthesized by endothelial cells, plays an important role in the local regulation of vascular tone. The compounds formed in a cascade of enzymatic transformations can modulate the effect of other vasoactive factors. Picotamide (6,5.10(-5) mol/1) - thromboxane receptor and thromboxane -synthase blocker - depress acetylcholine-induction tonic contraction of isolated segments of portal vein with intact endothelium by 29% and norepinephrine-induction reduction of 45% relative to the control values. The obtained results indicate a participation of thromboxane and/or endoperoxide H2 in this reaction. Partial inhibition of the contractions by 5-lipoxygenase blocker zileuton(4,2.10(-5) mol/1) at 23% relative to control values suggests, that products of lipoxigenase pathways of arachidonic acid conversion are involved in mechanisms of specified reactions. These data indicate complex mechanisms of regulation of vascular tone of the portal vein, which play an important role eicosanoids. Further study of these mechanisms is necessary for the formation of basic knowledge, as well as to elucidate the mechanisms of occurrence and development of pathological conditions of vessels and the development of methods of their correction.

  1. Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein-1 (HS1) regulates PAR-mediated ERK activation and thromboxane generation in platelets.

    PubMed

    Kahner, Bryan N; Dorsam, Robert T; Kim, Soochong; Shankar, Haripriya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2008-12-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein-1 (HS1), a 75 kDa adapter protein expressed exclusively in cells of hematopoietic lineage. We have shown HS1 to be a functionally important signaling molecule downstream of PAR-4 and GPVI collagen receptor. We have thus begun to elucidate PAR signaling pathway of HS1 phosphorylation, and its functional implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 activating peptides (SFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) induced HS1 phosphorylation in a Gq-dependent manner as shown by incubation with the Gq inhibitor, YM254890. Consistently, HS1 phosphorylation was abolished in platelets from Gq deficient mice upon AYPGKF stimulation. Treatment with ADP receptor antagonists did not affect HS1 phosphorylation. Pretreatment of platelets with Src kinase inhibitors abolished HS1 phosphorylation. Further Syk activation, as measured by tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk (residues 525/526), in response to PAR activation was abolished in the presence of Src inhibitors. HS1 null mice show inhibition of PAR-mediated thromboxane A2 generation compared to wild type littermates. Phosphorylation of Erk, a key signaling molecule in thromboxane generation, was also diminished in HS1 null mice platelets. Based on these findings, we conclude that tyrosine phosphorylation of HS1 occurs downstream of both PAR-1 and PAR-4. HS1 phosphorylation is a Gq mediated response regulated by Src kinases. Thus, HS1 may mediate PAR-induced thromboxane generation through regulation of Erk phosphorylation. PMID:19012179

  2. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

  3. Estimated rate of thromboxane secretion into the circulation of normal humans.

    PubMed Central

    Patrono, C; Ciabattoni, G; Pugliese, F; Pierucci, A; Blair, I A; FitzGerald, G A

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the excretion of a major urinary metabolite of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), i.e., 2,3-dinor-TxB2, during the infusion of exogenous TxB2 over a 50-fold dose range to enable estimation of the rate entry of endogenous TxB2 into the bloodstream. Four healthy male volunteers received 6-h i.v. infusions of venhicle alone and TxB2 at 0.1, 1.0, and 5.0 ng/kg X min in random order. They were pretreated with aspirin at a dose of 325 mg/d in order to suppress endogenous TxB2 production. Urinary 2,3-dinor-TxB2 was measured before, during, and up to 24 h after the infusions and in aspirin-free periods, by means of radioimmunoassay. The nature of the extracted immunoreactivity was characterized by thin-layer chromatography and confirmed by negative ion-chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aspirin treatment suppressed urinary 2,3-dinor-TxB2 excretion by 80%. The fractional elimination of 2,3-dinor-TxB2 was independent of the rate of TxB2 infusion and averaged 5.3 +/- 0.8%. Interpolation of metabolite values obtained in aspirin-free periods onto the linear relationship between the quantities of infused TxB2 and the amount of metabolite excreted in excess of control values (y = 0.0066x, r = 0.975, P less than 0.001) permitted calculation of the mean rate of entry of endogenous TxB2 into the circulation as 0.11 ng/kg X min. The rate of disappearance of immunoreactive TxB2 from the circulation was monoexponential over the first 10 min with an apparent half-life of 7 min. This corresponded to a maximal estimate of the plasma concentration of endogenous TxB2 of 2.0 pg/ml. These results suggest that ex vivo platelet activation and/or analytical problems confound estimates of endogenous thromboxane release based on plasma TxB2 and provide a rationale for seeking longer-lived enzymatic metabolites of TxB2 in plasma. PMID:3944270

  4. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  5. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  6. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  7. Regulation of cytoplasmic calcium: interactions between prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, zinc, copper and taurine.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, D F; Manku, M S; Cunnane, S; Karmazyn, M; Morgan, R O; Ally, A I; Karmall, R A

    1978-02-01

    The regulation of cytoplasmic calcium is a key process in nerve tissue. Using a smooth muscle model we have shown that prostaglandin (PG) E2 probably regulates entry from extracellular fluid, whereas the release from intracellular stores depends on the interplay between thromboxane (TX) A2, PGEI and prostacyclin. Hormones and other agents interact with this system in the following ways: vasopressin, angiotensin and inositol mobilize arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and increase synthesis of PGE2 and TXA2, cortisol blocks this action. Prolactin and zinc mobilize dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and increase synthesis of PGEI. These effects can be blocked by cortisol, lithium and taurine, three agents which on their own have no effect on basal PG production. Epileptogenic agents like penicillin and picrotoxin also stimulate PG synthesis, while diphenylhydantoin is a PG antagonist and diazepam is a TXA2 antagonist. The effects of all these agents occur at concentrations which are physiological in the case of the natural ones, and readily attained in human plasma in the case of the drgus. In view of recent evidence that calcium may be important in demyelination and considering the established role it plays in nerve conduction and synaptic transmission, we suggest that these observations may be of significance in understanding Friedreich's ataxia.

  8. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2010-12-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-{kappa}B activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-{kappa}B in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-{kappa}B by reducing phosphorylated I{kappa}B{alpha} (p-I{kappa}B{alpha}) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-{kappa}B. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  9. Thromboxane A2 exacerbates acute lung injury via promoting edema formation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koji; Horikami, Daiki; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Yamazaki, Arisa; Maeda, Shingo; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in the lungs of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI). We assessed its contribution in disease progression using three different ALI mouse models. The administration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or oleic acid (OA)+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused tissue edema and neutrophil infiltration with TXA2 production in the lungs of the experimental mice. The administration of LPS induced only neutrophil accumulation without TXA2 production. Pretreatment with T prostanoid receptor (TP) antagonist attenuated the tissue edema but not neutrophil infiltration in these models. Intravital imaging and immunostaining demonstrated that administration of TP agonist caused vascular hyper-permeability by disrupting the endothelial barrier formation in the mouse ear. In vitro experiments showed that TP-stimulation disrupted the endothelial adherens junction, and it was inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockade or Rho kinase inhibition. Thus endogenous TXA2 exacerbates ALI, and its blockade attenuates it by modulating the extent of lung edema. This can be explained by the endothelial hyper-permeability caused by the activation of TXA2-TP axis, via Ca(2+)- and Rho kinase-dependent signaling. PMID:27562142

  10. Application of lipid microspheres to prepare a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist aerosol for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, M; Nakagawa, T; Igarashi, R; Mizushima, Y

    1993-01-01

    The methyl ester of a new thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, (+)S-145, i.e. (1R,2S,3S,4S)-(5Z)-7-(3-phenyl-sulfonyl-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]he pt-2-yl)heptenoic acid, was incorporated into lipid microspheres (lipo S-145-Me) and its pharmacological effect and tissue distribution were examined in guinea pigs following aerosol delivery. Bronchoconstrictive responses induced by intravenous injection of U46619 or the inhalation of ovalbumin were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by aerosol inhalation of lipo S-145-Me, which was 3-10 times more potent that the unencapsulated calcium dihydrate of the original drug (S-1452). There was no significant difference in the airway tissue distribution of labelled lipo S-145-Me versus S-1452 after 2 or 5 min of inhalation, but the encapsulated drug showed marked accumulation in the lungs after 30 min of inhalation. The in vitro uptake of lipo [14C] S-145-Me by fresh human neutrophils and an eosinophil cell line was respectively 7 times and 3.5 times higher than that of [14C] S-1452. These results suggest that lipo S-145-Me has the potential to be used as an inhalational antiasthma agent, and that its effect may be partly attributable to a for inflammatory cells which are responsible for allergic airway inflammation.

  11. Brain Changes Associated with Thromboxane Receptor Antagonist, SQ 29,548, Treatment in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Rebel, Andrew A.; Urquhart, Siri A.; Puig, Kendra L.; Ghatak, Atreyi; Brose, Stephen A.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize behavioral and physiological effects of a selective thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, SQ 29,548, in the C57BL/6 mouse model. At six months of age, male mice were given either sham or drug intraperitoneal injections for three days at a dose of 2mg/kg each day. On the day after the final injection mice were subjected to behavioral testing paradigms before brain collection. Left hemisphere hippocampi were collected from all mice for protein analysis via western blot. Right brain hemispheres were fixed and imbedded in gelatin, and serially sectioned. The sections were immunostained using anti-c-Fos antibodies. Prostaglandin analysis was performed from remaining homogenized brain samples, minus the hippocampi. Injection of SQ 29,548 decreased selective brain prostaglandin levels compared to sham controls. This correlated with robust increases in limbic region c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SQ 29,548 injected mice. However, drug treated mice demonstrated no significant changes in relevant hippocampal protein levels compared to sham treatments, as determined by western blots. Surprisingly, injection of SQ 29,548 caused mixed changes in parameters of depression and anxiety-like behavior in the mice. In conclusion, the results indicate that administration of peripheral TP receptor antagonists alters brain levels of prostanoids and influences neuronal activity with only minimal alterations of behavior. Whether the drug affects neurons directly or through a secondary pathway involving endothelium or other tissues remains unclear. PMID:25703023

  12. Glucose and collagen regulate human platelet activity through aldose reductase induction of thromboxane.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wai Ho; Stitham, Jeremiah; Gleim, Scott; Di Febbo, Concetta; Porreca, Ettore; Fava, Cristiano; Tacconelli, Stefania; Capone, Marta; Evangelista, Virgilio; Levantesi, Giacomo; Wen, Li; Martin, Kathleen; Minuz, Pietro; Rade, Jeffrey; Patrignani, Paola; Hwa, John

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which leads to increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. This is coupled with enhanced levels of thromboxane (TX), an eicosanoid that facilitates platelet aggregation. Although intensely studied, the mechanism underlying the relationship among hyperglycemia, TX generation, and platelet hyperactivity remains unclear. We sought to identify key signaling components that connect high levels of glucose to TX generation and to examine their clinical relevance. In human platelets, aldose reductase synergistically modulated platelet response to both hyperglycemia and collagen exposure through a pathway involving ROS/PLCγ2/PKC/p38α MAPK. In clinical patients with platelet activation (deep vein thrombosis; saphenous vein graft occlusion after coronary bypass surgery), and particularly those with diabetes, urinary levels of a major enzymatic metabolite of TX (11-dehydro-TXB2 [TX-M]) were substantially increased. Elevated TX-M persisted in diabetic patients taking low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), suggesting that such patients may have underlying endothelial damage, collagen exposure, and thrombovascular disease. Thus, our study has identified multiple potential signaling targets for designing combination chemotherapies that could inhibit the synergistic activation of platelets by hyperglycemia and collagen exposure. PMID:22005299

  13. Thromboxane A2 exacerbates acute lung injury via promoting edema formation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koji; Horikami, Daiki; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Yamazaki, Arisa; Maeda, Shingo; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in the lungs of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI). We assessed its contribution in disease progression using three different ALI mouse models. The administration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or oleic acid (OA)+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused tissue edema and neutrophil infiltration with TXA2 production in the lungs of the experimental mice. The administration of LPS induced only neutrophil accumulation without TXA2 production. Pretreatment with T prostanoid receptor (TP) antagonist attenuated the tissue edema but not neutrophil infiltration in these models. Intravital imaging and immunostaining demonstrated that administration of TP agonist caused vascular hyper-permeability by disrupting the endothelial barrier formation in the mouse ear. In vitro experiments showed that TP-stimulation disrupted the endothelial adherens junction, and it was inhibited by Ca2+ channel blockade or Rho kinase inhibition. Thus endogenous TXA2 exacerbates ALI, and its blockade attenuates it by modulating the extent of lung edema. This can be explained by the endothelial hyper-permeability caused by the activation of TXA2-TP axis, via Ca2+- and Rho kinase-dependent signaling. PMID:27562142

  14. Reticulocyte counting using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nobes, P R; Carter, A B

    1990-08-01

    A flow cytometric method for the quantitation of reticulocytes was refined for routine laboratory use. Blood (2 microliters) is added to 2 ml of 0.4 microM thiazole orange in phosphate buffered saline, incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes, and analysed on a Coulter EPICS Profile flow cytometer, with gating for red cells on the basis of forward and right angled light scatter. Blood (2 microliters) is also incubated with phosphate buffered saline alone as an unstained control. The adult reference range (mean +/- 2 SD), established from 30 laboratory personnel, is 19.4-59.2 x 10(9)/l (0.2-1.6%). Comparison of this technique was made on 39 selected patient samples with visual counting of cells stained with brilliant cresyl blue. The correlation between the two methods was 0.99 with slope 0.96 and intercept 0.02. The precision of the automated technique in three subjects with reticulocyte counts of 0.12%, 1.84%, and 14.3% was 33.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4%, respectively (coefficient of variations). In three patients studied serially after intensive chemotherapy, in whom the reticulocyte count quantitated by routine visual methods approached zero (0-0.1%) for eight to 18 days, the automated counts varied between 0 and 0.5%. Flow cytometric reticulocyte counting is thus a simple and highly reliable methodology for the quantitation of normal and raised reticulocyte counts but cannot be reliably used to quantitate a subnormal level.

  15. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  16. Comparative effects of immediate-release and extended-release aspirin on basal and bradykinin-stimulated excretion of thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Jorge L; Devin, Jessica K; Ramirez, Claudia E; Yu, Chang; Nian, Hui; Lee, Rhonda H; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-04-01

    A goal of aspirin therapy is to inhibit thromboxane production and platelet aggregation without inhibiting endothelial production of the vasodilator and anti-thrombotic prostacyclin. This study tested the hypothesis that extended-release aspirin (NHP-554C) would have increased selectivity for inhibition of basal and simulated thromboxane formation compared to immediate-release aspirin (ASA). Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomized to NHP-554C or ASA groups. Within each group, subjects were randomized to 5-day treatment with 81 mg/d, 162.5 mg/d and placebo in a crossover design in which treatment periods were separated by 2-week washout. On the fifth day of treatment, 81 mg/d and 162.5 mg/d ASA reduced basal urinary excretion of the stable thromboxane metabolite 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 62.3% and 66.2% and basal excretion of the stable prostacyclin metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α 22.8% and 26.5%, respectively, compared to placebo. NHP-554C 81 mg/d and 162.5 mg/d reduced 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 53% (P = 0.03 vs. ASA 81 mg/d) and 67.9% and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α 13.4% and 18.5%, respectively. NHP-554C 81 mg/d did not significantly reduce basal excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite. Both doses of ASA and NHP significantly reduced excretion of both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites following intravenous bradykinin. During NHP-554C 162.5 mg/d, but not during ASA, bradykinin significantly increased urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α. Nevertheless, 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α responses to bradykinin were statistically similar during ASA and NHP-554C. In conclusion, at doses of 81 and 162.5 mg/d immediate- and extended-release aspirin selectively decrease basal thromboxane production. Both forms of aspirin decrease bradykinin-stimulated thromboxane and prostacyclin production, but some stimulated prostacyclin production remains during treatment with NHP-554C. PMID:27069632

  17. Higher Early Monocyte and Total Lymphocyte Counts Are Associated with Better Overall Survival after Standard Total Body Irradiation, Cyclophosphamide, and Fludarabine Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Peterlin, Pierre; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Duquesne, Alix; Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Campion, Loïc; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    This single-center retrospective study aimed to report the impact of early hematopoietic and immune recoveries after a standard total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (TCF) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen for double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in adults. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients older than 17 years who engrafted after a dUCB TCF allo-SCT performed between January 2006 and April 2013 in our department. Median times for neutrophil and platelet recoveries were 17 (range, 6 to 59) and 37 days (range, 0 to 164), respectively. The 3-year overall (OS) and disease-free survivals, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 65.7%, 57.2%, 27.1%, and 19%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher day +30 monocyte (≥615/mm(3); hazard ratio [HR], .04; 95% confidence interval [CI], .004 to .36; P < .01) and day +42 lymphocyte (≥395/mm(3); HR, .16; 95% CI, .03 to .78; P = .02) counts were independently associated with better OS. These results suggest that early higher hematopoietic and immune recovery is predictive of survival after dUCB TCF RIC allo-SCT in adults. Factors other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which was used in all cases, favoring expansion of monocytes or lymphocytes, should be tested in the future as part of the UCB transplantation procedure. PMID:27118570

  18. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  19. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  20. Involvement of Rac in thromboxane A2‑induced human platelet activation: regulation of sCD40 ligand release and PDGF‑AB secretion.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yasunari; Doi, Tomoaki; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Iida, Yuko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Kondo, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Mizutani, Jun; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Iida, Hiroki; Kozawa, Osamu; Ogura, Shinji

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that glycoprotein Ib/IX/V activation stimulates the release of the soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) via the generation of thromboxane A2 from human platelets. In the present study, the role of Rac, which is a member of the Rho family, was investigated in the thromboxane A2‑stimulated release of platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF)‑AB and sCD40L in human platelets. U46619, a thromboxane receptor agonist, stimulated the activation of Rac time‑dependently in human platelets, and NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of the Rac‑guanine nucleotide exchange factor interaction, reduced the U46619‑induced platelet aggregation. NSC23766 markedly suppressed the U46619‑induced p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation. The thromboxane A2‑induced release of PDGF‑AB and sCD40L was significantly suppressed by NSC23766 in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, NSC23766 reduced the sCD40L release stimulated by ristocetin, a glycoprotein Ib/IX/V activator. These results indicate that Rac regulates the thromboxane A2‑induced stimulation of PDGF‑AB secretion and sCD40L release via the p38 MAP kinase in human platelets.

  1. Augmented contraction of the human isolated coronary artery by sumatriptan: a possible role for endogenous thromboxane.

    PubMed Central

    Maassen VanDenBrink, A.; Bax, W. A.; Ferrari, M. D.; Zijlstra, F. J.; Bos, E.; Saxena, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antimigraine drug, sumatriptan, contracts the human coronary artery and, in some patients, elicits chest symptoms (e.g. pressure and pain), particularly after subcutaneous administration. We studied the effects of the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) analogue, U46619 and endothelin-1 on contractile responses to sumatriptan in the human isolated coronary artery as well as the role of endogenously produced TxA2 and endothelin-1 in contractions evoked by sumatriptan. 2. In the presence of U46619 (1 and 3 nM), mean concentration-response curves to sumatriptan in the human coronary artery were shifted vertically due to the initial contraction by U46619, but when this initial contraction was subtracted from the response to sumatriptan, no significant augmentation was observed. However, analysis of the degree of augmentation in individual arterial segments revealed that the augmentation was variable and related inversely to the Emax of sumatriptan in the absence of U46619 (r = 0.78 and 0.81 for 1 and 3 nM, respectively; P < 0.05). 3. Treatment with the TxA2 receptor antagonist, SQ30741 (100 nM), or incubation of vessel segments with aspirin (10 microM), significantly reduced responses to sumatriptan; in aspirin-treated vessel segments, SQ30741 failed to decrease further the contractions to sumatriptan. The decrease in Emax of sumatriptan by both SQ30741 and aspirin correlated significantly with the Emax of sumatriptan without SQ30741 (r = 0.74; P < 0.01) or aspirin (r = 0.94; P < 0.01). In aspirin-treated vessel segments, responses to sumatriptan were significantly augmented in the presence of U46619 (3 nM; P < 0.05). 4. The specificity of SQ30741 was demonstrated by its ability to antagonize coronary artery contractions to U46619 (pA2: 7.54 +/- 0.30), but not endothelin-1. Similarly, incubation with aspirin (10 microM) did not affect contractile responses to endothelin-1, but significantly reduced TxA2 production in coronary artery segments as judged by a decrease in

  2. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway. PMID:26974824

  3. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  4. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway. PMID:26974824

  5. Lovastatin increases arachidonic acid levels and stimulates thromboxane synthesis in human liver and monocytic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hrboticky, N; Tang, L; Zimmer, B; Lux, I; Weber, P C

    1994-01-01

    The effect of lovastatin (LOV), the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, on linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) metabolism was examined in human monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and hepatoma Hep G2 cells. The desaturation of LA was examined after LOV (72 h, 10 microM) or dimethylsulfoxide (LOV carrier, < 0.1%) and [14C]LA (last 18 h, 0.3 microCi, 5 microM). In both cell lines, LOV reduced the percentage of 14C label associated with LA and increased the percentage of label in the 20:4n-6 and the 22:5n-6 fractions. In Hep G2 but not MM6 cells, this effect was fully reversible by means of coincubation with mevalonic acid (500 microM), but not with cholesterol or lipoproteins. In both cell lines, the LOV-mediated increase in LA desaturation resulted in dose-dependent reductions of LA and elevations of AA in cellular phospholipids. The lipids secreted by LOV-treated Hep G2 cells were also enriched in arachidonic acid (AA). In the MM6 cells, LOV increased release of thromboxane upon stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187. In summary, our findings of higher LA desaturation and AA enrichment of lipids secreted by the Hep G2 cells suggest that LOV treatment may increase the delivery of AA from the liver to extrahepatic tissues. The changes in membrane fatty acid composition can influence a variety of cellular functions, such as eicosanoid synthesis in monocytic cells. The mechanism appears to be related to the reduced availability of intermediates of cholesterogenesis. PMID:8282787

  6. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  7. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results of a differential are usually reported as absolute values of the five types of WBCs and/or ... a percent of the total number of WBCs. Absolute values are calculated by multiplying the total number of ...

  8. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  9. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.

  10. Thromboxane A2, released by the anti-tumour drug irinotecan, is a novel stimulator of Cl- secretion in isolated rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, H; Sato, T; Hamada, N; Yasue, M; Ikari, A; Kakinoki, B; Takeguchi, N

    1997-01-01

    1. A camptothecin derivative, irinotecan (Cpt-11), is a topoisomerase I inhibitor and has a strong activity against a broad range of human cancer. One of the side-effects of this drug is diarrhoea. Here, we tried to determine the mediator of the irinotecan-induced Cl- secretion which may underlie this diarrhoea, using isolated mucosae of rat distal colon. 2. Irinotecan increased Cl- secretory current in a concentration-dependent manner across the mucosa, set between Ussing chambers. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) has not been reported to date as a physiological stimulant of Cl- secretion in the distal colon. However, the major part of the present irinotecan-induced current was inhibited by selective thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists (KW-3635 and ONO-3708), and a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor (Y-20811). In fact, we found that irinotecan stimulated the release of TXA2 in a concentration-dependent manner from the isolated mucosa into the bathing solutions. 3. Furthermore, 9,11-epithio-11,12-methano-thromboxane A2 (STA2), a stable analogue of TXA2, induced Cl- secretion, which was almost completely inhibited by the TXA2 receptor antagonists. 4. In single cells of isolated crypts, STA2 depolarized the cell and increased the membrane conductance, indicating that STA2 opened the apical Cl- channel of the crypt cells. 5. We conclude, therefore, that the irinotecan-induced endogenous TXA2 is a novel stimulant of the Cl- secretion from the crypt cells of distal colon. PMID:9409477

  11. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  12. The association of thromboxane A2 receptor with lipid rafts is a determinant for platelet functional responses.

    PubMed

    Moscardó, A; Vallés, J; Latorre, A; Santos, M T

    2014-08-25

    We have investigated the presence of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor associated with lipid rafts in human platelets and the regulation of platelet function in response to TXA2 receptor agonists when lipid rafts are disrupted by cholesterol extraction. Platelet aggregation with TXA2 analogs U46619 and IBOP was almost blunted in cholesterol-depleted platelets, as well as αIIbβ3 integrin activation and P-selectin exposure. Raft disruption also inhibited TXA2-induced cytosolic calcium increase and nucleotide release, ruling out an implication of P2Y12 receptor. An important proportion of TXA2 receptor (40%) was colocalized at lipid rafts. The presence of the TXA2 receptor associated with lipid rafts in platelets is important for functional platelet responses to TXA2.

  13. High-level expression, purification and characterization of a constitutively active thromboxane A2 receptor polymorphic variant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Chakraborty, Raja; Eilers, Markus; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; O'Neil, Joe D; Smith, Steven O; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit some level of basal signaling even in the absence of a bound agonist. This basal or constitutive signaling can have important pathophysiological roles. In the past few years, a number of high resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have been reported, including two crystal structures of constitutively active mutants (CAM) of the dim-light receptor, rhodopsin. The structural characterizations of CAMs are impeded by the lack of proper expression systems. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) is a GPCR that mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis in response to the binding of thromboxane. Here, we report on the expression and purification of a genetic variant and CAM in TP, namely A160T, using tetracycline-inducible HEK293S-TetR and HEK293S (GnTI¯)-TetR cell lines. Expression of the TP and the A160T genes in these mammalian cell lines resulted in a 4-fold increase in expression to a level of 15.8 ±0.3 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors expressed in the HEK293S (GnTI(-))-TetR cell line showed homogeneous glycosylation. The functional yield of the receptors using a single step affinity purification was 45 µg/10⁶ cells. Temperature- dependent secondary structure changes of the purified TP and A160T receptors were characterized using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry. The CD spectra shows that the loss of activity or thermal sensitivity that was previously observed for the A160T mutant, is not owing to large unfolding of the protein but rather to a more subtle effect. This is the first study to report on the successful high-level expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of a naturally occurring, diffusible ligand activated GPCR CAM. PMID:24086743

  14. Stress-induced salivary cortisol secretion during hypobaric hypoxia challenge and in vivo urinary thromboxane production in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Simona; Biselli, Roberto; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Rocca, Bianca; Lattanzio, Stefano; Mucci, Luciana; Davì, Giovanni; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the effects of stress on in vivo platelet activation. In the present study, hypobaric hypoxia induced by rapid decompression during high-altitude simulated flight in a hypobaric chamber was used to evaluate the effects of environmental stress on salivary cortisol and urinary thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion, a noninvasive marker of in vivo platelet function. Twenty-one male aviators (mean ± SD age = 36 ± 7 years) experiencing hypoxia by removing their oxygen mask for 4-5 min during a simulated flight to 25,000 ft (7,620 m; pO(2) = 59.17 mmHg) and a matched control group of thirteen flying instructors wearing oxygen masks during the challenge, were studied. Hypobaric hypoxia induced a transient significant increase (P < 0.001) in the aviators' salivary cortisol concentration; the overall pattern of diurnal cortisol fluctuation was maintained in both groups. Urinary TXM showed a significant ∼30% reduction (P < 0.01) after the chamber session in aviators exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, but not in controls. A significant inverse correlation was found between salivary cortisol and urinary TXM in aviators (r = - 0.64, P = 0.0015). Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) for urinary TXM concentrations in aviators. In conclusion, here we observed that an acute stress-induced salivary cortisol increase was associated with reduced urinary thromboxane biosynthesis, providing the first indirect evidence for an inhibitory effect of acute stress on in vivo platelet function. PMID:21434833

  15. Regulation of the Tumor Suppressor FOXO3 by the Thromboxane-A2 Receptors in Urothelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Halushka, Perry V.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Smith, Michael T.; Moussa, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor FOXO3 is a well-established tumor suppressor whose activity, stability, and localization are regulated by phosphorylation and acetylation. Previous data by our laboratory demonstrated amplified thromboxane-A2 signaling was associated with poor prognoses in bladder cancer patients and overexpression of the thromboxane-A2 isoform-β receptor (TPβ), but not TPα, induced malignant transformation of immortalized bladder cells in vivo. Here, we describe a mechanism of TP mediated modulation of FOXO3 activity and localization by phosphorylation and deacetylation in a bladder cancer cell model. In vitro gain and loss of function studies performed in non-transformed cell lines, UROsta and SV-HUC, revealed knockdown of FOXO3 expression by shRNA increased cell migration and invasion, while exogenously overexpressing TPβ raised basal phosphorylated (p)FOXO3-S294 levels. Conversely, overexpression of ERK-resistant, mutant FOXO3 reduced increases in UMUC3 cell migration and invasion, including that mediated by TP agonist (U46619). Additionally, stimulation of UMUC3 cells with U46619 increased pFOXO3-S294 expression, which could be attenuated by treatment with a TP antagonist (PTXA2) or ERK inhibitor (U0126). Initially U46619 caused nuclear accumulation of pFOXO3-S294; however, prolonged stimulation increased FOXO3 cytoplasmic localization. U46619 stimulation decreased overall FOXO3 transcriptional activity, but was associated with increased expression of its pro-survival target, manganese superoxide dismutase. The data also shows that TP stimulation increased the expression of the histone deacetylase, SIRT1, and corresponded with decreased acetylated-FOXO3. Collectively, the data suggest a role for TP signaling in the regulation of FOXO3 activity, mediated in part through phosphorylation and deacetylation. PMID:25202904

  16. Hydrogen peroxide induces a greater contraction in mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats through thromboxane A(2) production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y J; Lee, R M

    2001-12-01

    1. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) caused a transient contraction in endothelium-intact (E+) and -denuded (E-) mesenteric arteries (MA) from 8 - 10-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-5) M to 10(-3) M). 2. The contraction to H(2)O(2) in MA (E+ or E-) was greater in SHR than in WKY. Removal of endothelium potentiated the contraction to H(2)O(2) in WKY but not in SHR. Tachyphylaxis to H(2)O(2) was less prominent in SHR than in WKY. 3. The contraction of aorta to H(2)O(2) (5 x 10(-4) M), expressed as a percentage of 80 mM KCl-induced contraction, was approximately half of that found in the MA. A greater contraction was found in E+ but not E- SHR aortic rings. 4. The contraction of MA to H(2)O(2) (5 x 10(-4) M) was greatly inhibited by SQ 29548 and ICI 192605 (thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))/prostaglandin H(2) receptor antagonists), quinacrine (a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor), indomethacin and diclofenac (cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors), and furegrelate (a TXA(2) synthase inhibitor). 5. Production of thromboxane B(2) induced by H(2)O(2) (5 x 10(-4) M) was greater in SHR MA than in WKY, and was inhibited by quinacrine, indomethacin and diclofenac, and furegrelate, but not by SQ 29584 and ICI 192605. 6. These results suggested (1) that SHR MA exhibits a higher contraction involving an increased smooth muscle reactivity and less tachyphylaxis to H(2)O(2) than WKY; (2) that a greater production of TXA(2) through activation of PLA(2)-COX-TXA(2) synthase pathway appeared to be responsible for the enhanced contraction in SHR MA. The enhanced vascular response to H(2)O(2) may be related to hypertension in SHR.

  17. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  18. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  19. Prostaglandin I2 and prostaglandin E2 modulate human intrarenal artery contractility through prostaglandin E2-EP4, prostacyclin-IP, and thromboxane A2-TP receptors.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Morten P; Hansen, Pernille B L; Stubbe, Jane; Toft, Anja; Walter, Steen; Marcussen, Niels; Rasmussen, Lars M; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Jensen, Boye L

    2014-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease renal blood flow in settings with decreased effective circulating volume. The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), induce relaxation of human intrarenal arteries through PGE2-EP and PGI2-IP receptors. Intrarenal arteries were microdissected from human nephrectomy samples (n=53, median diameter ≈362 μm, 88% viable, 76% relaxed in response to acetylcholine). Rings were suspended in myographs to record force development. In vessels with K(+)-induced tension (EC70: -log [mol/L]=1.36±0.03), PGE2 and PGI2 induced concentration-dependent relaxation (-log EC50: PGE2=7.1±0.3 and PGI2=7.7). The response to PGE2 displayed endothelium dependence and desensitization. Relaxation by PGE2 was mimicked by an EP4 receptor agonist (CAY10598, EC50=6.7±0.2). The relaxation after PGI2 was abolished by an IP receptor antagonist (BR5064, 10(-8) mol/L). Pretreatment of quiescent arteries with PGE2 for 5 minutes (10(-6) mol/L) led to a significant right shift of the concentration-response to norepinephrine (EC50 from 6.6±0.1-5.9±0.1). In intrarenal arteries with K(+)-induced tone, PGE2 and PGI2 at 10(-5) mol/L elicited increased tension. This was abolished by thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist (S18886, 10(-6) mol/L). A TP agonist (U46619, n=6) evoked tension (EC50=8.1±0.2) that was inhibited by S18886. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting showed EP4, IP, and TP receptors in intrarenal arteries. In conclusion, PGE2 and PGI2 may protect renal perfusion by activating cognate IP and EP4 receptors associated with smooth muscle cells and endothelium in human intrarenal arteries and contribute to increased renal vascular resistance at high pathological concentrations mediated by noncognate TP receptor.

  20. Model-based analysis of thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} as biomarkers in the safety evaluation of naproxen

    SciTech Connect

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Sanderson, Ian; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of safety in traditional toxicology protocols relies on evidence arising from observed adverse events (AEs) in animals and on establishing their correlation with different measures of drug exposure (e.g., C{sub max} and AUC). Such correlations, however, ignore the role of biomarkers, which can provide further insight into the underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Here we use naproxen as a paradigm drug to explore the feasibility of a biomarker-guided approach for the prediction of AEs in humans. A standard toxicology protocol was set up for the evaluation of effects of naproxen in rat, in which four doses were tested (7.5, 15, 40 and 80 mg/kg). In addition to sparse blood sampling for the assessment of exposure, thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} were also collected in satellite groups. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to evaluate the predictive performance of the approach. A one-compartmental model with first order absorption was found to best describe the pharmacokinetics of naproxen. A nonlinear relationship between dose and bioavailability was observed which leads to a less than proportional increase in naproxen concentrations with increasing doses. The pharmacodynamics of TXB{sub 2} and PGE{sub 2} was described by direct inhibition models with maximum pharmacological effects achieved at doses > 7.5 mg/kg. The predicted PKPD relationship in humans was within 10-fold of the values previously published. Moreover, our results indicate that biomarkers can be used to assess interspecies differences in PKPD and extrapolated data from animals to humans. Biomarker sampling should be used systematically in general toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Prediction of a drug's safety profile from preclinical protocols remains challenging. • Pharmacokinetic measures of safe exposure (e.g., AUC) ignore the role of biomarkers. • PKPD relationships enable the evaluation of adverse events in a mechanistic manner. • Major differences

  1. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  2. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  3. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  4. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  5. A comparison of platelet function tests and thromboxane metabolites to evaluate aspirin response in healthy individuals and patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Johnsen, Helle Ladefoged; Hedegaard, Sofie Sommer; Pedersen, Susanne Bendesgaard; Mortensen, Jette; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2010-06-01

    Individualised antiplatelet therapy and platelet function testing have attracted considerable clinical interest, but several aspects of test performance have not been thoroughly evaluated. We investigated repeatability and concordance of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) induced with arachidonic acid (AA) 1.0 mM, PFA-100 induced with collagen/epinephrine, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) induced with AA 0.5 or 0.75 mM and VerifyNow Aspirin. Patients with stable coronary artery disease (n=43) and healthy individuals (n=21) were included. All tests were performed in duplicate at baseline in healthy individuals and in duplicate for four days in all study participants during aspirin treatment. Serum and urinary thromboxane metabolites were measured several times to evaluate cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition by aspirin. MEA was most sensitive for aspirin as treatment induced a 12-fold difference in AA-induced platelet aggregation. Coefficients of variation for duplicate measurements at baseline (0.4-12%), during aspirin treatment (3-46%) and for day-to-day variability (3-37%) differed markedly between tests and were lowest for VerifyNow. The prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness also differed between tests (0-9%) and the agreement was low: kappathromboxane metabolites did not correlate with any platelet function test, whereas serum thromboxane correlated with VerifyNow Aspirin (r=0.41, p=0.001). Overall, repeatability was moderate and the correlation between tests was low. VerifyNow Aspirin proved most reproducible, and this was the only assay showing a significant positive correlation with serum thromboxane. This study demonstrated that conclusions based on platelet function testing strongly depend on the assay used. PMID:20352155

  6. The effect of the menstrual cycle and of decompression stress on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and on intrinsic platelet thromboxane production in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Markham, S M; Dubin, N H; Rock, J A

    1991-12-01

    Menstrual cycle variations in platelet aggregation and thromboxane production in association with sex steroids have been reported. External stimuli such as decompression sickness have been associated with clotting activity changes, specifically, increased platelet aggregation. Differences in response of platelets from women and men, when subjected to such a stress, have been observed. This study evaluated the ability of washed platelets from women in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle to aggregate in response to arachidonic acid and the aggregation difference between washed platelets from women and men in response to decompression stress and arachidonic acid. Additionally, platelet thromboxane production differences between the assessed platelet populations were compared. Our results indicate no difference in platelet aggregability between phases of the menstrual cycle. A significant aggregation difference between platelets from women and men was noted. Platelets from women were more sensitive to arachidonic acid aggregation. These differences were not affected by decompression stress. No difference in thromboxane B2 production was noted between the platelet populations evaluated.

  7. Effect of assay specificity on the association of urine 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 determination with cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    OLSON, M. T.; KICKLER, T. S.; LAWSON, J. A.; MCLEAN, R. C.; JANI, J.; FITZGERALD, G. A.; RADE, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Elevated urine 11-dehydro TXB2, an indicator of persistent thromboxane generation in aspirin-treated patients, correlates with adverse cardiovascular outcome and has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for vein graft thrombosis after cardiac bypass surgery in the Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates (RIGOR) study. The polyclonal antibody-based ELISA used to measure 11-dehydro TXB2 in these previous studies is no longer clinically available and has been supplanted by a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared second-generation monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Objectives To compare the laboratory and clinical performance of the first- and second-generation assays in a well-defined study population. Methods 11-dehydro TXB2 was quantified in 451 urine samples from 229 Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates (RIGOR) subjects using both ELISA. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and spiking studies were used to investigate discordant assay results. The association of 11-dehydro TXB2 to clinical outcome was assessed for each assay using multivariate modeling. Results Median 11-dehydro TXB2 levels were higher by monoclonal antibody- compared with polyclonal antibody-based ELISA (856 vs. 399 pg mg−1 creatinine, P < 0.000001), with the latter providing values similar to UPLC-MS/MS. This discrepancy was predominantly as a result of cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody with 11-dehydro-2,3-dinor TXB2, a thromboxane metabolite present in a similar concentration but with a poor direct correlation with 11-dehydro TXB2. In contrast to the first-generation ELISA, 11-dehydro TXB2 measured by the monoclonal antibody-based ELISA failed to associate with the risk of vein graft occlusion. Conclusion Quantification of urine 11-dehydro TXB2 by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA was confounded by interference from 11-dehydro-2,3-dinor TXB2 which reduced the accuracy and clinical utility of this second

  8. Ozagrel hydrochloride, a selective thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, alleviates liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overdosed acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) causes severe liver injury. We examined the effects of ozagrel, a selective thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced to ICR male mice by an intraperitoneal injection with APAP (330 mg/kg). The effects of ozagrel (200 mg/kg) treatment 30 min after the APAP injection were evaluated with mortality, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic changes, including histopathology, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression and total glutathione contents. The impact of ozagrel (0.001-1 mg/mL) on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in mouse hepatic microsome was examined. RLC-16 cells, a rat hepatocytes cell line, were exposed to 0.25 mM N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a hepatotoxic metabolite of APAP. In this model, the cytoprotective effects of ozagrel (1–100 muM) were evaluated by the WST-1 cell viability assay. Results Ozagel treatment significantly attenuated higher mortality, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, excessive hepatic centrilobular necrosis, hemorrhaging and DNA fragmentation, as well as increase in plasma 2,3-dinor thromboxane B2 levels induced by APAP injection. Ozagrel also inhibited the hepatic expression of cell death-related mRNAs induced by APAP, such as jun oncogene, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (fos) and C/EBP homologous protein (chop), but did not suppress B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein11 (bim) expression and hepatic total glutathione depletion. These results show ozagrel can inhibit not all hepatic changes but can reduce the hepatic necrosis. Ozagrel had little impact on CYP2E1 activity involving the NAPQI production. In addition, ozagrel significantly attenuated cell injury induced by NAPQI in RLC-16. Conclusions We demonstrate that the TXA2 synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, dramatically alleviates liver injury induced by APAP in mice, and suggest that it is a

  9. Analysis of reticulocyte counts using various methods.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, S B; Gauger, C A

    1991-01-01

    The precision and accuracy of manual reticulocyte counts using the Miller disc reticle, other ruled reticle and no reticle are compared with the reticulocyte results from the automated Hematrak 590 instrument. Two slides of each of 50 patient blood specimens were sent to the hematology laboratories of each of six participating hospitals. In addition to between-method comparison (precision), the manual method results using the three different counting techniques were each compared with the Hematrak results to determine if there were significant differences in reported results (accuracy). Statistical analysis revealed that the Miller disc method was the most precise and accurate manual method as compared with the Hematrak. Methods without a Miller disc reported significantly higher reticulocyte counts. Imprecision was also higher among non-Miller manual methods. By using the Miller disc, the accuracy and precision of manual methods may be increased to that of the automated Hematrak method. PMID:10149411

  10. Improved light microscopy counting method for accurately counting Plasmodium parasitemia and reticulocytemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Caeul; Pereira, Ligia; Shardul, Pritish; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Maki, Jennifer; Rixon, Jordan; Shaw-Saliba, Kathryn; White, John; Silveira, Maria; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2016-08-01

    Even with the advances in molecular or automated methods for detection of red blood cells of interest (such as reticulocytes or parasitized cells), light microscopy continues to be the gold standard especially in laboratories with limited resources. The conventional method for determination of parasitemia and reticulocytemia uses a Miller reticle, a grid with squares of different sizes. However, this method is prone to errors if not used correctly and counts become inaccurate and highly time-consuming at low frequencies of target cells. In this report, we outline the correct guidelines to follow when using a reticle for counting, and present a new counting protocol that is a modified version of the conventional method for increased accuracy in the counting of low parasitemias and reticulocytemias. Am. J. Hematol. 91:852-855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074559

  11. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  12. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  13. Counting Tech Prep Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the problems surrounding the counting of tech prep students. Suggests that one problem is the lack of a single definition for the term "tech prep." Suggests that if it is to be evaluated as a program, it needs more resources. (JOW)

  14. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  15. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  16. Could the thromboxane A2 pathway be a therapeutic target for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-induced atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Gautier-Veyret, Elodie; Van Noolen, Laetitia; Lévy, Patrick; Pepin, Jean Louis; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent nocturnal episodes of intermittent hypoxia. This disease is associated with premature atherosclerosis and consequently with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the activation of some components of the cyclooxygenase pathway. In particular, OSA is associated with activation of the thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-pathway, in which obesity seems to be a major confounding factor. Moreover, TXA2-pathway activation is related to the vascular remodeling associated with OSA. In view of the modest effect of the conventional treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure on the cardiovascular risk in obese OSA patients, the identification of new therapeutic targets to treat OSA-induced atherosclerosis seems essential. As disruption of the TXA2-pathway has been suggested to be of potential interest to prevent atherosclerosis progression, we have reviewed the recent findings on the intricate interaction between the TXA2-pathway, chronic intermittent hypoxia and atherosclerosis and suggest promising therapeutic strategies to treat OSA-related atherogenesis, including pharmacological and/or nutritional approaches.

  17. Human Thromboxane A2 Receptor Genetic Variants: In Silico, In Vitro and “In Platelet” Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gleim, Scott; Stitham, Jeremiah; Tang, Wai Ho; Li, Hong; Douville, Karen; Chelikani, Prashen; J.Rade, Jeffrey; Martin, Kathleen A.; Hwa, John

    2013-01-01

    Thromboxane and its receptor have emerged as key players in modulating vascular thrombotic events. Thus, a dysfunctional hTP genetic variant may protect against (hypoactivity) or promote (hyperactivity) vascular events, based upon its activity on platelets. After extensive in silico analysis, six hTP-α variants were selected (C68S, V80E, E94V, A160T, V176E, and V217I) for detailed biochemical studies based on structural proximity to key regions involved in receptor function and in silico predictions. Variant biochemical profiles ranged from severe instability (C68S) to normal (V217I), with most variants demonstrating functional alteration in binding, expression or activation (V80E, E94V, A160T, and V176E). In the absence of patient platelet samples, we developed and validated a novel megakaryocyte based system to evaluate human platelet function in the presence of detected dysfunctional genetic variants. Interestingly, variant V80E exhibited reduced platelet activation whereas A160T demonstrated platelet hyperactivity. This report provides the most comprehensive in silico, in vitro and “in platelet” evaluation of hTP variants to date and highlightscurrent inherent problems in evaluating genetic variants, with possible solutions. The study additionally provides clinical relevance to characterized dysfunctional hTP variants. PMID:23840660

  18. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase expression is implicated in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cailleteau, C; Liagre, B; Battu, S; Jayat-Vignoles, C; Beneytout, J L

    2008-09-01

    Differentiation induction as a therapeutic strategy has, so far, the greatest impact in hematopoietic malignancies, most notably leukemia. Diosgenin is a very interesting natural product because, depending on the specific dose used, its biological effect is very different in HEL (human erythroleukemia) cells. For example, at 10 microM, diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation, in contrast to 40 microM diosgenin, which induced apoptosis in HEL cells previously demonstrated using sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). The goal of this work focused on the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane synthase (TxS) and megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. Furthermore, the technique of SdFFF, having been validated in our models, was used in this new study as an analytical tool that provided us with more or less enriched differentiated cell fractions that could then be used for further analyses of enzyme protein expression and activity for the first time. In our study, we showed the implication of COX-2 and TxS in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells. Furthermore, we showed that the analytical technique of SdFFF may be used as a tool to confirm our results as a function of the degree of cell differentiation.

  19. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and residual in vivo thromboxane biosynthesis in low-dose aspirin-treated polycythemia vera patients.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Romano, Mario; Recchiuti, Antonio; Dragani, Alfredo; Falco, Angela; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Fioritoni, Francesca; Lattanzio, Stefano; Mattoscio, Domenico; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Rocca, Bianca; Davì, Giovanni

    2008-08-15

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is associated with high morbidity and mortality for thrombosis. We hypothesized that in PV altered sensitivity to aspirin might be related to dysfunction of the endothelial repair and/or of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Urinary thromboxane (TX) A(2) metabolite (TXM), endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were measured in 37 PV patients on low-dose aspirin and 12 healthy controls. Patients showed an approximately 2-fold increase in median TXM and plasma ADMA levels (P < .001), while ECFC numbers were reduced by approximately 7-fold (P < .001) as compared with non-aspirinated control. These differences were more pronounced in patients with previous thrombosis. An 8-week course of aspirin did not affect ECFCs in 6 controls. VWF and TXM correlated directly with ADMA, and inversely with ECFCs. By multiple regression analysis, lower ECFC quartiles (beta = -0.39; SE = 0.17; P = .028) and higher VWF levels (beta = 0.338, SE = 0.002, P = .034) were independent predictors of higher TXM quartiles (R(2) = 0.39). Serum TXB(2), measured in 22 patients, was approximately 10-fold higher than aspirin-treated controls. PV patients appear to have an unbalanced ECFC/NO axis, and an apparent altered sensitivity of platelet TXA(2) production, all potentially contributing to aspirin-insensitive TXM formation. Thus, additional antithrombotic strategies may be beneficial in PV. PMID:18541722

  20. Brain thromboxane A2 via arachidonic acid cascade induces the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman G; Altinbas, Burcin; Guvenc, Gokcen; Alcay, Selim; Toker, Mehmed Berk; Ustuner, Burcu; Udum Kucuksen, Duygu; Yalcin, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of centrally administrated arachidonic acid (AA) on plasma gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone level, and sperm parameters, and to show the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway in AA-induced hormonal and sperm parameter effects. Studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 150 or 300 μl/5 μl doses of AA were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv). AA significantly caused dose- and time-dependent increases in plasma FSH, LH and testosterone levels of animals, but not plasma GnRH level. AA also significantly increased sperm motility of the rats without change sperm number. Pretreated with ibuprofen, a nonselective COX inhibitor (250 μg/5 μl; icv), and furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor (250 μg/5 μl; icv), prevented AA-evoked increase in plasma FSH, LH and testosterone levels, and sperm motility. In conclusion, our findings show that centrally administered AA increases plasma FSH, LH and testosterone levels and sperm motility of conscious male rats. Moreover, according to our findings, central COX-TXA2 signaling pathway mediates these AA-induced effects.

  1. Binding of an ( sup 125 I) labelled thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor agonist to baboon platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.W. II; De Jesus, A. )

    1989-12-01

    To characterize the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor on baboon platelets the binding of (125I)BOP was studied. (125I)BOP bound to washed baboon platelets in a saturable manner. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms revealed a Kd of 1.12 +/- 0.08 nM and a binding capacity of 54 +/- 5 fmoles/10(8) platelets (326 sites/platelet). Several TXA2/PGH2 agonists and antagonists displaced (125I)BOP from its baboon platelet binding site with a rank order of potency similar to human platelets: I-BOP greater than SQ29548 greater than U46619 = I-PTA-OH greater than PTA-OH. I-BOP aggregated washed baboon platelets with an EC50 of 10 +/- 4 nM. The results indicate that (125I)BOP binds to the TXA2/PGH2 receptor on baboon platelets and that this receptor is similar to its human counterpart.

  2. The thromboxane receptor antagonist S18886 attenuates renal oxidant stress and proteinuria in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanqin; Jiang, Bingbing; Maitland, Karlene A; Bayat, Hossein; Gu, Jiali; Nadler, Jerry L; Corda, Stefano; Lavielle, Gilbert; Verbeuren, Tony J; Zuccollo, Adriana; Cohen, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites, some of which may activate thromboxane A(2) receptors (TPr) and contribute to the development of diabetes complications, including nephropathy, are elevated in diabetes. This study determined the effect of blocking TPr with S18886 or inhibiting cyclooxygenase with aspirin on oxidative stress and the early stages of nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Diabetic mice were treated with S18886 (5 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1)) or aspirin (30 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1)) for 6 weeks. Neither S18886 nor aspirin affected hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia. There was intense immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine in diabetic mouse kidney. In addition, a decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity was associated with an increase in MnSOD tyrosine-34 nitration. Tyrosine nitration was significantly reduced by S18886 but not by aspirin. Staining for the NADPH oxidase subunit p47(phox), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and 12-lipoxygenase was increased in diabetic mouse kidney, as were urine levels of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha). S18886 attenuated all of these markers of oxidant stress and inflammation. Furthermore, S18886 significantly attenuated microalbuminuria in diabetic mice and ameliorated histological evidence of diabetic nephropathy, including transforming growth factor-beta and extracellular matrix expression. Thus, in contrast to inhibiting cyclooxygenase, blockade of TPr may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy, in part by attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:16380483

  3. 11-Dehydrothromboxane B2: a quantitative index of thromboxane A2 formation in the human circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Catella, F; Healy, D; Lawson, J A; FitzGerald, G A

    1986-01-01

    In human plasma, 11-dehydrothromboxane (TX) B2 is a major long lived metabolite (t1/2 45 min) formed from infused TXB2, the hydration product of biologically active TXA2. Plasma concentrations of TXB2 itself are readily confounded by ex vivo platelet activation and, theoretically, an enzymatic derivative of this compound, not subject to formation in whole blood, would more accurately reflect TXA2 formation in vivo. To address this hypothesis, we developed a sensitive assay for both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and TXB2, using capillary gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We established that whole blood possesses a minor capacity to form 11-dehydro-TXB2, attributable to nonenzymatic formation in erythrocytes. However, the nonenzymatic formation of 11-dehydro-TXB2 was not a practical limitation to its use as an index of TX biosynthesis. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers (i) via an indwelling catheter at the time of insertion and at 30, 60, 90, 180, and 240 min thereafter and (ii) via separate venipunctures at 0 time and at 90 and 240 min thereafter. Plasma TXB2 drawn via the catheter at baseline (66 +/- 63 pg/ml) was substantially greater than the maximal estimate of endogenous TXB2 (1-2 pg/ml) in plasma [Patrono, C., Ciabattoni, G., Pugliese, F., Perruci, A., Blair, I. A. & FitzGerald, G. A. (1986) J. Clin. Invest. 77, 590-594] and increased in magnitude and variance over time (339 +/- 247 pg/ml at 240 min). By contrast, 11-dehydro-TXB2 did not change significantly in the sequential catheter samples or in the samples drawn by separate venipuncture. Basal plasma concentrations in volunteers were depressed by pretreatment with 325 mg of aspirin. Furthermore, the range of concentrations in patients with severe atherosclerosis in whom urinary 2,3-dinor-TXB2 was increased was significantly higher (5-50 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) than in healthy subjects (0.9-1.8 pg/ml). Concentrations of 11-dehydro-TXB2 were increased in patients who had

  4. Make Your Calories Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... module requires Adobe Flash Player ; PDFs require Adobe Reader . The character displayed above is a trademark of ... Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  5. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  6. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  10. Basophil count in neonates is not suitable for atopy predictivity.

    PubMed

    Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

    1996-01-01

    Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 102 children were prospectively studied with a follow up to 18 months of age for development of atopic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil counts higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (rs = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (rs = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was only 33% and 27%, respectively. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy.

  11. Thromboxane Receptor Activates the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Dong, Yunzhou; Xu, Jian; Xie, Zhonglin; Wu, Yong; Song, Ping; Guzman, Melissa; Wu, Jiliang; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TPr) stimulation induces cellular hypertrophy in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs); however, regulation of VSMC hypertrophy remains poorly understood. Here we show that TPr stimulation activates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), which in turn limits TPr-induced protein synthesis in VSMCs. Exposure of cultured VSMCs to either TPr agonists, IBOP and U46619, or exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) caused time- and dose-dependent AMPK activation, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of both AMPK-Thr172 and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase–Ser79, a downstream enzyme of AMPK, whereas SQ29548, a selective TPr antagonist, significantly attenuated TPr-enhanced AMPK activation. In parallel, both IBOP and U46619 significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2. Furthermore, adenoviral overexpression of catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) abolished, whereas superoxide dismutase (which catalyzes H2O2 formation) enhanced, IBOP-induced AMPK activation, suggesting that TPr-activated AMPK was mediated by H2O2. Consistently, exposure of VSMCs to either TPr agonists or exogenous H2O2 dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 (at serines 428 and 307), an AMPK kinase, as well as coimmunoprecipitation of AMPK with LKB1. In addition, direct mutagenesis of either Ser428 or Ser307 of LKB1 into alanine, like the kinase-dead LKB1 mutant, abolished both TPr-stimulated AMPK activation and coimmunoprecipitation. Finally, genetic inhibition of AMPK significantly accentuated IBOP-enhanced protein synthesis, whereas adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active AMPK abolished IBOP-enhance protein synthesis in VSMCs. We conclude that TPr stimulation triggers reactive oxygen species–mediated LKB1-dependent AMPK activation, which in return inhibits cellular protein synthesis in VSMCs. PMID:18063812

  12. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and thromboxane release in guinea-pig lung.

    PubMed Central

    Ciabattoni, G.; Montuschi, P.; Currò, D.; Togna, G.; Preziosi, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Exogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) infused into the pulmonary artery of isolated and ventilated lungs of guinea-pigs decreased, in a dose-dependent fashion (1.0-10.0 nmol), airway resistance and thromboxane B2 (TXB2, the stable hydrolysis product of TXA2) release in the perfusion medium. Prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis, as reflected by the release of its stable hydrolysis product 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha, was unaffected. Pretreatment with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4c (3.5 x 10(-5) M) did not modify the bronchodilatory effect of VIP or its inhibitory action on TXB2 release. 2. Basal release of immunoreactive VIP from perfused lungs decreased from an initial value of 0.96 +/- 0.10 ng min-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean) in the first 2 min to an average of 0.58 +/- 0.10 ng min-1 in the following 15-20 min. 3. Antigen challenge with ovalbumin (0.1%) in sensitized lungs caused an anaphylactic reaction in 45% of tested lungs, concomitant with a 5 fold increase in both VIP and TXB2 release. Tetrodotoxin pretreatment (10(-6) M) reduced basal VIP release by > 80% and abolished the VIP increase observed during anaphylaxis, without modifying TXB2 release or the bronchoconstrictor response. 4. Indomethacin (10(-6) M) inhibited TXB2 synthesis and release by > 90%, delayed the bronchoconstrictor response and blunted the increased VIP release during lung anaphylaxis, without influencing basal VIP release. 5. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4c (3.5 x 10(-5) M) blunted the increase of TXB2 and VIP release from guinea-pig lung and attenuated the bronchoconstrictor response following ovalbumin challenge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8495242

  13. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence | will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  14. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-α on the coronary circulation of the rat isolated perfused heart: a potential role for thromboxane A2 and sphingosine

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, N J; Woodward, B

    1998-01-01

    The actions of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the coronary circulation were investigated in the rat isolated heart, perfused under constant flow, recirculating conditions.An early increase in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was observed upon treatment with TNF-α (increase in CPP 10 min after TNF-α treatment: 45±12 mmHg vs control: 15±4 mmHg, P<0.05). The role of sphingosine, prostanoids and endothelins, in this coronary constrictor action, was investigated with the use of pharmacological inhibitors and antagonists.The TNF-α induced increase in coronary tone was blocked by indomethacin, 10 μM (increase in CPP after 10 min: 13±4 mmHg vs TNF-α alone, P<0.05).The thromboxane receptor antagonist GR32191, 10 μM, attenuated the TNF-α induced coronary constriction (12±2 mmHg vs TNF-α alone, P<0.05), as did the joint thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor and receptor antagonist ZD1542, 10 μM (8±1 mmHg vs TNF-α alone, P<0.05).The ceramidase inhibitor N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), 1 μM, also blocked the TNF-α induced response (8±4 mmHg vs TNF-α alone, P<0.05).In contrast, the coronary constrictor action of TNF-α was not inhibited by the endothelinA/B receptor antagonist bosentan, 3 μM (38±9 mmHg vs TNF-α, P=NS).These data indicated that the early coronary vasoconstriction induced by TNF-α was mediated by both thromboxane A2 and sphingosine, suggesting an interaction between both the sphingomyelinase and phospholipase A2 metabolic pathways. PMID:9647473

  15. Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance.

  16. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 μm × 15 μm measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results.

  17. Evaluation of flow cytometric counting procedure for canine reticulocytes by use of thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D L; McGrath, J P

    1991-05-01

    An automated reticulocyte counting method that used a flow cytometer and the nucleic acid staining dye, thiazole orange, was developed. Anticoagulated (EDTA) blood specimens were suitable for flow cytometric reticulocyte counting when stored at 4 C for 96 hours after collection. Thiazole orange-stained samples were stable for 5.5 hours after staining when stored capped at 20 C and protected from light. Flow cytometric and manual microscopic reticulocyte counts were compared for counts in the 0.27 to 5.32% range (as determined by flow cytometry) and 0.10 to 4.90% range (as determined by 1 technician). Although the results of flow cytometric analysis generally correlated well (r = 0.821) with manual counts, there was poor correlation between the procedures for counts less than or equal to 2.0% (r less than or equal to 0.272). Linearity of flow cytometric counts over the range 0.27 to 14.46% was excellent (r = 0.999). Within-run precision of flow cytometric counts (% coefficient of variation [cv] = 3 to 5) was superior to manual microscopic counts obtained by one technician (% cv = 19 to 23) and to manual microscopic counts, which were an average of counts done by 3 technicians (% cv = 8 to 18). Comparable flow cytometric counts were obtained by counting 50,000 or 100,000 blood cells in the flow cytometer.

  18. Altered Endothelin-1 Signaling in Production of Thromboxane A2 in Kupffer Cells from Bile Duct Ligated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew M; Zhang, Jian X

    2009-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver resident macrophages accounting for 80–90% of the total population of fixed tissue macrophages in the body, not only play a key role in host defense via removing particulate materials from the portal circulation, but may also contribute to the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. We have previously demonstrated that KCs play an important role in controlling portal hypertension and hepatocellular injury via releasing thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in early fibrosis induced by one-week bile duct ligation (BDL). Production of TXA2 is controlled by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that is activated by the interaction of entothelin-1 (ET-1) with its G-protein coupled ET receptor B (ETBR). However, the signaling pathways that contribute to the ET-1-induced activation of cPLA2 and production of TXA2 in KCs in the normal healthy or injured livers are not yet clear, which are investigated in the present study using isolated KCs from one-week BDL or sham rats. The pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2 or chelation of intracellular calcium abrogated the ET-1 induction of TXA2 from KCs. Compared to those from sham rats, KCs from BDL animals displayed a significantly enhanced responsiveness of p38 MAPK to ET-1, increased ETBR and Gαi subunit but decreased Gαq and Gα11 expression. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or Gq signaling abrogated significantly the ET-1 induction of TXA2 in sham KCs but only slightly in BDL KCs. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK and Gi signaling markedly attenuated the ET-1 induction of TXA2 in BDL KCs but had no effect in sham KCs. Lastly, inhibition of PLC or PKC abrogated ET-1 induction of TXA2 in KCs from both sham and BDL groups. The hepatic stress (such as BDL) induces significant modifications in the receptor and intermediates of ET-1 signaling in KC and subsequently alters ET-1 signaling mechanisms, particularly a shift from Gq induced signaling to Gi induced signaling, in the activation of cPLA2 and production of TXA2 in

  19. Shape analysis of counts maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

  20. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  3. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  4. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Barnard, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set approximately outnumbered the first set, monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before it was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm to increment and compare quantities in sequence. This algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949

  7. Aspirin Resistance and Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Current Situation and Prospectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin plays a crucial physiological and pathophysiological role in cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases by irreversibly inhibiting thromboxane A2. However, some patients may be “resistant” to its effect. The resistance has close association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality, so that resolving the problem of aspirin resistance (AR) is widely concerned. By studying the correlation between AR and blood stasis syndrome (BSS), it is demonstrated that BSS may be one of the pathogenesis of AR in traditional Chinese medicine. Chinese herb and formulas definitely possess the advantage of whole body regulation by many ways and many targets. It is a new direction for treatment of AR to combine TCM and modern medicine to study the mechanism and prevention of AR. PMID:24696702

  8. Neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation of noradrenergic vasoconstriction in the human saphenous vein: involvement of endothelium generated thromboxane.

    PubMed

    Fabi, F; Argiolas, L; Ruvolo, G; del Basso, P

    1998-05-01

    1. We investigated the potentiating effect of low concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the vasoconstriction induced by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) and noradrenaline (NA) in human saphenous veins. The effects of (i) endothelium removal; (ii) the addition of the NO pathway precursor L-arginine; (iii) the ET(A)/ET(B) endothelin receptor antagonist Ro 47-0203; (iv) the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin; (v) the selective thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptor antagonists Bay u3405 and ifetroban, and (vi) the TxA2 synthase inhibitor, UK 38485, were studied in order to gain information about the mechanisms of NPY-induced potentiation. 2. Contractile response curves for TNS (0.5-8 Hz) and for exogenously administered NA (0.1-3 microM) were obtained in superfused saphenous vein rings. The contractions induced by both TNS and NA at all tested frequencies and concentrations, respectively, were significantly potentiated by 50 nM NPY in endothelium intact veins. Conversely, in endothelium-denuded vessel rings the contractile-response curves to TNS and NA overlapped both in the absence and presence of NPY, thus suggesting that a release of vasoactive substances from endothelial cells could account for the noradrenergic NPY-induced potentiation. 3. In vessels with intact endothelium, the potentiating action of NPY on TNS and NA was unaffected by the presence of high concentrations of the NO precursor L-arginine (3-10 mM) or the non-selective ET(A)/ET(B) endothelin receptor antagonist, Ro 47-0203 (10 microM). These data indicate that the NPY-induced effect does not involve either the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide or the vasoconstrictor endothelin. Conversely, in the presence of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (30 microM), NPY failed to potentiate the vasoconstrictions produced by either nerve stimulation or by exogenous NA, thus providing evidence that arachidonic acid metabolites through the cyclo-oxygenase pathway are mainly responsible for

  9. Prognostic value of preoperative peripheral monocyte count in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Qi; Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-07-01

    Prognostic value of peripheral monocyte, as a member of inflammatory cells, was widely being investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) and the relationship between monocyte count and tumor-related characteristics. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 101 HCC patients after LT. Preoperative monocyte count and demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were analyzed. The optimal cutoff value of monocyte count was 456/mm(3), with the sensitivity and specificity of 69.4 and 61.5 %, respectively. Elevated preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count was significantly associated with large tumor size. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) (80.9, 70.1, and 53.3 % vs 55.1, 38.7, and 38.7 %, P = 0.007) and overall survival (OS) rates (95.7, 76.6, and 64.8 % vs 72.2, 44.1, and 36.1 %, P = 0.002) of HCC patients in the peripheral blood monocyte count ≤456/mm(3) group were higher than those in the peripheral blood monocyte count >456/mm(3) group. In conclusion, elevated preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and it can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT.

  10. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment. PMID:15613254

  11. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  12. The origins of counting algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949

  13. Enhanced performance for the analysis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new atmospheric pressure ionization source.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Arnaud; Geerinckx, Suzy; Bajic, Steve; Cabooter, Deirdre; Augustijns, Patrick; Cuyckens, Filip; Vreeken, Rob J

    2016-04-01

    Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and thromboxanes are lipid mediators synthetized from polyunsaturated fatty acids. They play an important role in cell signaling and are often reported as inflammatory markers. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for the analysis of these compounds, often in combination with advanced sample preparation techniques. Here we report a head to head comparison between an electrospray ionization source (ESI) and a new atmospheric pressure ionization source (UniSpray). The performance of both interfaces was evaluated in various matrices such as human plasma, pig colon and mouse colon. The UniSpray source shows an increase in method sensitivity up to a factor 5. Equivalent to better linearity and repeatability on various matrices as well as an increase in signal intensity were observed in comparison to ESI.

  14. Evidence that the substance P-induced enhancement of pacemaking in lymphatics of the guinea-pig mesentery occurs through endothelial release of thromboxane A2

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Sharyn E; Van Helden, Dirk F

    1997-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed to examine the mechanisms underlying substance P-induced enhancement of constriction rate in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Substance P caused an endothelium-dependent increase in lymphatic constriction frequency which was first significant at a concentration of 1 nM (115±3% of control, n=11) with 1 μM, the highest concentration tested, increasing the rate to 153±4% of control (n=9). Repetitive 5 min applications of substance P (1 μM) caused tachyphylaxis with tissue responsiveness tending to decrease (by an average of 23%) and significantly decreasing (by 72%) for application at intervals of 30 and 10 min, respectively. The competitive antagonist of tachykinin receptors, spantide (5 μM) and the specific NK1 receptor antagonist, WIN51708 (10 μM) both prevented the enhancement of constriction rate induced by 1 μM substance P. Endothelial cells loaded with the Ca2+ sensing fluophore, fluo 3/AM did not display a detectable change in [Ca2+]i upon application of 1 μM substance P. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by NG nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 100 μM) had no significant effect on the response induced by 1 μM substance P. The enhancement of constriction rate induced by 1 μM substance P was prevented by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (3 μM), the thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, imidazole (50 μM), and the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 (0.3 μM). The stable analogue of thromboxane A2, U46619 (0.1 μM) significantly increased the constriction rate of lymphangions with or without endothelium, an effect which was prevented by SQ29548 (0.3 μM). Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTx; 100 ng ml−1) completely abolished the response to 1 μM substance P without inhibiting either the perfusion-induced constriction or the U46619-induced enhancement of constriction rate. Application of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, antiflammin-1 (1 nM) prevented the

  15. Thromboxane A2 receptor and MaxiK-channel intimate interaction supports channel trans-inhibition independent of G-protein activation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Wu, Yong; Lu, Rong; Kundu, Pallob; Sanchez-Pastor, Enrique; Marijic, Jure; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels (MaxiK, BKCa) are well known for sustaining cerebral and coronary arterial tone and for their linkage to vasodilator β-adrenergic receptors. However, how MaxiK channels are linked to counterbalancing vasoconstrictor receptors is unknown. Here, we show that vasopressive thromboxane A2 receptors (TP) can intimately couple with and inhibit MaxiK channels. Activation of the receptor with its agonist trans-inhibits MaxiK independently of G-protein activation. This unconventional mechanism is supported by independent lines of evidence: (i) inhibition of MaxiK current by thromboxane A2 mimetic, U46619, occurs even when G-protein activity is suppressed; (ii) MaxiK and TP physically associate and display a high degree of proximity; and (iii) Förster resonance energy transfer occurs between fluorescently labeled MaxiK and TP, supporting a direct interaction. The molecular mechanism of MaxiK–TP intimate interaction involves the receptor's first intracellular loop and C terminus, and it entails the voltage-sensing conduction cassette of MaxiK channel. Further, physiological evidence of MaxiK–TP physical interaction is given in human coronaries and rat aorta, and by confirming TP role (with antagonist SQ29,548) in the U46619-induced MaxiK inhibition in human coronaries. We propose that vasoconstrictor TP receptor and MaxiK-channel direct interaction facilitates G-protein–independent TP to MaxiK trans-inhibition, which would promote vasoconstriction. PMID:20959415

  16. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  17. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  18. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  19. Increased post-induction intensification improves outcome in children and adolescents with a markedly elevated white blood cell count (≥200 × 10(9) /l) with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but not B cell disease: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Caroline; Gaynon, Paul S; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Seibel, Nita L

    2015-02-01

    Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ≥200 × 10(9) /l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 10(9) /l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival.

  20. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods. PMID:20031433

  1. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  2. Thromboxane A2-mediated shape change: independent of Gq-phospholipase C--Ca2+ pathway in rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, S.; Nakahata, N.; Ohizumi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    1. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor-mediated signal transduction was investigated in washed rabbit platelets to clarify the mechanisms of induction of shape change and aggregation. 2. The TXA2 agonist, U46619 (1 nM to 10 microM) caused shape change and aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. A forty-times higher concentration of U46619 was needed for aggregation (EC50 of 0.58 microM) than shape change (EC50 of 0.013 microM). The aggregation occurred only when external 1 mM Ca2+ was present, but the shape change could occur in the absence of Ca2+. 3. SQ29548 at 30 nM and GR32191B at 0.3 microM (TXA2 receptor antagonists) competitively inhibited U46619-induced shape change and aggregation with similar potency, showing that both aggregation and shape change induced by U46619 were TXA2 receptor-mediated events. However, ONO NT-126 at 1 nM, another TXA2 receptor antagonist, inhibited U46619-induced aggregation much more potently than the shape change, suggesting the possible existence of TXA2 receptor subtypes. 4. ONO NT-126 (2 nM to 3 microM) by itself caused a shape change without aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner, independent of external Ca2+. Therefore, ONO NT-126 is a partial agonist at the TXA2 receptor in rabbit platelets. 5. U46619 (10 nM to 10 microM) increased internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent manner with a similar concentration-dependency. 6. U46619 (3 nM to 10 microM) also activated GTPase concentration-dependently in the membranes derived from platelets. U46619-induced activation of GTPase was partly inhibited by treatment of membranes with QL, an antibody against Gq/11. 7. The EC50 values of U46619 in Ca2+ mobilization (0.15 microM), PI hydrolysis (0.20 microM) and increase in GTPase activity (0.12 microM) were similar, but different from the EC50 value in shape change (0.013 microM), suggesting that activation of TXA2 receptors might cause shape change via

  3. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  4. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women.

  5. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women. PMID:22311294

  6. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  7. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  9. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  10. GalaxyCount: Galaxy counts and variance calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon

    2013-12-01

    GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.

  11. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  12. Evidence for human thromboxane receptor heterogeneity using a novel series of 9,11-cyclic carbonate derivatives of prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, A. H.; Woodward, D. F.; Gibson, L. L.; Protzman, C. E.; Williams, L. S.; Burk, R. M.; Gac, T. S.; Roof, M. B.; Abbas, F.; Marshall, K.; Senior, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The pharmacological activity of a novel series of 9,11-cyclic carbonate derivatives of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was investigated in various isolated smooth muscle preparations possessing different prostanoid receptor subtypes as well as in human platelets. Since subdivision of thromboxane (TP-) receptors into vascular/smooth muscle and platelet subtypes is a controversial subject, our studies included a human smooth muscle preparation (myometrium) in addition to the widely used rat aorta and human platelets as TP-receptor preparations. 2. Two members of that series, AGN191976 and AGN192093 were found to be highly potent and selective thromboxane-mimetics. AGN191976 and AGN192093 contracted isolated tissues of the rat thoracic aorta with EC50 values of 0.32 +/- 0.08 and 1.30 +/- 0.53 nM, respectively. Both agonists were at least 10 times more potent than the benchmark TP-agonist, U-46619, in this preparation, whilst being at least 500 times less potent at other prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP3, FP, IP) in vitro. 3. In human myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant donors, both AGN191976 and AGN192093 were potent contractile agonists. The rank order of potency in myometrium of AGN191976 > AGN192093 > U-46619 correlated well with that in the rat aorta. In human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), however, AGN191976 had potent proaggregatory activity (EC50 = 16.3 +/- 1.4 nM), which is a TP-receptor-mediated event, whereas AGN192093 was a much weaker agonist (EC50 = 37.9 +/- 2.0 microM). AGN192093 did not behave as an antagonist in the platelets, since it did not antagonize platelet aggregation induced by ADP, arachidonic acid, U-46619 or AGN191976. In human washed platelets, the activity profile of AGN191976 (EC50 = 4.15 +/- 0.52 nM) and AGN192093 (no aggregation up to 10 microM) was similar to that obtained in PRP. 4. The involvement of TP-receptors was verified with the potent TP-antagonist, SQ29548. SQ29548 (0.1 microM in myometrium; 1 microM in

  13. Effect of antenatal dexamethasone on neonatal leukocyte count.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Bauer, C R; Boehm, J; Korones, S B; Rigatto, H; Rao, A V

    1988-01-01

    The leukocyte count and differential white blood cell count during the first hour of life was determined in 164 neonates born of mothers receiving antenatal steroids and compared to 171 neonates of mothers randomly assigned to a placebo group. A leukemoid reaction (greater than 40,000 WBC/mm3) was seen only once each in the neonates born of placebo or steroid treated mothers. In addition, maternal steroid treatment had no general effect, except in a small subgroup of neonates born 3 to 7 days after the mother had been treated with 20 mg dexamethasone, where the total leukocyte and the absolute neutrophil counts were higher than the placebo group and other subgroups. PMID:3057139

  14. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  15. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  16. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  17. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  18. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

  19. Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

  20. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  1. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  2. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  3. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  4. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  5. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  6. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  7. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  8. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  9. Markedly elevated intra-articular white cell count caused by gout alone.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Brian M; Watling, Jonathan P; Vosseller, J Turner; Strauch, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Joint pain accompanied by erythema, swelling, and decreased range of motion is concerning for septic arthritis and typically warrants joint aspiration. The synovial fluid white blood cell count plays a central role in the decision-making process regarding these patients. Traditional teaching holds that a cell count greater than 50,000 white blood cells/µL is likely caused by infection and therefore warrants either operative intervention or serial aspiration. This report describes 2 patients with extremely high synovial fluid white blood cell counts in the absence of infection. Case 1 involved a 59-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of atraumatic left elbow pain and was found to have a white blood cell count of 168,500 white blood cells/µL on joint aspiration and innumerable monosodium urate crystals. The patient ultimately improved with treatment with oral prednisone, avoiding operative intervention. Case 2 involved a 69-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of atraumatic left knee pain. On arthrocentesis, the patient had a cell count of 500,000 white blood cells/µL and was therefore taken to the operating room for arthroscopic irrigation and debridement. Final analysis of the synovial fluid showed monosodium urate crystals and negative culture findings. These cases illustrate the highest synovial fluid white blood cell count reported in patients with gout and highlight the potential difficulty in differentiating between acute gout and septic arthritis in the setting of markedly elevated white blood cell count.

  10. Antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol is related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen species, ERK/p38 signaling and thromboxane A{sub 2} production

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chou, Han-Yi; Chang, Bei-En; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-09-15

    Platelet dysfunction is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Many antiplatelet agents are used for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this study, phloroglucinol (2.5–25 μM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}) production, but not U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Phloroglucinol (100–250 μM) showed little cytotoxicity to platelets. Phloroglucinol inhibited the COX-1 and COX-2 activities by 45–74% and 49–72% respectively at concentrations of 10–50 μM. At concentrations of 1 and 5 μM, phloroglucinol attenuated the AA-induced ROS production in platelets by 30% and 53%, with an IC{sub 50} of 13.8 μM. Phloroglucinol also inhibited the PMA-stimulated ROS production in PMN. Preincubation of platelets by phloroglucinol (10–25 μM) markedly attenuated the AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Intravenous administration of phloroglucinol (2.5 and 5 μmol/mouse) suppressed the ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation by 57–71%. Phloroglucinol administration also elevated the mice tail bleeding time. Moreover, phloroglucinol inhibited the IL-1β-induced PGE{sub 2} production in pulp fibroblasts. These results indicate that antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects of phloroglucinol are related to inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation in platelets. Phloroglucinol further suppress PMA-induced ROS production in PMN. The antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol was confirmed by ex vivo study. Clinically, the consumption of phloroglucinol-containing food/natural products as nutritional supplement may be helpful to cardiovascular health. Phloroglucinol has potential pharmacological use. -- Highlights: ► Phloroglucinol suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane production. ► Phloroglucinol inhibited COX activity and IL-1b-induced PGE2 production in fibroblast. ► Phloroglucinol

  11. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, X Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Wroe, Andrew J; Gridley, Daila S; Kennedy, Ann R

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS).

  12. Influence of vitamin E on the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in human blood.

    PubMed

    González-Correa, J A; Arrebola, M M; Guerrero, A; Muñoz-Marín, J; Ruiz-Villafranca, D; Sánchez de La Cuesta, F; De La Cruz, J P

    2005-01-01

    We analysed the in vitro interaction between acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin E on the principal antiplatelet sites of action of acetylsalicylic acid, i.e., platelet aggregation, prostanoid production in platelets and leukocytes, and nitric oxide synthesis. Aggregation was measured in whole blood and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with ADP, collagen or arachidonic acid as platelet inducers, and we measured the production of thromboxane B2, prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Vitamin E potentiated the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in both whole blood and PRP. In PRP induced with collagen the IC50 for acetylsalicylic acid alone was 339+/-11.26, and that of acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E was 0.89+/-0.09 (P<0.05). Vitamin E did not enhance inhibition of platelet thromboxane production by acetylsalicylic acid. Vitamin E spared or even increased prostacyclin levels, and acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E diminished the inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis by acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 acetylsalicylic acid alone=1.81+/-0.15 microM; IC50 acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E= 12.92+/-1.10 microM, P<0.05). Vitamin E increased the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on neutrophil nitric oxide production 42-fold (P<0.05). We conclude that vitamin E potentiates the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in vitro, and thus merits further research in ex vivo studies.

  13. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24396387

  14. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow.

  15. Reticulocyte count using thiazole orange. A flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, L; Goossens, W; Van Duppen, V; Verwilghen, R L

    1990-01-01

    Recently flow cytometry techniques have been developed to replace the microscope reticulocyte count. We used thiazole orange, a RNA binding fluorochrome, to discriminate reticulocytes from mature erythrocytes. Thiazole orange and the Retic-COUNT software package were evaluated for performance of routine analysis on different flow instruments. The applied methodology analysed 10(4) cells semi-automatically in an easily performed manner. Consistent results were obtained with dipotassium EDTA anticoagulated blood (stable for 30 h after venesection), with incubation times in thiazole orange solution ranging from 2 to 7 h at 25 degrees C. This allowed flexibility in specimen collection and storage and assay performance with no change in results. Changes of incubation temperature up to 30 degrees C had no measurable effect. The values obtained showed good linearity, precision and accuracy for normal, low and high reticulocyte counts. However interferences were observed: RBC autofluorescence, nucleated RBC, Howell-Jolly bodies, high leucocyte count, high platelet count and giant platelets, all falsely increased the number of reticulocytes. These artifacts were eliminated by software gate corrections, thus leaving less than 5% of the specimen to be reanalysed by the microscopic method. The thiazole orange flow cytometric method was determined to be a fast, reliable method for the routine clinical quantitation of reticulocytes.

  16. Counting reticulocytes by flow cytometry: use of thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Carter, J M; McSweeney, P A; Wakem, P J; Nemet, A M

    1989-01-01

    Thiazole orange is a new fluorescent dye which will bind to the residual RNA in the cytoplasm of reticulocytes and allow their enumeration by FACS analysis. We have evaluated the use of this dye in the routine haematology laboratory. There is an excellent correlation between manual and FACS reticulocyte counts (r = 0.98) but FACS counting showed significantly higher precision (CV = 3.1) than the manual method (CV = 11.9) for single observer, 20.8% for multiple observers). Clinical specimens showed stable reticulocyte counts for 6 h if stored at 4 degrees C allowing efficient batching of samples. There was a significant fall in reticulocyte counts stored for 24 h at both 4 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Evaluation of 78 male and 76 female blood donors by FACS analysis gave normal ranges (mean % +/- 2 SD) of 0.74 +/- 0.48 and 0.84 +/- 0.56 respectively (P less than 0.005). When corrected to absolute values there was no sex difference (36 +/- 24 x 10(9)/l). Thiazole orange is an effective stain for the automated counting of reticulocytes by FACS analysis.

  17. The contribution of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 to persistent thromboxane biosynthesis in aspirin-treated essential thrombocythemia: implications for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Alfredo; Pascale, Silvia; Recchiuti, Antonio; Mattoscio, Domenico; Lattanzio, Stefano; Petrucci, Giovanna; Mucci, Luciana; Ferrante, Elisabetta; Habib, Aida; Ranelletti, Franco O; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Davì, Giovanni; Patrono, Carlo; Rocca, Bianca

    2010-02-01

    We tested whether cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and unacetylated COX-1 in newly formed platelets might contribute to persistent thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis in aspirin-treated essential thrombocythemia (ET). Forty-one patients on chronic aspirin (100 mg/day) and 24 healthy subjects were studied. Platelet COX-2 expression was significantly increased in patients and correlated with thiazole orange-positive platelets (r = 0.71, P < .001). The rate of TXA(2) biosynthesis in vivo, as reflected by urinary 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (TXM) excretion, and the maximal biosynthetic capacity of platelets, as reflected by serum TXB(2), were higher in patients compared with aspirin-treated healthy volunteers. Serum TXB(2) was significantly reduced by the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 added in vitro. Patients were randomized to adding the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etoricoxib, or continuing aspirin for 7 days. Etoricoxib significantly reduced by approximately 25% TXM excretion and serum TXB(2). Fourteen of the 41 patients were studied again 21 (+/- 7) months after the first visit. Serum TXB(2) was consistently reduced by approximately 30% by adding NS398 in vitro, while it was completely suppressed with 50 microM aspirin. Accelerated platelet regeneration in most aspirin-treated ET patients may explain aspirin-persistent TXA(2) biosynthesis through enhanced COX-2 activity and faster renewal of unacetylated COX-1. These findings may help in reassessing the optimal antiplatelet strategy in ET. PMID:19887674

  18. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  19. Prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4 release from peritoneal macrophages by different osmotic agents in nonuremic guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hain, H; Jörres, A; Kögel, B; Mahiout, A; Gahl, G M; Kessel, M

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (Il-1), prostaglandins, and leukotrienes have been identified as inflammatory parameters in the setting of peritoneal dialysis. Recently, it was postulated that chronic overstimulation of peritoneal macrophages (PM) may result in fibrosis and loss of ultrafiltration. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether alternative osmotic agents (polyglucose, amino acids, glycerol, bicarbonate/glucose, gelatine, hydroxyethyl starch) provoke greater eicosanoid release by PMs than glucose. Fifty milliliters of sterile dialysate containing different osmotic agents were injected intraperitoneally into nonuremic guinea pigs. After 4 hours of dwell time, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was analyzed in peritoneal effluents using specific radioimmunoassays (RIA) after liquid extraction. Cyclooxygenase products were generated with all osmotic agents: PGE2 concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 2.8 ng/4h, and TXB2 levels ranged from 39 to 49 ng/4h. In addition, the lipoxygenase product LTB4 was found in concentrations between 1.8 and 3.5 ng/4h. There were no significant differences in eicosanoid release among the osmotic agents. Thus, in this experimental setting, the capacity of PM to release inflammatory mediators did not correlate with the chemical composition of the dialysis solutions.

  20. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  1. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  2. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  3. On-chip sample preparation by controlled release of antibodies for simple CD4 counting.

    PubMed

    Beck, Markus; Brockhuis, Silvia; van der Velde, Niels; Breukers, Christian; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple system for CD4 and CD8 counting for point-of-care HIV staging in low-resource settings. Automatic sample preparation is achieved through a dried reagent coating inside a thin (26 μm) counting chamber, allowing the delayed release of fluorochrome conjugated monoclonal antibodies after the filling of the chamber with whole blood by capillary flow. A custom-built image cytometer is used to capture fluorescence images representing more than 1 μl of blood. The thin layer of blood in combination with the large image area allows the use of whole blood from a finger prick without the need for dilution, lysis or cell enrichment. Automatic cell counting of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes correlates well with results obtained by flow cytometry.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and effects on thromboxane B2 production following intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine to exercised thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S; Chapman, N

    2015-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine is commonly used in horses for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The current ARCI threshold recommendation is 20 ng/mL when administered at least 24 h prior to race time. In light of samples exceeding the regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration, the primary goal of the study reported here was to update the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following intravenous administration, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An additional objective was to characterize the effects of flunixin on COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition when drug concentrations reached the recommended regulatory threshold. Sixteen exercised adult horses received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postadministration and analyzed using LC-MS. Blood samples were collected from 8 horses for determination of TxB(2) and PGE(2) concentrations prior to and up to 96 h postflunixin administration. Mean systemic clearance, steady-state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life was 0.767 ± 0.098 mL/min/kg, 0.137 ± 0.12 L/kg, and 4.8 ± 1.59 h, respectively. Four of the 16 horses had serum concentrations in excess of the current ARCI recommended regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration. TxB(2) suppression was significant for up to 24 h postadministration.

  5. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  6. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  7. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  8. [Basophil count of the newborn is not useful in prediction of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

    1996-01-01

    Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 108 children were prospectively studied with a follow-up to 18 months of age for development of topic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil count higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (r = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (r = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was respectively only 33% and 27%. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy.

  9. Race-specific WBC and neutrophil count reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Lim, E-M; Cembrowski, George; Cembrowski, M; Clarke, G

    2010-12-01

    Healthy African Americans are known to have reduced white blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) compared with European Americans, with little agreement about the levels in reference intervals. The objective is to establish race-specific reference intervals for WBC and ANC using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 2000-2003. A total of 14,184 civilian noninstitutionalized US citizens participated in NHANES 2000-2003 had complete blood count, red cell distribution width, platelet count and automated WBC differential determined on a Coulter MAXM. The exclusion criteria were used: ferritin <12 ng/ml, pregnancy, body mass index >30, diastolic blood pressure >100 mm Hg, creatinine >2.5 mg/dl, glucose >126 mg/dl. Data were separated into six sex/race categories: female non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBF)], Mexican American; male non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBM), Mexican American and two age groupings (12-18 and >18 years). NHB 2.5-97.5 percentile WBC and (ANC) limits follow (units: × 10⁹ /l): NHBM, ages 12-18: 3.2-9.3 (1.0-6.2); NHBF, ages 12-18: 3.7-10.1 (1.2-6.6); adult NHBM: 3.1-9.9 (1.3-6.6); adult NHBF: 3.4-11 (1.4-7.5). NHB limits are significantly lower than the NHW and MA limits. In most US healthcare organizations, insufficient agreement exists because of large differences in reference intervals for different ethnicities. In areas with peoples of African descent (>10--20%), race-specific WBC and ANC reference intervals must be provided for proper diagnosis and clinical research.

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  11. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  12. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  13. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  14. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  16. Airborne dust particle counting techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S G; Prasad, B D

    2006-03-01

    The paper briefly describes an electro-optical system for counting of dust particles, which is based on the scattering phenomena. Utilizing the scattering of light by various size particles present in the environment, various particle counting techniques have been developed in order to measure the scattered intensity of light. Light scatters in all directions but much more in the so-called near forward direction 17( composite function) off axis, at 163( composite function) from the light source in the visible range. On the basis of two techniques, the right angle and forward angle scattering, opto-mechanical systems have been developed which measure scattered intensity and particulate matter. The forward scattering Nephelometer is more sensitive and therefore is more suitable for pollution monitoring than the right angle scattering Nephelometer. Whereas the right angle scattering Nephelometer has the utility in extremely low concentration in ppb level owing to the excellent light trap efficiency in comparison to forward scattering Nephelometer. In this paper measurement techniques and measurement results associated with design and development of a real time particle analyser are also discussed.

  17. α1-Adrenoceptor activation of PKC-ε causes heterologous desensitization of thromboxane receptors in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingzi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the aorta of adult spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), but not in that of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), rats, previous exposure to phenylephrine inhibits subsequent contractions to PGE2. The present experiments were designed to examine the mechanism(s) underlying this inhibition. Experimental Approach Isometric tension was measured in isolated rings of SHR and WKY aortae. Gene expression and protein presence were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. Key Results In aorta of 18 weeks SHR, but not age-matched WKY, pre-exposure to phenylephrine inhibited subsequent contractions to PGE2 that were mediated by thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors. This inhibition was not observed in preparations of pre-hypertensive 5-week-old SHR, and was significantly larger in those of 36- than 18-week-old SHR. Pre-exposure to the PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, also inhibited subsequent contractions to PGE2 in SHR aortae. The selective inhibitor of PKC-ε, ε-V1-2, abolished the desensitization caused by pre-exposure to phenylephrine. Two molecular PKC bands were detected and their relative intensities differed in 36-week-old WKY and SHR vascular smooth muscle. The mRNA expressions of PKC-α, PKC-ε, PK-N2 and PKC-ζ and of G protein-coupled kinase (GRK)-2, GRK4 and β-arrestin2 were higher in SHR than WKY aortae. Conclusions and Implications These experiments suggest that in the SHR but not the WKY aorta, α1-adrenoceptor activation desensitizes TP receptors through activation of PKC-ε. This heterologous desensitization is a consequence of the chronic exposure to high arterial pressure. PMID:25857252

  18. Thromboxane A2 Regulates CXCL1 and CXCL8 Chemokine Expression in the Nasal Mucosa–Derived Fibroblasts of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Hao, Sheng-Po; Chen, Chih-Li; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is a common chronic disease and the etiology remains unclear. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) participates in platelet aggregation and tissue inflammation. In this study, the CXCL1/8 chemokine and TXA2-TP receptor expression in the CRSsNP mucosa was investigated. Experimental Approach Immunohistochemistry, chemokine release assay by ELISA, RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, Western blotting, pharmacological and siRNA knockdown analysis were applied in the CRSsNP tissue specimen and cultured nasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts. Results The immunohistochemistry results indicated that CXCL1 and CXCL8 were highly expressed in the CRSsNP mucosa compared with the controls; however, the TP receptors were expressed in both mucosa. Therefore, U46619 and IBOP, a TXA2 analog and TP agonist, were used to explore the role of TP activation in CXCL1/8 expression; both of these induced CXCL1/8 mRNA and protein expression in CRSsNP mucosa-derived fibroblasts. U46619 phosphorylated PI-3K, cyclic AMP (cAMP)/PKA, PKC, and cAMP response element (CREB). Activation of cAMP/PKA, PKC, and CREB was the major pathway for cxcl1/8 gene transcription. Pharmacological and siRNA knockdown analyses revealed that activation of cAMP/PKA and PKCμ/PKD pathways were required for CREB phosphorylation and PKA/C crosstalked with the PI-3K pathway. Conclusion and Implications Our study provides the first evidence for abundant TP receptor and CXCL1/8 expression in human CRSsNP mucosa and for TXA2 stimulation inducing CXCL1/8 expression in nasal fibroblasts primarily through TP receptor, cAMP/PKA, PKCμ/PKD, and CREB-related pathways. PMID:27351369

  19. Activation of cellular invasion by trefoil peptides and src is mediated by cyclooxygenase- and thromboxane A2 receptor-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Nguyen, Q D; Faivre, S; Bruyneel, E; Thim, L; Westley, B; May, F; Flatau, G; Mareel, M; Gespach, C; Emami, S

    2001-07-01

    We have investigated the possible functional relationships between cellular invasion pathways induced by trefoil factors (TFFs), src, and the cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2. Pharmacological inhibitors of the Rho small GTPase (C3 exoenzyme), phospholipase C (U-73122), cyclooxygenases (SC-560, NS-398), and the thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2-R) antagonist SQ-295 completely abolished invasion induced by intestinal trefoil factor, pS2, and src in kidney and colonic epithelial cells MDCKts.src and PCmsrc. In contrast, invasion was induced by the TXA2-R mimetic U-46619, constitutively activated forms of the heterotrimeric G-proteins Galphaq (AGalphaq), Galpha12, Galpha13 (AGalpha12/13), which are signaling elements downstream of TXA2-R. Ectopic overexpression of pS2 cDNA and protein in MDCKts.src-pS2 cells and human colorectal cancer cells HCT8/S11-pS2 initiate distinct invasion signals that are Rho independent and COX and TXA2-R dependent. We detected a marked induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of the stable PGH2/TXA2 metabolite TXB2 in the conditioned medium from cells transformed by src. This led to activation of the TXA2-R-dependent invasion pathway, which is monitored via a Rho- and Galpha12/Galpha13-independent mechanism using the Galphaq/PKC signaling cascade. These findings identify a new intracrine/paracrine loop that can be monitored by TFFs and src in inflammatory diseases and progression of colorectal cancers.

  20. 2-(2-Br-phenyl)-8-methoxy-benzoxazinone (HPW-RX2), a direct thrombin inhibitor with a suppressive effect on thromboxane formation in platelets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Wang, Tsai-Wei; Wang, Wei-Ya; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-12-19

    2-(2-Br-phenyl)-8-methoxy-benzoxazinone (HPW-RX2), a newly synthetic benzoxazinone derivative, has previously been shown to inhibit rabbit platelet aggregation caused by thrombin and arachidonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism for the antiplatelet effect of HPW-RX2 was further investigated. In human platelets, HPW-RX2 concentration-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation, ATP release, P-selectin expression, and intracellular calcium mobilization caused by thrombin. In contrast, HPW-RX2 had no significant effect on either SFLLRN- or GYPGKF-induced platelet aggregation, indicating that HPW-RX2 did not interfere with platelet thrombin receptors. Moreover, HPW-RX2 inhibited the amidolytic activity of thrombin and prolonged the fibrinogen clotting time. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of HPW-RX2 on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation is via direct inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Besides the inhibition on thrombin, HPW-RX2 also prevented platelet aggregation, ATP release, and increase in [Ca2+]i caused by arachidonic acid and low concentration collagen. In a parallel manner, both arachidonic acid-induced thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin D2 formations were decreased in platelets treated with HPW-RX2. This indicates that HPW-RX2 is able to inhibit the arachidonic acid cascade at the cyclooxygenase level. This is the first report of a benzoxazinone derivative possessing both thrombin and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties. The dual effect of HPW-RX2 might provide extra therapeutic benefits for treatment of arterial thrombosis. PMID:16313903

  1. Microfluidic differential immunocapture biochip for specific leukocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Umer; Watkins, Nicholas N; Reddy, Bobby; Damhorst, Gregory; Bashir, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Enumerating specific cell types from whole blood can be very useful for research and diagnostic purposes—e.g., for counting of cD4 and cD8 t cells in HIV/aIDs diagnostics. We have developed a biosensor based on a differential immunocapture technology to enumerate specific cells in 30 min using 10 µl of blood. this paper provides a comprehensive stepwise protocol to replicate our biosensor for cD4 and cD8 cell counts. the biochip can also be adapted to enumerate other specific cell types such as somatic cells or cells from tissue or liquid biopsies. capture of other specific cells requires immobilization of their corresponding antibodies within the capture chamber. therefore, this protocol is useful for research into areas surrounding immunocapture-based biosensor development. the biosensor production requires 24 h, a one-time cell capture optimization takes 6–9 h, and the final cell counting experiment in a laboratory environment requires 30 min to complete. PMID:26963632

  2. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  3. Varying levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and thromboxane B2 in serum and endothelialization and hyperplasia in small-diameter grafts seeded with CD34+ bone marrow cells in canines.

    PubMed

    Lian, Weishuai; Zhang, Huayi; Wang, Kun; Jiang, Junhao; Su, Zijie; Yu, Zhenhai

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1α and thromboxane (TX)B2, as well as the endothelialization and hyperplasia of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Dacron prostheses seeded with CD34+ cells in medium-term observation. A total of 24 crossbred dogs were randomly distributed into PTFE or Dacron groups. CD34+ cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and collected using an immunomagnetic bead-based system. The PTFE or Dacron prostheses were implanted into the abdominal aortic artery and inferior vena cava of the dogs. In each group, 8 dogs were implanted with prostheses that had been seeded with CD34+ cells, while 4 dogs were implanted with prostheses that had been seeded with autogenous blood as a control. Serum concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 were determined at days 0, 10, 30 and 60 following surgery. The grafts were removed and examined at days 10, 30, 60 and 100 following surgery. Finally, CD34 factor staining was used to identify endothelial cells, while light and electron microscopy were applied to examine endothelialization and patency. The results revealed that confluent endothelial cells appeared on the neointima of prostheses seeded with CD34+ cells at day 30 following surgery. In the control groups compared with the experimental groups, there were fewer endothelial cells and the neointima was significantly thicker in the arterial (PTFE, 174±1.41 vs. 117±2.83 μm, respectively; P=0.001; Dacron, 187.5±3.5 vs. 100±1.41 μm, respectively; P<0.001) and venous (PTFE, 230.5±6.36 vs. 135±5.66 μm, respectively; P=0.001; Dacron, 249±2.83 vs. 121.5±3.54 μm, respectively; P<0.001) prostheses. In the experimental groups, intimal hyperplasia in the venous prostheses (PTFE, 135±5.66 μm; Dacron, 121.5±3.54 μm) was more severe compared with that in the arterial prostheses (PTFE, 117±2.83 μm; Dacron, 100±1.41 μm) at day 60. Compared with the 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations in the

  4. KI and WU polyomaviruses and CD4+ cell counts in HIV-1-infected patients, Italy.

    PubMed

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2010-09-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1-positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1-positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1-positive patients.

  5. Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper bedding.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L; Todhunter, D A; Schoenberger, P S

    1990-07-01

    Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper, wood shavings, and pelleted corn cobs used as bedding for lactating dairy cows were compared. Chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and streptococcal bedding counts. Staphylococcal counts in pelleted corn cobs were greater than in chopped newspaper. Conversely, gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcal counts in chopped newspaper were greater than in wood shavings. Coliform and streptococcal counts did not differ between chopped newspaper and wood shavings bedding materials. Teat swab counts from cows bedded on pelleted corn cobs were greater than those from cows bedded on chopped newspaper for gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, and staphylococci. Streptococcal teat swab counts did not differ between cows bedded on chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs. Cows bedded on chopped newspaper and wood shavings had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and Klebsiella species teat swab counts. Streptococcal and staphylococcal teat swab counts were greater from cows bedded on chopped newspaper than those from cows bedded on wood shavings. Teat swab and bedding counts were correlated. In general, bacterial counts in bedding suggest no advantage in using chopped newspaper over pelleted corn cobs or wood shavings in reducing exposure of teats to environmental mastitis pathogens. PMID:2229587

  6. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  7. Visual and automated differential leukocyte counts. A comparison study of three instruments.

    PubMed

    Rosvoll, R V; Mengason, A P; Smith, L; Patel, H J; Maynard, J; Connor, F

    1979-06-01

    The authors compared referee (senior author) microscopic counts, microscopic counts by several technologists, and counts obtained with two pattern-recognition leukocyte classifiers, (1) Larc and (2) Hematrak, and a cytochemical automated method for leukocyte counting, (3) Hermalog D, using samples from (1) a random patient population, (2) a selected abnormal patient population, and (3) healthy individuals. All instruments showed good accuracy and flagged abnormal results for review. Variability in pattern-recognition counts was found to be due mainly to the distribution of the cells on prepared blood smears. The Larc classifier was found to be very sensitive to minor alterations in the cytoplasm or nucleus, and rejected a number of slides. The Hemalog D showed the greatest precision. The method of preparation of slides would be a major decision factor in selecting one pattern-recognition instrument over another.

  8. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation.

  9. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation. PMID:26585490

  10. Counting hypermaps by Egorychev's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednykh, Alexander; Nedela, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to find explicit formulae for the number of rooted hypermaps with a given number of darts on an orientable surface of genus g≤ 3. Such formulae were obtained earlier for g=0 and g=1 by Walsh and Arquès respectively. We first employ the Egorychev's method of counting combinatorial sums to obtain a new version of the Arquès formula for genus g=1. Then we apply the same approach to get new results for genus g=2,3. We could do it due to recent results by Giorgetti, Walsh, and Kazarian, Zograf who derived two different, but equivalent, forms of the generating functions for the number of hypermaps of genus two and three.

  11. Counting solutions from finite samplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290

  12. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  13. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  14. Well coincidence counting and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.

    1994-03-01

    In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

  15. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  16. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  17. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries.

  18. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263

  19. Counting Electrons on Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, Phillip

    2004-03-01

    Electrons on liquid helium, localised in an array of quantum dots, have been proposed as condensed matter qubits [M.I.Dykman et al. Phys.Rev. B 67, 155402 (2003)]. The ground and first excited Rydberg states in the vertical potential well on the helium surface would represent |0> and |1>. This requires (a) novel electronic devices on helium using microstructured substrates, (b) excitation of Rydberg states using millimetric microwaves and (c) detection of individual electrons and their quantum states. Progress in meeting these challenges will be presented. An AC-coupled Field Effect Transistor (FET) has been made on GaAs, using free electrons on suspended liquid helium microchannels, 16 micron wide and 1.6 microns deep [P.Glasson et al, Phys.Rev.Lett. 87 176802 (2001)]. The microwave absorption to the first excited Rydberg state near 200 GHz has been measured below 1 K [E.Collin et al. Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 245301 (2002)], where the temperature-dependent contribution to the linewidth is small. High values of the ratio of the Rabi frequency to the linewidth are obtained. Electrons are trapped on a 5 micron diameter pool of superfluid helium, above a single-electron-transistor (SET) as a detector. The pool is charged from a surface electron reservoir and we count the electrons into and out of the trap. Individual electrons can be stored, detected and counted: the next stage is quantum state detection. The prospects for qubits and quantum information processing with electrons on helium will be assessed.

  20. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  1. Agreement of manual cell counts and automated counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer for analysis of equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, Eline; Oosterlinck, Maarten; Duchateau, Luc; Pille, Frederik

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the scil Vet abc Plus(+) (SCIL Animal Care Company, Altorf, France), an impedance hematology analyzer, can accurately quantify and differentiate nucleated blood cells (NBCs) in equine synovial fluid. Synovial fluid samples (n=242) in different stages of experimentally induced inflammation were analyzed with and without hyaluronidase pretreatment and compared to manual hemocytometer counts and smear reviews. No significant effect of hyaluronidase pretreatment was observed. Total nucleated cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were significantly higher compared to the manual method (P=0.02), yet the difference was small and clinically irrelevant (ratio manual/automated count equal to 0.97 with 95% CI [0.95, 1.00]). Differential cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were not accurate. In conclusion, the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer is highly accurate for quantification, but not accurate for differentiation of NBCs in equine synovial fluid.

  2. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  3. Blood Parameters of Healthy Mink

    PubMed Central

    Fletch, S. M.; Karstad, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) were not dependent on color type. Both were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the adult male mink as compared to the adult female. The total erythrocyte count was more variable but the parameter appeared unaffected by either sex or color types. Polychromasia, reticulocytes and the occasional normoblast, were present in peripheral mink blood smears. Rouleau, to some degree. was also seen. The most variable parameter was the total leukocyte count. The average lymphoidneutrophil ratio was 1:1. PMID:4261842

  4. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  5. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  6. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  7. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... matches yours. You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other ... member or friend donating blood before a planned surgery. This blood is then set aside and held ...

  8. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  9. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  10. Antiplatelet Effect of Catechol Is Related to Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase, Reactive Oxygen Species, ERK/p38 Signaling and Thromboxane A2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Catechol (benzenediol) is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5–5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10–50 µM) suppressed COX-1 activity by 29–44% and COX-2 activity by 29–50%. It also inhibited IL-1β-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1–10 µM) attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5–5 µmole/mouse) attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet

  11. The function and three-dimensional structure of a thromboxane A2/cysteinyl leukotriene-binding protein from the saliva of a mosquito vector of the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Patricia H; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Calvo, Eric; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F

    2010-01-01

    The highly expressed D7 protein family of mosquito saliva has previously been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory mediator by binding host biogenic amines and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). In this study we demonstrate that AnSt-D7L1, a two-domain member of this group from Anopheles stephensi, retains the CysLT binding function seen in the homolog AeD7 from Aedes aegypti but has lost the ability to bind biogenic amines. Unlike any previously characterized members of the D7 family, AnSt-D7L1 has acquired the important function of binding thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) and its analogs with high affinity. When administered to tissue preparations, AnSt-D7L1 abrogated Leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4))-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum and contraction of rat aorta by the TXA(2) analog U46619. The protein also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by both collagen and U46619 when administered to stirred platelets. The crystal structure of AnSt-D7L1 contains two OBP-like domains and has a structure similar to AeD7. In AnSt-D7L1, the binding pocket of the C-terminal domain has been rearranged relative to AeD7, making the protein unable to bind biogenic amines. Structures of the ligand complexes show that CysLTs and TXA(2) analogs both bind in the same hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain. The TXA(2) analog U46619 is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions of the ω-5 hydroxyl group with the phenolic hydroxyl group of Tyr 52. LTC(4) and occupies a very similar position to LTE(4) in the previously determined structure of its complex with AeD7. As yet, it is not known what, if any, new function has been acquired by the rearranged C-terminal domain. This article presents, to our knowledge, the first structural characterization of a protein from mosquito saliva that inhibits collagen mediated platelet activation. PMID:21152418

  12. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  13. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  14. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  15. Accuracy of Carbohydrate Counting in Adults.

    PubMed

    Meade, Lisa T; Rushton, Wanda E

    2016-07-01

    In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education. PMID:27621531

  16. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  17. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a) The... ineligibility determinations, the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following...

  18. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  19. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  20. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments.

  1. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  2. Value of Neutrophil Counts in Predicting Surgery-Related Acute Kidney Injury and the Interaction of These Counts With Diabetes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Xing; Liu, Xin-yao; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Ya-ping; Kuang, Ze-min; Cao, Dongsheng; Chen, Alex F.; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a component of routine blood cell analyses, the quantity of neutrophils present is a proven predictor of morbidity and mortality in several clinical settings. However, whether episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with higher neutrophil counts in vulnerable groups, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between neutrophil counts and the incidence of surgery-related AKI in CKD patients with hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between neutrophils and surgery-related AKI. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In total, 119 (11.9%) of 998 patients experienced surgery-related AKI during hospitalization from October 2008 to February 2013. We divided patients into 4 quartiles according to their neutrophil counts. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the patients in the 4th quartile of neutrophil counts had greater ORs for AKI compared to those in the 1st quartile. The incidence of AKI increased 1.59-fold for those patients with neutrophil counts ≥6.30 × 109/L. There was a positive linear association between the neutrophil count upon admission and the predicted probability of AKI. The cross-validation revealed a statistically significant predictive accuracy for AKI (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.67–0.69). The interaction analyses revealed that higher neutrophil counts are associated with a heightened risk of AKI in the presence of diabetes (OR = 3.38, 95% CI, 1.06–10.80). There were no interactions between neutrophil counts and age (P = 0.371), sex (P = 0.335), estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.487), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.950), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.977), the presence of chronic heart failure (P = 0.226), or sepsis (P = 0.796). The neutrophil count upon

  3. Diagnosing Septic Arthritis in the Synovial White Cell Count "Gray Zone".

    PubMed

    Ruzbarsky, Joseph J; Gladnick, Brian P; Dodwell, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Differentiating septic arthritis of the pediatric hip from other causes of hip pain and effusion continues to present a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Although septic arthritis traditionally has been reported to have a synovial white blood cell count of 75,000 cells/mm3 or greater, lower counts can be seen in this condition. In cases where a synovial sample has been obtained and the cell count falls in the intermediate range between 25,000 and 75,000 cells/mm(3), it is unclear what proportion of these cases may be truly septic hips. In this evidence-based review, we examine Heyworth et al's study focusing on the predictive value of this intermediate white cell count range in a Lyme-endemic region.

  4. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  5. Correlation of platelet count and acute ST-elevation in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Paul, G K; Sen, B; Bari, M A; Rahman, Z; Jamal, F; Bari, M S; Sazidur, S R

    2010-07-01

    The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been substantiated by studies that demonstrated significant clinical benefits associated with antiplatelet therapy. Initial platelet counts in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) may be a useful adjunct for identifying those patients who may or may not respond to fibrinolytic agents. Patient with acute STEMI has variable level of platelet count and with higher platelet count have poor in hospital outcome. There are many predictors of poor outcome in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) like cardiac biomarkers (Troponin I, Troponin T and CK-MB), C-Reactive Protien (CRP) and WBC (White Blood Cell) counts. Platelet count on presentation of STEMI is one of them. Higher platelet count is associated with higher rate of adverse clinical outcome in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), like heart failure, arrhythmia, re-infarction & death. So, categorization of patient with STEMI on the basis of platelet counts may be helpful for risk stratification and management of these patients.

  6. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  7. Effects of BM-573 on Endothelial Dependent Relaxation and Increased Blood Pressure at Early Stages of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Miguel; Leon-Gomez, Elvira; Lobysheva, Irina; Rath, Géraldine; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Feron, Olivier; Dessy, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early event in atherosclerosis and plays a pivotal role in the development, progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of combined inhibition of thromboxane synthase and antagonism of thromboxane receptors by BM-573 on atherosclerosis; however our knowledge about the beneficial effects of BM-573 on endothelial function and increased blood pressure related to early stage of atherosclerosis is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (3 μM, 1 hour) and chronic (10 mg/L, 8 weeks) treatments with BM-573 on vasodilatory function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and systolic blood pressure in 15 weeks old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. ApoE-KO mice showed a reduced endothelium-derived relaxation. In addition, NO bioavailability was reduced and oxidative stress and blood pressure were increased in ApoE-KO mice versus wild-type mice. BM-573 treatments were able to improve the relaxation profile in ApoE-KO mice. Short-term effects of BM-573 were mainly mediated by an increased phosphorylation of both eNOS and Akt, whereas BM-573 in vivo treatment also reduced oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability. In addition, chronic administration of BM-573 reduced systolic blood pressure in ApoE-KO mice. In conclusion, pharmacological modulation of TxA2 biosynthesis and biological activities by dual TP antagonism/TxAS inhibition with BM-573, already known to prevent plaque formation, has the potential to correct vasodilatory dysfunction at the early stages of atherosclerosis.

  8. Effects of BM-573 on Endothelial Dependent Relaxation and Increased Blood Pressure at Early Stages of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Miguel; Leon-Gomez, Elvira; Lobysheva, Irina; Rath, Géraldine; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Feron, Olivier; Dessy, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early event in atherosclerosis and plays a pivotal role in the development, progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of combined inhibition of thromboxane synthase and antagonism of thromboxane receptors by BM-573 on atherosclerosis; however our knowledge about the beneficial effects of BM-573 on endothelial function and increased blood pressure related to early stage of atherosclerosis is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (3μM, 1 hour) and chronic (10mg/L, 8 weeks) treatments with BM-573 on vasodilatory function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and systolic blood pressure in 15 weeks old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. ApoE-KO mice showed a reduced endothelium-derived relaxation. In addition, NO bioavailability was reduced and oxidative stress and blood pressure were increased in ApoE-KO mice versus wild-type mice. BM-573 treatments were able to improve the relaxation profile in ApoE-KO mice. Short-term effects of BM-573 were mainly mediated by an increased phosphorylation of both eNOS and Akt, whereas BM-573 in vivo treatment also reduced oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability. In addition, chronic administration of BM-573 reduced systolic blood pressure in ApoE-KO mice. In conclusion, pharmacological modulation of TxA2 biosynthesis and biological activities by dual TP antagonism/TxAS inhibition with BM-573, already known to prevent plaque formation, has the potential to correct vasodilatory dysfunction at the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:27019366

  9. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  10. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  11. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  12. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  13. Increased Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios and Low Relative Lymphocyte Counts Predict Appropriate Shocks in Heart Failure Patients with ICDs

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Kevser Gülcihan; Balci, Mustafa Mücahit; Arslan, Ugur; Açar, Burak; Maden, Orhan; Selcuk, Hatice; Selcuk, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and relative lymphocyte count (L%) are commonly available tests that can be obtained from complete blood count. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between appropriate defibrillator therapy and PLR, and whether decreased lymphocyte count may predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods A total of 147 patients with ischemic or non-ischemic HF who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention were enrolled in this study. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn on the same day as ICD implantation. White blood cell counts with differentials, red blood cell indices, and platelet counts were calculated with an automated blood cell counter. All patients were evaluated according to the presence of appropriate ICD therapy. Results Baseline ejection fraction was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p = 0.040). Median PLR was significantly higher and L% was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p < 0.001). In both ischemic and non-ischemic HF groups, median L% was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p < 0.001; p = 0.006, respectively). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only L% showed a strong association with appropriate shock therapy (p < 0.001). Conclusions Higher PLRs are related to appropriate shocks in patients that received ICD with lower EF. Furthermore, decreased L% is independently associated with appropriate shocks in HF. PMID:27713602

  14. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks BEVERAGE SERVING SIZE CALORIES Soda 7 Up 12 oz. ... SN, PhD, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US: adults, overall ...

  15. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  16. SIS Detectors for Terahertz Photon Counting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Hajime; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ukibe, Masahiro; Fujii, Go; Shiki, Shigetomo

    2016-07-01

    An Intensity interferometer with photon counting detector is a candidate to realize a THz interferometer for astronomical observations. We have demonstrated that synthesis imaging is possible even with intensity interferometers. An SIS junction (or STJ) with low leakage current of 1 pA is a suitable device for photon counting detectors. Readout circuit utilizing FETs with low gate leakage, low gate capacitance, and fast response is discussed.

  17. TVFMCATS. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.K.

    1999-05-01

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor`s hardware.

  18. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Russell Kevin

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  19. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  20. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis. PMID:23480230

  1. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.

  2. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production {{ Immunoglobulins, antibodies made by plasma cells in response ... used for chemotherapy cause temporarily impaired blood cell production in the marrow and depressed immune system functions. ...

  3. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  4. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower platelet and leukocyte counts: results from the Moli-sani study.

    PubMed

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts are 2 markers of inflammation and have been linked to the risk for cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease. A Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with reduced inflammation and mortality for major chronic diseases. We aimed at evaluating the association between the MD and both PLT and WBC counts. This cross-sectional analysis in a population-based cohort study included 14,586 healthy Italian citizens enrolled within the Moli-sani study. Adherence to MD was appraised by either the MD Score (MDS) or the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI). PLT and WBC counts were both inversely related to MD adherence (MDS: P < .0001 and P = .008, respectively). As compared with those with poorer MD adherence, subjects with greater adherence had both reduced odds of being in the highest PLT-count group (MDS: odds ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.80) and increased odds of being in the lowest WBC-count group (IMI: odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.86). The association between WBC count and MDS disappeared when further adjusted for PLT count, whereas the association between PLT count and the MD was not affected by adjustment for WBCs. Food antioxidant and dietary fiber content modified the inverse association between MDS and WBC count and partially accounted for the association with PLTs.

  5. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  6. KI and WU Polyomaviruses and CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-1–infected Patients, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2010-01-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients. PMID:20735940

  7. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  8. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  9. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  10. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  11. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  12. Thrombosis and blood cells in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, C; Hernández, M R; Villaverde, C A

    1988-06-01

    Hemorheological changes produced in blood cells seem to be essential in atheroma plaque development and thrombotic episodes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between blood cells count, thrombogenic situations and morphological mesenteric alterations in atherosclerotic rats. Atherosclerosis was induced by an atherogenic diet made up of two phases, the first a hypervitaminic diet, and the second a hyperlipidic one. Cell counts were performed with Thoma's camera. Morphological changes were observed directly in rat mesentery. Thrombogenic situations were investigated by a mesenteric microthrombosis induction method. In atherosclerotic animals we can observe a higher mesenteric opacity, increase in blood viscosity and a thickness in vessel wall. Thrombosis time is shortened at 3 days, which indicates a thrombogenic situation although at 10 days there is a lenthening in this parameter. Blood cell counts were not modified significantly, but modifications in differential leukocyte counts were significant. We found a direct relationship between lymphocyte number and thrombosis time whereas with granulocytes this relationship was inverse: shortening in thrombosis time appearing simultaneously with an increase in cell number. PMID:3419397

  13. Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

  14. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  15. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows.

  17. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  18. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. )

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  19. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  1. Association of BPD and IVH with early neutrophil and white counts in VLBW neonates with gestational age <32 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Mari; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between early low neutrophil count from routine blood samples, white blood count (WBC), pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes for very low birth weight infants (VLBW ≤1500g) with gestational age <32 weeks. Patients and Methods Information was abstracted on all infants admitted to level III NICUs in Wisconsin 2003-2004. 1002 (78%) had differential and corrected total white counts within 2 ½ hours of birth. Data analyses included frequency tables, binary logistic, ordinal logistc and ordinary regression. Results Low neutrophil count (<1000/μL) was strongly associated with low WBC, pregnancy complications and antenatal steroids. Low neutrophil count predicted bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity level (BPD) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.7) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) grade (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8). Conclusions Early neutrophil counts may have multiple causes interfering with their routine use as an inflammatory marker. Nonetheless, low neutrophil count has consistent independent associations with outcomes. PMID:18563166

  2. A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4(+) T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuanhong; Irimia, Daniel; Dixon, Meredith; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Demirci, Utkan; Zamir, Lee; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rodriguez, William; Toner, Mehmet

    2007-02-01

    Practical HIV diagnostics are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. While HIV infection can be diagnosed using simple, rapid, lateral flow immunoassays, HIV disease staging and treatment monitoring require accurate counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4(+) T lymphocyte. To address the limitations of current expensive, technically demanding and/or time-consuming approaches, we have developed a simple CD4 counting microfluidic device. This device uses cell affinity chromatography operated under differential shear flow to specifically isolate CD4(+) T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microliters of unprocessed, unlabeled whole blood. CD4 counts are obtained under an optical microscope in a rapid, simple and label-free fashion. CD4 counts determined in our device matched measurements by conventional flow cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R(2) = 0.93). This CD4 counting microdevice can be used for simple, rapid and affordable CD4 counting in point-of-care and resource-limited settings. PMID:17268618

  3. Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kotepui, Manas; Piwkham, Duangjai; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2015-01-01

    Changes in blood cell parameters are already a well-known feature of malarial infections. To add to this information, the objective of this study was to investigate the varying effects that different levels of parasite density have on blood cell parameters. Patients diagnosed with malaria at Phobphra Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2012 were recruited as subjects for data collection. Blood cell parameters of 2,024 malaria-infected patients were evaluated and statistically analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly higher, however, RBC count was significantly lower in patients with P. falciparum infection compared to those with P. vivax infection (p<0.0001). Leukocyte counts were also significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia. In terms of differential leukocyte count, neutrophil count was significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia (p<0.0001). On the other hand, both lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with high parasitemia (p<0.0001). RBC count and Hb concentration, as well as platelet count were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) and (p<0.0001), respectively. To summarize, patients infected with different malaria parasites exhibited important distinctive hematological parameters, with neutrophil and eosinophil counts being the two hematological parameters most affected. In addition, patients infected with different malarial densities also exhibited important changes in leukocyte count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during the infection. These findings offer the opportunity to recognize and diagnose malaria related anemia, help support the treatment thereof, as well as relieve symptoms of severe malaria in endemic regions. PMID:25807235

  4. [A simple method for counting Rickettsia cells].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianov, V V

    1990-01-01

    A simple modification of the method for counting Rickettsiae is described. The Escherichia coli cells (ECC) which served as reference particles were stained in suspension with methylene blue mixed with Rickettsia prowazekii (RP) and quickly sprayed over the glass slide. After fixation the samples were stained according to the technique of Gimenez and examined in the light microscope under oil immersion. Through a grid in the eye-piece it was not so difficult to count red-coloured RP and dark-blue ECC against a background formed by impurities. To calculate RP concentration, the reference particles' concentration was multiplied by the dilution factor of RP suspension by the ratio of RP to ECC enumerated. The statistical approach has shown that the wash of the slides during staining procedure does not change this ratio. Differential staining of Rickettsiae with fuchsin is the main clue of this new method to count them even in the crude preparations of infected yolk sacs. PMID:1693751

  5. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  6. Vortex Counting and Lagrangian 3-Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Hollands, Lotte

    2011-12-01

    To every 3-manifold M one can associate a two-dimensional {mathcal{N}=(2, 2)} supersymmetric field theory by compactifying five-dimensional {mathcal{N}=2} super-Yang-Mills theory on M. This system naturally appears in the study of half-BPS surface operators in four-dimensional {mathcal{N}=2} gauge theories on one hand, and in the geometric approach to knot homologies, on the other. We study the relation between vortex counting in such two-dimensional {mathcal{N}=(2, 2)} supersymmetric field theories and the refined BPS invariants of the dual geometries. In certain cases, this counting can also be mapped to the computation of degenerate conformal blocks in two-dimensional CFT's. Degenerate limits of vertex operators in CFT receive a simple interpretation via geometric transitions in BPS counting.

  7. [A simple method for counting Rickettsia cells].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianov, V V

    1990-01-01

    A simple modification of the method for counting Rickettsiae is described. The Escherichia coli cells (ECC) which served as reference particles were stained in suspension with methylene blue mixed with Rickettsia prowazekii (RP) and quickly sprayed over the glass slide. After fixation the samples were stained according to the technique of Gimenez and examined in the light microscope under oil immersion. Through a grid in the eye-piece it was not so difficult to count red-coloured RP and dark-blue ECC against a background formed by impurities. To calculate RP concentration, the reference particles' concentration was multiplied by the dilution factor of RP suspension by the ratio of RP to ECC enumerated. The statistical approach has shown that the wash of the slides during staining procedure does not change this ratio. Differential staining of Rickettsiae with fuchsin is the main clue of this new method to count them even in the crude preparations of infected yolk sacs.

  8. Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

  9. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  10. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  11. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  12. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  13. Platelet function defects in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailidis, D P; Jenkins, W J; Barradas, M A; Jeremy, J Y; Dandona, P

    1986-01-01

    Platelet function in alcoholic patients was assessed on admission and during abstinence in hospital. On admission platelets from these patients were significantly less responsive (percentage aggregation and thromboxane A2 release) to conventional in vitro aggregating agents (adrenaline, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen) than platelets from healthy, moderate drinkers. Initially, platelet counts in platelet rich plasma tended to be low and the Simplate II bleeding times frequently prolonged. Platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release, however, were inhibited even in patients with normal platelet counts on admission. Platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release returned to normal or became hyper-responsive during two to three weeks of abstinence. Platelet counts rose during this period, the largest responses occurring in those patients with the lowest counts on admission. Bleeding times reverted to normal during abstinence and correlated significantly with changes in platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 release, and platelet count and with the estimated ethanol consumption during the week before admission. Chronic, heavy alcohol ingestion evidently exerts an inhibitory effect on platelet function even in the absence of alcohol in the blood, and this phenomenon is reversible on abstaining. The impaired platelet function, together with the reduced platelet count, may contribute to the bleeding diathesis associated with chronic alcoholism and to the increased incidence and recurrence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage associated with excessive alcohol intake. PMID:3094624

  14. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  15. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role.

  16. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  17. Comparison of a modified thiazole orange technique with a fully automated analyser for reticulocyte counting.

    PubMed

    Bowen, D; Bentley, N; Hoy, T; Cavill, I

    1991-02-01

    Two independent methods for quantitating reticulocyte counts were compared. One used a modified thiazole orange technique and a flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACS); the other was a fully automated whole blood analyser (Sysmex R1000). Both methods gave comparable results with a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. Samples measured using the R1000 showed a negligible decrease in the reticulocyte count over five days at room temperature, although there was evidence of continuing intracellular maturation: with thiazole orange there was an apparent increase. A practical reference range of 20-70 x 10(9)/l was established from 89 normal subjects. The close correlation between the two independent estimates indicates the validity of the quantitation of the reticulocyte count and shows that automation allows significant changes within and below the normal range to be detected with a degree of reliability which was not previously possible.

  18. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  19. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body's tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  20. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…