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Sample records for blood count thromboxane

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  2. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  3. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  4. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  6. A native whole blood test for the evaluation of blood-surface interaction: determination of thromboxane production.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, E; Marconi, W; Cebo, B; Togna, A R; Togna, G; Caprino, L

    1984-05-01

    The method developed to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial materials involves the determination of thromboxane production during the clotting of rabbit blood, in test tubes of different materials. The concentration of serum TXB2 obtained after incubation of whole blood in glass test tubes, for 40 min at 37 degrees C, averaged 416.8 +/- 23.3 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Polymethylpentene, recognised as having a relatively poor blood compatibility, elicited 309.5 +/- 17.2 ng/ml of serum TXB2, while silicone and Avcothane, considered of better hemocompatibility, showed thromboxane levels of 276.2 +/- 28.2 and 222.9 +/- 31.5 ng/ml, respectively. These values validate the usefulness of the proposed method as a preliminary in vitro screening test of artificial materials intended for biomedical application.

  7. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the platelet count is too low, a person can be in danger of bleeding in any part of the body. The CBC can also test for loss of blood, abnormalities in the production or destruction of blood cells, acute and chronic infections, allergies, and problems with ...

  8. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  9. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  10. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Nocun, Marek; Ulicna, Olga; Muchova, Jana; Durackova, Zdenka; Watala, Cezary

    2008-03-01

    The protective effect of Pycnogenol against cardiovascular diseases was clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, little is known about its antithrombotic effect, especially in diabetes associated with enhanced thromboxane synthesis leading to severe vascular complications. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term Pycnogenol intake on synthesis of prothrombotic thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes. The levels of main plasma TXA(2) metabolite, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes was induced in Wistar male rats by single injection of streptozotocin, resulting after 8 weeks in significant body weight reduction, increased plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased plasma C-peptide levels, compared to non-diabetic animals. There was no significant reduction of plasma glucose concentrations after Pycnogenol ingestion. It was found, however, that daily administration of either Pycnogenol (5mg/kg b.wt.) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 10mg/kg b.wt.) significantly reduced plasma TXB(2) concentrations, and this inhibitory effect was higher in the latter case. Nonetheless, simultaneous administration of Pycnogenol and ASA did not improve effectiveness of ASA-mediated decrease in TXB(2) generation. The results of the present study suggest that Pycnogenol might have a beneficial antithrombotic effect when administered alone or as a supplementation of standard antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients.

  11. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index.

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  17. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  18. Role of the cyclooxygenase 2-thromboxane pathway in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced decrease in mesencephalic vein blood flow in the zebrafish embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraoka, Hiroki Kubota, Akira; Dong, Wu; Kawai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Koji; Mori, Chisato; Harada, Yoshiteru; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) evoked developmental toxicity required activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2), using zebrafish embryos. However, the downstream molecular targets of AHR2 activation are largely unknown and are the focus of the present investigation. TCDD induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis in certain cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the COX2-thromboxane pathway in causing a specific endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in the zebrafish embryo, namely, a decrease in regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain. It was found that the TCDD-induced reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow was markedly inhibited by selective COX2 inhibitors, NS-398 and SC-236, and by a general COX inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a selective COX1 inhibitor, SC-560. Gene knock-down of COX2 by two different types of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, but not by their negative homologs, also protected the zebrafish embryos from mesencephalic vein circulation failure caused by TCDD. This inhibitory effect of TCDD on regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain was also blocked by selective antagonists of the thromboxane receptor (TP). Treatment of control zebrafish embryos with a TP agonist also caused a reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow and it too was blocked by a TP antagonist, without any effect on trunk circulation. Finally, gene knock-down of thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS) with morpholinos but not by the morpholinos' negative homologs provided significant protection against TCDD-induced mesencephalic circulation failure. Taken together, these results point to a role of the prostanoid synthesis pathway via COX2-TBXS-TP in the local circulation failure induced by TCDD in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo.

  19. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  20. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  1. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... time the skin is broken) multiple punctures to locate veins Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

  2. Restoration of blood pressure by centrally injected U-46619, a thromboxane A(2) analog, in hemorrhaged hypotensive rats: investigation of different brain areas.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Murat; Savci, Vahide

    2004-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of centrally injected U-46619, a thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) analog, and the central and peripheral mechanisms of these effects in hemorrhagic shock conditions. Hemorrhage was performed by withdrawing a total volume of 2.1 ml of blood/100 g body weight over a period of 10 min. Injections were made into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LCV), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN). U-46619 (0.1, 1 and 2 microg) increased blood pressure and reversed hypotension in hemorrhagic shock. The pressor effect was dose- and time-dependent in all investigated brain areas. Heart rate changes were not significantly different in all groups. Pretreatment of rats with an injection of SQ-29548 (4 or 8 microg), a TXA(2) receptor antagonist, into the LCV, NTS, RVLM and PVN completely blocked the pressor effect of U-46619 (1 microg) injected into respective brain areas. Hemorrhage itself increased plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressIN levels and renin activity. U-46619 (1 microg) injected into the LCV, PVN, RVLM and NTS produced additional increases in these hormone levels and in renin activity. Intravenous pretreatments of rats with prazosin (0.5 mg/kg), an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl(1), O-Me-Tyr(2),Arg(8)]- vasopressin (10 microg/kg), a vasopressin V(1)-receptor antagonist, or saralasin (250 microg/kg), an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in hemorrhaged rats partially blocked the pressor response to U-46619 (1 microg) injected into the LCV, PVN, RVLM and NTS. Results show that centrally administered U-46619, a TXA(2) analog, increases blood pressure and reverses hypotension in hemorrhagic shock. Activation of central TXA(2) receptors mediates the pressor effect of the drug. Furthermore, the increases in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin

  3. Protein binding and in vitro serum thromboxane B2 inhibition by flunixin meglumine and meclofenamic acid in dog, goat and horse blood.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, E A; McKellar, Q A

    1996-07-01

    Flunixin was highly protein bound in the serum of dogs (92.2 per cent), goats (84.8 per cent) and horses (86.9 per cent). Meclofenamic acid was also highly protein bound, although there were larger differences between the extent of the binding in dogs (90.3 per cent), goats (84.7 per cent) and horses (99.8 per cent). Both flunixin and meclofenamic acid were potent inhibitors of the in vitro generation of thromboxane (Tx) B2 in blood. Flunixin inhibited the generation of TxB2 by 50 per cent of the maximum response (IC50) in dog, goat and horse blood at concentrations of 0.10, 0.02 and 0.04 microM respectively and by 100 per cent (Imax) at 2.07, 0.14 and 2.07 microM respectively. The IC50 values of meclofenamic acid in dogs, goats and horses were 0.77, 0.80 and 0.30 microM respectively and the Imax values were 3.93, 3.63 and 3.56 microM respectively. When the concentrations of flunixin were corrected for protein binding, it was estimated that the IC50 of the unbound fractions in dogs, goats and horses were 0.008, 0.003 and 0.005 microM, respectively. Similarly corrected values for meclofenamic acid were 0.075, 0.122 and 0.001 microM respectively.

  4. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  5. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out.

  6. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count reliably predicts autograft yield.

    PubMed

    Chapple, P; Prince, H M; Quinn, M; Bertoncello, I; Juneja, S; Wolf, M; Januszewicz, H; Brettell, M; Gardyn, J; Seymour, C; Venter, D

    1998-07-01

    A reliable measure to predict peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autograft CD34+ cell content is required to optimize the timing of PBPC collection. We prospectively examined the peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell count in 59 consecutive patients with various malignancies and analyzed the correlation between the PB CD34+ cell count and various parameters in the PBPC autograft. Two hundred and thirty-five collections were performed with a median of 4.0 collections per patient (range, 2-10). The median PB CD34+ cell count at the time of collection was 39 x 10(6)/1 (range, 0.0-285.6). The PBPC autograft parameters measured were the CD34+ cell, colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and mononuclear cell (MNC) content. There was a strong linear correlation between PB CD34+ cells/l and autograft CD34+ cells/kg (r = 0.8477). The correlation with CFU-GM/kg (r = 0.5512) was weaker. There was no correlation between autograft CD34+ cells/kg and PB WBC (r= 0.0684), PB MNC (r = 0.1518) or PB platelet count (r = 0.2010). At our institution we aim to obtain a minimum of 0.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg with each day of collection. We demonstrate that such a collection can be reliably obtained if the PB CD34+ cell count exceeds 5.0 x 10(6)/l.

  7. A New Computer Controlled Blood Cell Counting and Sizing System

    PubMed Central

    Talug, E.; Arp, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    A new automated particle counting and sizing system was used in this investigation. The Electrozone/Celloscope® counter electronically detects the passage of red blood cells in a saline suspension. It was used to automatically plot the size distribution curves for graphically displaying the effects of sequentially increased hemolysis levels in blood samples. In this study the size distributions and counts of red blood cells in a saline solution of various concentrations (0.85%, 0.75%, 0.65%, 0.60%, 0.55%, 0.50%, 0.45%, 0.40%, 0.35%, 0.30%, 0.20%, 0.10%) were analyzed and compared to normal values. The accuracy and reproducibility of counts with the electronic counter are compared to hemocytometer counts. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of both systems are discussed. Normal size distribution curves first shift slightly to a larger particle size due to osmotic swelling (in 0.65%, 0.60%, 0.55% of saline solution). Upon further reduction of the saline concentration to .45%, .40%, .35%, hemolysis is observed as generation of the second peak showing clearly the smaller particle size.

  8. Bone Density Loss Is Associated With Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Valderrábano, Rodrigo J; Lui, Li-Yung; Lee, Jennifer; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S; Hoffman, Andrew R; Wu, Joy Y

    2017-02-01

    Hematopoiesis depends on a supportive microenvironment. Preclinical studies in mice have demonstrated that osteoblasts influence the development of blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, B lymphocytes, and neutrophils. However, it is unknown whether osteoblast numbers or function impact blood cell counts in humans. We tested the hypothesis that men with low BMD or greater BMD loss have decreased circulating erythrocytes and lymphocytes and increased myeloid cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis and prospective analysis in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a multisite longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2571 community-dwelling men (≥65 years) who were able to walk without assistance, did not have a hip replacement or fracture, and had complete blood counts (CBCs) at the third study visit were analyzed. Multivariable (MV)-adjusted logistic regression estimated odds of white blood cell (WBC) subtypes (highest and lowest quintile versus middle), and anemia (clinically defined) associated with BMD by DXA scan (at visit 3), annualized percent BMD change (baseline to visit 3), and high BMD loss (>0.5%/year, from baseline to visit 3) at the femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). MV-adjusted models included age, BMI, cancer history, smoking status, alcohol intake, corticosteroid use, self-reported health, thiazide use, and physical activity. At visit 3 greater TH BMD loss (per 1 SD) was associated with increased odds of anemia, high neutrophils, and low lymphocytes. Annualized BMD loss of >0.5% was associated with increased odds of anemia, high neutrophils, and low lymphocytes. Similar results were observed for FN BMD regarding anemia and lymphocytes. We conclude that community-dwelling older men with declining hip BMD over about 7 years had increased risks of anemia, lower lymphocyte count, and higher neutrophil count, consistent with preclinical studies. Bone health and hematopoiesis may have greater interdependency than previously recognized.

  9. The Relationship Between Blood Monocyte Count and Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Keceoglu, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. It is known that monocytes play an important role in inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare the numbers of monocyte counts of the CAE patients versus controls. Method This study included 84 CAE patients (40 male, mean age 55.4 ± 9.7 years) and 30 controls (10 male, mean age 57.86 ± 11.6 years). Concurrent routine biochemical tests and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte count and mean platelet volume (MPV) on whole blood count were performed for these participants. These parameters were compared between groups. Results Baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. CAE patients had a higher MPV value and monocyte count than controls (8.8 ± 0.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.6 fL and 732 ± 88 vs. 321 ± 75 cell/μL; both P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between monocyte count and MPV in patients with CAE. PMID:28348713

  10. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions.

  11. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  12. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  13. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL(-1)) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions.

  14. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  15. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  16. Thromboxane and isoprostanes as inflammatory and vasoactive mediators in black walnut heartwood extract induced equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Noschka, Erik; Moore, James N; Peroni, John F; Lewis, Stephen J; Morrow, Jason D; Robertson, Tom P

    2009-06-15

    Inflammation and vascular dysfunction occur concurrently during the prodromal stages of equine laminitis. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the role that thromboxane and isoprostanes may play in the development of black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE)-induced laminitis. Horses were divided into two groups, either control or BWHE-administered horses. Plasma concentrations of thromboxane increased transiently after administration of BWHE and coincided with the nadir in white blood cell counts, whereas plasma concentrations of iso-prostaglandin PGF(2alpha) (iso-PGF(2alpha)) did not change in either group. At 12h (for the control group) or Obel grade 1 laminitis (for the BWHE group) the horses were euthanized and laminar tissue collected. Laminar arteries and veins were used in functional studies with vasoconstrictor substances and tissue samples were used for the determination of laminar iso-PGF(2alpha) concentrations. Laminar tissue concentrations of iso-PGF(2alpha) were significantly greater in BWHE horses when compared to control horses. In parallel studies concentrations of iso-PGF(2alpha) in laminar tissue samples obtained 1.5 and 3h after administration of BWHE were indistinguishable from those for control horses at 3 or 12h after administration of an equal volume of water. Laminar vessel constrictor responses to either a thromboxane mimetic (U46619), iso-prostaglandin PGE(2) (iso-PGE(2)) or iso-PGF(2alpha) were determined using small vessel myographs. In some vessels, the effects of putative prostanoid and thromboxane receptor antagonists, SQ 29,548, SC-19220 and AH 6809, upon contractile responses were determined. In control horses, U46619, iso-PGF(2alpha) and iso-PGE(2) more potently and efficaciously constricted laminar veins when compared to laminar arteries. Responses of laminar veins from BWHE horses to iso-PGE(2) were similar to those of laminar veins from control horses, whereas iso-PGF(2alpha) elicited significantly greater responses

  17. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  18. Thromboxane synthesis inhibition and postprandial intestinal hyperemia and oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Mangino, M J; Chou, C C

    1986-01-01

    The effects of imidazole and U-63557A (Upjohn), inhibitors of thromboxane synthesis, on food-induced changes in intestinal blood flow and oxygen uptake were determined in the jejunum of anesthetized dogs. Intra-arterial (5.0 mg/min ia) infusions of imidazole had no effect on the postprandial intestinal hyperemia but significantly potentiated food-induced increases in oxygen uptake via enhanced oxygen extraction. Furthermore, imidazole had no effect on intestinal glucose absorption. The selective thromboxane synthesis inhibitor U-63557A (5 mg/kg iv) also enhanced oxygen uptake during nutrient absorption and had no effect on the hyperemia or glucose absorption. Our study indicates that inhibition of thromboxane synthesis has no effect on either resting intestinal blood flow or postprandial intestinal hyperemia but significantly enhances postprandial oxygen extraction and uptake. The potentiation of the food-induced increases in oxygen uptake by imidazole and U-63557A appears not to be related to glucose absorption. Endogenous thromboxane therefore appears to inhibit oxygen uptake more than blood flow, and yet does not affect glucose absorption during nutrient absorption.

  19. Nucleated red blood cell count in term and preterm newborns: reference values at birth.

    PubMed

    Perrone, S; Vezzosi, P; Longini, M; Marzocchi, B; Tanganelli, D; Testa, M; Santilli, T; Buonocore, G

    2005-03-01

    The prognostic value of nucleated red blood cell count at birth in relation to neonatal outcome has been established. However, reference values were needed to usefully interpret this variable. The normal range of reference values for absolute nucleated red blood cell count in 695 preterm and term newborns is reported.

  20. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... you receive. Anemia can be relieved with a blood transfusion or with medication to increase your body's production ... what's causing the low numbers. Common treatments include: Blood transfusions. Transfusions help people with low levels of red ...

  1. Blood baseline neutrophil count predicts bevacizumab efficacy in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertaut, Aurélie; Truntzer, Caroline; Madkouri, Rachid; Kaderbhai, Coureche Guillaume; Derangère, Valentin; Vincent, Julie; Chauffert, Bruno; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie Hélene; Farah, Wahlid; Mourier, Klaus Luc; Boidot, Romain; Ghiringhelli, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab is used to treat glioblastoma; however, no current biomarker predicts its efficacy. We used an exploratory cohort of patients treated with the radiochemotherapy then bevacizumab or chemotherapy at recurrence (N = 265). Bevacizumab use increased median overall survival (OS) 18.7 vs 11.3 months, p = 0.0014). In multivariate analysis, age, initial surgery, neutrophil count, Karnofsky status >70% and bevacizumab administration were independent prognostic factors of survival. We found an interaction between bevacizumab use and baseline neutrophil count. The cut-off value for the neutrophil count was set at 6000/mm3. Only patients with a high neutrophil count benefited from the bevacizumab treatment (17.3 vs 8.8 months p < 0.0001). We validated this result using data from the TEMAVIR trial, which tested the efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus radiochemotherapy in the first-line treatment of glioblastoma. Transcriptomic data from TCGA underlined that CSF3 expression, the gene encoding G-CSF, the growth factor for neutrophils, correlated with VEGF-A-dependent angiogenesis. In another independent cohort (BELOB trial), which compared lomustine versus lomustine plus bevacizumab at recurrence, bevacizumab only benefited patients with high CSF3 expression in the tumor. These data suggest that only patients with a high peripheral neutrophil count before bevacizumab treatment benefited from this therapy. PMID:27487142

  2. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  3. Relationship between electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and blood erythrocyte count in rats.

    PubMed

    Matyushichev, V B; Shamratova, V G

    2005-03-01

    A significant curvilinear relationship was found between erythrocyte count in rat blood and electrokinetic characteristics of these cells. Electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes remained unchanged, slightly increased, or decreased with increasing cell count in the vascular bed depending on animal state. Excessive increase in the number of erythrocytes was accompanied by accumulation of cells with low electrophoretic mobility in the electric field.

  4. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, A C; Kelly, R E; Hogan, J L; O'Connor, N; Farah, N; Turner, M J

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 × 10(9)/l vs 7.4 × 10(9)/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 × 10(9)/l vs 4.3 × 10(9)/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 × 10(9)/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 × 10(9)/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  6. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  7. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  8. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  9. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  10. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  11. Endogenous biosynthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin in 2 distinct murine models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Cyrus, T; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2000-12-01

    Thromboxane A(2) is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet agonist; prostacyclin is a potent platelet inhibitor and vasodilator. Altered biosynthesis of these eicosanoids is a feature of human hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. This study examined whether in 2 murine models of atherosclerosis their levels are increased and correlated with the evolution of the disease. Urinary 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha), metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, respectively, were assayed in apoliprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice on chow and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice on chow and a Western-type diet. Atherosclerosis lesion area was measured by en face method. Both eicosanoids increased in apoE-deficient mice on chow and in LDLR-deficient mice on a high-fat diet, but not in LDLR-deficient mice on chow by the end of the study. Aspirin suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation, serum thromboxane B(2), and 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2), and significantly reduced the excretion of 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha) in these animals. This study demonstrates that thromboxane as well as prostacyclin biosynthesis is increased in 2 murine models of atherogenesis and is secondary to increased in vivo platelet activation. Assessment of their generation in these models may afford the basis for future studies on the functional role of these eicosanoids in the evolution and progression of atherosclerosis. (Blood. 2000;96:3823-3826)

  12. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist.

  13. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Holly; Rubenstein, Mara; Dombkowski, Alan A; Caldwell, J Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

  14. N-6 and N-3 PUFA in liver lipids, thromboxane formation and blood pressure from SHR during diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Berger, I; Moritz, V; Förster, D; Taube, C

    1990-03-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after weaning (at 4 weeks of age) were fed diets supplemented with either sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO (50%: 50%, v/v) for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the dietary groups receiving FO, EPO and FO + EPO, the former being most effective. In liver triglycerides (TG) EPO resulted in a markedly increased percentage of linoleic acid (LA; C 18:2, n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA; C 18:3, n-6) and especially of arachidonic acid (AA; C 20:4, n-6), whereas the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C 22:6 n-3), were depressed to undetectable and significantly lower levels, respectively. In liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) only slight changes of LA and AA were observed. Feeding of FO led to a significant rise of EPA and DHA in liver TG, PC and PE at the expense of n-6 PUFA (except LA in PC and PE). With a combination of both EPO and FO a significant increase of EPA and DHA, but on lower levels as compared to FO alone, was associated with a significant rise of LA, but with a slight decline of AA as compared to the control animals. Nevertheless, the levels of AA in the group fed EPO + FO were still higher than in the FO-group. In the SO-group the increase of LA was even higher when compared with the EPO-group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  16. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  17. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiwei; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Xu, Hang; Han, Zhi; Rong, Hailong; Yang, Haiping; Yan, Mei; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications. PMID:27827837

  18. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  19. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  20. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  1. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  2. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999–2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total homocysteine (tHCY). We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR), platelet-monocyte (PMR), and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR). Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk. PMID:28234958

  3. A comparison of 2 white blood cell count devices to aid judicious antibiotic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Casey, Janet R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-04-01

    A low or normal white blood cell (WBC) count is usually associated with viral illnesses. This study evaluated the reliability of a new point-of-care, inexpensive, WBC count device which requires only 10 microL (1 drop) of whole blood from a finger stick to an automated Cell-Dyn counter in a busy office practice setting and assessed its reliability to assist in avoiding antibiotic prescribing. A total of 120 acutely ill children and potential antibiotic recipients were studied from October 2007 to March 2008. The mean WBC count was 7.4x10(9)/L and 8.1x10( 9)/L for the new WBC device and the automated Cell-Dyn counter, respectively. The correlation between the 2 devices was high (r=.988, P=.005). A total of 88 children (73%) did not receive antibiotics and mean WBC was 7.2x10(9)/L. In all, 32 children (27%) received an antibiotic and 1 (3%) returned for a follow-up office visit for the same or a related illness. Of the 88 children with a low blood count who did not receive an antibiotic, 3 (3%) had return visit within 30 days and received an antibiotic. A simple and quick point-of-care WBC count device produces similar results as achievable with a Cell-Dyn counter for total WBCs and may assist in judicious antibiotic prescribing.

  4. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  5. Evaluation of blood platelet count and function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Akdemir, F; Okulu, E; Ener, K; Ozayar, A; Gudeloglu, A

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated and compared blood total platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) values of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. A total 57 male patients (mean age 49.7 ± 12 years) with ED and 59 control men (mean age 49.7 ± 10.7 years) were included in the study. All patients were evaluated using medical history with International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, physical examination and routine blood analysis. Total blood count, including white blood cell (WBC), total platelet counts, MPV and PDW parameters, were recorded in both groups. MPV values were detected to be significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 10.7 ± 1 and 9.72 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.001). Similarly, PDW values were significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 14.6 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 1.9, respectively (P = 0.001). However, mean platelet and mean WBC counts were similar in both groups (P = 0.45). We demonstrated that MPV and PDW values significantly increased in patients with ED compared with the control group. According to these findings, platelet function might play an important role in patients with ED that warrants further research.

  6. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Yeo, Joon Hock; Jiang, LiJun; Jiang, Dazong

    2004-01-01

    We present a nonflowing laser light scattering method for automatically counting and classifying blood cells. A linear charge-coupled device (CCD) and a silicon photoelectric cell (which is placed behind a pinhole plate on the CCD) form a double-detector structure: the CCD is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells and the silicon photoelectric cell to complete the focusing process. An isotropic sphere, with relative refractivity near 1, is used to model the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of white blood cells and platelets, and anomalous diffraction, red blood cells. To obtain the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, the nonnegative constraint least-squares (NNLS) method combined with the Powell method and the precision punishment method are used. Both numerical simulation and experimental results are presented. This method can be used not only to measure the mean and the distribution of red blood cell size, but also to divide the white blood cells into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells, and neutrocytes. The experimental results show a linear relationship between the blood cell (both white and red blood cells) concentration and the scattered light intensity, and therefore, the number of blood cells in a unit volume can be determined from this relationship.

  7. Association between absolute blood eosinophil count and CKD stages among cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Rui; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Kizawa, Shun; Sakane, Kazushi; Morita, Hideaki; Ozeki, Michishige; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2016-02-01

    Elevated eosinophil count was shown to be associated with the development of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, after catheter-based procedures. We investigated the association between stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) among cardiac patients. CKD stages were determined solely on the estimated glomerular filtration rate or requirement for hemodialysis. Eosinophilia is defined as an eosinophil count exceeding 500/μL. A total of 1022 patients were enrolled in the current study, and eosinophil counts (/μL) in the first through fourth eosinophil count quartiles were <88, 88 to 154, 155 to <238, and 238 ≤, respectively, and 29 patients (2.8 %) had eosinophilia. Correlation coefficient between the AEC and age was -0.188 (P = 0.001) in women and -0.042 (n.s.) in men (by Spearman's correlation test). Patients with higher CKD stages had a higher prevalence of the highest AEC quartile or eosinophilia. Logistic regression analysis using severe renal dysfunction (i.e., CKD stage 4 or 5) as the dependent variable, the highest AEC quartile had a significant positive association with an odds ratio of 1.99 (95 % confidence interval, 1.20-3.31, P < 0.01) after adjustment for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and total white blood cell count. Similarly, after adjustment for the same variables, eosinophilia was associated with severe renal dysfunction with an odds ratio of 2.60 (95 % confidence interval, 1.08-6.26, P < 0.05). Eosinophil count was positively associated with higher CKD stages among cardiology patients, some fraction of which might be related to subclinical cholesterol embolization.

  8. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  9. Differential white blood cell count and all-cause mortality in the Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jaebong; Heo, Nam Ju; Kim, Sejoong; Chin, Ho Jun; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Suhnggwon

    2013-02-01

    The circulating white blood cell (WBC) count has been considered a good biomarker of systemic inflammation, but the predictive value of this inexpensive and universally obtained test result has not been fully explored in the elderly. The objective of this study was to assess the independent association of WBC count and its individual components with mortality in an elderly population. We studied a total of 9996 participants (age ≥65 years) who underwent routine health examinations at the 2 healthcare centers affiliated with Seoul National University. Mortality data were obtained from the National Statistics Office of Korea. The mean age of the study population was 69.7 (SD 4.3) years, and 5491 of the subjects (54.9%) were male. The median length of follow-up was 44.9 months (range, 1.2-78.7 months). There were 118 deaths (1.2%) during the follow-up period. The leading cause of death was cancer. Compared with the survivors, the deceased subjects were older, predominantly male, had increased levels of inflammatory markers, and had poor nutritional status. A significant difference in mortality was identified among patients in different WBC and WBC subtype quartile groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that monocyte count (HR: 5.18, 95% CI: 2.44-11.02) was a strongest predictor of all-cause mortality than total WBC count (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.88-2.80), granulocyte count (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.15-3.88), and lymphocyte count (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.66-1.86), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Monocyte counts were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality in the elderly population. In conclusion, the total WBC count is an independent predictor of mortality in older adults, but the monocyte subtype provides greater predictive ability.

  10. Trajectory of platelets in pregnancy - do low-risk women need an intrapartum full blood count prior to epidural?

    PubMed

    Duong, Christine; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle; Peters, Nancy; Listijono, Dave R; Henry, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pregnant women with a normal 28-week gestation platelet count and no high-risk conditions for thrombocytopenia require a pre-epidural platelet count. All 1844 included women (platelet count > 150 × 10(9) /L at 28 weeks' gestation, term singleton birth, no thrombocytopenia risk conditions) had a platelet count > 100 × 10(9) /L prebirth, suggesting low-risk pregnant women do not require pre-epidural full blood count solely to check platelet count.

  11. Microfluidic cytometers with integrated on-chip optical systems for red blood cell and platelet counting.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiaoming; Lo, Yuhwa

    2016-11-01

    A microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical systems was designed for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counting. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the microfluidic cytometer with on-chip optical signal detection were described. With process using only a single mask, the device that integrates optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact structure increased the sensitivity of the device and eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments. The microfluidic cytometer was used to count red blood cells and platelets. Forward scatter and extinction were collected simultaneously for each cell. Experimental results indicated that the microfluidic cytometer exhibited comparable performance with a conventional cytometer and demonstrated superior capacity to detect on-chip optical signals in a highly compact, simple, truly portable, and low-cost format that is well suitable for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  12. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  13. Associations between White Blood Cell Count and the Development of Incidental Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwak, Min-Sun; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the association between serum white blood cell (WBC) counts and the development of incidental NAFLD. Methods. In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and blood samplings during medical checkups in both 2005 and 2010. A total of 2,216 subjects were included in our analyses. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in 2010 increased steadily in conjunction with increasing WBC counts in 2005 after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49–4.00 for women and OR 2.42, 95% CI = 1.61–3.63 for men, lowest quartile versus highest quartile]. Multivariate regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and glucose levels revealed that NAFLD was significantly associated with the highest WBC quartile compared to the lowest quartile [OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.10−3.10 for women and OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.08−2.61 for men]. Conclusions. We demonstrated that the risk of developing NAFLD was significantly associated with WBC counts independently of metabolic factors. This finding provides novel evidence indicating that serum WBC counts may be potential surrogate markers of NAFLD. PMID:28070183

  14. Associations between White Blood Cell Count and the Development of Incidental Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Donghee; Kwak, Min-Sun; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the association between serum white blood cell (WBC) counts and the development of incidental NAFLD. Methods. In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and blood samplings during medical checkups in both 2005 and 2010. A total of 2,216 subjects were included in our analyses. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in 2010 increased steadily in conjunction with increasing WBC counts in 2005 after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-4.00 for women and OR 2.42, 95% CI = 1.61-3.63 for men, lowest quartile versus highest quartile]. Multivariate regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and glucose levels revealed that NAFLD was significantly associated with the highest WBC quartile compared to the lowest quartile [OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.10-3.10 for women and OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.08-2.61 for men]. Conclusions. We demonstrated that the risk of developing NAFLD was significantly associated with WBC counts independently of metabolic factors. This finding provides novel evidence indicating that serum WBC counts may be potential surrogate markers of NAFLD.

  15. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  16. Automated white blood cell counting via classification-free granulometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe an application of the granulometric mixing theorem to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, an iterative algorithm based on the mixing theorem can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. Therefore, a new algorithm based on the theorem is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive mixing theorem to each initial component. Applying the mixing theorem to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the proposed algorithm on 6 classes of cell -- Myeloblast, Promyelocyte, Myelocyte, Metamyelocyte, Band, and PMN -- are very close to the actual numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is not larger than deviation of counts produced by human experts. An important technical point is that, unlike previous algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require prior knowledge of the total number of cells in an image.

  17. Significance of Blood Eosinophil Count in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanikuttyamma, Lathi Kumari; Kumar, Madhumita; Sreekumar, Nandagopan; Veerasigamani, Narendrakumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Rhino Sinusitis (CRS) is one of the most prevalent chronic illnesses across the globe, affecting persons of all ages. It is an inflammatory process that involves the paranasal sinuses with symptoms lasting longer than 12 weeks. Aim To establish the significance of blood eosinophil (count) levels in CRS with nasal polyps and to compare blood eosinophil count with eosinophil count in the histopathology specimens of the polyps. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study done to review the medical records of 63 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for CRS with Nasal polyps. The patients were divided into two groups, 1 and 2 based on the number of patients suffering from non eosinophilic rhino sinusitis (Group 1) and those from eosinophlic rhino sinusitis (Group 2). The clinical examination findings, nasal endoscopy observations and MDCT-Paranasal sinuses were notified. Also, the mean Eosinophil Count (EC), Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC), and Histopathology Eosinophil Count (HPE) was compared between two groups. This was aided by CT Scan Lund Mackay Scores (LMS). Results Among the patients from Group 1, the male to female ratio was found to be 1.14:1 with 53.3% males and in Group 2 the same were noted as 1.75:1 and 63.6% respectively and found a male preponderance. With regard to symptomatology, significantly higher number of patients in the Group 2 suffered from nasal block (97% vs. 46.7%; p<0.001), nasal obstruction (90.9% vs. 46.7%; p<0.001), nasal discharge (81.8% vs. 56.7%; p=0.030), hyposmia (97% vs. 30%; p<0.001) and asthma (69.7% vs. 3.3%; p<0.001). However, facial pain (66.7% vs. 81.8%; p=0.168) and para nasal sinus tenderness (53.3% vs. 54.6%; p=0.923) were comparable in Groups 1 and 2. Mean EC, AEC and HPE were significantly high in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Conclusion The study demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between tissue and blood eosinophil counts with increased severity of symptoms in

  18. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent. PMID:24453794

  19. Effectiveness using higher inhaled corticosteroid dosage in patients with COPD by different blood eosinophilic counts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil counts have been documented as a good biomarker for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of prescribing high or medium dose of ICS for patients with different eosinophil counts are unknown. Methods A post hoc analysis of a previous prospective randomized study was performed for COPD patients using higher dose (HD: Fluticasone 1,000 μg/day) or medium dose (MD: Fluticasone 500 μg/day) of ICS combined with Salmeterol (100 μg/day). Patients were classified into two groups: those with high eosinophil counts (HE ≥3%) and those with low eosinophil counts (LE <3%). Lung function was evaluated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and COPD assessment test. Frequencies of acute exacerbation and pneumonia were also measured. Results Two hundred and forty-eight patients were studied and classified into higher eosinophil (HE) (n=85, 34.3%) and lower eosinophil (LE) groups (n=163, 65.7%). The levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased in patients of HE group treated with HD therapy, compared with the other groups (HE/HD: 125.9±27.2 mL vs HE/MD: 94.3±23.7 mL, vs LE/HD: 70.4±20.5 mL, vs LE/MD: 49.8±16.7 mL; P<0.05) at the end of the study. Quality of life (COPD assessment test) markedly improved in HE/HD group than in MD/LE group (HE/HD: 9±5 vs LE/MD: 16±7, P=0.02). The frequency of acute exacerbation was more decreased in HE/HD group patients, compared with that in LE/MD group (HE/HD: 13.5% vs LE/MD: 28.7%, P<0.01). Pneumonia incidence was similar in the treatment groups (HE/HD: 3.2%, HE/MD: 2.6%, LE/HD: 3.5%, LE/MD 2.8%; P=0.38). Conclusion The study results support using blood eosinophil counts as a biomarker of ICS response and show the benefits of greater improvement of lung function, quality of life, and decreased exacerbation frequency in COPD patients with blood eosinophil

  20. Evaluation of Four Veterinary Hematology Analyzers for Bovine and Ovine Blood Counts for In Vitro Testing of Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Friedmann, Yasmin; Jones, Alyssa; Thornton, Catherine

    2016-04-18

    Small affordable automated hematology analyzers that produce rapid and accurate complete blood cell counts are a valuable tool to researchers developing blood-handling medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices, for in vitro safety assessments. In such studies, it is common to use the blood of large animals such as cattle and sheep. However, the commercially available instruments have not been evaluated for their ability to measure the blood counts of these animals. In this study, we compare, for the first time, four veterinary analyzers for blood counts on bovine and ovine blood samples. We look at ease of use, repeatability and agreement with a view to inform researchers of the benefits of these instruments in routine measurement of ovine and bovine bloods during in vitro testing. Complete blood cell counts and a three-part differential (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) were measured by each of the instruments, and the results compared to those obtained from two additional analyzers used in a reference laboratory. Repeatability and agreement were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method; bias and 95% limits of agreement between the instruments, and between the instruments and two reference instruments, were used to evaluate instrument performance. In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages with all instruments. Of the four instruments tested, the repeatability and agreement was fairly similar for all instruments except one instrument which cannot be recommended for bovine or ovine blood counts.

  1. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  2. Endotoxin-induced hemodynamic changes in dogs: role of thromboxane and prostaglandin I2.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, G D; Johnson, M A; Roesel, O F

    1983-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of thromboxane and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) before and after IV injection of endotoxin and resulting hemodynamic changes were evaluated. Effects of flunixin meglumine on plasma concentrations of these prostaglandins and the related hemodynamic changes were also determined. Shock was induced in 2 groups of anesthetized dogs. Four dogs were given endotoxin only and 4 dogs were given endotoxin and then were treated with flunixin meglumine. Arterial blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), and heart rate were measured, and blood samples were collected at postendotoxin hours (PEH) 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma thromboxane and PGI2 concentrations were increased in canine endotoxic shock. Thromboxane concentration was highest early in shock, and appeared to be associated with an initial decrease in BP and CO. The increased concentration of PGI2 was associated with systemic hypotension at PEH 1 to 2. Treatment of dogs with flunixin meglumine at PEH 0.07 prevented further increase of thromboxane and blocked the release of PGI2, resulting in an increased CO, BP, and tissue aerobic metabolism.

  3. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  4. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  5. Are fibrinogen and complete blood count parameters predictive in incarcerated abdominal hernia repair?

    PubMed

    Kahramanca, Sahin; Kaya, Oskay; Ozgehan, Gulay; Guzel, Hakan; Azili, Cem; Gokce, Emre; Kucukpinar, Tevfik; Kulacoglu, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic delays in cases of external incarcerated hernias typically result in increasing morbidity, mortality, and health expenditures. We investigated the diagnostic role of blood fibrinogen level, white blood count (WBC), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) in patients with incarcerated hernia. Two groups, each containing 100 patients, were studied. Group A underwent elective, and group B underwent incarcerated and urgent external hernia repair. We observed high fibrinogen and WBC levels but low MPV and PDW values for patients in group B. Contrary to our expectations, we found lower MPV and PDW values in the complicated group than in the elective group. The morbidity rate and cost burden were higher in group B, and the results were statistically significant. Early operation should be recommended for patients with incarcerated external hernias if their fibrinogen and WBC levels are high.

  6. Preoperative platelet count and postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing hip surgery: an inverse correlation.

    PubMed

    Monreal, M; Lafoz, E; Llamazares, J; Roncales, J; Roca, J; Granero, X

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study we tried to assess the clinical usefulness of platelet count (PlC) to confirm whether postoperative pulmonary embolism could be suspected early. Unexpectedly, the 19 patients who subsequently developed pulmonary embolism had significantly lower mean PlC levels even before surgery. In an attempt to discover whether the preoperative PlC levels were associated with a different incidence of postoperative blood loss, we decided to retrospectively study the relationship between preoperative PlC levels and the consequences of blood loss. There were 459 consecutive patients undergoing hip surgery. After excluding 5 patients who died during the first 3 postoperative days, and 16 patients who bled from a definitive anatomic site, there were 438 patients. Blood loss was considered to be excessive when two or more of the following conditions were present: (1) total transfusion requirements exceeding 1,000 ml whole blood or 2 units of packed red cells; (2) a drop in hemoglobin level of 5 g/dl or more, and (3) a hemoglobin level below 8 g/dl at any moment during the first 8 postoperative days. Blood loss was considered to be excessive in 91 patients. Preoperative PlC levels were significantly lower in these patients as compared to patients without the condition (204 +/- 52 vs. 236 +/- 79 x 10(9) liter-1; p = 0.0002). When patients were classified according to the quartiles of preoperative PlC, the odds ratio of developing excessive blood loss was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.38-1.26) in patients in the second quartile; 0.57 (95% CI: 0.30-1.06) in the third quartile, and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13-0.57) in patients in the highest quartile. After adjusting for age, sex, type of surgery and type of prophylaxis, the preoperative PlC levels maintained a statistically significant inverse correlation with postoperative blood loss.

  7. Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9 years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese. PMID:23317415

  8. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUÑOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  9. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.

  10. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-07-24

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys.

  11. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78–1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  12. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  13. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  14. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts.

  15. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  16. Usefulness of combined white blood cell count and plasma glucose for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaharu; Kojima, Sunao; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Asada, Yujiro; Kimura, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Tei, Chuwa; Hiraoka, Hisatoyo; Sonoda, Masahiro; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Shinoyama, Nobuo; Honda, Takashi; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-06-01

    Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and plasma glucose (PG) have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and PG on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. WBC count and PG were measured at the time of hospital admission in 3,665 patients with AMI. Patients were stratified into tertiles (low, medium, and high) based on WBC count and PG. Patients with a high WBC count had a 2.0-fold increase in in-hospital mortality compared with those with a low WBC count. Patients with a high PG level had a 2.7-fold increase in mortality compared with those with a low PG level. When a combination of different strata for each variable was analyzed, a stepwise increase in mortality was seen. There was a considerable number of patients with a high WBC count and low PG level or with a low WBC count and high PG level. These patients had an intermediate risk, whereas those with a high WBC count and high PG level had the highest risk, i.e., 4.8-fold increase in mortality, compared with those with a low WBC count and low PG level. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the predictor for in-hospital mortality using WBC count and PG level as continuous variables and showed that WBC count and PG level were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. These findings suggested that a simple combination of WBC count and PG level might provide further information for predicting outcomes in patients with AMI.

  17. Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.

  18. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  19. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  20. Basic Parameters of Blood Count as Prognostic Factors for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bryniarski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Taking account of morbidity and mortality increase, it is evident that searching for independent prognostic factors is needed. Aim of the Study. The aim of the study was to analyze routinely performed blood parameters as potential prognostic factors for kidney cancer. Material and Methods. We have retrospectively reviewed the records of 230 patients treated for renal cell carcinoma in the years 2000–2006. Preoperative blood parameters, postoperative histopathological results, and staging and grading were performed. To estimate the risk of tumor recurrence and cancer specific mortality (CSM) within five years of follow-up, uni- and multivariate Cox and regression analyses were used. To assess the quality of classifiers and to search for the optimal cut-off point, the ROC curve was used. Results. T stage of the tumor metastasis is the most important risk factor for early recurrence and cancer specific mortality (p < 0.001). The preoperative platelet count (PLT) above 351 × 103/uL (95.3%; 55.1%) and AUC of 77% are negative prognostic factors and correlate with increased cancer specific mortality (CSM) during the five-year follow-up (p < 0.001). Increased risk of local recurrence was observed for PLT above 243.5 × 103/ul (59%; 88%) and AUC of 80% (p = 0.001). The opposite was observed in the mean platelets volume (MPV) for cancer specific mortality (CSM). The cut-off point for the MPV was 10.1 fl (75.4%; 55.1%) and for the AUC is of 68.1% (p = 0.047). Conclusions. Many analyzed parameters in univariate regressions reached statistical significance and could be considered as potential prognostic factors for ccRCC. In multivariate analysis, only T stage, platelet count (PLT), and mean platelet volume (MPV) correlated with CSM or recurrent ccRCC. PMID:28105437

  1. Reducing Unnecessary Postoperative Complete Blood Count Testing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Maya; Galvez, Jorge; Polsky, Tracey; Kreher, Genna; Kraus, Blair; Ahumada, Luis; McCloskey, John; Wolfe, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Context: Complete blood count (CBC) testing commonly occurs to determine the need for blood transfusions after surgical procedures. Many clinicians believe postoperative CBCs are “routine.” Objective: To decrease unnecessary routine CBC testing in a low-risk cohort of postoperative patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia by 50% in 6 months. Design: Quality-improvement study. Data from our institution regarding frequency of ordering laboratory studies and transfusion requirements were collected for prior quality-improvement work demonstrating the safety and feasibility of avoiding routine postoperative CBCs in this cohort. Baseline survey data were gathered from key stakeholders on attitudes about and utilization of routine postoperative laboratory testing. Patient and clinician data were shared with all PICU clinicians. Simple Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles involving education, audit, and feedback were put into place. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of postoperative patients receiving CBCs within 48 hours of PICU admission. Balancing measures were hemoglobin level below 8 g/dL in patients for whom CBCs were sent and blood transfusions up to 7 days postoperatively for any patients in this cohort. Results: Sustained decreases below our 50% goal were seen after our interventions. There were no hemoglobin results below 8 g/dL or surgery-related blood transfusions in this cohort within 7 days of surgery. Estimated hospital charges related to routine postoperative CBCs decreased by 87% during 6 postintervention months. Conclusion: A simple approach to a systemic problem in the PICU of unnecessary laboratory testing is feasible and effective. By using local historical data, we were able to identify a cohort of patients for whom routine postoperative CBC testing is unnecessary. PMID:28241909

  2. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells: guidelines for blood volume to process, based on CD34-positive blood cell count in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Anguita-Compagnon, A T; Dibarrart, M T; Palma, J; Paredes, L; Mosso, C; Montalva, R; Salas, L; Araos, D; Delgado, I; Majlis, A

    2010-01-01

    We report 189 mobilizations and 489 collections of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) performed in 139 autologous transplantation patients and in 28 donors for allogeneic transplantations whose ages ranged from 2-68 years. We observed a correlation (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.64) between CD34-positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units examined to estimate PBSC. In a subset of 287 collections (97 adults and 49 children) we obtained peripheral blood (PB) CD34-positive cell counts at 2 to 4 hours before leukapheresis. We noted a correlation between PB CD34-positive cell counts before leukapheresis and the number of CD34-positive cells per kilogram of body weight collected in the whole apheresis of the day (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.82). An even better correlation was obtained between PB CD34-positive cells preapheresis and the yield of each individual blood volume (BV) processed (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.87). Healthy donors and patients in each age group behaved similarly. In addition, the collection yield was greater among children than adults. These findings allowed us to develop a simple predictive model to estimate the BV to process for a target dose of CD34-positive cells per kilogram, based on the level of PBSC before apheresis in children and adults.

  3. Negative prognostic impact of low absolute CD4(+) T cell counts in peripheral blood in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Xu, Ji; Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Li; Fan, Lei; Wu, Yu-Jie; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Tumor microenvironment and host immunity are closely related to outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, few researchers have focused on the prognostic value of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets counts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lymphocyte subsets and absolute monocyte counts. Sixty-eight patients were analyzed retrospectively. Absolute CD4(+) T cell counts (ACD4C), CD8(+) T cell counts, nature killer cell counts, and CD4/CD8 ratios were assessed by peripheral blood flow cytometry and correlated with clinical parameters and long-term outcomes. The median follow-up for all patients was 21 months and the median survival time was 44 months. The overall survival (OS) rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 80%, 51%, and 41%, respectively. In our cohort, high absolute monocyte count, and low ACD4C and CD4/CD8 ratio were associated with unfavorable OS (P = 0.029, P = 0.027, and P = 0.045, respectively) by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that low ACD4C was a significant predictor of unfavorable OS (P = 0.004) independent of the simplified MCL International Prognostic Index (P = 0.048) in patients treated with or without rituximab (P = 0.011). Low CD4(+) T cell counts proved to be a significant predictor of unfavorable OS in patients with MCL.

  4. The effects of early syphilis on CD4 counts and HIV-1 RNA viral loads in blood and semen

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, S; McSorley, J; Copas, A; Bennett, J; Edwards, S; Kaye, S; Kirk, S; French, P; Weller, I

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of early syphilis on blood and semen plasma HIV-1 viral loads and CD4 counts. Methods: In a retrospective case-control study, blood plasma HIV-1 viral loads and CD4 counts in cases during early syphilis (n = 63, 27 receiving antiretroviral therapy) were compared to those before and after syphilis and with controls with non-systemic acute sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 104, 39 receiving antiretroviral therapy). In a prospective substudy in those not receiving antiretroviral therapy, semen plasma viral loads during early syphilis (n = 13) were compared with those 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment for syphilis and with controls with no STIs (n = 20). Results: Retrospective study: CD4 counts were similar in cases (median 410, n = 139 counts) during early syphilis compared to before (485, n = 80) and after (475, n = 88). In a secondary analysis, a drop in CD4 count (21%) among those with early latent syphilis was observed compared with controls. Blood plasma viral loads did not change significantly overall or in those with primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis. Effects were similar on or off antiretroviral therapy. Prospective study: blood and semen viral loads were slightly higher in cases compared with controls but treatment of early syphilis did not reduce either. Conclusions: We detected no association between early syphilis and changes in blood or semen viral load or CD4 count. Increased HIV-1 infectivity associated with early syphilis is unlikely to be associated with increased levels of HIV-1 RNA in blood or semen. PMID:16199736

  5. Association between iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren of the North-West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onabanjo, Oluseye O; Jerling, Johann C; Covic, Namukolo; Van Graan, Averalda; Taljaard, Christine; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency with or without anemia is associated with increased susceptibility to infection owing to impaired immune function; this study aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study is part of the larger BeForMi study done in the North-West province of South Africa. A total of 556 African schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) were recruited from the three schools participating in the BeForMi multiple micronutrient intervention study. Demographic information of the children was obtained from their parents/caregivers/guardians in the language of choice using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric indices (weight and height), iron status parameters, hematological parameters (hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), total and differential white blood cell counts) were measured using standard procedures. No significant gender differences were observed in most of the iron markers and hematological parameters except in C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004) and eosinophils (p=0.042) which were higher in boys while RBC (p=0.018) and Hb (p=0.023) levels were higher in girls. No relationships were observed between the different iron markers and differential white blood cell counts. A positive correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) and CRP in girls only (r=0.336, p<0.01), and a positive correlation between SF and mean cell volume (MCV) in boys only (r=0.197, p<0.01). In both genders, no correlations were observed between the different iron markers and the differential white blood cell counts. The study revealed no associations between iron status and differential white blood cell counts in children that participated in the BeForMi study calling for more studies to be done in the area of the significance of iron supplementation in healthy children.

  6. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  7. High-resolution particle analysis--its application to platelet counting and suggestions for further application in blood cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J L

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of an instrument for high-resolution particle analysis in flow are discussed. It employs a combination of hydrodynamic focusing, fluid resistors, and electronic techniques to achieve precision and ease of use heretofore unobtainable in a moderate-cost clinical instrument. Its application to whole blood platelet counting is discussed, and suggestions are made for its possible application to a wide variety of blood cell measurements.

  8. Intrauterine growth retardation in preterm infants ≤32 weeks of gestation is associated with low white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Wirbelauer, Johannes; Thomas, Wolfgang; Rieger, Lorenz; Speer, Christian P

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear if very immature preterm infants who are born small for gestational age (SGA) have similar leukocyte counts as infants who are born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Our study included 49 preterm infants with a gestational age ≤32 weeks and without exposure to chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Blood cells were counted in the first 2 hours of life. Eighteen SGA preterm infants were compared with 31 AGA preterm infants. Gestational age, sex, rate of caesarean section, and prenatal administration of corticosteroids did not differ between the groups. Median birth weight was 583 g in the SGA group versus 1100 g in the AGA group. Infants in the SGA group had significantly lower counts of leukocytes, total neutrophils, immature neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. These findings were not affected by maternal preeclampsia. No significant difference for nucleated red blood cell counts was found. Prenatal growth retardation is an independent factor for lower counts of different leukocytes in very immature preterm infants. It is not clear if these low leukocyte counts are associated with a higher risk of neonatal infections or if lower numbers of inflammatory cells protect the lung and brain of very immature SGA infants by reducing inflammatory events postnatally.

  9. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  10. Coagulation defects and altered hemodynamic responses in mice lacking receptors for thromboxane A2.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D W; Mannon, R B; Mannon, P J; Latour, A; Oliver, J A; Hoffman, M; Smithies, O; Koller, B H; Coffman, T M

    1998-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a labile metabolite of arachidonic acid that has potent biological effects. Its actions are mediated by G protein-coupled thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptors. TP receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the physiological functions of TP receptors, we generated TP receptor-deficient mice by gene targeting. Tp-/- animals reproduce and survive in expected numbers, and their major organ systems are normal. Thromboxane agonist binding cannot be detected in tissues from Tp-/- mice. Bleeding times are prolonged in Tp-/- mice and their platelets do not aggregate after exposure to TXA2 agonists. Aggregation responses after collagen stimulation are also delayed, although ADP-stimulated aggregation is normal. Infusion of the TP receptor agonist U-46619 causes transient increases in blood pressure followed by cardiovascular collapse in wild-type mice, but U-46619 caused no hemodynamic effect in Tp-/- mice. Tp-/- mice are also resistant to arachidonic acid-induced shock, although arachidonic acid signifi-cantly reduced blood pressure in Tp-/- mice. In summary, Tp-/- mice have a mild bleeding disorder and altered vascular responses to TXA2 and arachidonic acid. Our studies suggest that most of the recognized functions of TXA2 are mediated by the single known Tp gene locus. PMID:9835625

  11. Blood count parameters can predict the severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Hilal Bektas; Dağlı, Bekir; Akgüllü, Cağdaş; Avcil, Mücahit; Zencir, Cemil; Ayhan, Mediha; Sönmez, Hulki Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Because of the inflammatory nature of coronary artery disease (CAD), both platelets and white blood cells have been investigated for years. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between some prominently hematologic blood count parameters (mean platelet volume [MPV], neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) and the severity of CAD by using Gensini scores. Methods A total of 194 patients, who had undergone coronary angiography, enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 42 patients who had normal coronary arteries. Remaining CAD patients were divided into two groups according to their Gensini scores. Results NLR and MPV were higher in the severe atherosclerosis group compared with the mild atherosclerosis group (p = 0.007, p = 0.005, respectively). The Gensini score showed significant correlations with NLR (r = 0.20, p = 0.011), MPV (r = 0.23, p = 0.004) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = –0.161, p = 0.047). Using a cut-off level of 2.54, NLR predicted severe atherosclerosis with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 53% (area under curve [AUC], 0.627; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545 to 0.704; p = 0.004). MPV values above 10.4 predicted severe atherosclerosis with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 90% (AUC, 0.631; 95% CI, 0.549 to 0.708; p = 0.003). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, high levels of NLR (odds ratio [OR], 1.450; 95% CI, 1.080 to 1.945; p = 0.013) and MPV (OR, 1.622; 95% CI, 1.147 to 2.295; p = 0.006) were found to be independent predictors of severe atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our study suggests that both NLR and MPV are predictors of severe atherosclerosis and may be used for the prediction and identification of cardiac risks in CAD patients. PMID:27052265

  12. Aspirin response: Differences in serum thromboxane B2 levels between clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Brun, Charlotte; Daali, Youssef; Combescure, Christophe; Zufferey, Anne; Michelson, Alan D; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Frelinger, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    Serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) is a specific marker of platelet inhibition by aspirin. Yet, TxB2 levels differ by up to 10-fold between some aspirin-treated patient cohorts. This study aimed to identify factors responsible for differences in serum TxB2 between cohorts in the ADRIE study (n = 657) and the BOSTON study (n = 678) of aspirin-treated cardiovascular patients originally tested with different ELISA assays. TxB2 levels were assessed in representative subgroups of the two cohorts (34 samples in BOSTON and 39 in ADRIE) by both ELISAs, as well as liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy (MS). A multivariate analysis was performed on the whole cohort database to identify determinants of the difference of TxB2 levels between cohorts. There was no systematic bias between the original ELISA TxB2 values and the MS values and the median difference was small, 0.12 ng/ml, thus not explaining the difference between median TxB2 levels in the two study populations (7 and 0.6 ng/ml in the ADRIE and BOSTON studies, respectively). In the combined dataset of the ADRIE and BOSTON cohorts (n = 1342), body mass index, age, gender, aspirin dose, time from aspirin intake to blood draw, NSAID intake, platelet count and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with TxB2 levels. After adjustment for patient characteristics, the difference between cohorts did not decrease. Unexplained differences in serum TxB2 levels in different populations of aspirin-treated cardiovascular patients suggest that further studies are needed to confirm the role of serum TxB2 level as a prognostic factor or rather as a marker of therapeutic observance.

  13. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  14. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection.

  15. Expression of thromboxane synthase and the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor in the mouse and rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Wright, William S.; McElhatten, Robert M.; Harris, Norman R.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental models of the diabetic retina have suggested a pathological role for thromboxane. To date however, little information is available as to the cellular locations of retinal thromboxane synthase (TxS), or its receptor, even in non-diabetic controls. In this study, C57BL/6 mice and Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes, or with buffer for non-diabetic controls. Four weeks following the injection, eyes were enucleated and labeled for TxS and the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor. Immunofluorescent intensity was quantified in the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layers, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer, and photoreceptor inner segment. Even in control mice and rats, all layers of the retina showed immunoreactivity for TxS and the TP receptor: however, the pattern of expression demonstrated an inverse relationship, with the highest TxS staining in the inner retina, and the highest TP receptor staining in the outer retina (more specifically, in the photoreceptor inner segment). Four weeks of hyperglycemia did not increase the retinal levels of TxS or TP receptor; however, TP receptor intensities in the outer retina of diabetic rats were highly variable (mostly high but some low), with no values from the photoreceptor inner segment in the same range as obtained from controls. PMID:19523949

  16. The effect of pneumatic tube system on complete blood count parameters and thrombocyte donation in healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Sari, Ismail; Arslan, Aliriza; Ozlu, Can; Hacioglu, Sibel; Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Isler, Kamil; Keskin, Ali

    2012-08-01

    This paper is the first report whether or not pneumatic tube system affects the selection of apheresis donors according to the results of complete blood count. According to the apheresis guidelines, hemoglobin level must be ≥12.5g/dL and platelet level ≥150/μL to be a donor. Paired blood samples of 26 healthy volunteers were transported by either hand delivered or a pneumatic tube system to the laboratory. No statistically significant differences were observed in order to mean values of routine complete blood cell count and white cell differential parameters that were send for selection of apheresis donor before the procedure. Therefore, all healthy volunteers decided as a donor according to the laboratory results independent from transport method.

  17. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  18. Relationship between white blood cell count and components of metabolic syndrome among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Lin, Juinn-Diann; Su, Ching-Chieh; Wang, Kwo-Syin; Chu, Yi-Min; Lee, Li-Hsiu; Wang, Kun; Hsia, Te-Lin; Pei, Dee

    2010-03-01

    Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been associated with several inflammatory factors, including white blood cell count (WBCC). In the present study, the relationships between WBCC and aspects of MetS in young adolescents were investigated. We enrolled 596 participants (328 males and 268 females) from 10 to 13 years of age and with normal WBCC in this study. They were divided into four quartiles according to WBCC (WBCC1-4, from lowest to highest WBCC). The mean values of MetS components for each group were compared in males and females separately. Multivariate linear regression analysis between the WBCC and the components of MetS after adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) were also evaluated. In the male group, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 was significantly lower than WBCC4. The total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) of WBCC2 were significantly higher than WBCC1 and WBCC4. Triglyceride (TG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 and WBCC4, and TG levels of WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC4. Alternatively, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC3 in the female group. Finally, the TG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 or WBCC4, respectively. After multivariate linear regression, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and TG, but negatively correlated to FPG in males whereas in young adolescent females, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and FPG. In conclusion BMI was positively correlated with WBCC in young adolescent females and males. Thus, BMI is the most important component of MetS in this age group. In addition, TG levels in males and FPG in females were significantly related to WBCC. These findings could be regarded an early indication for the future development of full-blown MetS or cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.

  20. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  1. Thromboxane agonist (U46619) potentiates norepinephrine efflux from adrenergic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Trachte, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of the synthetic thromboxane/prostaglandin (PG) H2 agonist U46619 on the electrically stimulated rabbit isolated vas deferens was examined to test for thromboxane influences on adrenergic nerves. U46619 effects on force generation, (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine release and norepinephrine-induced contractions were assessed to determine the mechanism of action. U46619 maximally enhanced adrenergic force generation 135 +/- 24% at a concentration of 100 nM. U46619 potentiated maximal contractile effects of exogenously administered norepinephrine 16 +/- 4% and augmented (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine release from electrically stimulated preparations 142 +/- 44%. A competitive thromboxane/PGH2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, significantly shifted the concentration-response curve for U46619 to the right in a concentration-dependent manner and blocked U46619-induced tritium release. Thus, U46619 appears to potentiate neurotransmitter release by interacting with thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. Because SQ29548 did not prevent the potentiation of norepinephrine contractions by U46619, the postjunctional effect may be independent of thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. We interpret these results to be indicative of both pre- and postjunctional sites of action of U46619. The physiological importance of these thromboxane effects is unknown currently.

  2. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on blood eosinophil count in steroid-naïve patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, James L; Watkins, Michael L; Lettis, Sally; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Locantore, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Results and conclusion The data show that the ICS-containing treatment arms (containing fluticasone propionate) had a small effect on peripheral blood eosinophils in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT00358358; Post-results. PMID:27651909

  3. Nodal tumor response according to the count of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations during preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaesung; Oh, Young-Taek; Noh, O Kyu; Chun, Mison; Park, Jun-Eun; Cho, Sung-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the circulating lymphocyte subpopulation counts during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and tumor response in locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods From August 2015 to June 2016, 10 patients treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. Patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed at 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of preoperative CRT. The absolute blood lymphocyte subpopulation was obtained prior to and after 4 weeks of CRT. We analyzed the association between a tumor response and change in the lymphocyte subpopulation during CRT. Results Among 10 patients, 2 (20%) had evidence of pathologic complete response. In 8 patients with clinically node positive, 4 (50%) had nodal tumor response. All lymphocyte subpopulation counts at 4 weeks after CRT were significantly lower than those observed during pretreatment (p < 0.01). A high decrease in natural killer (NK) cell, count during CRT (baseline cell count − cell count at 4 weeks) was associated with node down staging (p = 0.034). Conclusion Our results suggest that the change of lymphocyte subset to preoperative CRT may be a predictive factor for tumor response in rectal cancer. PMID:27927012

  4. Red blood cell count has an independent contribution to the prediction of ultrasonography-diagnosed fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shang-ling; Liao, Gong-cheng; Fang, Ai-ping; Zhu, Ming-fan; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Red blood cell (RBC) indices have been demonstrated to be associated with fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic syndrome. However, controversy exists regarding the relationship of RBC indices with FLD to date and few has focused on RBC count. This study aimed to explore the association between RBC count and risk of FLD in Southern Chinese adults. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed in two hospital health examination centers, including information on ultrasonography-diagnosed FLD, anthropometric indices and biochemical measurements. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate group differences. After quintile classification of RBC counts, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) of FLD. Results This study consisted of 8618 subjects (4137 men and 4481 women) aged between 20 and 89 years. FLD cases had higher RBC counts than non-FLD cases in both genders (P<0.001). The prevalence rates of FLD increased with the RBC quintiles in both genders (all P trend<0.001), and were higher in men than women. Binary logistic regression analysis showed positive association between RBC count and FLD, and the OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) were 2.56 (2.06–3.18) in men and 3.69 (2.74–4.98) in women, respectively, when comparing Q5 with Q1. Stratified analyses showed similar trends among subjects with and without FLD risk factors. Gender independent results were similar to gender dependent results. Conclusions Elevated RBC count is independently associated with high risk of FLD, suggesting that the RBC count may be a potential risk predictor for FLD. PMID:28187211

  5. Elevated white blood cell count and outcome in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Guijarro, Ricardo; Madridano, Olga; Monreal, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    A significant association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and mortality in patients with cancer has been reported, but the predictive value of elevated WBC on mortality in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the three-month outcome of cancer patients with acute VTE according to their WBC count at baseline. As of May 2007, 3805 patients with active cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 215 (5.7%) had low- (<4,000 cells/microl), 2,403 (63%) normal- (4,000-11,000 cells/microl), 1,187 (31%) elevated (>11,000 cells/microl) WBC count. During the study period 190 patients (5.0%) had recurrent VTE, 156 (4.1%) major bleeding, 889 (23%) died (399 of disseminated cancer, 113 of PE, 46 of bleeding. Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline had an increased incidence of recurrent VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.2), major bleeding (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) or death (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.2). Most of the reported causes of death were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated WBC count. Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated WBC count was independently associated with an increased incidence of all three complications. In conclusion, cancer patients with acute VTE and elevated WBC count had an increased incidence of VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death. This worse outcome was consistent among all subgroups and persisted after multivariate adjustment.

  6. Transcriptomic landscape for lymphocyte count variation in poly I:C-induced porcine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hou, Y; Guo, J; Chen, H; Liu, X; Wu, Z; Zhao, S; Zhu, M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphocyte count is an important phenotypic metric that has been reported to be related to the individual antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. To date, aside from information regarding several genes and pathways, little is known about the mechanism by which gene expression affects variation in lymphocyte count. In this work, we investigated the lymphocyte count variation after poly I:C stimulation and compared the transcriptomes of pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts before and after poly I:C stimulation. Pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts were designated as extreme response (ER) and moderate response (MR) pigs respectively. Lymphocyte counts in all animals were observed to decline after poly I:C stimulation. Transcriptomic analysis identified 1121 transcripts (981 differentially expressed genes) in MR pigs and 1045 transcripts (904 differentially expressed genes) in ER pigs. We found that the majority of the differentially expressed genes were involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the innate immune response of ER pigs was more rapid than that of MR pigs. Results indicated that the activation of signaling pathways associated with cell death, cytotoxicity and apoptosis may contribute to the poly I:C-induced decrease of lymphocyte counts in the periphery. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of chemokines and FAS either totally or partially provided an interpretation for the different degrees of decrease in the lymphocyte counts between MR and ER pigs. Overall, our study will provide further understanding of the molecular basis for the antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals.

  7. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  8. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  9. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  10. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  11. Low accuracy of manual white blood cell count in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    McMillen, E; Bautista, J; Sireci, A; Kratz, A; Stotler, B

    2013-05-01

    Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is a common cause of pre-term labour. Manual WBC count on amniotic fluid (AF) has been suggested as a diagnostic test for IAI using a threshold of 50 cells/mm(3). However, no validation studies assessing the accuracy of this method have been performed. AF samples were selected for cell count analysis. WBCs were introduced to 47 AF samples. The results from two technologists' counts were compared with the calculated expected value for WBCs in these samples. Results showed that a comparison between the technologists' WBC count to the expected WBC count yielded R(2) coefficients of 0.62 and 0.78, indicating moderate accuracy. Percentage agreement between the technologists was 67%, indicating low reproducibility. It was concluded that there was moderate correlation between the manual and the expected WBC in the spiked AF samples. Clinicians should be aware of the inaccuracy and imprecision associated with this test when evaluating a patient for IAI.

  12. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  13. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  14. Effect of carvacrol on tracheal responsiveness, inflammatory mediators, total and differential WBC count in blood of sensitized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Jalali, Sediqeh

    2013-02-01

    The effects of carvacrol on tracheal responsiveness (TR) to methacholine and ovalbumin (OA), serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration, total and differential white blood cells (WBC) in blood of sensitized guinea pigs were examined. Five groups of guinea pigs sensitized to OA were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/mL) and dexamethasone (50 µg/mL). TR to methacholine and OA, serum NO concentration, total and differential WBC in blood of sensitized and control guinea pigs were measured (n = 6, for each group). TR to methacholine and OA, serum level of NO and nitrite, total WBC, eosinophil and neutrophil counts were increased but lymphocyte decreased in group S compared with control group (P < 0.01 for NO and nitrite and P < 0.001 for other cases). Treatment of S animals with dexamethasone and two higher concentrations of carvacrol significantly improved all measured parameters except TR to OA in treated group with dexamethasone (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Treatment of S animals with low concentration of carvacrol also improved TR to methacholine and OA, total WBC count and nitrite level (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The effects of two higher concentrations of carvacrol on TR, NO and nitrite and the effects of its highest concentration on total and differential WBC count were significantly higher than those of dexamethasone (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In addition, the effects of highest concentration of carvacrol on all parameters and its medium concentration on some parameters were significantly higher than its low concentration (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). These results showed a preventive effect of carvacrol on tracheal responsiveness, serum level of NO and nitrite, total and differential WBC in the blood of sensitized guinea pigs which was equal or even more potent than dexamethasone at used concentrations.

  15. Evaluation of volume and total nucleated cell count as cord blood selection parameters: a receiver operating characteristic curve modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Pérez, José C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura N; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Herrera-Garza, José Luís; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the current standard practice of using volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) count for the selection of cord blood (CB) units for cryopreservation and further transplantation. Data on 794 CB units whose CD34+ cell content was determined by flow cytometry were analyzed by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve model to validate the performance of volume and TNC count for the selection of CB units with grafting purposes. The TNC count was the best parameter to identify CB units having 2 × 10(6) or more CD34+ cells, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.828 (95% confidence interval, 0.800-0.856; P < .01) and an efficiency of 75.4%. Combination of parameters (TNC/mononuclear cells [MNCs], efficiency 74.7%; TNC/volume, efficiency 68.9%; and volume/MNCs, efficiency 68.3%) did not lead to improvement in CB selection. All CB units having a TNC count of 8 × 10(8) or more had the required CD34+ cell dose for patients weighing 10 kg or less.

  16. Hematologic variables and venous thrombosis: red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count are associated with an increased risk.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Suely Meireles; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that leukocytes and erythrocytes play a role in coagulation. However, whether leukocytes, erythrocytes and other hematologic variables are associated with risk of venous thrombosis is not well known. To study this, we used data from 2473 patients with venous thrombosis and 2935 controls. The variables assessed were: total leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes and red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width). We found a strong dose-response relation for higher red cell distribution width and monocyte count with risk of venous thrombosis, with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.8) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.8), respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein level, malignancy and co-morbidities. Monocyte count and red cell distribution width were associated with venous thrombosis even within reference ranges. A low monocyte count (<0.12 × 10(9)/L) was associated with a lower risk of venous thrombosis after full adjustment (odds ratios 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.8). In summary, high red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count, two parameters that are inexpensive and easily obtainable, were clearly associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanism and the use of these variables in prediction models for first and recurrent thrombosis.

  17. Competitive antagonism at thromboxane receptors in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. A.; Jones, R. L.; Peesapati, V.; Will, S. G.; Wilson, N. H.

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of three prostanoid analogues, EP 045, EP 092 and pinane thromboxane A2 (PTA2), on the aggregation of human platelets in vitro have been investigated. In diluted platelet-rich plasma (PRP), EP 045 (20 microM) and EP 092 (1 microM) completely inhibited irreversible aggregation responses to thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) and five chemically stable thromboxane mimetics, including 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 and 9,11-azo-PGH2. Reversible aggregation produced by the prostanoid analogue, CTA2, was also inhibited. The block of the stable agonist action was surmountable. In plasma-free platelet suspensions EP 045 and EP 092 were more potent antagonists. Schild analysis indicated a competitive type of antagonism for EP 045 (affinity constant of 1.1 X 10(7) M-1); the nature of the EP 092 block is not clear. Primary aggregation waves induced by ADP, platelet activating factor (Paf) and adrenaline were unaffected by EP 045 and EP 092, whereas the corresponding second phases of aggregation were suppressed. Aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release induced by either PGH2 or 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 were inhibited in a parallel manner by EP 045. Inhibition of thromboxane biosynthesis is not involved in these effects. EP 045 and EP 092 did not raise adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in the platelet suspensions. In plasma-free platelet suspensions PTA2 produced a shape change response which could be blocked by EP 045. PTA2, therefore, has a thromboxane-like agonist action. The block of the aggregatory action of 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 by PTA2 appears to be mainly due to competition at the thromboxane receptor. However, PTA2 produced a slight rise in cyclic AMP levels; this could be due to a very weak stimulant action on either PGI2 or PGD2 receptors present in the human platelet. Functional antagonism by PTA2 may therefore augment its thromboxane receptor blocking activity. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the

  18. Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Brian L; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Lee, Kristine E; Hampton, John M

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation among physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43 to 86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing up kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.86). Participants with WBC counts in the upper tertile (>or=8 x 10(3)/microL) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4 x 10(3)/microL). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for WBC count. Although the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and WBC count are independent risk factors for lung cancer.

  19. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  20. Selected complete blood cell count and plasma protein electrophoresis parameters in pet psittacine birds evaluated for illness.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Rosenthal, Karen L; Shofer, Frances S

    2010-06-01

    Veterinarians rely on results of both the complete blood cell count (CBC) and plasma protein electrophoresis (EPH) in conjunction with the results of the plasma biochemical analysis to evaluate the health status of avian patients. Because the CBC and protein EPH measure different aspects of the immune response to disease, both tests are recommended in avian patients to rule out infectious or inflammatory disease. To evaluate results of the CBC and protein EPH in pet psittacine birds, the records of 144 pet psittacine birds, comprising 11 genera, that were presented for suspected illness were reviewed. Results of the CBC (total white blood cell count and packed cell volume) and protein EPH (alpha, beta, and gamma globulin concentrations) from submitted blood samples from each bird were evaluated. Of the 144 birds, 63 (43.8%) had abnormal CBC results, and 25 (17.4%) had abnormal EPH measurements. Results of the CBC and protein EPH were within reference ranges in 73 birds (50.7%). Abnormal results of the CBC in conjunction with normal EPH results were present in 46 birds (31.9%), compared with 8 birds (5.6%) with normal results of the CBC and abnormal EPH results. The findings of this study could aid practitioners in evaluating psittacine patients and prioritizing the value of individual diagnostic tests.

  1. Consecutive results of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry: useful tools of health protection regulation for radiation workers

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seongjae; Lee, Jin Kyung; Cho, Minsu; Yang, Su San; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Wan Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Since the law was enacted, however, few follow-up studies have been carried out based on the obtained results. Objectives To ascertain the clinical usefulness of complete blood cell count (CBC) results and suggest a proper protocol of health protection for radiation workers. Methods After reviewing all the consecutive results of CBC and TLD doses from radiation workers registered nationwide, we selected two groups of high-risk radiation workers, CBC-high risk (CBC-HR) and TLD-high risk (TLD-HR) groups. A control group of unexposed healthy adults was also included. We compared the absorbed doses calculated by cytogenetic biodosimetry among those three groups, and examined possible confounding factors for each group. Results Both groups of high-risk radiation workers, CBC-HR and TLD-HR, showed higher chromosome aberrations than the control group. In the control group, previous medical history of a CT scan increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations. In contrast, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the high-risk radiation workers was affected not by the previous CT history but only by the duration of their work. Conclusions We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and cytogenetic biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of biodosimetry results. PMID:27466611

  2. Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: should obese patients have their own "normal values?".

    PubMed

    Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George

    2014-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly.

  3. Can C-reactive protein and white blood cell count alone rule out an urgent condition in acute abdominal pain?

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Ciro; Spallino, Ilenia

    2016-02-01

    Up to 10% of all patients at the Emergency Department present for acute abdominal pain. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are routinely determined as part of the workup of patients with abdominal pain. Three large prospective cohort studies comprising a total of 2961 adult patients with acute abdominal pain were selected. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. These studies conclude that the laboratory values individually are weak discriminators and cannot be used as a triage instrument in the selection of patients with acute abdominal pain requiring additional diagnostic tests.

  4. Platelet thromboxane (11-dehydro-Thromboxane B2) and aspirin response in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Luis R; Guyer, Kirk E; Torre, Ignacio Garcia De La; Pitts, Kelly R; Matsuura, Eiji; Ames, Paul RJ

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) leading to decreased thromboxane-mediated platelet activation. The effect of ASA ingestion on thromboxane generation was evaluated in patients with diabetes (DM) and cardiovascular disease. Thromboxane inhibition was assessed by measuring the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2. The mean baseline urinary 11dhTxB2 of DM was 69.6% higher than healthy controls (P = 0.024): female subjects (DM and controls) had 50.9% higher baseline 11dhTxB2 than males (P = 0.0004), while age or disease duration had no influence. Daily ASA ingestion inhibited urinary 11dhTxB2 in both DM (71.7%) and controls (75.1%, P < 0.0001). Using a pre-established cut-off of 1500 pg/mg of urinary 11dhTxB2, there were twice as many ASA poor responders (ASA “resistant”) in DM than in controls (14.8% and 8.4%, respectively). The rate of ASA poor responders in two populations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients was 28.6 and 28.7%, in spite of a significant (81.6%) inhibition of urinary 11dhTxB2 (P < 0.0001). Both baseline 11dhTxB2 levels and rate of poor ASA responders were significantly higher in DM and ACS compared to controls. Underlying systemic oxidative inflammation may maintain platelet function in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease irrespective of COX-1 pathway inhibition and/or increase systemic generation of thromboxane from non-platelet sources. PMID:24748925

  5. Reticulated platelet levels in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma of dogs with various platelet counts measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Haruhiko; Yamagami, Hirozumi; Watari, Toshihiro; Kano, Rui; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Reticulated platelets (RP) are young platelets that contain residual RNA, and measurement of RP has been to assess thrombopoiesis. In the present study, flow cytometric counts of RP were compared using paired specimens elicited from dogs with various platelet counts by different RP collection procedures, the whole blood method (WBM) and platelet rich plasma method (PRPM). The flow cytometric counts of RP for the specimens collected by WBM showed good and stable agreement with those taken by PRPM from the same canine subjects. The result revealed that WBM, as well as PRPM, can be used clinically to determine RP levels in dogs with abnormal platelet counts.

  6. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  7. Segmentation technique of complex image scene for an automatic blood-cell-counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

    1996-04-01

    The paper presents a method for automatic localization and segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated leukocyte counter by using pattern recognition-based slide readers. The segmentation techniques consist of the following steps. On the first a smear image acquired at the low magnification. The next is extraction of WBC nuclei by chromatic properties and image mapping. After this the cells clustered according to the distances between them and regions of interest (ROI) determined. Image of ROI captured at the high magnification and its validity checked. Then nucleus segments extracted and grouped into prospective cells. The detection of blood cells is based on the intensity of G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity of the nuclei. A cytoplasm region approximated by a circle area around the nucleus center. Finally, the cytoplasm area cleaned considering a priori knowledge of background color and possible cell occlusions. The result of the segmentation is presented in the form of a cell location list and image template in which every pixel is assigned to a label such as Background, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Hole, etc. The proposed technique has yielded correct segmentation of complex image scenes for blood smears prepared by ordinary manual staining methods in 99% of tested images.

  8. Dietary chloride does not correlate with urinary thromboxane in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Theriot, J A; Passmore, J C; Jimenez, A E; Fleming, J T

    2000-06-01

    Renal vascular resistance in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-treated uninephrectomized rats is increased by high dietary chloride. Because DOCA salt-hypertensive rats exhibit an increased urinary excretion of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), the increased TXB2 excretion by DOCA salt-treated rats could relate to elevated dietary chloride, increased blood pressure, and/or the presence of intact renal tubules. We hypothesized that high NaCl intake, resulting in an elevated tubular chloride excretion, stimulates TXA2 production. A result of that production could be renal vasoconstriction. Baseline blood pressures were measured for 10 days, and then the rats were treated with DOCA (30 mg/kg) and fed (1) normal NaCl, (2) normal sodium with high chloride, or (3) high sodium chloride (NaCl) for 4.5 weeks. Next, the rats were uninephrectomized (1K) or unihydronephrectomized (1KHK) to yield one kidney without an intact tubular system and therefore no macula densa. Two and a half weeks later, urinary excretion of TXB2 was determined. DOCA-high NaCl-fed 1KHK or 1K rats had significant increases in systemic blood pressure to 172 +/- 12 and 190 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively, compared with no significant increase in blood pressure among the other groups. Urinary TXB2 excretion was increased to 29 +/- 4 pg per 24 hours per gram of body weight in all DOCA-treated 1KHK and 1K animals regardless of diet compared with DOCA-treated animals with two intact kidneys (13 +/- 2 pg per 24 hours per gram of body weight). DOCA treatment in rats with one functional kidney results in the excretion of high levels of urinary TXB2 unrelated to dietary chloride load, blood pressure, or intact renal tubules.

  9. Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Wilson, Andrew M; Chisholm, Alison; Rigazio, Anna; Burden, Anne; Thomas, Michael; King, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12–80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990–2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P<0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course. Results Blood eosinophil count >400/µL (versus ≤400/µL) increased the likelihood of two or more exacerbations >1.4-fold (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 1.58); P<0.001). Variables that significantly increased the odds by up to 1.4-fold included increasing age (per year), female gender (versus male), being overweight or obese (versus normal body mass index), being a smoker (versus nonsmoker), having anxiety/depression, diabetes, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or rhinitis, and prescription for acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with treatment at British Thoracic Society step 2 (daily controller ± reliever), treatment at step 0 (none) or 1 (as-needed reliever) increased the odds by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and treatment at step 3, 4, or 5 increased the odds by 1.3-, 1.9-, or 3.1-fold, respectively (all P<0.05). Acute OCS use was the single best predictor of two or more exacerbations. Even one course increased the odds by more than threefold (OR: 3.75 [95% CI: 3

  10. REACTION MECHANISMS OF 15-HYDROPEROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACID CATALYZED BY HUMAN PROSTACYCLIN AND THROMBOXANE SYNTHASES

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Wang, Lee-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) are atypical cytochrome P450s. They do not require NADPH or dioxygen for isomerization of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to produce prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). PGI2 and TXA2 have opposing actions on platelet aggregation and blood vessel tone. In this report, we use a lipid hydroperoxide, 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE), to explore the active site characteristics of PGIS and TXAS. The two enzymes transformed 15-HPETE not only into 13-hydroxy-14,15-epoxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (13-OH-14,15-EET), like many microsomal P450s, but also to 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (15-KETE) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). 13-OH-14,15-EET and 15-KETE result from homolytic cleavage of the O–O bond, whereas 15-HETE results from heterolytic cleavage, a common peroxidase pathway. About 80% of 15-HPETE was homolytically cleaved by PGIS and 60% was homolytically cleaved by TXAS. The Vmax of homolytic cleavage is 3.5-fold faster than heterolytic cleavage for PGIS-catalyzed reactions (1100 min−1 vs. 320 min−1) and 1.4-fold faster for TXAS (170 min−1 vs. 120 min−1). Similar KM values for homolytic and heterolytic cleavages were found for PGIS (∼60 μM 15-HPETE) and TXAS (∼80 μM 15-HPETE), making PGIS a more efficient catalyst for the 15-HPETE reaction. PMID:17459323

  11. Genetic Modifiers of White Blood Cell Count, Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Jonathan M.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Nelson, Stephen C.; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A.; George, Alex; Roberts, Carla W.; Piccone, Connie M.; Howard, Thad A.; Davis, Barry R.; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery and validation of genetic variants that influence disease severity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) could lead to early identification of high-risk patients, better screening strategies, and intervention with targeted and preventive therapy. We hypothesized that newly identified genetic risk factors for the general African American population could also impact laboratory biomarkers known to contribute to the clinical disease expression of SCA, including variants influencing the white blood cell count and the development of albuminuria and abnormal glomerular filtration rate. We first investigated candidate genetic polymorphisms in well-characterized SCA pediatric cohorts from three prospective NHLBI-supported clinical trials: HUSTLE, SWiTCH, and TWiTCH. We also performed whole exome sequencing to identify novel genetic variants, using both a discovery and a validation cohort. Among candidate genes, DARC rs2814778 polymorphism regulating Duffy antigen expression had a clear influence with significantly increased WBC and neutrophil counts, but did not affect the maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea therapy. The APOL1 G1 polymorphism, an identified risk factor for non-diabetic renal disease, was associated with albuminuria. Whole exome sequencing discovered several novel variants that maintained significance in the validation cohorts, including ZFHX4 polymorphisms affecting both the leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as AGGF1, CYP4B1, CUBN, TOR2A, PKD1L2, and CD163 variants affecting the glomerular filtration rate. The identification of robust, reliable, and reproducible genetic markers for disease severity in SCA remains elusive, but new genetic variants provide avenues for further validation and investigation. PMID:27711207

  12. Total and differential white blood cell counts in Caiman latirostris after in ovo and in vivo exposure to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María A; Romito, María L; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob.Santa Fe/MUPCN) facilities. Exposure of embryos was performed by topication on the eggshell during the first stage of development. The treatments were distilled water (negative control; NC), ethanol (vehicle control; VC), four groups treated with different concentrations of CYP and four groups with END. In vivo exposure was performed by immersion; treatments were NC, VC, two groups exposed to CYP and two to END. After embryonic exposure to the insecticides, no differences were found in TWBC or DWBC among the neonates exposed to pesticides versus controls. In the in vivo scenario, similar results were obtained for TWBC, but DWBC data showed differences between NC hatchlings and CYP-1 hosts for heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels, and between NC and END-1 hosts for lymphocyte and monocyte levels. Research on the effects of pesticide exposure on this species is of special interest not only to assess the impact on caiman populations, but also to further characterize the species as a potential sentinel of ecosystem health.

  13. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  14. Association between major histocompatibility complex microsatellites, fecal egg count, blood packed cell volume and blood eosinophilia in Pelibuey sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan Antonio Figueroa; Medina, Rubén Danilo Méndez; Villalobos, José Manuel Berruecos; Gayosso-Vázquez, Amanda; Ulloa-Arvízu, Raúl; Rodríguez, Rebeca Acosta; Ramírez, Hugo Pérez; Morales, Rogelio A Alonso

    2011-05-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the correlation among traits associated with resistance or susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infestation and to evaluate the participation of the ovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Pelibuey sheep, a prevalent breed in tropical and sub-tropical regions in Mexico and elsewhere. Association among the fecal egg count (FEC), blood packed cell volume (PCV), antibody (AB) levels, serum proteins (SP) and blood eosinophil count (EOS) was assessed in 52 lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus, and the participation of the MHC was evaluated using polymorphisms in three microsatellites, located at the class I (OMHC1) and class II (OLADRB1, OLADRB2) regions of the MHC. Spearman correlation analysis among the traits showed a negative association (P<0.01) between FEC and PCV (-0.35), EOS (-0.50), SP (-0.30) and AB (-0.57), and a positive correlation of antibodies with EOS (0.50). The homozygotes for the OMHC1-188 and OLADRB2-282 alleles were associated with a reduction in FEC (-813 and -551, respectively). Conversely, the OMHC1-200 and OMHC1-206 alleles were associated with an increase in FEC (1704 and 1008, respectively). Furthermore, the OLADRB1-482 allele was associated with an increase of 163 EOS by allele copy, while the OMHC1-200 allele showed a reduction of 95 EOS in homozygotes. The associations among microsatellite MHC loci and the remaining variables were not significant. These results reinforce the evidence that MHC polymorphisms have an important role in parasite resistance or susceptibility in Pelibuey sheep and could be used as genetic markers to assist selection and improve parasite resistance to H. contortus.

  15. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  16. Effects of centrally administered prostaglandin E(3) and thromboxane A(3) on plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline in rats: comparison with prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane A(2).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2009-06-02

    Previously, we reported the involvement of brain omega-6 prostanoids, especially prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane A(2), in the activation of central sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow in rats. omega-3 Prostanoids, including prostaglandin E(3) and thromboxane A(3), are believed to be less bioactive than omega-6 prostanoids, although studies on the functions of omega-3 prostanoids in the central nervous system have not been reported. In the present study, therefore, we compared the effects of centrally administered omega-3 prostanoids, prostaglandin E(3) and thromboxane A(3), with those of omega-6 prostanoids, prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane A(2), on the plasma catecholamines in anesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered prostaglandin E(2) (0.15, 0.3 and 1.5 nmol/animal) and prostaglandin E(3) (0.3 and 3 nmol/animal) predominantly elevated plasma noradrenaline but not adrenaline, but the latter was less efficient than the former. On the other hand, U-46619 (an analog of thromboxane A(2)) (30, 100 and 300 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) and Delta(17)-U-46619 (an analog of thromboxane A(3)) (100 and 300 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) both elevated plasma catecholamines (adrenaline>noradrenaline) to the same degree. These results suggest that centrally administered prostaglandin E(3) is less effective than prostaglandin E(2) to elevate plasma noradrenaline, and that thromboxane A(3) is almost as equipotent as thromboxane A(2) to elevate plasma catecholamines in rats.

  17. Flunixin pharmacokinetics and serum thromboxane inhibition in the dog.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Q A; Galbraith, E A; Bogan, J A; Russell, C S; Hooke, R E; Lees, P

    1989-06-24

    Flunixin meglumine administered orally to beagle dogs at doses of 0.55, 1.10 or 1.65 mg/kg bodyweight was rapidly absorbed to produce maximum mean plasma concentrations of 2.40 +/- 0.70, 4.57 +/- 1.12 and 7.42 +/- 2.07 micrograms/ml, respectively. Thereafter, the plasma concentrations of flunixin fell rapidly to values less than 0.10 micrograms/ml from 24 hours after drug administration at all dosage levels. The maximum mean inhibition of serum thromboxane B2 was 91.5 per cent after the lowest dose of flunixin and 98.8 per cent for both the intermediate and high dose rates. At plasma concentrations of flunixin above 2 micrograms/ml there was more than 90 per cent inhibition of thromboxane.

  18. Interpretation of Amniotic Fluid White Blood Cell Count in “Bloody Tap” Amniocenteses in Women With Symptoms of Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Rosenberg, Victor A.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Han, Christina S.; Werner, Erika F.; Thung, Stephen; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether blood-contaminated amniotic fluid affects the performance of white blood cell (WBC) count in diagnosing intraamniotic inflammation and infection. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive women pregnant with singletons undergoing amniocentesis to rule out infection were enrolled prospectively. A “bloody tap” was defined as a red blood cell (RBC) count of 1,000 cells/mm3 or more. Proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid was used in this study as the standard for diagnosing inflammation. Infection was confirmed by positive amniotic fluid culture. An amniotic fluid WBC count correction formula was computed using maternal WBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. Results The prevalence of a bloody tap amniocentesis was 22% (77 of 357). In the absence of inflammation, the amniotic fluid WBC count was significantly higher in bloody tap (median [interquartile range] 18 [9–58] cells/mm3) compared with non–bloody tap specimens (4 [1–10] cells/mm3; P<.001). The correction formula reversed this difference to a nonsignificant level (bloody tap 0 [0–17] compared with non–bloody tap 3 [1–10] cells/mm3; P=.273). In the setting of inflammation, the observed WBC count of bloody tap samples (778 [197–2,062 cells/mm3]) was significantly elevated compared with that of the non–bloody tap specimens (616 [105–1,730] cells/mm3; P=.023). Correction of the WBC count in bloody tap amniocenteses improved the test accuracy and positive likelihood ratios for inflammation and infection. A correction algorithm was not useful in amniotic fluid specimens with less than 1,000/RBCs/mm3 or WBC counts more than 1,100 cells/mm3. Given the nonlinear relationship between amniotic fluid WBC and RBC, for a rapid correction of WBC count, the number of neutrophils that need to be subtracted from the observed WBC count is variable. Conclusion In the setting of an amniotic fluid sample contaminated with 1,000 RBCs/mm3 or more, WBC count is a less

  19. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  20. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq 131I (ranging 2220–7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance. The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up. WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females

  1. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-02-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

  2. Changes of plasma thromboxane level in subarachnoid haemorrhage. A study with 11-dehydro-TXB2 as measuring index.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Nonogaki, Y; Ebina, K; Sekiya, T; Iwabuchi, T; Takiguchi, M

    1991-01-01

    Changes of plasma thromboxane level in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were studied clinically and experimentally using 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11 DTX) as a measuring index. 11 DTX is a major long-lived metabolite formed from thromboxane (TX) B2, and is said to be a more reliable parameter for detecting TXA2 production in biological systems. In this clinical study, blood was sampled from the cubital vein of 10 SAH patients on the earliest possible day (day 0 or 1), during the vasospasm predilection period (day 7 approximately 11) and in the chronic stage (day 16 approximately 32). Plasma concentrations of 11 DTX and 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha were measured in clinical cases. A canine SAH model was produced by the two haemorrhage methods and blood was sampled from the superior sagittal sinus before and on day 4 of the first cisternal blood injection. 11 DTX, TXB2 and platelet function were examined in each sample. In the clinical studies, plasma 11 DTX levels tended to be higher in the early stage of SAH but decreased thereafter to the normal or lower level. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha tended to decrease mildly during the vasospasm predilection period. In the experimental study, neither definite change of plasma 11 DTX level nor neurological deficit could be induced by the mimic SAH, while an increase in platelet aggregability and narrowing of the basilar artery were observed. 11 DTX was inferred to be a more reliable parameter of TX biosynthesis than TXB2.

  3. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. Materials and methods We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson’s correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson’s correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98–0.99; p<0.001) and bias of −0.61 (95% CI, −1.5–0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0–1.0) for neonates. Discussion XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates. PMID:25761322

  4. Immediate Blood Draw for CD4+ Cell Count Is Associated with Linkage to Care in Durban, South Africa: Findings from Pathways to Engagement in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Levin, Bruce; Singh, Dinesh; Mantell, Joanne E.; Blanchard, Kelly; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely linkage to care by newly-diagnosed HIV+ individuals remains a significant challenge to achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend initiating anti-retroviral treatment (ART) regardless of CD4+ count, with priority given to those with CD4+ <350 cells/μl. We evaluated the impact of not having a day-of-diagnosis CD4+ count blood draw, as recommended by South African guidelines, on time to linkage, using data from a prospective cohort study. Methods Individuals (N = 2773) were interviewed prior to HIV counseling and testing at three public sector primary care clinics in the greater Durban area; 785 were newly-diagnosed and eligible for the cohort study; 459 (58.5%) joined and were followed for eight months with three structured assessments. Linkage to care, defined as returning to clinic for CD4+ count results, and day-of-diagnosis blood draw were self-reported. Results Overall, 72.5% did not have a day-of-diagnosis CD4+ count blood draw, and 19.2% of these never returned. Compared with a day-of-diagnosis blood draw, the adjusted hazard ratio of linkage (AHRlinkage) associated with not having day-of-diagnosis blood draw was 0.66 (95%CI: 0.51, 0.85). By 4 months, 54.8% of those without day-of-diagnosis blood draw vs. 75.2% with one were linked to care (chi-squared p = 0.004). Of those who deferred blood draw, 48.3% cited clinic-related and 51.7% cited personal reasons. AHRlinkage was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.44, 0.82) for clinic-related and 0.53 (95%CI: 0.38, 0.75) for personal reasons relative to having day-of-diagnosis blood draw. Conclusions Newly-diagnosed HIV+ individuals who did not undergo CD4+ count blood draw on the day they were diagnosed—regardless of the reason for deferring—had delayed linkage to care relative to those with same-day blood draw. To enhance prompt linkage to care even when test and treat protocols are implemented, all diagnostic testing required before ART initiation should be

  5. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  6. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  7. Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-05-20

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in China. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

  8. Low plasma adiponectin level, white blood cell count and Helicobacter pylori titre independently predict abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Ko, Gary T; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher C; Chan, Juliana C

    2009-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin sensitizing effect while chronic inflammation damages pancreatic beta-cells leading to reduced insulin response. We aimed to prove the hypothesis that adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts [WCC], Helicobacter pylori [HP] titers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) may interact to affect risk of diabetes. We studied 288 Chinese men (age-median: 41.0 years, IQR: 35.3-46.0 years) being recruited from the community in Hong Kong. The mean adiponectin level was 5.39+/-2.81 microg/ml and 40.9% (n=107) had low adiponectin level (<4 microg/ml). On multiple regression analysis, adiponectin was negatively associated with diabetes, HOMA insulin resistance top quartile, plasma glucose (PG) and 2h insulin; and positively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity index. WCC was independently associated with PG and 15' insulin, and negatively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity top quartile. HP titre was associated with 30' PG level and diabetes. hs-CRP did not enter the multivariable model. In conclusion, adiponectin, WCC and HP titer are independent predictors for hyperglycemia and reduced insulin sensitivity in Chinese men. These findings may explain the high risk for diabetes in Chinese population despite their relatively low adiposity.

  9. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone.

  10. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  11. Complete blood count - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  12. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  13. Complete Blood Count (CBC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ...

  14. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet

  15. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  16. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    PubMed

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  17. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition.

    PubMed

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D; Jansen, Michelle A; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F; Lyle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts.

  18. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-05

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10(9) L(-1)), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  19. Clinical features and outcome of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: a low initial white blood cell count, as well as a high count predict decreased survival rates.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Masamitsu; Jinnai, Itsuro; Takeuchi, Jin; Ueda, Takanori; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Tsuzuki, Motohiro; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Usui, Noriko; Wada, Hideho; Morii, Takeshi; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Honda, Sumihisa; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2007-07-01

    Although biological and clinical features differ between B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and T-lineage ALL (T-ALL), there have been few reports that focused on the prognosis for T-ALL in adults, primarily due to its rarity. Here, we studied the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors specific for adult T-ALL by combining patient data from the three prospective trials conducted by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG). Among 559 patients whose immunophenotypes could be evaluated, 87 (15.6%) were identified as T-ALL. Of them, 66 patients (75.8%) achieved complete remission, and relapse occurred in 41 patients. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 7.5 years, the probability of overall survival was 35.0% at 5 years. Risk factor analysis revealed that serum albumin levels, initial white blood cell (WBC) counts, and age had independent values for predicting survival. For WBC, not only the high-count group (50 x 10(9)l(-1) or higher), but also the low-count group (less than 3 x 10(9)l(-1)) showed a significantly lower survival rates than the intermediate-count group (p=0.0055 and 0.0037, respectively). Although our findings need confirmation, these results will be helpful in the identification of prognostically distinct subgroups within adult T-ALL.

  20. Revalidation of a prognostic score model based on complete blood count for nasopharyngeal carcinoma through a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Chang, Hui; Tao, Yalan; Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Objective In our previous work, we incorporated complete blood count (CBC) into TNM stage to develop a new prognostic score model, which was validated to improve prediction efficiency of TNM stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to revalidate the accuracy of the model, and its superiority to TNM stage, through data from a prospective study. Methods CBC of 249 eligible patients from the 863 Program No. 2006AA02Z4B4 was evaluated. Prognostic index (PI) of each patient was calculated according to the score model. Then they were divided by the PI into three categories: the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of the three categories was compared by a log-rank test. The model and TNM stage (7th edition) were compared on efficiency for predicting the 5-year DSS, through comparison of the area under curve (AUC) of their receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results The 5-year DSS of the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients were 96.0%, 79.1% and 62.2%, respectively. The low-and intermediate-risk patients had better DSS than the high-risk patients (P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). And there was a trend of better DSS in the low-risk patients, compared with the intermediate-risk patients (P=0.049). The AUC of the model was larger than that of TNM stage (0.726 vs. 0.661, P=0.023). Conclusions A CBC-based prognostic score model was revalidated to be accurate and superior to TNM stage on predicting 5-year DSS of NPC. PMID:27877005

  1. The prognostic impact of preoperative blood monocyte count in pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Weiwei; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kaiyun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    It remains controversial whether adjuvant therapy should be delivered to pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Thus identification of patients at high risk is of particular importance. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the absolute peripheral blood monocyte count can stratify the pathological T3N0M0M0 rectal cancer patients in survival. A total of 270 pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision-principle radical resection were included. The optimal cut-off value of preoperative monocyte count was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival and disease-free survival between low- and high-monocyte were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. The optimal cut-off value for monocyte count was 595 mm(3). In univariate analysis, patients with monocyte counts higher than 595/mm(3) had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (79.2 vs 94.2 %, P = 0.006) and disease-free survival (67.8 vs 86.0 %, P < 0.001). With adjustment for the known covariates, monocyte count remained to be associated with poor overall survival (HR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.27-5.10; P = 0.008) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.48-4.69; P = 0.001). Additionally, the significant association of monocyte count with disease-free survival was hardly influenced in the subgroup analysis, whereas this correlation was restricted to the males and patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (<5 μg/L), tumor grade II, and with adjuvant therapy. High preoperative monocyte count is independently predictive of worse survival of pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might be considered for patients with high-monocyte count.

  2. Antagonism of thromboxane receptors by diclofenac and lumiracoxib

    PubMed Central

    Selg, E; Buccellati, C; Andersson, M; Rovati, G E; Ezinga, M; Sala, A; Larsson, A-K; Ambrosio, E; Låstbom, L; Capra, V; Dahlén, B; Ryrfeldt, Å; Folco, G C; Dahlén, S-E

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are analgesic and anti-inflammatory by virtue of inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction that initiates biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Findings in a pulmonary pharmacology project gave rise to the hypothesis that certain members of the NSAID class might also be antagonists of the thromboxane (TP) receptor. Experimental approach: Functional responses due to activation of the TP receptor were studied in isolated airway and vascular smooth muscle preparations from guinea pigs and rats as well as in human platelets. Receptor binding and activation of the TP receptor was studied in HEK293 cells. Key results: Diclofenac concentration-dependently and selectively inhibited the contraction responses to TP receptor agonists such as prostaglandin D2 and U-46619 in the tested smooth muscle preparations and the aggregation of human platelets. The competitive antagonism of the TP receptor was confirmed by binding studies and at the level of signal transduction. The selective COX-2 inhibitor lumiracoxib shared this activity profile, whereas a number of standard NSAIDs and other selective COX-2 inhibitors did not. Conclusions and implications: Diclofenac and lumiracoxib, in addition to being COX unselective and highly COX-2 selective inhibitors, respectively, displayed a previously unknown pharmacological activity, namely TP receptor antagonism. Development of COX-2 selective inhibitors with dual activity as potent TP antagonists may lead to coxibs with improved cardiovascular safety, as the TP receptor mediates cardiovascular effects of thromboxane A2 and isoprostanes. PMID:17965743

  3. Low-Cost Disposable Cartridge for Performing a White Blood Cell Count and Partial Differential at the Point-of-Care.

    PubMed

    Majors, Catherine E; Pawlowski, Michal E; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R

    2014-10-01

    Being able to perform a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential is a crucial laboratory test for basic diagnostic practices. In this paper, we demonstrate proof of concept results for a disposable cartridge that could be used to perform a WBC count and 3-part differential at the point-of-care. The cartridge is composed of a glass slide, a layer of transfer tape, and a glass cover slip and incorporates acridine orange for cell staining and sub-type differentiation; the stained blood is then imaged, and image analysis techniques return a WBC count and 3-part differential. The cartridge was tested on a laboratory microscope with 3 normal samples, and had promising results with 85.7% of images resulting in a WBC count with ±15% of the true value. Further, the 3-part differential concentrations determined using the disposable cartridge had strong correlations with the true concentrations (R(2) values of 0.9986, 0.9421, and 0.6942 for granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, respectively). Preliminary designs for a low-cost, portable microscope have been created and are currently being prototyped.

  4. Identification of cell morphology parameters from automatic hematology analyzers to predict the peripheral blood CD34-positive cell count after mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Saeam; Cho, Sung Ran; Kim, Sinyoung; Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Kyung-A

    2017-01-01

    Optimal timing of apheresis initiation is important for maximizing the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) yield. This study aimed to identify useful parameters from automatic hematology analyzers for predicting the peripheral blood CD34+ cell count after mobilization. We prospectively enrolled 53 healthy donors and 72 patients, and evaluated 43 cell morphology parameters from Unicel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) and Advia 2120i (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA). The correlation of each parameter with the CD34+ cell count in pre-apheresis blood samples was analyzed. The delta neutrophil index (DNI) from Advia 2120i, standard deviation of volume of neutrophils and monocytes (SD-V-NE and SD-V-MO), standard deviation of conductivity of neutrophils and monocytes (SD-C-NE and SD-C-MO), mean conductivity of neutrophils and monocytes (MN-C-NE and MN-C-MO), and standard deviation of axial light loss of neutrophils and monocytes (SD-AL2-NE and SD-AL2-MO) from DxH800 showed significant correlations with the CD34+ cell count. SD-V-NE, SD-C-NE, and SD-C-MO showed good or fair area under the curve values for the prediction of the CD34+ cell count. SD-V-NE, SD-C-NE, and SD-C-MO from DxH800 will provide rapid, useful information for the initiation of apheresis after mobilization. PMID:28319139

  5. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Naïve Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease. PMID:23207109

  6. Low-Cost Disposable Cartridge for Performing a White Blood Cell Count and Partial Differential at the Point-of-Care*

    PubMed Central

    Majors, Catherine E.; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Being able to perform a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential is a crucial laboratory test for basic diagnostic practices. In this paper, we demonstrate proof of concept results for a disposable cartridge that could be used to perform a WBC count and 3-part differential at the point-of-care. The cartridge is composed of a glass slide, a layer of transfer tape, and a glass cover slip and incorporates acridine orange for cell staining and sub-type differentiation; the stained blood is then imaged, and image analysis techniques return a WBC count and 3-part differential. The cartridge was tested on a laboratory microscope with 3 normal samples, and had promising results with 85.7% of images resulting in a WBC count with ±15% of the true value. Further, the 3-part differential concentrations determined using the disposable cartridge had strong correlations with the true concentrations (R2 values of 0.9986, 0.9421, and 0.6942 for granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, respectively). Preliminary designs for a low-cost, portable microscope have been created and are currently being prototyped. PMID:25918749

  7. Involvement of central beta2-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A2 receptors in the pressor effect of anandamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, B; Zakrzeska, A; Kurz, C M; Göthert, M; Kwolek, G; Wielgat, P; Braszko, J J; Schlicker, E

    2010-04-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the endocannabinoid anandamide induces triphasic cardiovascular responses, including a pressor effect mediated via unknown central and peripheral mechanism(s). The aim of the present study was to determine the central mechanism(s) responsible for the pressor response to anandamide. For this purpose, the influence of antagonists at thromboxane A(2) TP (sulotroban, daltroban, SQ 29548), NMDA (MK-801) and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (ICI 118551) on the pressor effect induced by i.v. and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered anandamide was examined in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Anandamide (1.5-3 micromol/kg, i.v.) or its stable analogue methanandamide (0.75 micromol/kg, i.v.) increased blood pressure by 25%. Anandamide (0.03 mumol per animal i.c.v.) caused a pure pressor effect (by 20%) but only in the presence of antagonists of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors. The effects of cannabinoids (i.v. or i.c.v.) were diminished by i.v. daltroban, sulotroban (10 mumol/kg each), and/or SQ 29548 (1 mumol/kg). The effect of anandamide i.v. was reduced by SQ 29548 (0.02 mumol per animal i.c.v.) and by the thromboxane A(2) synthesis inhibitor furegrelate i.c.v. (1.8 micromol per animal). ICI 118551, MK-801 (1 micromol/kg i.v. each), and bilateral adrenalectomy diminished the effect of anandamide i.c.v. Sulotroban (i.v.) failed to affect the response to anandamide (i.v.) in pithed rats, and anandamide and methanandamide did not bind to TP receptors in rat platelets. The present study suggests that central beta(2)-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A(2) receptors are involved in the anandamide-induced adrenal secretion of catecholamines and their pressor effect in urethane-anaesthetized rats.

  8. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Chen, Ying-Ge; Gao, Jian-Li; Lyu, Gui-Yuan; Su, Jie; Zhang, Q I; Ji, Xin; Yan, Ji-Zhong; Qiu, Qiao-Li; Zhang, Yue-Li; Li, Lin-Zi; Xu, Han-Ting; Chen, Su-Hong

    2015-08-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice.

  9. Patients with Clinical Acute Appendicitis Should have Pre-operative Full Blood Count and C-Reactive Protein Assays

    PubMed Central

    Birchley, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis has not been clearly defined. The aims of this prospective audit were to define the role of the serum markers of inflammation total white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with particular reference to the discrimination between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, and the prediction of abscess. PATIENTS AND METHODS The author compiled a prospective database over a 13-month period of all appendicectomies performed. After five exclusions (three having no notes for review and two having confounding second morbidity in the presence of a normal appendix), the data relating to 75 patients were analysed. RESULTS In patients judged on clinical grounds to require laparotomy for suspected acute appendicitis, white cell count and neutrophil count distinguish acute appendicitis from normal appendices when used as categorical variables, though they do not reflect the presence of abscess. C-reactive protein neither distinguishes appendicitis from normal, nor predicts abscess when used as a categorical variable, though higher levels suggest abscess. CONCLUSIONS Laboratory tests of the white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein are more effective in supporting a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients with typical clinical features than in excluding the diagnosis. PMID:16460636

  10. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  11. Ligand binding to thromboxane receptors on human platelets: correlation with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. A.; Jones, R. L.; Wilson, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure [3H]-15 (S) 9, 11-epoxymethano PGH2 (a thromboxane A2-like agonist) has enabled the binding of ligands to the thromboxane receptor of the human platelet to be studied. The binding of the radio-ligand to washed human platelets has 3 components. One component is not displaceable by 'cold' 9, 11-epoxymethano PGH2 and its concentration-binding plot is roughly linear. The other 2 components are displaceable and saturable, and the larger of the two, which is sensitive to the stereochemistry of the C15 secondary alcohol, appears to represent the thromboxane receptor. About 1700 15(S)9, 11-epoxymethano PGH2 molecules are specifically bound to a single platelet and 50% of this binding is achieved with a concentration of 75 nM. Displacement of [3H]-15(S)9, 11-epoxymethano PGH2 is effected by (a) TXA2 and PGH2 and a number of bicyclic stable analogues (e.g. 9,11-azo PGH2), all of which produce irreversible aggregation of human platelets; (b) analogues of PGF2 alpha with potent thromboxane-like activity (e.g. ICI 79939); (c) compounds with partial agonist activity on the platelet thromboxane system (e.g. CTA2); (d) Thromboxane/endoperoxide analogues which specifically antagonize thromboxane-like actions on the human platelet (e.g. PTA2 and EP 045). Displacement is not achieved with the natural prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2 alpha. Neither the thromboxane-synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben nor R(+)-trimethoquinol have high displacing activity. The correlation of radio-ligand displacement with the biological activity of the competing ligands is discussed in relation to the nature of the thromboxane receptor on the human platelet. PMID:6317122

  12. Transcriptional regulation of human thromboxane synthase gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.D.; Baek, S.J.; Fleischer, T

    1994-09-01

    The human thromboxane synthase (TS) gene encodes a microsomal enzyme catalyzing the conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxane A{sub 2}(TxA{sub 2}), a potent inducer of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. A deficiency in platelet TS activity results in bleeding disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Increased TxA{sub 2} has been associated with many pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and thrombosis in sickle cell patients. Since the formation of TxA{sub 2} is dependent upon TS, the regulation of TS gene expression may presumably play a crucial role in vivo. Abrogation of the regulatory mechanism in TS gene expression might contribute, in part, to the above clinical manifestations. To gain insight into TS gene regulation, a 1.7 kb promoter of the human TS gene was cloned and sequenced. RNase protection assay and 5{prime} RACE protocols were used to map the transcription initiation site to nucleotide A, 30 bp downstream from a canonical TATA box. Several transcription factor binding sites, including AP-1, PU.1, and PEA3, were identified within this sequence. Transient expression studies in HL-60 cells transfected with constructs containing various lengths (0.2 to 5.5 kb) of the TS promoter/luciferase fusion gene indicated the presence of multiple repressor elements within the 5.5 kb TS promoter. However, a lineage-specific up-regulation of TS gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells induced by TPA to differentiate along the macrophage lineage. The increase in TS transcription was not detectable until 36 hr after addition of the inducer. These results suggest that expression of the human TS gene may be regulated by a mechanism involving repression and derepression of the TS promoter.

  13. Do sessions of cryostimulation have influence on white blood cell count, level of IL6 and total oxidative and antioxidative status in healthy men?

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Szygula, Zbigniew; Klimek, Andrzej J; Torii, Masafumi

    2010-05-01

    The influence of extremely low temperatures on the human body and physiological reactions are not fully recognized. It has been postulated that cryostimulation could modify immunological reactions, leukocytes mobilization and levels of cytokines. The aim of this research was to estimate the influence of a ten sessions 3-min-long exposures to cryogenic temperature (-130 degrees C) on the white blood cell (WBC) count, level of IL6 and the total oxidative and antioxidative status in 15 young, clinically healthy men. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after treatment and the next day in the morning, both during the first and tenth session. The WBC count, level of IL6 and total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status and the total antioxidative status (TAS), were measured. After completing a total of ten whole-body therapy sessions a significant increase in WBC count, especially lymphocytes and monocytes was noted. There was an increase in level of IL6 after first and the last cryostimulation the most pronounced after tenth session. On the contrary the TAS level decreased significant after the treatment. It was concluded that repeated expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation have mobilization effect on immunological system.

  14. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  15. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-04-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O(2) delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O(2) sensor, contributing to the control of O(2) delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O(2) from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 +/- 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 +/- 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 +/- 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.8 +/- 0.7 l min(-1), respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial-venous (a-v) O(2) difference (r(2)= 0.89-0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O(2) gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O(2) delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules.

  16. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (∼50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min−1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

  17. Inflammation biomarkers in blood as mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia admitted patients: Importance of comparison with neutrophil count percentage or neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio

    PubMed Central

    Curbelo, Jose; Luquero Bueno, Sergio; Galván-Román, José María; Ortega-Gómez, Mara; Rajas, Olga; Fernández-Jiménez, Guillermo; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Rodríguez-Salvanes, Francisco; Arnalich, Belén; Díaz, Ana; Costa, Ramón; de la Fuente, Hortensia; Lancho, Ángel; Suárez, Carmen; Ancochea, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increase and persistence of inflammation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients can lead to higher mortality. Biomarkers capable of measuring this inadequate inflammatory response are likely candidates to be related with a bad outcome. We investigated the association between concentrations of several inflammatory markers and mortality of CAP patients. Material and methods This was a prospective study of hospitalised CAP patients in a Spanish university hospital. Blood tests upon admittance and in the early-stage evolution (72–120 hours) were carried out, where C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, proadrenomedullin, copeptin, white blood cell, Lymphocyte Count Percentage (LCP), Neutrophil Count Percentage (NCP) and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) were measured. The outcome variable was mortality at 30 and 90 days. Statistical analysis included logistic regression, ROC analysis and area-under-curve test. Results 154 hospitalised CAP patients were included. Patients who died during follow-up had higher levels of procalcitonin, copeptin, proadrenomedullin, lower levels of LCP, and higher of NCP and NLR. Remarkably, multivariate analysis showed a relationship between NCP and mortality, regardless of age, severity of CAP and comorbidities. AUC analysis showed that NLR and NCP at admittance and during early-stage evolution achieved a good diagnostic power. ROC test for NCP and NLR were similar to those of the novel serum biomarkers analysed. Conclusions NLR and NCP, are promising candidate predictors of mortality for hospitalised CAP patients, and both are cheaper, easier to perform, and at least as reliable as the new serum biomarkers. Future implementation of new biomarkers would require comparison not only with classic inflammatory parameters like White Blood Cell count but also with NLR and NCP. PMID:28301543

  18. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Robinette, J B; Conger, J D

    1990-01-01

    The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129

  19. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  20. Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as unique extramedullar involvement in a patient with normal peripheral blood lymphocyte count (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis).

    PubMed

    Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Fuente, María-José; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández-Figueras, Maria-Teresa; Juncà, Jordi; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ariza, Aurelio

    2013-08-01

    Skin infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very rare and almost all reported cases occur in advanced stage. We report a patient with no relevant past medical history who presented with cutaneous erythematous plaques. A punch biopsy showed typical CLL morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Subsequent studies revealed a normal lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, and there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Flow cytometry demonstrated a clonal B-cell population both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (1.60 × 10(9)/l) with a CLL phenotype, but it did not fulfill required criteria for CLL diagnosis. Without cutaneous involvement, this case should be classified as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis.

  1. Role of enhanced glomerular synthesis of thromboxane A2 in progressive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Salvati, P; Ferti, C; Ferrario, R G; Lamberti, E; Duzzi, L; Bianchi, G; Remuzzi, G; Perico, N; Benigni, A; Braidotti, P

    1990-09-01

    Normotensive rats of the Milan strain (MNS) spontaneously develop focal glomerulosclerosis. In order to explore the contribution of glomerular thromboxane (TX) A2 synthesis to the development of the disease, we have characterized the time course of renal functional and biochemical changes, and their modification by long-term treatment with a TX-synthase inhibitor. Oral administration (150 mg.kg-1 from 1 to 14 months of age) of FCE 22178 suppressed enhanced glomerular TXB2 production at all experimental times (mean inhibition 80%) and proteinuria (varying between 27.1 and 73.0%) while preserving renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. These effects of TX-synthase inhibition were seen in the absence of any statistically significant changes in systemic blood pressure. Moreover, FCE 22178 had no antihypertensive effects in hypertensive rats of the Milan strain (MHS) nor in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Treatment also prevented the age-related hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia observed in control MNS and significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced glomerular histologic damage, as demonstrated by light microscopy studies and measurement of sclerotic area. We conclude that: 1) MNS rats provide an animal model of long-lasting proteinuria characterized by an age-related increase in glomerular TXB2 production paralleled by progressive loss of renal structural integrity and function and by a secondary dyslipidemia; 2) pharmacological inhibition of glomerular TX-synthase attenuates the structural as well as the functional expression of kidney disease, without a primary effect on systemic blood pressure. These data are suggestive of an important modulating role of TXA2 in the progression of MNS renal disease.

  2. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M

    2015-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—β) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—β levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—β levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes.

  3. Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Mardi, D; Fwity, B; Lobmann, R; Ambrosch, A

    2010-08-01

    Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections.

  4. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis following whole body irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the mechanism and source of in vivo thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TxB/sub 2/) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1..cap alpha../ (6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..) synthesis was evaluated. Rats were irradiated with 2, 10, or 20 gray (Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and showed an increase in urine TxB/sup 2/ after either 10 or 20 Gy. Urine 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was elevated only after exposure to 20 Gy. Irradiation did not alter urine volume and osmolarity, nor was there a correlation between urine osmolarity and the urinary concentration of TxB/sup 2/ or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Rats were pretreated with indomethacin to determine if radiation-induced alterations in urine TxB/sup 2/ and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ could be suppressed. Pretreatment with indomethacin significantly decreased urine TxB..cap alpha.. and 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ in both irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Finally, the sources of urinary cyclooxygenase products were investigated using an isogravitometric cross-perfusion system. These experiments demonstrated that urine TxB..cap alpha.. is derived from extrarenal sources, whereas 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha.. is synthesized primarily by the kidney. It may be concluded that radiation exposure increases in vivo cyclooxygenase pathway activity by both renal and ultrarenal tissues.

  5. Blood fluidity and outcome after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA): role of plasma viscosity and low platelet count in predicting restenosis.

    PubMed

    van der Loo, Bernd; Kovacevic, Tamara; Krieger, Elisabeth; Banyai, Susanne; Banyai, Martin; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R; Jagacic, Dorijan; Rousson, Valentin; Koppensteiner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    Rheological abnormalities are well known in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We wanted to determine whether rheological variables are related to restenosis after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In 114 patients (62 men; median age 70 years) undergoing femoropopliteal PTA for symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation, whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, fibrinogen, platelet count, leukocytes and C-reactive protein were determined the day after the procedure and at 1, 3, and 12 months. The primary endpoint was restenosis >50% documented by duplexsonography up to 12 months. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the risk of restenosis for postinterventional values of rheological variables. Forty-eight patients (42%) developed restenosis at 12 months. Patients with restenosis had higher baseline plasma viscosity (PV) (medians, 1.71 vs. 1.65 millipascal seconds [mPa.s]; p = 0.04) and lower platelet count (224 vs. 240 x 10(3)/microl; p = 0.03) than patients without restenosis. The hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) of incident restenosis was 9.2 (1.12-76; p = 0.03) for PV and 0.99 (0.99-1.0; p = 0.07) for PLT. When examining jointly both high PV and low platelet count (PLT), patients with PV > 1.66 mPa.s and PLT < 233 x 10(3)/microl (i.e. variables split at their respective median) had an increased risk of restenosis (log-rank test p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that plasma viscosity (p = 0.02), low platelet count (p = 0.01), lesion length (p = 0.0037) and lack of hypertension (p = 0.01) were associated with restenosis at 12 months. No associations were found between restenosis and the other rheological and inflammatory variables studied. Our data suggest that increased PV and low PLT contribute to restenosis after femoropopliteal PTA.

  6. Combined prognostic utility of white blood cell count, plasma glucose, and glomerular filtration rate in patients undergoing primary stent placement for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kosuge, Masami; Kimura, Kazuo; Morita, Satoshi; Kojima, Sunao; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Masaharu; Asada, Yujiro; Tei, Chuwa; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Sonoda, Masahiro; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Shirai, Mutsunori; Hiraoka, Hisatoyo; Honda, Takashi; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2009-02-01

    Although high white blood cell (WBC) count and plasma glucose (PG) and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on admission have been associated with poor outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the combined prognostic utility of these 3 variables was unclear. The association of WBC count, PG, and GFR on admission to in-hospital outcomes was examined in 2,633 patients who underwent primary stent placement for ST-segment elevation AMI within 48 hours after symptom onset. In-hospital mortality progressively increased as the number of the variables of high WBC count (> or =11,120/microl; upper tertile), high PG (> or =10.4 mmol/L; upper tertile), and low GFR (< or =60 ml/min/1.73 m(2); lower tertile) increased. Patients with all 3 variables had a strikingly higher in-hospital mortality rate (25.9%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, multivariate analysis showed that compared with patients who had none of these variables, odds ratios for in-hospital mortality were 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 3.03, p = 0.12) in patients with only 1 variable, 2.33 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.96, p = 0.047) in those with 2 variables, and 6.16 (95% CI 2.98 to 12.6, p <0.001) in those with all 3 variables. In conclusion, combined evaluation of WBC count, PG, and GFR on admission was a simple and useful method for the early prediction of risk of in-hospital death in patients undergoing primary stent placement for ST-segment elevation AMI.

  7. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  8. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksottir, Dora; Boezen, H Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Johnston, James A; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-03-08

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_001199640:exon7:c.487-1G>C (rs146597587-C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical splice acceptor site before the last coding exon. It is also found at low frequency in European populations. rs146597587-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non-carriers and allele-specific analysis based on RNA sequencing and phased genotypes shows that only 20% of the total expression is from the mutated chromosome. In half of those transcripts the mutation causes retention of the last intron, predicted to result in a premature stop codon that leads to truncation of 66 amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma.

  9. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Brown, Michael; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Boezen, H. Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Johnston, James A.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_001199640:exon7:c.487-1G>C (rs146597587-C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical splice acceptor site before the last coding exon. It is also found at low frequency in European populations. rs146597587-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10–16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10–4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non-carriers and allele-specific analysis based on RNA sequencing and phased genotypes shows that only 20% of the total expression is from the mutated chromosome. In half of those transcripts the mutation causes retention of the last intron, predicted to result in a premature stop codon that leads to truncation of 66 amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma. PMID:28273074

  10. Light-scattering changes caused by RBC aggregation: physical basis for new approach to noninvasive blood count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Leonid D.; Fine, Ilya

    2001-06-01

    We develop theoretical models of light transmission through whole blood considering RBC aggregation. RBC aggregates are considered to be the main centers of scattering in red/near- infrared spectral region. In pulsatile blood flow the periodic changes of aggregate geometry cause oscillations of light scattering. Thus scattering-assisted mechanism has to be taken into account in pulse oximeter calibration. In case of over-systolic vessel occlusion the size of aggregates grows, and the light transmission rises. Light diffraction on a single scatterer makes the transmission growth non- monotonic for certain spectral range. For the most typical set of aggregate parameters this range corresponds to wavelengths below 760 nm, and this prediction fits well both in vivo and in vitro experimental results. This spectral range depends on the refraction index mismatch and the geometry of aggregates. Both of them may be affected by the chemistry of blood. For instance, changes of glucose and hemoglobin have different effect on light transmission time response. Consequently, their content may be determined from time evolution of optical transmission.

  11. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  12. Thromboxane A2 release in ischemia and reperfusion of free flaps in rats, studied by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p < 0.05), compared to base level, with 151.65 percent in the 2-hr ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.

  13. Analysis of cytotoxicity and invasiveness of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) isolated from drinking water on blood media.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; Kops, S; Kontnick, C; Escarzaga, M

    1997-04-01

    Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria are naturally present in all aqueous environments. These bacteria undergo multiplication cycles in drinking water, especially in closed containers (bottled water) or in tap water when chlorine levels are dissipated, such as in dead ends in water mains or household plumbing. A study was undertaken to estimate health risk from these naturally occurring bacteria by the determination of cytotoxicity and invasiveness in a human enterocyte cell line. HPC bacteria were isolated from bottled and tap water samples by enumerating them under physical and chemical conditions analogous to human physiology. All HPC bacteria were examined at both log and lag phase of their growth cycles. Bacterial broth supernatant fluids were also tested to serve as critical negative controls. Naturally occurring HPC bacteria demonstrated low invasiveness and cytotoxicity with more than 95% of isolates showing equivalency to broth supernatant fluid. When showing either invasiveness or cytotoxicity, only a small number of cells from the culture were positive. Of those that were positive, log phase HPC bacteria were significantly more cytotoxic and invasive than those from stationary phase. Bacterial broth controls demonstrated varied, but often marked, cytotoxicity.

  14. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Kordek, A

    2011-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Effect of plateletpheresis on complete blood count values using three different cell separator systems in healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Beyan, Cengiz; Cetin, Türker; Kaptan, Kürbat; Nevruz, Oral

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate changes of CBC values after plateletpheresis in healthy and volunteer donors by using three different cell separator systems. The platelets were collected from 95 donors using the COBE Spectra, from 87 donors using the Fenwal CS-3000 Plus, and from 83 donors using the Fresenius AS-204. After plateletpheresis, white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets (PLT) were decreased significantly. When we used the COBE Spectra, the drop in the values of HGB and HCT was significantly less than for the other devices. It is recommended that hematological parameters should be monitored carefully in donors who are supposed to undergo long-term regular apheresis, and to prevent the occurrence of an artificial anemia, which is likely to happen. Selection of cell separator systems should be based on this possibility.

  16. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  17. In vitro effects of mercury on platelet aggregation, thromboxane and vascular prostacyclin production.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Cebo, B; Dolci, N; Togna, G

    1983-01-01

    Mercuric chloride [25-50 micrograms/ml platelet-rich plasma (PRP)] lowers the threshold concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) required for triggering rabbit platelet aggregation and causes a marked increase of thromboxane production. The metal, added as HgCl2, does not modify (50 micrograms/ml PRP) or block (100 micrograms/ml PRP) the platelet aggregation wave induced by a normal aggregating dose of AA. Whether or not AA-induced platelet aggregation takes place, a large increase in thromboxane production is observed. Methyl mercury, assayed as reference drug, induces platelet aggregation and a significant increase of thromboxane levels. Finally, HgCl2 and methyl mercury, in a concentration range of 0.125-0.5 micrograms/microliters in the incubation liquid, induce an increased prostacyclin release from rat aortic tissue.

  18. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... and this is the only time when this type of blood sample can be collected. You can also decide ...

  19. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased

  20. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  1. ICSH Guideline for worldwide point-of-care testing in haematology with special reference to the complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C; Carter, J; Lee, S-H; Sandhaus, L; Simon-Lopez, R; Vives Corrons, J-L

    2008-04-01

    These guidelines provide information on how to develop and manage a point-of-care (POCT) service so that reliable haematology results are produced regardless of where the test is performed. Many of the issues addressed here are relevant to POCT within hospitals or health centres; however, the principles are equally applicable to care in the community and doctors' offices. Other aspects discussed in this guideline are the initiation of the service (including indications for and limitations of a POCT service), staff training, type of haematology equipment selected, the blood results, monitoring of quality, accreditation, safety and cost. Equipment selected should generate results that are comparable to those of the local reference laboratory. If a complete independent evaluation of the POCT device has not been performed, the purchaser should perform a local assessment according to the protocol in this document. A literature search should also be undertaken to find independent peer reviewed evaluations on POCT equipment. Often the ideals discussed here may not be achievable in some developing countries but long-term training and education of POCT workers needs to be supported and constantly kept on government agendas to reach the recommendations advised here. Users should interpret these recommendations for their particular POCT needs and setting.

  2. Dendritic cell count in the graft predicts relapse in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an HLA-matched related allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Reena; Lakshmi, Kavitha M; George, Biju; Viswabandya, Auro; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Abraham, Aby; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; Mathews, Vikram

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the impact of the number of infused and reconstituted immunocompetent cells including dendritic cells (DCs) on clinical outcome of patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Sixty-nine consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies were included in the analysis. The median age of the cohort was 32 years (range: 2-62 years) and there were 39 (57%) males. Twenty-one (30%) patients relapsed with a cumulative incidence of 44 % +/- 14% at a median follow up of 28 months. On a multivariate analysis, a high plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PC) content in the graft was associated with higher risk of relapse. The patients were further categorized based on the median PC counts in the graft as high (> or =2.3 x 10(6)/kg) and low (<2.3 x 10(6)/kg) groups. The baseline characteristics of these 2 groups were comparable. The group that had a high PC content in the graft had significantly higher risk of relapse and lower overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Our data suggests that PC content in the graft predicts clinical outcomes such as relapse and survival in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic HLA matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. There is potential for pretransplant manipulation of this cellular subset in the graft.

  3. Could mean platelet volume among complete blood count parameters be a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome in pre-pubertal children?

    PubMed

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Ozlem; Bircan, Mustafa A; Yüce, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Interest in childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased substantially due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity on a global scale. Early recognition of MetS is critical in order to delay the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and MetS among pre-pubertal children which may provide evidence in support of using low cost, readily available clinical haematological parameters for the detection of MetS. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 (125 lean vs. 205 overweight) Turkish pre-pubertal children who attend to a paediatric outpatient clinic. Age, gender, puberty, body mass index, CBC parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors including lipid profiles, high sensitive serum reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin resistance index calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared among lean, overweight children and children with MetS. The mean age of the study population was 7.4 ± 1.9 years. In both gender, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower and red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in overweight children. Overall, 8.4% (n = 28) of patients met the criteria of MetS. Children with MetS had higher levels of PLT and lower levels of mean platelet volume (MPV). Of all the haematological parameters analysed, PLT was positively, whereas MPV was negatively correlated with MetS in girls. In addition, MPV was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in girls after adjusting for confounding factors. The risk analyses of MetS in terms of MPV quartiles showed that the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest vs. the

  4. Point-of-care assessment of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to identify bacterial aetiologies in malaria-negative paediatric fevers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hildenwall, Helena; Muro, Florida; Jansson, Jaqueline; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Amos, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of point-of-care (PoC) assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial illness in Tanzanian children with non-severe non-malarial fever. Methods From the outpatient department of a district hospital in Tanzania, 428 patients between 3 months and 5 years of age who presented with fever and a negative malaria test were enrolled. All had a physical examination and bacterial cultures from blood and urine. Haemoglobin, CRP and WBC were measured by PoC devices. Results Positive blood cultures were detected in 6/428 (1.4%) children and urine cultures were positive in 24/401 (6.0%). Mean WBC was similar in children with or without bacterial illness (14.0 × 109, 95% CI 12.0–16.0 × 109 vs. 12.0 × 109, 95% CI 11.4–12.7 × 109), while mean CRP was higher in children with bacterial illness (41.0 mg/l, 95% CI 28.3–53.6 vs. 23.8 mg/l, 95% CI 17.8–27.8). In ROC analysis, the optimum cut-off value for CRP to identify bacterial illness was 19 mg/l but with an area under the curve of only 0.62. Negative predictive values exceeded 80%, while positive predictive values were under 40%. Conclusion WBC and CRP levels had limited value in identifying children with bacterial infections. The positive predictive values for both tests were too low to be used as single tools for treatment decisions. PMID:27935664

  5. Impact of red blood cells count on the relationship between high density lipoproteins and the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease: a single centre study [corrected].

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Alon; Verdoia, Monica; Cassetti, Ettore; Barbieri, Lucia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    We have hypothesized that high red blood cells (RBC) count can potentially play an atheroprotective role in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. We, therefore, have investigated the relationship between high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) and RBC levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of mortality. Impaired lipid profile represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key factor in atherosclerosis disease development. RBC can mimic HDL's reverse cholesterol transportation with a potential atheroprotective role. Coronary angiography has been evaluated in 3,534 patients. Fasting samples were collected for haematology and lipids levels assessment. Coronary disease was defined for at least 1 vessel stenosis >50 %. Patients were divided according to HDL-C and RBC tertiles. Lower HDL-C was significantly associated to the prevalence of CAD (84.8 vs 78.5 vs 67.3 %, p ≤ 0.001; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.55 [1.3-1.8], p < 0.001) and severe CAD (30 % vs 30 % vs 24.4 %, p = 0.002; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.08 [1.01-1.16], p = 0.02), this relationship was maintained even dividing our population according to RBC tertiles (p < 0.001).In conclusion, HDL-C levels are directly related to RBC count and inversely to the prevalence and extent of coronary disease. Higher RBC levels can reduce the risk of CAD in patients with lower HDL-C levels, suggesting an important atheroprotective role.

  6. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Eslamizadeh, Mohammad Javad; Khamneh, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-02-01

    In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) and antihistaminic, effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of thymoquinone (one of the constituents of Nigella sativa) on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell (WBC) count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Four groups of sensitized guinea pigs to ovalbumin (OA) were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing low or high concentrations of thymoquinone (S + LTQ and S + HTQ groups) or inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP 250 microg) twice a day (positive control group) (n = 7, for all groups). Tracheal responses of control and four groups of sensitized animals to methacholine at an effective concentration causing 50 % of maximum response (EC(50) M) were measured. Tracheal responses to 0.1 % OA, relative to contraction induced by 10 microM methacholine were also examined. Total WBC and its differential count in lung lavage were also measured. The tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, OA and WBC of S guinea pigs was significantly higher than those of controls (p < 0.001 for all cases). Tracheal responsiveness in S + LTQ, S + HTQ, and FP groups to both methacholine (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) and OA (p < 0.001 for all cases) was significantly decreased compared to that of the S group. Total WBC was also decreased in all experimental groups compared to that of the S group (p < 0.001 for all groups). There was an increase in eosinophils and a decrease in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in the S animals compared to the controls (p < 0.001 for all cases). Treatment with both concentrations of thymoquinone and FP variably improved differential WBC count changes compared to the S animals (nonsignificant to p < 0.001). The improvement in tracheal responsiveness, total WBC, eosinophils and lymphocytes changes in the S animals treated with both concentrations of TQ

  7. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Warner, Timothy D.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2009-10-15

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB{sub 2}) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB{sub 2} but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  8. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  9. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway.

  10. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  11. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs ( polycythemia vera ) Your RBC count will increase for several ... Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Peripheral Polycythemia vera Renal cell carcinoma Splenomegaly Transfusion reaction - hemolytic ...

  12. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  14. Potentiation of tubuloglomerular feedback in the rat by thromboxane mimetic. Role of macula densa.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, W J; Wilcox, C S

    1992-01-01

    Because endogenous thromboxane A2 (TXA2) potentiates the tubuloglomerular feedback response (TGF), we studied the mechanism of action of TXA2 by using a stable TXA2/prostaglandin (PG) H2 mimetic, U-46,619. Intravenous infusion of U-46,619 at 100 ng.kg-1.min-1 reduced the GFR and the single-nephron (SN)GFR measured from the distal tubule (macula densa function intact), whereas the SNGFR measured from the proximal tubule (macula densa function interrupted) was not changed consistently. 10-100-fold higher rates of infusion of U-46,619 were required to raise blood pressure or femoral vascular resistance. The regulation of glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) by TGF was assessed in anesthetized rats from changes in proximal stop flow pressure (PSF) and/or SNGFR during perfusion of the loop of Henle (LH) with artificial tubular fluid (ATF). Orthograde loop perfusion and retrograde perfusion of U-46,619 into the macula densa segment reduced PSF. Responses to luminal U-46,619 were blunted by a TXA2-PGH2 receptor antagonist. Orthograde loop perfusions with luminal U-46,619 increased net Cl absorption, whereas coperfusion with furosemide (10(-4) M) blunted the response to U-46,619 by 68%. These data indicated that the luminal U-46,619 might increase the signal for TGF activation by increasing Cl reabsorption in macula densa cells. However, since 80 +/- 4% of [3H]U-46,619 perfused via the LH was reabsorbed peritubular capillaries (PTC) were perfused with U-46,619 to test additional extra-luminal actions. PTC perfusion with U-46,619 again increased TGF by reducing PSF selectively only while macula densa function was intact during perfusion of the LH with ATF. Conclusions: (a) TGF is potentiated by U-46,619 given systematically, via the lumen of the LH by orthograde or retrograde perfusions or via the PTC; (b) at the lower doses tested, reduction of PGC and SNGFR by U-46,619 depends on tubular fluid delivery and reabsorption by the macula densa; (c) potentiation of TGF by U-46

  15. Selective Cumulative Inhibition of Platelet Thromboxane Production by Low-dose Aspirin in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Patrignani, Paola; Filabozzi, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    1982-01-01

    Acetylation of platelet cyclooxygenase by oral aspirin is dose dependent and cumulative with repeated administration. However, no single dose of aspirin has been found to be completely selective of platelet thromboxane (TX) synthesis inhibition in man. We determined the dose dependence, cumulative nature and selectivity of aspirin effects on platelet TXB2 and renal prostaglandin (PG) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production. We measured, by radioimmunoassay, serum TXB2 levels after whole blood clotting and urinary excretion of PGE2, PGF2α, and 6-keto-PGF1α, before and after single or repeated oral aspirin doses given to 46 healthy subjects. Single doses of 6-100 mg aspirin resulted in a linear (r = 0.92, P < 0.01) inhibition of platelet TXB2 production, ranging from 12 to 95% after 24 h. A daily dose of 0.45 mg/kg given for 7 d produced a cumulative and virtually complete inhibition of platelet TXB2 production, without significantly reducing the urinary excretion of PGE2, PGF2α, and 6-keto-PGF1α in both healthy men and women. The platelet inhibitory effect of this regimen was maintained unaltered throughout 1 mo of therapy, with no evidence of cumulative inhibition of renal PG-synthesis. Moreover, furosemide-induced renal PGI2 synthesis and renin release were unaffected by chronic low-dose aspirin. Following cessation of aspirin therapy, platelet TXB2 production returned toward control values at a similar rate as after a single higher dose. We conclude that in healthy subjects: (a) aspirin causes a dose-dependent inhibition of platelet TXA2 production, with no obvious sex-related difference; (b) the inhibitory effect of daily low-dose aspirin is cumulative on platelet TXA2 but not on renal PG-synthesis; (c) during chronic low-dose aspirin therapy, renal PGI2-producing cells are readily activable by furosemide at a time of virtually complete suppression of platelet cyclooxygenase activity. PMID:7045161

  16. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  17. Evaluation of the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ compared to the ADVIA® 2120 for its use in dogs, cats, and horses: Part I--precision, linearity, and accuracy of complete blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Nakagawa, Julia; Dunker, Cathrin; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    The automated laser-based hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ providing a complete blood cell count (CBC) and 5-part differential has been introduced in large veterinary laboratories. The aim of the current study was to determine precision, linearity, and accuracy of the Sysmex analyzer. Reference method for the accuracy study was the laser-based hematology analyzer ADVIA® 2120. For evaluation of accuracy, consecutive fresh blood samples from healthy and diseased cats (n = 216), dogs (n = 314), and horses (n = 174) were included. A low intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of approximately 1% was seen for the CBC except platelet count (PLT). An intra-assay CV ranging between 2% and 5.5% was evident for the differential count except for feline and equine monocytes (7.7%) and horse eosinophils (15.7%). Linearity was excellent for white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit value, red blood cell count (RBC), and PLT. For all evaluated species, agreement was excellent for WBC and RBC, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r(s)) ranging from >0.99 to 0.98. Hematocrit value correlated excellently in cats and dogs, whereas for horses, a good correlation was evident. A good correlation between both analyzers was seen in feline and equine PLT (r(s) = 0.89 and 0.92, respectively), whereas correlation was excellent for dogs (r(s) = 0.93). Biases were close to 0 except for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (4.11 to -7.25 mmol/l) and canine PLT (57 × 10(9)/l). Overall, the performance of the Sysmex analyzer was excellent and compared favorably with the ADVIA analyzer.

  18. Admission white blood cell count predicts short-term clinical outcomes in patients with uncomplicated Stanford type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao-Ran; Huang, Bi; Lu, Hai-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Hui, Ru-Tai; Yang, Yan-Min; Fan, Xiao-Han

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation has been shown to be related with acute aortic dissection (AAD). The present study aimed to evaluate the association of white blood cell counts (WBCc) on admission with both in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in patients with uncomplicated Stanford type B AAD. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 377 consecutive patients with uncomplicated type B AAD were enrolled and then followed up. Clinical data and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary end points were in-hospital death and long-term all-cause death. Results The in-hospital death rate was 4.2%, and the long-term all-cause mortality rate was 6.9% during a median follow-up of 18.9 months. WBCc on admission was identified as a risk factor for in-hospital death by univariate Cox regression analysis as both a continuous variable and a categorical variable using a cut off of 11.0 × 109 cell/L (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and other risk factors, elevated admission WBCc was still a significant predictor for in-hospital death as both a continuous variable [hazard ratio (HR): 1.052, 95% CI: 1.024–1.336, P = 0.002] and a categorical variable using a cut off of 11.0 × 109 cell/L (HR: 2.056, 95% CI: 1.673–5.253, P = 0.034). No relationship was observed between WBCc on admission and long-term all-cause death. Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated WBCc upon admission might be used as a predictor for increased risk of in-hospital death in uncomplicated type B AAD. There might be no predictive value of WBCc for the long-term survival of type B AAD. PMID:28270842

  19. An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J

    2013-08-01

    Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34⁺ stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34⁺ stem cell count (PBCD34) ≤8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34⁺ targets in ≤3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34⁺ target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies.

  20. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes.

  1. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louie, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually.

  2. Platelet deposition in rat heart allografts and the effect of a thromboxane receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Foegh, M.L.; Khirabadi, B.S.; Ramwell, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of a thromboxane antagonist, L640,035 on platelet deposition in heart allografts was studied. Twenty Lewis rats received heterotopic allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway F1 hybrid. All recipients received azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day). The rats were divided into three groups. Groups II and III were also treated daily with either the vehicle for L640,035 or L640,035 respectively. Syngeneic indium-111-labeled platelet deposition was determined in the allograft and the native heart at 6, 9, and 13 days after transplantation; group III was studied on the sixth and ninth day only. A rapidly increasing platelet deposition was seen in allografts from rats given azathioprine; whereas the thromboxane antagonist prevented the increase in platelet deposition on the ninth day.

  3. The accuracy of platelet counting in thrombocytopenic blood samples distributed by the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for General Haematology.

    PubMed

    De la Salle, Barbara J; McTaggart, Paul N; Briggs, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Doré, Caroline J; Longair, Ian; Machin, Samuel J; Hyde, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the limitations of automated platelet counting is essential for the effective care of thrombocytopenic patients and management of platelet stocks for transfusion. For this study, 29 external quality assessment specimen pools with platelet counts between 5 and 64 × 10(9)/L were distributed to more than 1,100 users of 23 different hematology analyzer models. The same specimen pools were analyzed by the international reference method (IRM) for platelet counting at 3 reference centers. The IRM values were on average lower than the all-methods median values returned by the automated analyzers. The majority (~67%) of the automated analyzer results overestimated the platelet count compared with the IRM, with significant differences in 16.5% of cases. Performance differed between analyzer models. The observed differences may depend in part on the nature of the survey material and analyzer technology, but the findings have implications for the interpretation of platelet counts at levels of clinical decision making.

  4. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Katie L.; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H.; McCracken, Sharon A.; Simpson, Ann M.; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M.; Ashton, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans. PMID:27363493

  5. Regulation of Tissue Factor Gene Expression in Monocytes and Endothelial Cells: Thromboxane A2 as a New Player

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Michael; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the primary activator of the coagulation cascade. Under normal conditions, endothelial cells (ECs) and blood cells, such as monocytes, do not express TF. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces TF expression in monocytes and this leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation during endotoxemia and sepsis. A variety of stimuli induce TF expression in ECs in vitro, although it is unclear how much TF is expressed by the endothelium in vivo. LPS induction of TF gene expression in monocytic cells and ECs is mediated by various intracellular signaling pathways and the transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1 and Egr-1. In contrast, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) induces TF gene expression in ECs via the transcription factors NFAT and Egr-1. Similarly, oxidized phospholipids (oxPAPC) induce TF expression in ECs and possibly monocytes via NFAT and Egr-1. Thromboxane (TX) A2 can now be added to the list of stimuli that induce TF gene expression in both monocytes and ECs. Interestingly, inhibition of the TX-prostanoid (TP) receptor also reduces TF expression in ECs stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocytes stimulated with LPS, which suggests that TP receptor antagonist may be useful in reducing pathologic TF expression in the vasculature. PMID:24858575

  6. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  7. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  8. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of G-CSF: a Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-03-24

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34+ cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34+ cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34+ cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34+ levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34+ on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34+ as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34+ ranging from 0.5 to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3-4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34+ cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PBSC mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection.

  9. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³⁷Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.

  10. Improvement of the Eakins and Brown method for measuring 59Fe and 55Fe in blood and other iron-containing materials by liquid scintillation counting and sample preparation using microwave digestion and ion-exchange column purification of iron.

    PubMed

    Viteri, F E; Kohaut, B A

    1997-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of 59Fe and 55Fe in whole blood by liquid scintillation counting by the Eakins and Brown (EB) method is extensively used in iron absorption studies. The EB method requires many steps which increase the chances of error and decrease its sensitivity. We describe two modifications to the above method consisting of microwave digestion and column purification of iron. This "New Method" (NM) is simpler and more precise, and sensitive than the EB method. Counting efficiencies with the NM are similar for 59Fe (75%) as with the EB method but are better for 55Fe (29% for NM vs 22%), and cross counting from 59Fe into the 55Fe window is lower with the NM (3.7-4.5%) than with the EB method (10-12%). For the NM, recoveries of radioactive blood samples, in relation to processed standards ranged from 100 to 103% for 59Fe and 101 to 113% for 55Fe. For the EB method, recoveries ranged from 94 to 99% for 59Fe and from 88 to 93% for 55Fe. Even with very low counts, average intrarun CV with the NM was lower than 5.4% for either isotope, while it was as high as 10.0% for 55Fe with the EB method.

  11. IDENTIFYING GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS WITH VARIABILITY IN METABOLIC HEALTH AND BLOOD COUNT LABORATORY VALUES: DIVING INTO THE QUANTITATIVE TRAITS BY LEVERAGING LONGITUDINAL DATA FROM AN EHR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shefali S; Lucas, Anastasia M; Lavage, Daniel R; Leader, Joseph B; Metpally, Raghu; Krishnamurthy, Sarathbabu; Dewey, Frederick; Borecki, Ingrid; Lopez, Alexander; Overton, John; Penn, John; Reid, Jeffrey; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Breitwieser, Gerda; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of patient health data is recorded in Electronic Health Records (EHR). This data includes diagnosis, surgical procedures, clinical laboratory measurements, and medication information. Together this information reflects the patient's medical history. Many studies have efficiently used this data from the EHR to find associations that are clinically relevant, either by utilizing International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) codes or laboratory measurements, or by designing phenotype algorithms to extract case and control status with accuracy from the EHR. Here we developed a strategy to utilize longitudinal quantitative trait data from the EHR at Geisinger Health System focusing on outpatient metabolic and complete blood panel data as a starting point. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) as well as Complete Blood Counts (CBC) are parts of routine care and provide a comprehensive picture from high level screening of patients' overall health and disease. We randomly split our data into two datasets to allow for discovery and replication. We first conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with median values of 25 different clinical laboratory measurements to identify variants from Human Omni Express Exome beadchip data that are associated with these measurements. We identified 687 variants that associated and replicated with the tested clinical measurements at p<5×10-08. Since longitudinal data from the EHR provides a record of a patient's medical history, we utilized this information to further investigate the ICD-9 codes that might be associated with differences in variability of the measurements in the longitudinal dataset. We identified low and high variance patients by looking at changes within their individual longitudinal EHR laboratory results for each of the 25 clinical lab values (thus creating 50 groups - a high variance and a low variance for each lab variable). We then performed a PheWAS analysis with ICD-9 diagnosis codes

  12. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  13. Protein Kinase C isoform epsilon (ε) negatively regulates ADP-induced calcium mobilization and thromboxane generation in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Bynagari-Settipalli, Yamini S; Lakhani, Parth; Jin, Jianguo; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Rico, Mario C.; Kim, Soochong; Woulfe, Donna; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Members of Protein Kinase C (PKC) family are shown to positively and negatively regulate platelet activation. Although positive regulatory roles are extensively studied, negative regulatory roles of PKCs are poorly understood. In this study we investigated the mechanism and specific isoforms involved in PKC-mediated negative regulation of ADP-induced functional responses. Methods and Results A pan-PKC inhibitor GF109203X potentiated ADP-induced cPLA2 phosphorylation and thromboxane generation, as well as ERK activation and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilization, two signaling molecules, upstream of cPLA2 activation. Thus, PKCs inhibit cPLA2 activation by inhibiting ERK and Ca2+i mobilization. Since, the inhibitor of Classical PKC isoforms, GO-6976 did not affect ADP-mediated thromboxane generation, we investigated the role of novel class of PKC isoforms. ADP- induced thromboxane generation, calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation were potentiated in PKCε null murine platelets compared to platelets from wild type (WT) littermates. Interestingly, when thromboxane release is blocked, ADP-induced aggregation in PKCε KO and WT was similar, suggesting that PKCε does not affect ADP-induced aggregation directly. PKCε knockout mice exhibited shorter times to occlusion in FeCl3-induced arterial injury model and shorter bleeding times in tail bleeding experiments. Conclusion We conclude that PKCε negatively regulates ADP-induced thromboxane generation in platelets and offers protection against thrombosis. PMID:22362759

  14. Terutroban, a thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, prevents hypertensive vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gelosa, Paolo; Sevin, Gulnur; Pignieri, Alice; Budelli, Silvia; Castiglioni, Laura; Blanc-Guillemaud, Vanessa; Lerond, Laurence; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Thromboxane A(2) and other eicosanoids such as isoprostanes contribute to vascular proliferation and atherosclerosis by binding to the thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptors. The effects of terutroban, a thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, on aorta remodeling were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs), a model of severe hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and cerebrovascular diseases. Male SHRSPs were allocated to three groups receiving a standard diet (n = 5) or a high-sodium permissive diet plus vehicle (n = 6) or plus terutroban (30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1); n = 6). After 6 wk of dietary treatment, all of the animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine and simultaneously euthanized for aorta collection. The aortic media thickness-to-lumen ratio significantly (P < 0.0001) increased in the salt-loaded rats compared with the rats fed a standard diet, whereas terutroban treatment completely prevented media thickening (P < 0.001). When compared with vehicle, terutroban was also effective in preventing cell proliferation in the media, as indicated by the reduced number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive (P < 0.0001) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells (P < 0.0001). Severe fibrosis characterized by a significant accumulation of collagen and fibronectin in the vascular wall was observed in the vehicle-treated rats (P < 0.01) but was completely prevented by terutroban (P < 0.001). The latter also inhibited heat shock protein-47 (P < 0.01) and TGF-1β expression (P < 0.001), which were significantly increased by the high-salt diet. In conclusion, terutroban prevents the development of aorta hyperplasia and has beneficial effects on fibrotic processes by affecting TGF-β and heat shock protein-47 expression in SHRSPs. These findings provide mechanistic data supporting the beneficial effects of terutroban in preventing or retarding atherogenesis.

  15. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Bryan M.; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R.; Carrier, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling. PMID:27252848

  16. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2 -induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries.

    PubMed

    Grann, Martin; Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619 by activation of thromboxane receptors concentration dependently increased calcium and contraction. U46619-induced calcium influx was blocked by nifedipine, a blocker of L-type calcium channels, and by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Inhibitors of ROCK, Y27632 and glycyl-H1152P, concentration dependently reduced U46619-induced contraction, but only Y27632 reduced [Ca(2+) ]i levels in the penile arteries activated with either high extracellular potassium or U46619. MYPT-Thr(850) phosphorylation in corpus cavernous strips was increased in response to U46619 through activation of TP receptors and was found to be a direct result of phosphorylation by ROCK. Y27632 induced less relaxation in mesenteric arteries, H1152P induced equipotent relaxations, and a protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, failed to relax intracavernous penile arteries, but induced full relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca(2+) influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCK-dependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes.

  17. Involvement of COX2-Thromboxane Pathway in TCDD-Induced Precardiac Edema in Developing Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi; Peterson, Richard E.; Stegeman, John J.; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Kubota, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration-response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was cancelled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b-thromboxane pathway in precardiac edema formation following TCDD exposure in developing zebrafish. PMID:24858302

  18. Oral contraceptive use alters the balance of platelet prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schorer, A E; Gerrard, J M; White, J G; Krivit, W

    1978-07-01

    The ability of platelet microsomes to generate platelet aggregating activity on addition of arachidonic acid was evaluated in women taking oral contraceptives and in controls taking no medication but matched for age, sex, and family history. Oral contraceptive users generated significantly more platelet aggregating activity per 100 ug of platelet microsomal protein than controls. Variation in generation of platelet aggregating activity during the menstrual cycle was also observed with highest activity during the third week. These studies show an altered balance of platelet prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in oral contraceptive users which may contribute to their increased incidence of thromboembolic phenomena.

  19. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  20. Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/μL overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Gomes, Luciano T; Ribatski-Silva, Daniele; Mendes, Clebson Rodrigues J; Leal-Santos, Fabio A; Simões, Luciano R; Mello, Marcia Beatriz C; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/μL and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/μL to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/μL, and 5,500 cells/μL in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/μL could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

  1. Combined administration of 5-HT2 and thromboxane A2 antagonists: effects on platelet aggregation and isolated cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Linda A; Batey, Andrew J; Coker, Susan J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the ability of combined administration of a 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) antagonist and a thromboxane A2 antagonist to reduce reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, the effects of these drugs alone and in combination on platelet aggregation and on cardiac muscle were determined. Platelet aggregation was measured in whole blood obtained from anaesthetized rats. Concentrations of 5-HT (10 μM) and the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 (1 μM) which did not cause aggregation themselves, enhanced the responses to ADP (0.1 μM) and to collagen (1 μg ml−1). For example, the response of 1.0±0.5 Ω to ADP alone was increased significantly to 6.4±1.0 Ω by 5-HT, 15.5±2.8 Ω by U46619, and 17.3±1.3 Ω when U46619, 5-HT and ADP were added together. In further experiments blood was obtained from rats which had received either the 5-HT2 antagonist, ICI 170,809 (1 mg kg−1), or the thromboxane A2 antagonist, ICI 192,605 (1 mg kg−1 min−1), or both in combination. When ADP was used as the primary aggregating agent, the ability of U46619 alone, or together with 5-HT, to enhance responses was reduced significantly by ICI 192,605 alone and in combination with ICI 170,809. Similar results were obtained with lower doses of ICI 170,809 (0.3 mg kg−1) and ICI 192,605 (0.3 mg kg−1 min−1). When collagen was used as the primary aggregating agent ICI 170,809 (1 mg kg−1) reduced the response to 5-HT (5.0±0.8 Ω versus 10.9±1.2 Ω in controls), and ICI 192,605 (1 mg kg−1 min−1) reduced the response to U46619 (6.8±2.5 Ω versus 11.2±2.2 Ω in control). The greatest reduction of platelet aggregation was seen in blood from rats which had received both antagonists, with the response to U46619 plus 5-HT plus collagen being 2.7± 0.6 Ω compared to 14.2±1.7 Ω in controls. In contrast, there was no significant attenuation of platelet aggregation in blood from rats which had received the lower

  2. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  3. Brain-Penetrant Tetrahydronaphthalene Thromboxane A2-Prostanoid (TP) Receptor Antagonists as Prototype Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark pathological feature of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is the presence of senile plaques, which comprise amyloid β (Aβ) peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The plaque-containing AD brain is thought to be under oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased lipid oxidation products that include isoprostane-F2αIII (iPF2αIII). IPF2αIII can bind to and activate the thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptor, and TP receptor activation causes increased Aβ production through enhancement of APP mRNA stability. Moreover, TP receptor antagonists have been shown to block iPF2αIII-induced increases of Aβ secretion. Thus, the TP receptor may be a potential drug target for AD therapy. However, here we show that existing TP receptor antagonists have poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, likely due to the presence of a carboxylic acid moiety that is believed to be important for receptor interaction, but which may hamper passive diffusion across the BBB. We now report selected analogues of a known tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonist, wherein the carboxylic acid moiety has been replaced by heterocyclic bioisosteres. These heterocyclic analogues retained relatively high affinity for the mouse and human TP receptors, and, unlike the parent carboxylic acid compound, several examples freely diffused across the BBB into the brain upon administration to mice. These results reveal that brain-penetrant tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonists can be developed by substituting the carboxylic acid moiety with a suitable nonacidic bioisostere. Compounds of this type hold promise as potential lead structures to develop drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23173073

  4. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  5. Ethanol increase PGE and thromboxane production in mouse pregnant uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, R.F.; Becker, H.C.; Randall, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The teratogenic effect of ethanol in the C57BL/6J mouse can be attenuated by pretreatment with aspirin (ASA). One prominent effect of ASA is to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE) and thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}) production. We examined the effect in vivo ethanol exposure on PGE and TXB{sub 2} production in a uterine-embryo tissue sample of C57BL/6J mice either before or after in vivo ASA pretreatment on day 10 of gestation. Ethanol increase both PGE and TXB{sub 2} production by approximately 20%. ASA caused a marked reduction of PGE and TXB{sub 2} in both control and ethanol groups by approximately 80-90%. The mouse strain, gestation time, and study parameters used in this study were the same as in the previously reported ASA attenuation of the teratogenic effect of ethanol. Therefore, the present data add additional support to the hypothesis that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production may be involved in at least some aspects of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  6. Effects of prostaglandins and thromboxane analogues on bullock and dog iris sphincter preparations.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y J; Jones, R L

    1982-05-01

    1 The bullock iris sphincter was contracted by low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 16, 16-dimethyl PGE2 and 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-p-chlorophenoxy PGE2. Other compounds with thromboxane-like actions, for example 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2, were also potent spasmogens, ZK 36374, a stable carbacyclin, was a partial agonist on the PGE-sensitive system of this tissue. 2 The thromboxane antagonist, EP 045, had little effect on the action of PGE2 and 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 on the bullock iris. 3 The dog iris sphincter was sensitive to PGF2 alpha but not to PGE2 and 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2. 4 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 had very low activity on the dog iris in contrast to its high activity on the bullock iris. The reverse was found with the 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-m-trifluoromethylphenoxy analogue of PGF2 alpha (ICI 81008). This indicates a considerable selectivity of action of the two analogues. 5 The results are discussed in relation to the existing knowledge of prostanoid receptors.

  7. Effects of prostaglandins and thromboxane analogues on bullock and dog iris sphincter preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Y. J.; Jones, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    1 The bullock iris sphincter was contracted by low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 16, 16-dimethyl PGE2 and 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-p-chlorophenoxy PGE2. Other compounds with thromboxane-like actions, for example 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2, were also potent spasmogens, ZK 36374, a stable carbacyclin, was a partial agonist on the PGE-sensitive system of this tissue. 2 The thromboxane antagonist, EP 045, had little effect on the action of PGE2 and 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 on the bullock iris. 3 The dog iris sphincter was sensitive to PGF2 alpha but not to PGE2 and 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2. 4 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 had very low activity on the dog iris in contrast to its high activity on the bullock iris. The reverse was found with the 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-m-trifluoromethylphenoxy analogue of PGF2 alpha (ICI 81008). This indicates a considerable selectivity of action of the two analogues. 5 The results are discussed in relation to the existing knowledge of prostanoid receptors. PMID:6177369

  8. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  9. Influence of Thromboxane A2 on the Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Seok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Kim, Sang Hyung; Na, Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A2 on the regulation of KATP channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. Subjects and Methods Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at −60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. Results In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619, decreased the KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced KATP channel activity. Conclusion Thromboxane A2 may inhibit KATP channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:27482267

  10. Role of brain thromboxane A2 in the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla in rats.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shoshiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2003-04-25

    Plasma noradrenaline reflects the release from adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves; however, the exact mechanisms of adrenal noradrenaline release remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to characterize the source of plasma noradrenaline induced by centrally administered vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in urethane-anesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly administered vasopressin (0.2 nmol/animal) and CRH (1.5 nmol/animal) elevated plasma levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Intracerebroventricularly administered indomethacin [1.2 micromol (500 microg)/animal] (an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase) abolished the elevations of both noradrenaline and adrenaline induced by vasopressin and CRH. Intracerebroventricularly administered furegrelate [1.8 micromol (500 microg)/animal] (an inhibitor of thromboxane A(2) synthase) abolished the elevations of both noradrenaline and adrenaline induced by vasopressin, while the reagent only attenuated the elevation of plasma adrenaline evoked by CRH. Acute bilateral adrenalectomy abolished the elevation of both noradrenaline and adrenaline induced by vasopressin, while the procedure reduced only the elevation of adrenaline induced by CRH. These results suggest that the release of noradrenaline from adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves is mediated by different central mechanisms. The vasopressin-induced noradrenaline release from adrenal medulla is mediated by brain thromboxane A(2)-mediated mechanisms, while the CRH-induced noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves is mediated by brain prostanoid (other than thromboxane A(2))-mediated mechanisms. The vasopressin- and CRH-induced adrenaline release from adrenal medulla is also mediated by brain thromboxane A(2)-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  11. Radical scavenging glycoprotein inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2 synthase from aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Yagi, A; Kabash, A; Mizuno, K; Moustafa, S M; Khalifa, T I; Tsuji, H

    2003-03-01

    An active glycoprotein fraction containing 58 % protein was isolated from Aloe vera gel by precipitation with 55 % ammonium sulfate followed by gel permeation using DEAE-Sephacel A-25, Sepharose 6B and Sephadex G-50 columns in a yield of 3 x 10 -3 %. The glycoprotein fraction showed a single band corresponding to a subunit of verectin at the same position when stained with both Coomassie brilliant blue and periodic acid-Schiff reagents on 18 % SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight (14 kDa) was confirmed by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The glycoprotein fraction showed a radical scavenging activity against superoxide anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system as well as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and reduction of thromboxane A 2 synthase level in vitro.

  12. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  13. Exudation of plasma and production of thromboxane in human bronchi after local bradykinin challenge.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, P; Löfdahl, C G; Skoogh, B E; Lötvall, J

    2001-05-01

    Plasma exudation has been suggested to be an important component of the inflammatory response in asthma. Bradykinin elicits many of the features of asthma, including bronchoconstriction, cough, plasma exudation and mucus secretion. In an attempt to quantify local plasma exudation, we have employed a novel low-trauma technique with the aim of challenging and lavaging a central part of the bronchial tree, by selecting a medium sized bronchus. A fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in non-smoking healthy volunteers. The instrument was placed proximally in the right upper lobe bronchus. A plastic catheter, equipped with an inflatable latex balloon, was inflated with air (2-4 cmH2O). A solution (100 microl of either two different concentrations of bradykinin: 0.09 and 0.9 mg ml(-1) or normal saline) was instilled through the catheter and distal to the balloon. Eight minutes later a lavage procedure with 10 ml of saline was performed through the catheter. The procedure was then repeated twice, with the other solutions, but from the lingular and middle lobe bronchi. All solutions were given in a blinded fashion, and two different studies were performed. Lavage concentrations of albumin and IgG were quantified as measurements of plasma exudation. In our first study we found that bradykinin challenge significantly increased concentrations of albumin and IgG. In study two, there was no numeric increase in plasma proteins after local bradykinin challenge, but the concentration of thromboxane was significantly increased in lavages from bradykinin-challenged bronchi. Thus, local bronchial administration of bradykinin has the capacity to induce exudation of large plasma macromolecules into the bronchial lumen, as well as local thromboxane production.

  14. Hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor internalization independent of receptor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fediuk, J; Sikarwar, A S; Lizotte, P P; Hinton, M; Nolette, N; Dakshinamurti, S

    2015-02-01

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is characterized by sustained vasospasm and an increased thromboxane:prostacyclin ratio. Thromboxane (TP) receptors signal via Gαq to mobilize IP3 and Ca(2+), causing pulmonary arterial constriction. We have previously reported increased TP internalization in hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes. Serum-deprived PA myocytes were grown in normoxia (NM) or hypoxia (HM) for 72 h. TP localization was visualized in agonist-naïve and -challenged NM and HM by immunocytochemistry. Pathways for agonist-induced TP receptor internalization were determined by inhibiting caveolin- or clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolar fractionation. Roles of actin and tubulin in TP receptor internalization were assessed using inhibitors of tubulin, actin-stabilizing or -destabilizing agents. PKA, PKC or GRK activation and inhibition were used to determine the kinase responsible for post-agonist receptor internalization. Agonist-naïve HM had decreased cell surface TP, and greater TP internalization after agonist challenge. TP protein did not sort with caveolin-rich fractions. Inhibition of clathrin prevented TP internalization. Both actin-stabilizing and -destabilizing agents prevented TP endocytosis in NM, while normalizing TP internalization in HM. Velocity of TP internalization was unaffected by PKA activity, but PKC activation normalized TP receptor internalization in HM. GRK inhibition had no effect. We conclude that in hypoxic myocytes, TP is internalized faster and to a greater extent than in normoxic controls. Internalization of the agonist-challenged TP requires clathrin, dynamic actin and is sensitive to PKC activity. TP receptor trafficking and signaling in hypoxia are pivotal to understanding increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity.

  15. Differential light scattering cuvettes for the measurement of thromboemboli in high shear blood flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, L.O.; Solen, K.A.; Mohammad, S.F.; Pantalos, G.M.; Kim, J. )

    1990-07-01

    Newly developed optical scattering cuvettes were constructed as a modification of our existing 1.0 mm and 3.0 mm internal diameter (ID) cuvettes to facilitate the measurement of platelet microemboli ranging from 20 microns to 1,000 microns diameter in whole blood in 0.9 mm ID flows ranging from 250 to 4,000 ml/min. A perturbation solution to the one-speed radiative transport equation was used in the design and calibration of these cuvettes. A series of tests were performed with these cuvettes in an extracorporeal left ventricular assist device bovine model, and in a recirculating closed-loop flow system containing anticoagulated whole baboon blood, to determine to what extent they affect platelet and erythrocyte function ex vivo and in vitro. Serial hemolysis tests, thromboxane radioimmunoassay measurements, platelet counts, and activated partial thromboplastin times were measured. All of these tests with cuvettes in the extracorporeal and in vitro circuits were statistically indistinguishable from baseline measurements, suggesting the usefulness of this system for the measurement of microemboli in blood-contacting materials of extracorporeal circuits and cardiac assist devices.

  16. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response.A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6-115).Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABL value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABL(IS) > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABL(IS) at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to

  17. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (⩽400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30⩽400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD.

  18. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection on white blood cell counts, hematological variables, and serum glucose, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in ewes fed low- or high-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Löest, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Carter, B H; Limesand, S W

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) elicit inflammatory responses reflective of acute bacterial infection. We determined if feeding ewes high-CP (15.5%) or low-CP (8.5%) diets for 10 d altered inflammatory responses to an intravenous bolus of 0 (control), 0.75 (L75), or 1.50 (L150) μg of LPS/kg of BW in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 5/treatment). Rectal temperatures, heart and respiratory rates, blood leukocyte concentrations, and serum cortisol, insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured for 24 h after an LPS bolus (bolus = 0 h). In general, rectal temperatures were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in control ewes fed high CP, but LPS increased (P ≤ 0.05) rectal temperatures in a dose-dependent manner at most times between 2 and 24 h after the bolus. Peak rectal temperatures in L75 and L150 occurred 4 h after the bolus. A monophasic, dose-independent increase (P ≤ 0.023) in serum cortisol occurred from 0.5 to 24 h after the bolus, with peak cortisol at 4 h. Serum insulin was increased (P ≤ 0.016) by LPS in a dose-dependent manner from 4 to 24 h after the bolus. Insulin did not differ between control ewes fed high- and low-CP diets but was greater (P < 0.001) in L75 ewes fed low CP compared with high CP and in L150 ewes fed high CP compared with low CP. Increased insulin was not preceded by increased serum glucose. Total white blood cell concentrations were not affected (P ≥ 0.135) by LPS, but the neutrophil and monocyte fractions of white blood cells were increased (P ≤ 0.047) by LPS at 12 and 24 h and at 24 h after the bolus, respectively, and the lymphocyte fraction was increased (P = 0.037) at 2 h and decreased (P ≤ 0.006) at 12 and 24 h after the bolus. Red blood cell and hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit (%) were increased (P ≤ 0.022) by LPS at 2 and 4 h after the bolus. Rectal temperatures and serum glucose were greater (P ≤ 0.033) in ewes fed a high-CP diet before LPS injection, but these effects were lost at

  19. Clinical impact of absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Huo, Ming-Rui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-02-01

    Currently, limited information is available regarding the effects of early lymphocyte recovery on transplant outcomes in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the association of Day 30 absolute lymphocyte count (ALC-30) with transplant outcomes in 60 consecutive pediatric patients with hematological malignancies receiving T-cell-repleted transplantation from an haploidentical related donors. After median follow-up of 36 months (range, 1.4-75 months), higher relapse rate was observed in patients with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared to patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (35.5% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.049). More patients died of infections in those with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared with patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (25.8% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.015). The ALC-30 above the cutoff value 300 cells/μL was associated with improved overall-survival (HR 0.301, 95% CI 0.117-0.771; P = 0.012), leukemia free survival (HR 0.195, 95% CI 0.078-0.498; P=0.002), less relapse (HR 0.224 95% CI 0.070-0.717; P = 0.012), and less transplant- related mortality (HR=0.166; 95%CI 0.037-0.750; P = 0.020). Our results suggest that a higher ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL) could be a useful and simple tool to predict pediatric patients with a superior outcome after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation.

  20. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors. These lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). ...

  1. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor ameliorates delayed neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus after transient global ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Iijima, T; Sawa, H; Shiokawa, Y; Saito, I; Ishii, H; Nakamura, Z; Sankawa, H

    1996-07-01

    Thromboxane A2 accumulates in the hippocampus after global ischemia and may play a key role in postischemic hypoperfusion. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (OKY-046) inhibits the accumulation of thromboxane A2 and promotes prostacycline production. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the inhibition of thromboxane synthesis would ameriolate postischemic neuronal death. Three groups of six Mongolian gerbils were subjected to different treatments: untreated control, untreated ischemia, and treated ischemia. Immediately after forebrain ischemia, OKY-046 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the treated group. After 7 days of survival, the histopathology of the brain was examined. Pyramidal cell density in the CA1 sector in the treated group was 147 +/- 70 nuclei/mm (mean +/- SD), which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than than in the untreated group (33 +/- 10 (nuclei/mm). The findings were 231 +/- 7 nuclei/mm for the control group. No significant difference was seen in the profile of temporal muscle temperature before and after ischemia between the groups. Ultrastructurally, the vessels in the CAI sector showed lumen patency in the treated group, whereas occluded vessels with an extended perivascular space were observed in the untreated group. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor thus partly ameliorates the selective vulnerability of the hippocampus after forebrain ischemia, suggesting that thromboxane A2 is involved in the development of delayed neuronal death, independently of any thermal effect.

  2. Central bombesin activates adrenal adrenaline- and noradrenaline-containing cells via brain thromboxane A2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Usui, Daisuke; Yamaguchi-Shima, Naoko; Okada, Shoshiro; Shimizu, Takahiro; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2009-05-11

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates peripheral organs via the adrenal chromaffin cells containing adrenaline (A-cells) or noradrenaline (NA-cells) and the sympathetic ganglia. We examined the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered bombesin on neuronal activities of adrenal A-cells and NA-cells and several kinds of sympathetic ganglia (superior cervical, stellate and celiac ganglia) using c-Fos (a marker for neuronal activation), with regard to brain prostanoid, in anesthetized rats. Bombesin induced c-Fos in both adrenal A-cells and NA-cells, but not in any of the sympathetic ganglia. Central pretreatment with either indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or furegrelate (a thromboxane A(2) synthase inhibitor) abolished all bombesin-induced responses. These results suggest that bombesin centrally activates adrenal A-cells and NA-cells by brain thromboxane A(2)-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  3. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  4. Inhibitory effects of acetylmelodorinol, chrysin and polycarpol from Mitrella kentii on prostaglandin E₂ and Thromboxane B₂ production and platelet activating factor receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Saadawi, Sakina; Jalil, Juriyati; Jasamai, Malina; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2012-04-26

    Acetylmelodorinol, chrysin and polycarpol, together with benzoic acid, benzoquinone and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Mitrella kentii (Bl.) Miq. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂) production in human whole blood using a radioimmunoassay technique. Their inhibitory effect on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding to rabbit platelet was determined using ³H-PAF as a ligand. Among the compounds tested, chrysin showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory activity on PGE(2) production (IC₅₀ value of 25.5 µM), which might be due to direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activity. Polycarpol, acetylmelodorinol and stigmasterol exhibited significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on TXB₂ production with IC₅₀ values of 15.6, 19.1 and 19.4 µM, respectively, suggesting that they strongly inhibited COX-1 activity. Polycarpol and acetylmelodorinol showed strong dose-dependent inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding with IC₅₀ values of 24.3 and 24.5 µM, respectively.

  5. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  6. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

  7. Effects of CGS-13080, a thromboxane inhibitor, on pulmonary vascular resistance in patients after mitral valve replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y D; Foegh, M L; Wallace, R B; Ng, L; Ahmed, S W; Katz, N M; Siegelman, R; Franco, K; Douglas, F; Ku, E

    1988-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension with an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance was observed during the immediate recovery period in patients who underwent mitral valve surgery. In eight such patients, intravenous infusion of CGS-13080, imidazo(1,5-a)pyridine-5-hexanoic acid (a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor), at a dose range of 0.08-0.1 mg/kg/hr, effectively reduced pulmonary hypertension (from a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 36 +/- 2 to 31 +/- 2 torr) and pulmonary vascular resistance (from 339 +/- 38 to 238 +/- 37 dynes.sec.cm-5) within 30 minutes and remained reduced for the entire infusion period (48 hours in five patients and 18 hours in three patients). Mean arterial pressure or systemic vascular resistance were not significantly affected by the drug infusion. Serum thromboxane B2 levels (a stable metabolic product of thromboxane A2) were significantly reduced after administration of the compound, with the maximum effect of greater than 90% reduction. All patients tolerated the drug infusion without significant side effects.

  8. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  9. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  10. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  11. The cyclooxygenase-2/thromboxane A2 pathway: a bridge from rheumatoid arthritis to lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Chun; Huang, Run-Yue

    2014-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to be at a higher risk of lung cancer (LC). Although the connection between RA and LC has been an active area of research for many years, the molecular pathogenesis of the disease process remains unclear. The cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway has been shown to play a potential role in LC development through an auto-regulatory feedback loop. An increased level of TxA2 has been found in RA patients, and intriguingly, the positive feedback loop for the COX-2/TxA2 pathway was shown to have a potential function in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS). Thus, the molecular basis of LC development in patients with RA has been at least in partly described. It is possible that COX-2-derived TxA2 could be monitored for the early detection of LC in RA patients, and targeting this molecular pathway may decrease the risk of LC in patients with RA.

  12. Thromboxane release from irradiated perfused rat lungs: role of oncotic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, T.R.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Schneidkraut, M.J.

    1987-07-27

    Isolated lungs from 20 Gray (Gy) whole body irradiated rats were perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate plus 3% bovine serum albumin (KRB-BSA). The pulmonary effluent showed a 99% (p < .05) increase in immunoassayable thromboxane B2 (iTXB2) release compared with non-irradiated lungs. Since both arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase products bind to albumin, studies were performed to determine if omission or substitution of this protein oncotic agent would alter the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary iTXB2 release. Irradiated, isolated lungs perfused with media from which the BSA was omitted (KRB) did not demonstrate the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary iTXB2 release. Similarly, irradiated lungs perfused with media in which Dextran 70 (KRB plus 3% Dextran 70, KRB-Dextran 70) was substituted for BSA also did not show the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary effluent iTXB2 levels. These studies demonstrate the importance of including albumin as the oncotic agent in perfused organ systems when studying cyclooxygenase product release. 23 references, 2 tables.

  13. Loss of prostaglandin F2alpha, but not thromboxane, responsiveness in pregnant human myometrium during labour.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M

    2008-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (P<0.001). Excitation evoked by PGF2alpha (P<0.01) and PGE2 at 10(-5) mol/l were attenuated after labour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (P<0.001) and selective antagonists confirmed TP-mediated effects. The maintained responses to TX indicate crucial roles for TP receptors in the muscular tonus of the parturient uterus. This receptor and its secondary messenger system represent effective myometrial targets for tocolytic agents in both pregnancy and labour-associated disorders.

  14. Thromboxane A2 exacerbates acute lung injury via promoting edema formation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koji; Horikami, Daiki; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Yamazaki, Arisa; Maeda, Shingo; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in the lungs of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI). We assessed its contribution in disease progression using three different ALI mouse models. The administration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or oleic acid (OA)+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused tissue edema and neutrophil infiltration with TXA2 production in the lungs of the experimental mice. The administration of LPS induced only neutrophil accumulation without TXA2 production. Pretreatment with T prostanoid receptor (TP) antagonist attenuated the tissue edema but not neutrophil infiltration in these models. Intravital imaging and immunostaining demonstrated that administration of TP agonist caused vascular hyper-permeability by disrupting the endothelial barrier formation in the mouse ear. In vitro experiments showed that TP-stimulation disrupted the endothelial adherens junction, and it was inhibited by Ca2+ channel blockade or Rho kinase inhibition. Thus endogenous TXA2 exacerbates ALI, and its blockade attenuates it by modulating the extent of lung edema. This can be explained by the endothelial hyper-permeability caused by the activation of TXA2-TP axis, via Ca2+- and Rho kinase-dependent signaling. PMID:27562142

  15. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2010-12-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-{kappa}B activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-{kappa}B in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-{kappa}B by reducing phosphorylated I{kappa}B{alpha} (p-I{kappa}B{alpha}) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-{kappa}B. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  16. Characteristic fragmentation of thromboxane B2 in thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abián, J; Gelpí, E

    1991-01-02

    Cyclo- and lipo-oxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid have been reported to have very simple thermospray mass spectra. However, thromboxane B2 (TXB) in ammonium acetate-methanol and at interface temperatures below the point of total vaporization shows a mass spectral pattern characterized by abundant ions at low masses. The more abundant TXB fragment ions have been characterized as adducts from four principal fragments with molecular masses of 156, 170, 196 and 326. Positive- and negative-ion mass spectra, and mass spectra obtained with an alternative thermospray buffer (butylammonium acetate) support the molecular masses of these fragments. A tentative assignment of the fragments can be made by comparison of the thermospray mass spectra of TXB, 2,3-dinor-TXB and some of their methyl ester and methyl oxime derivatives. Interface temperature and solvent composition effects on the fragmentation, as well as in the electron-capture processes observed when working in the filament-on mode, are discussed. Fragmentation mechanisms can be related to those observed for monosaccharides, and imply retro-Diels-Alder as well as retroaldolic condensation-type rearrangements.

  17. Comparison of the effects of ketoprofen and flunixin meglumine on the in vitro response of equine peripheral blood monocytes to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Jackman, B R; Moore, J N; Barton, M H; Morris, D D

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of flunixin meglumine, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and ketoprofen, a reported cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on the synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase end-products thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2, lipoxygenase derived 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor. Six adult horses were each randomly administered flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg) or ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg) intravenously every 12 hours with the drug treatments separated by two weeks. Blood samples were obtained prior to initiating treatment, the last day of treatment and for two consecutive days after the termination of treatment for measurement of serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 as well as isolation of peripheral blood monocytes. Quantitation of unstimulated, endotoxin- and calcium ionophore-induced synthesis of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor by peripheral blood monocytes was performed in vitro. Both flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen significantly decreased serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 demonstrating in vivo cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. There were no significant differences between drug treatment groups in the in vitro production of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor or tissue factor. This study does not identify significant differences between the effects of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen.

  18. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  19. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  20. The in vivo effect of melatonin on cellular activation processes in human blood during strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Johe, Paul D; Østerud, Bjarne

    2005-10-01

    Melatonin has been reported to have anti- as well as pro-inflammatory properties. Because physical stress is associated with the activation of blood cells, the present study examines melatonin's role in exercise-induced cell activation processes. Eight healthy volunteers (aged 20-62 yr, mean = 31), exercised on an 'Ergometric' bike for 30 min at 80% of their calculated maximum pulse rate. Blood samples were taken just before melatonin administration, directly after exercise, and 2 hr after exercise completion. Cytokine and eicosanoid parameters were measured in plasma from blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hr whereas tissue factor (TF) activity was measured in isolated monocytes. Melatonin significantly decreased LPS-induced TF activity by 48% (P < 0.01) directly after exercise, and a 44% reduction was seen 2 hr later (P < 0.02). Furthermore, melatonin significantly reduced the lymphocyte count rise produced directly after exercising by more than 30% (P < 0.01). A trend was also seen for melatonin suppressing the increase of WBC by around 10% and to strengthen the platelet increase by about 8% after physical stress. Melatonin also significantly lowered RBC and hemoglobin counts by 5 and 3-4% during exercise (P < 0.005 and <0.02 respectively). Two hours after exercise, melatonin tended to lower leukotriene B4 levels by 30%. Interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels tended to be lower in individuals who had taken melatonin following hard physical activity and a larger sample size may show significance. Thromboxane B2 production seemed unaffected by melatonin during exercise. In conclusion, in vivo intake of melatonin appears to suppress LPS-induced activation of monocytes in whole blood reactions associated with physical exercise and facilitates the down-regulation of inflammatory mediators.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  2. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  3. The effect of lead exposure on tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin, total and differential white blood cells count, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E, histamine, and cytokines in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Farkhondeh, T; Boskabady, M H; Jalali, S; Bayrami, G

    2014-03-01

    The effect of exposure to inhaled lead acetate in guinea pigs was evaluated. The present study comprised of five groups of guinea pigs including control (C), sensitized to ovalbumin (OA; S) and three groups exposed to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 M inhaled lead (Pb; n = 6 for each group). Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and OA, total and differential white blood cells (WBCs) count in lung lavage, serum levels of cytokines (interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4)), histamines, and immunoglobulin E (IgE), and Pb concentration in lung were measured. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, OA, total and differential WBC types as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, histamine, and IgE were significantly increased but IFN-γ/IL-4 were significantly decreased in sensitized animals as well as those exposed to high Pb concentrations when compared with the control group (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In addition, there was not a significant difference in most measured values between animals exposed to high Pb concentration and group S. The Pb concentration in lung tissues of animals exposed to all three Pb concentrations was significantly higher than that of group C (p < 0.001 for all cases).These results showed that inhaled lead acetate exposure can induce lung inflammatory changes similar to sensitized animals. Therefore, exposure to environmental Pb pollution may cause asthma-like changes.

  4. Effects of heparin on platelet aggregation and release and thromboxane A2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Smith, J.B.; Chuang, H.Y.; Mason, R.G.

    1981-08-01

    Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However, in the presence of heparin, the same concentration of arachidonic acid caused aggregation. Examination of PRP for the presence of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by use of a bioassay revealed that heparin also stimulated release of TxA2. This finding indicated that platelets released more TxA2 when they were challenged by low concentrations of arachidonic acid in the presence of heparin than in its absence. Platelets were labeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid and /sup 14/C-serotonin, and attempts were made to determine whether heparin stimulated the platelet release reaction first with subsequent increased production of TxA2, or alternatively, whether heparin stimulated TxA2 production first with subsequent enhancement of the release reaction. In view of the demonstrated simultaneous release of /sup 14/C-serotonin and /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid metabolites, it appeared that either release of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H occurs concurrently or, even if one of these events is dependent on the other, both events take place in rapid succession. Timed sequential studies revealed that in the presence of arachidonic acid, the addition of heparin hastened the apparently simultaneous release of both /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H.

  5. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  6. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  7. Age-related increase of thromboxane B2 and risk of cardiovascular disease in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Nocella, Cristina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Aging is strictly associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. Mechanisms underlying the risk of CVEs are still unclear. Platelet activation contributes to the onset of cardiovascular complications. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age, and the natural history of AF is often complicated by CVEs. We prospectively investigated the relationship between age, urinary thromboxane (Tx) B2, which reflects platelet activation, and CVEs in 833 AF patients. Median TxB2 level was 120 [66-200] ng/mg of urinary creatinine. At multivariable linear regression analysis, age (B: 0.097, p=0.005) and previous MI/CHD (B: 0.069, p=0.047) were associated with log-TxB2 levels. When we divided our population into age classes (i.e. < 60, 60-69, 70-79, ≥ 80 years), we found a significant difference in TxB2 levels across classes (p=0.005), with a significant elevation at 74.6 years. During a mean follow-up of 40.9 months, 128 CVEs occurred; the rate of CVEs significantly increased with age classes (Log-rank test, p < 0.001). TxB2 levels were higher in patients with, compared to those without, CVEs in patients aged 70-79 (p < 0.001) and ≥ 80 (p = 0.020) years. In conclusion, TxB2 levels enhance by increasing age, suggesting that platelet activation contributes to CVEs in elderly patients with AF. PMID:27270651

  8. Spice active principles as the inhibitors of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2009-07-01

    Spice active principles are reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antilithogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. In our previous report we have shown that spices and their active principles inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and also formation of leukotriene C4. In this study, we report the modulatory effect of spice active principles viz., eugenol, capsaicin, piperine, quercetin, curcumin, cinnamaldehyde and allyl sulphide on in vitro human platelet aggregation. We have demonstrated that spice active principles inhibit platelet aggregation induced by different agonists, namely ADP (50microM), collagen (500microg/ml), arachidonic acid (AA) (1.0mM) and calcium ionophore A-23187 (20microM). Spice active principles showed preferential inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation compared to other agonists. Among the spice active principles tested, eugenol and capsaicin are found to be most potent inhibitors of AA-induced platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 0.5 and 14.6microM, respectively. The order of potency of spice principles in inhibiting AA-induced platelet aggregation is eugenol>capsaicin>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>allyl sulphide>quercetin. Eugenol is found to be 29-fold more potent than aspirin in inhibiting AA-induced human platelet aggregation. Eugenol and capsaicin inhibited thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation in platelets in a dose-dependent manner challenged with AA apparently by the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-1). Eugenol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation is further confirmed by dose-dependent decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) in platelets. Further, eugenol and capsaicin inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists-collagen, ADP and calcium ionophore but to a lesser degree compared to AA. These results clearly suggest that spice principles have beneficial effects in modulating human platelet aggregation.

  9. Intracoronary administration of streptokinase in a canine model. Disturbance in thromboxane A2-prostacyclin balance.

    PubMed

    Becker, G J; Kreipke, D L; Holden, R W; Dreesen, R G; Ryder, K; Petersen, B; Evan, A P; Bendick, P J; Franklin, T D; Klatte, E C

    1986-03-01

    The potential impact of local intracoronary infusion of streptokinase (SK) on vascular prostaglandin synthetic pathways was studied in a canine model. Control animals (n = 10) underwent left coronary artery (LCA) infusion of 50,000 units SK for 90 minutes; experimental animals (n = 10) underwent LCA infusion of normal saline. Plasma samples for radioimmunoassay (RIA) of prostacyclin (PGI-2) and thromboxane (TXA-2) were obtained from the coronary sinus (CS) as follows: one sample preinfusion, six samples during infusion, and three samples postinfusion in each animal. Comparisons between control and experimental plasma levels of PGI-2 and TXA-2 were made for each sampling time. The PGI-2 levels remained at or below the lower limits of detectability by RIA (the most sensitive assay available) in both control and experimental animals. TXA-2 levels were higher in experimental than in control animals at all sampling times, with the most significant differences occurring in samples 3 (after 30 minutes of infusion, .001 less than P less than .01), 4 (after 45 minutes of infusion, .05 less than P less than .10), and 5 (after 60 minutes of infusion, .02 less than P less than .05). We suggest (1) it is unlikely that any of the beneficial effects of coronary streptokinase infusions are PGI-2-mediated, (2) that the TXA-2 increases in our model may represent a pathophysiologic-biochemical correlate of previously identified morphologic evidence of endothelial damage in animals infused with fibrinolytic agents, and (3) that our findings may indicate that fibrinolytic infusions produce competing effects: lysis of thrombi and endothelial injury with TXA-2 production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Blood (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sternum (the breastbone). The cells travel through the circulatory system suspended in a yellowish fluid called plasma, which ... Poisoning Alpha Thalassemia von Willebrand Disease Heart and Circulatory System Anemia Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Cancer Center ...

  11. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  12. Thromboxane prostanoid receptors enhance contractions, endothelin-1, and oxidative stress in microvessels from mice with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Luo, Zaiming; Kohan, Donald; Wellstein, Anton; Jose, Pedro A; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S; Wang, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is frequent in chronic kidney disease and has been related to angiotensin II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because activation of thromboxane prostanoid receptors (TP-Rs) can generate ROS, which can generate ET-1, we tested the hypothesis that chronic kidney disease induces cyclooxygenase-2 whose products activate TP-Rs to enhance ET-1 and ROS generation and contractions. Mesenteric resistance arterioles were isolated from C57/BL6 or TP-R+/+ and TP-R-/- mice 3 months after SHAM-operation (SHAM) or surgical reduced renal mass (RRM, n=6/group). Microvascular contractions were studied on a wire myograph. Cellular (ethidium: dihydroethidium) and mitochondrial (mitoSOX) ROS were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Mice with RRM had increased excretion of markers of oxidative stress, thromboxane, and microalbumin; increased plasma ET-1; and increased microvascular expression of p22(phox), cyclooxygenase-2, TP-Rs, preproendothelin and endothelin-A receptors, and increased arteriolar remodeling. They had increased contractions to U-46,619 (118 ± 3 versus 87 ± 6, P<0.05) and ET-1 (108 ± 5 versus 89 ± 4, P<0.05), which were dependent on cellular and mitochondrial ROS, cyclooxygenase-2, and TP-Rs. RRM doubled the ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS generation (P<0.05). TP-R-/- mice with RRM lacked these abnormal structural and functional microvascular responses and lacked the increased systemic and the increased microvascular oxidative stress and circulating ET-1. In conclusion, RRM leads to microvascular remodeling and enhanced ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS and contractions that are mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 products activating TP-Rs. Thus, TP-Rs can be upstream from enhanced ROS, ET-1, microvascular remodeling, and contractility and may thereby coordinate vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

  13. PAI-1-Derived Peptide EEIIMD Prevents Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Aggravation of Endothelin- and Thromboxane-Induced Cerebrovasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Riley, John; Cines, Douglas B.; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2015-01-01

    Background Babies are frequently exposed to cerebral hypoxia and ischemia (H/I) during the perinatal period as a result of stroke, problems with delivery or post delivery respiratory management. The sole FDA approved treatment for acute stroke is tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Endogenous tPA is upregulated and potentiates impairment of pial artery dilation in response to hypotension after H/I in pigs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, ERK, p38 and JNK, is also upregulated after H/I, with ERK contributing to impaired vasodilation. This study examined the hypothesis that H/I aggravates the vascular response to two important procontractile mediators released during CNS ischemia, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxane, which is further enhanced by tPA and ERK MAPK. Methods Cerebral hypoxia (pO2 35 mmHg for 10 min via inhalation of N2) followed immediately by ischemia (global intracranial pressure elevation for 20 min) was produced in chloralose anesthetized piglets equipped with a closed cranial window. Results H/I aggravated pial artery vasconstriction induced by ET-1 and the thromboxane mimetic U 46619. Potentiated vasoconstrictor responses were blocked by EEIIMD, an inhibitor of tPA’s signaling and vascular activities, but unchanged by its inactive analogue EEIIMR. The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of ERK MAPK determined by ELISA was increased by H/I, potentiated by tPA, but blocked by EEIIMD. The ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 blocked H/I augmented enhancement of ET-1 and U 46619 vasoconstriction. Conclusions These data indicate that H/I aggravates ET-1 and thromboxane mediated cerebral vasoconstriction by upregulating endogenous tPA and ERK MAPK. PMID:24248736

  14. Variation in thromboxane B2 concentrations in serum and plasma in patients taking regular aspirin before and after clopidogrel therapy.

    PubMed

    Good, Richard I S; McGarrity, Anne; Sheehan, Rory; James, Tina E; Miller, Helen; Stephens, Jonathan; Watkins, Stuart; McConnachie, Alex; Goodall, Alison H; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2015-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is widely prescribed for the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is recognised that there is inter-individual variation in the antiplatelet effects of both drugs. Recent data also suggest that P2Y12 antagonists can affect the response to aspirin. A direct indicator of the effect of aspirin on platelets is their ability to generate thromboxane, which if measured as the difference between the level of thromboxane B2 in serum and plasma ([TxB2]S-P) avoids the confounding effect of endogenous TxB2 production from other cells. We therefore analysed [TxB2]S-P as a measure of aspirin response in a group of 123 patients undergoing elective PCI before and after the introduction of clopidogrel. In a subgroup of 40 patients taking aspirin alone, we compared [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin for the assessment of aspirin response. There was a wide variation in plasma and serum TxB2 concentrations both before and after clopidogrel therapy but only 3.5% of patients had residual serum concentration of TxB2 > 10 ng/ml. There was a strong correlation between the pre and post clopidogrel levels of TxB2 (r ≥ 0.78; p = 0.001) and no significant difference in [TxB2]S-P. There was no correlation between the magnitude of response to clopidogrel response and the generation of thromboxane B2. Correlation between [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin was poor. We conclude that the use of a P2Y12 antagonist does not influence the effect of aspirin on the ability of platelets to generate thromboxane. Therefore, measurement of TxB2 levels in serum, after subtracting the contribution from plasma, provides a measure of the response to aspirin in patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy.

  15. Determination of thromboxane formation, soluble CD40L release and thrombopoietin clearance in apheresis platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Folker; Baertl, Anja; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zimmermann, Norbert; Weber, Artur Aron; Lorenz, Horst; Giers, Günther

    2012-01-01

    All deleterious changes in platelet morphology, structure and function that occur in platelet concentrates (PC) during storage are titled as the 'platelet storage lesion'. No single in vitro test currently available is sufficient in assessing these changes of platelet quality. The release of soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L), the formation of thromboxane (TXB2) and the thrombopoietin (TPO) clearance reflect different aspects of platelet metabolism and activitiy, and were used to examine platelet quality in apheresis platelet products. At days 1, 3 and 5, in single-donor apheresis platelet products (n = 10) under routine storage conditions, sCD40L (measured by ELISA) and TXB2 (measured by RIA) were determined after platelet stimulation (recalcification and clot formation). TPO (measured by ELISA) was determined after an incubation time of 5 h at 37°C with platelet-rich plasma (adjusted initial TPO concentration of about 500 pg/mL). Results were related to a therapeutic unit (TU = 2 × 10(11) platelets). Immediately after platelet preparation, sCD40L release was 41 ± 7.6 ng/TU, TXB2 formation 1688 ± 374 ng/TU and TPO clearance 1.22 ± 0.32 ng/h/TU. At days 1, 3 and 5, sCD40L was reduced to 89 ± 7%, 71 ± 12% and 57 ± 9%, TXB2 release to 91 ± 6%, 74 ± 12% and 58 ± 9% and TPO clearance to 90 ± 15%, 84 ± 5% and 79 ± 10% of the respective control values. In conclusion, in single-donor apheresis PC, sCD40L release and TXB2 formation as well as TPO clearance by the platelets were dependent on storage duration and reduced to about 60% to 80% of the respective control values after a storage period for 5 days. These findings are in line with literature data, indicating that a loss of platelet functionality of about 30% will occur after 5 days of storage.

  16. Impact of white blood cell count on myocardial salvage, infarct size, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seungmin; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Chang, Sung-A; Lee, Sang-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Jae K; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between white blood cell count (WBCc) and infarct size assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In 198 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, WBCc was measured upon arrival and CMR was performed a median of 7 days after the index event. Infarct size was measured on delayed enhancement imaging and the area at risk (AAR) was quantified on T2-weighted images. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the high WBCc group (>11,000/mm(3), n = 91) and low WBCc group (≤11,000/mm(3), n = 107). The median infarct size was larger in the high WBCc group than in the low WBCc group [22.0% (16.7-33.9) vs. 14.7% (8.5-24.7), p < 0.01]. Compared with the low WBCc group, the high WBCc group had a greater extent of AAR and a smaller myocardial salvage index [MSI = (AAR-infarct size)/AAR × 100]. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction, and rehospitalization for congestive heart failure at 12-month occurred more frequently in the high WBCc group (12.1 vs. 0.9%, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, high WBCc significantly increased the risk of a large infarct (OR 3.04 95% CI 1.65-5.61, p < 0.01), a low MSI (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.86, p = 0.02), and 1-year MACE (OR 16.0, 95% CI 1.89-134.5, p = 0.01). In patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, an elevated baseline WBCc is associated with less salvaged myocardium, larger infarct size and poorer clinical outcomes.

  17. The extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel in diabetes mellitus patients with acute coronary syndrome is not related to glycaemic control: roles of white blood cell count and body weight.

    PubMed

    Morel, Olivier; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Hess, Sebastien; Reydel, Antje; Crimizade, Ulun; Jesel, Laurence; Radulescu, Bogdan; Wiesel, Marie L; Gachet, Christian; Ohlmann, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    It was the study objective to determine whether glycaemic control affects the extent of platelet inhibition by thienopyridines as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the proportion of high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity is higher in DM, the contributions of glycaemic control and other factors associated with DM, such as excess body weight and inflammation, to this impaired platelet inhibition by thienopyridines have not yet been fully characterised. In this study, the extent of P2Y12 ADP receptor pathway inhibition was evaluated by the VASP-FCT. Platelet activation was expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel (LR) was defined as a PRI of >61%. Four hundred forty-five consecutive ACS patients (DM = 160, NDM = 285) were enrolled. The proportion of LR was higher in DM patients (50 vs. 37.5%). In DM, PRI was not correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or glycaemia. In a univariate analysis, LR was associated with age, male sex, overweight, and white blood cell count (WBC). In a multivariate analysis, WBC >10,000 and body weight >80 kg were the sole independent predictors of LR to clopidogrel (hazard ratio (HR) 3.02 [1.36-6.68], p=0.006 and HR 2.47 [1.14-5.35], p = 0.021, respectively). Conversely, in non-DM patients, ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the sole independent predictor of LR. In conclusion, in ACS DM patients undergoing PCI, the extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel is not related to glycaemic control but is related to body weight and inflammatory status as assessed by the WBC.

  18. Timosaponin AIII induces antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity via Gq-mediated signaling by the thromboxane A2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yue; Wang, Limei; Peng, Renjun; Zhao, Yang; Bai, Fan; Yang, Chao; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Daqian; Ma, Baiping; Cong, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    The thromboxane (Tx) A2 pathway is a major contributor to the amplification of initial platelet activation and is therefore a key drug target. To identify potent small-molecule inhibitors of the thromboxane prostaglandin (TP) receptor, we screened a small steroidal saponin library using U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation assays. Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) was identified as a potent inhibitor of U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation and exhibited superior selectivity for the TP receptor versus other G protein-coupled receptors and a PKC activator. TAIII inhibited U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation independent of increases in cAMP and cGMP and the inhibition of TxA2 production. Both PKC and PLC activators restored TAIII-inhibited platelet aggregation, whereas TAIII did not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by co-activation of the G12/13 and Gz pathways. Furthermore, TAIII did not affect the platelet shape change or ROCK2 phosphorylation evoked by low-dose U46619. In vivo, TAIII prolonged tail bleeding time, reduced the mortality of animals with acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly reduced venous thrombus weight. Our study suggests that TAIII, by preferentially targeting Gq-mediated PLC/PKC signaling from the TP receptor, induces stronger in vitro antiplatelet activity and in vivo antithrombotic effects and may be an excellent candidate for the treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:27934923

  19. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.

  20. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  1. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  2. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  3. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  4. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  5. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  6. Thromboxane A2, released by the anti-tumour drug irinotecan, is a novel stimulator of Cl- secretion in isolated rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, H; Sato, T; Hamada, N; Yasue, M; Ikari, A; Kakinoki, B; Takeguchi, N

    1997-01-01

    1. A camptothecin derivative, irinotecan (Cpt-11), is a topoisomerase I inhibitor and has a strong activity against a broad range of human cancer. One of the side-effects of this drug is diarrhoea. Here, we tried to determine the mediator of the irinotecan-induced Cl- secretion which may underlie this diarrhoea, using isolated mucosae of rat distal colon. 2. Irinotecan increased Cl- secretory current in a concentration-dependent manner across the mucosa, set between Ussing chambers. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) has not been reported to date as a physiological stimulant of Cl- secretion in the distal colon. However, the major part of the present irinotecan-induced current was inhibited by selective thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists (KW-3635 and ONO-3708), and a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor (Y-20811). In fact, we found that irinotecan stimulated the release of TXA2 in a concentration-dependent manner from the isolated mucosa into the bathing solutions. 3. Furthermore, 9,11-epithio-11,12-methano-thromboxane A2 (STA2), a stable analogue of TXA2, induced Cl- secretion, which was almost completely inhibited by the TXA2 receptor antagonists. 4. In single cells of isolated crypts, STA2 depolarized the cell and increased the membrane conductance, indicating that STA2 opened the apical Cl- channel of the crypt cells. 5. We conclude, therefore, that the irinotecan-induced endogenous TXA2 is a novel stimulant of the Cl- secretion from the crypt cells of distal colon. PMID:9409477

  7. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    PubMed

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  8. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  9. Metabolic and cellular alterations underlying the exaggerated renal prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in ureter obstruction in rabbits. Inflammatory response involving fibroblasts and mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Okegawa, T; Jonas, P E; DeSchryver, K; Kawasaki, A; Needleman, P

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral ureter obstruction in rabbits produced profound changes in endogenous and exogenous renal arachidonic acid metabolism. Isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidneys (removed after 3 or 10 d of ureter obstruction) responded to bradykinin stimulation with a markedly enhanced release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2. Reversal (3 or 10 d) of the ureter obstruction resulted in a reduction in the vasoactive peptide-induced release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 from the perfused hydronephrotic kidney. However, postobstruction reversal of prostaglandin production by the agonist-stimulated perfused kidney was not reflected in the cortical microsomal cyclooxygenase activity, which is greatly enhanced during ureter obstruction and does not decrease after removal of the obstruction. Histological analysis of the renal cortex in rabbits with ureteral obstruction revealed a proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and the presence of mononuclear cells; removal of the obstruction did not result in a disappearance of cortical fibroblasts but did result in a decrease of monocytes. The critical involvement of mononuclear cells in the exaggerated arachidonate metabolism that occurs during hydronephrosis was exhibited by the demonstration that: (a) only the perfused hydronephrotic rabbit kidney responded to administration of endotoxin with a sustained release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2; (b) the contralateral rabbit kidney, which is devoid of mononuclear cells, did not respond to endotoxin; and (c) the hydronephrotic cat kidney, which exhibits a fibroblast proliferation with a low number of mononuclear cells, did not respond to endotoxin. Thus, proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and the presence of mononuclear cells appear to be involved in the exaggerated prostaglandin and thromboxane production underlying hydronephrosis. The increase in microsomal cyclooxygenase activity is apparently most closely correlated with the increased fibroblastic activation

  10. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  11. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  12. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  13. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  14. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15..cap alpha beta..-omega-tetranor TXA/sub 2/ (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA/sub 2/ mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/, and did not inhibit platelet TXA/sub 2/ synthesis. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k/sub 1/ of 1.35 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and a k..sqrt../sub 1/ of 0.032 min/sup -1/, K/sub d/ = k..sqrt../sub 1//k/sub 1/ = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/ receptor was determined using (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules.

  15. Suppression of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias with combined administration of 5-HT2 and thromboxane A2 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L. A.; Coker, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the 5-HT2 antagonist, ICI 170,809 and the thromboxane A2 antagonist, ICI 192,605, given alone and in combination (n = 12 per group), were examined in anaesthetized rats. Haemodynamics and arrhythmias induced by permanent coronary artery occlusion or by reperfusion after 5 min of ischaemia were monitored. 2. In a study on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, the only significant effect of ICI 170,809 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) was a reduction in the number of ventricular premature beats (VPBs). ICI 192,605 (1 mg kg-1 min-1, i.v.) did not alter reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. However, in combination, when compared with controls, these drugs caused significant reductions in the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), 100% to 58%; ventricular fibrillation (VF), 92% to 33%; and the mortality due to sustained VF, 67% to 17%. There was also a significant reduction in the number of VPBs following reperfusion. 3. In a second study with lower doses of drugs, ICI 170,809 (0.3 mg kg-1) and ICI 192,605 (0.3 mg kg-1 min-1) had no significant effects on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias either alone or in combination. 4. A third study examined the effects of the higher doses of the drugs on ischaemia-induced arrhythmias. Neither drug alone, nor in combination, altered the incidence of ischaemia-induced VT, VF, the mortality, or the number of VPBs. 5. These results indicate that, in contrast to the administration of either drug alone, combined administration of a 5-HT2 antagonist and a thromboxane A2 antagonist caused marked suppression of reperfusion-induced but not ischaemia-induced arrhythmias. PMID:8851496

  16. Increased vascular thromboxane generation impairs dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of obese Zucker rats with reduced oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; James, Milinda E; Frisbee, Jefferson C

    2008-10-01

    This study determined if altered vascular prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and/or thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) production with reduced Po(2) contributes to impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of obese Zucker rats (OZRs) versus lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Mechanical responses were assessed in isolated gracilis muscle arterioles following reductions in Po(2) under control conditions and following pharmacological interventions inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide synthase and alleviating elevated vascular oxidant stress. The production of arachidonic acid metabolites was assessed using pooled arteries from OZRs and LZRs in response to reduced Po(2). Hypoxic dilation, endothelium-dependent in both strains, was attenuated in OZRs versus LZRs. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no significant impact on hypoxic dilation in either strain. Cyclooxygenase inhibition dramatically reduced hypoxic dilation in LZRs and abolished responses in OZRs. Treatment of arterioles from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase improved hypoxic dilation, and this improvement was entirely cyclooxygenase dependent. Vascular PGI(2) production with reduced Po(2) was similar between strains, although TxA(2) production was increased in OZRs, a difference that was attenuated by treatment of vessels from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Both blockade of PGH(2)/TxA(2) receptors and inhibition of thromboxane synthase increased hypoxic dilation in OZR arterioles. These results suggest that a contributing mechanism underlying impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of OZRs may be an increased vascular production of TxA(2), which competes against the vasodilator influences of PGI(2). These results also suggest that the elevated vascular oxidant stress inherent in metabolic syndrome may contribute to the increased vascular TxA(2) production and may blunt vascular sensitivity to PGI(2).

  17. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  18. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  19. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  20. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  1. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  2. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  3. Model-based analysis of thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} as biomarkers in the safety evaluation of naproxen

    SciTech Connect

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Sanderson, Ian; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of safety in traditional toxicology protocols relies on evidence arising from observed adverse events (AEs) in animals and on establishing their correlation with different measures of drug exposure (e.g., C{sub max} and AUC). Such correlations, however, ignore the role of biomarkers, which can provide further insight into the underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Here we use naproxen as a paradigm drug to explore the feasibility of a biomarker-guided approach for the prediction of AEs in humans. A standard toxicology protocol was set up for the evaluation of effects of naproxen in rat, in which four doses were tested (7.5, 15, 40 and 80 mg/kg). In addition to sparse blood sampling for the assessment of exposure, thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} were also collected in satellite groups. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to evaluate the predictive performance of the approach. A one-compartmental model with first order absorption was found to best describe the pharmacokinetics of naproxen. A nonlinear relationship between dose and bioavailability was observed which leads to a less than proportional increase in naproxen concentrations with increasing doses. The pharmacodynamics of TXB{sub 2} and PGE{sub 2} was described by direct inhibition models with maximum pharmacological effects achieved at doses > 7.5 mg/kg. The predicted PKPD relationship in humans was within 10-fold of the values previously published. Moreover, our results indicate that biomarkers can be used to assess interspecies differences in PKPD and extrapolated data from animals to humans. Biomarker sampling should be used systematically in general toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Prediction of a drug's safety profile from preclinical protocols remains challenging. • Pharmacokinetic measures of safe exposure (e.g., AUC) ignore the role of biomarkers. • PKPD relationships enable the evaluation of adverse events in a mechanistic manner. • Major differences

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stroke Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) Gastroparesis Heart Disease Mental Health Pregnancy Related Conditions donate en -- Make Your Donation Count - ...

  5. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  6. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  7. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  8. Acetaminophen and Meloxicam Inhibit Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Blood Samples from Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    participant was sampled once with a total of 100-ml blood volume. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, on- going therapeutic anticoagulation , and use...of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) from prostaglandin H2, which is generated from arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The antiplatelet effects of...is acetaminophen? Some practical cautions with this widely used agent . Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1973; 12:692– 696. 3 Whyte IM, Buckley NA, Reith DM

  9. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  10. Binding of an ( sup 125 I) labelled thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor agonist to baboon platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.W. II; De Jesus, A. )

    1989-12-01

    To characterize the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor on baboon platelets the binding of (125I)BOP was studied. (125I)BOP bound to washed baboon platelets in a saturable manner. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms revealed a Kd of 1.12 +/- 0.08 nM and a binding capacity of 54 +/- 5 fmoles/10(8) platelets (326 sites/platelet). Several TXA2/PGH2 agonists and antagonists displaced (125I)BOP from its baboon platelet binding site with a rank order of potency similar to human platelets: I-BOP greater than SQ29548 greater than U46619 = I-PTA-OH greater than PTA-OH. I-BOP aggregated washed baboon platelets with an EC50 of 10 +/- 4 nM. The results indicate that (125I)BOP binds to the TXA2/PGH2 receptor on baboon platelets and that this receptor is similar to its human counterpart.

  11. Requirement of Pretone by Thromboxane A2 for Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Precision-cut Lung Slices of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Jung; Yoo, Hae Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Zhang, Yin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is physiologically important response for preventing mismatching between ventilation and perfusion in lungs. The HPV of isolated pulmonary arteries (HPV-PA) usually require a partial pretone by thromboxane agonist (U46619). Because the HPV of ventilated/perfused lungs (HPV-lung) can be triggered without pretone conditioning, we suspected that a putative tissue factor might be responsible for the pretone of HPV. Here we investigated whether HPV can be also observed in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from rats. The HPV in PCLS also required partial contraction by U46619. In addition, K+ channel blockers (4AP and TEA) required U46619-pretone to induce significant contraction of PA in PCLS. In contrast, the airways in PCLS showed reversible contraction in response to the K+ channel blockers without pretone conditioning. Also, the airways showed no hypoxic constriction but a relaxation under the partial pretone by U46619. The airways in PCLS showed reliable, concentration-dependent contraction by metacholine (EC50, ~210 nM). In summary, the HPV in PCLS is more similar to isolated PA than V/P lungs. The metacholine-induced constriction of bronchioles suggested that the PLCS might be also useful for studying airway physiology in situ. PMID:22416221

  12. Effect of ozagrel hydrochloride, a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, on alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Myou, Shigeharu; Fujimura, Masaki; Nishi, Kohichi; Kita, Toshiyuki; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Tachibana, Hideki; Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Nakao, Shinji

    2002-04-01

    Acetaldehyde is thought to be a main factor of alcohol-induced asthma. The thromboxane (TX) synthetase inhibitor, ozagrel hydrochloride, inhibits acetaldehyde-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. The present study evaluated the involvement of TXA(2) on alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction. Four patients with alcohol-induced asthma received ozagrel (400 mg for 4 days) or placebo using a single-blind, randomized, cross-over design. On two separate study days, each subject drank the same brand and volume of alcoholic beverage (beer or Japanese sake) and bronchoconstriction was assessed as the change in peak expiratory flow (PEF). The effect of ozagrel on the aerosolized challenge of acetaldehyde was investigated in the same subjects. Although aerosolized acetaldehyde-induced bronchoconstriction was significantly prevented by ozagrel, there were no differences in the time course of the decrease in PEF or the maximum fall in PEF after alcohol intake between placebo and ozagrel. We conclude that TXA(2) is not involved in alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction.

  13. Thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) is a potent survival factor for triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs)

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Katy; Buckley, Niamh E.; Haddock, Paula; James, Colin; Parent, Jean-Luc; McQuaid, Stephen; Mullan, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of ERα, PR expression and HER2 overexpression and is the breast cancer subtype with the poorest clinical outcomes. Our aim was to identify genes driving TNBC proliferation and/or survival which could represent novel therapeutic targets. We performed microarray profiling of primary TNBCs and generated differential genelists based on clinical outcomes following the chemotherapy regimen FEC (5-Fluorouracil/Epirubicin/Cyclophosphamide -‘good’ outcome no relapse > 3 years; ‘poor’ outcome relapse < 3 years). Elevated expression of thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) was observed in ‘good’ outcome TNBCs. TBXA2R expression was higher specifically in TNBC cell lines and TBXA2R knockdowns consistently showed dramatic cell killing in TNBC cells. TBXA2R mRNA and promoter activities were up-regulated following BRCA1 knockdown, with c-Myc being required for BRCA1-mediated transcriptional repression. We demonstrated that TBXA2R enhanced TNBC cell migration, invasion and activated Rho signalling, phenotypes which could be reversed using Rho-associated Kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. TBXA2R also protected TNBC cells from DNA damage by negatively regulating reactive oxygen species levels. In summary, TBXA2R is a novel breast cancer-associated gene required for the survival and migratory behaviour of a subset of TNBCs and could provide opportunities to develop novel, more effective treatments. PMID:27487152

  14. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  15. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  16. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  19. Regulation of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) signalling by the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: Implications for thromboxane- and androgen- dependent neoplastic and epigenetic responses in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aine G; Mulvaney, Eamon P; Kinsella, B Therese

    2017-04-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 and its T Prostanoid receptor (the TP) are increasingly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently discovered that both TPα and TPβ form functional signalling complexes with members of the protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) family, AGC- kinases essential for the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription and promising therapeutic targets for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Critically, similar to androgens, activation of the PRKs through the TXA2/TP signalling axis induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a marker of androgen-induced chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation, raising the possibility that TXA2-TP signalling can mimic and/or enhance AR-induced cellular changes even in the absence of circulating androgens such as in CRPC. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate whether TXA2/TP-induced PRK activation can mimic and/or enhance AR-mediated cellular responses in the model androgen-responsive prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cell line. We reveal that TXA2/TP signalling can act as a neoplastic- and epigenetic-regulator, promoting and enhancing both AR-associated chromatin remodelling (H3Thr11 phosphorylation, WDR5 recruitment and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16) and AR-mediated transcriptional activation (e.g of the KLK3/prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2 genes) through mechanisms involving TPα/TPβ mediated-PRK1 and PRK2, but not PRK3, signalling complexes. Overall, these data demonstrate that TPα/TPβ can act as neoplastic and epigenetic regulators by mimicking and/or enhancing the actions of androgens within the prostate and provides further mechanistic insights into the role of the TXA2/TP signalling axis in PCa, including potentially in CRPC.

  20. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  1. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  2. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  3. Evaluation of a semi-automated platelet-counting system.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, R M; Fraser, C; Gray, J H; McDonald, G A

    1977-01-01

    Coulter Electronics Ltd have produced a semi-automated platelet-counting system. Platelet-rich plasma may be obtained either by tube sedimentation or by means of the Thrombo-fuge, the latter being an instrument designed to produce accelerated sedimentation. The instrument is linear over the entire range of platelet counts, and machine reproducibility is good. Comparison of machine-rated with visual counts satisfied statistical evaluation. The technique can be handled by one operator and platelet counts can be achieved at the rate of 30 per hour by both methods although individual counts on the Thrombo-fuge may be obtained in approximately one-quarter of the time required for tube sedimentation. The throughput using the Thrombo-fuge could certainly be doubled were two sample plates supplied. Few problems were encountered during the evaluation and most could be avoided by meticulous technique. Visual counts must be performed when the sample haematocrit is greater than 50%-Discrepant counts have been obtained in patients with white cell counts exceeding 50 X 10(9)/1 and in patients with giant platelets. ESR elevation for any reason does not lead to serious discrepancy in results. The incidence of platelet clumping due to the presence of platelet agglutinins and of microclot formation due to inadequate mixing is probably much higher than is commonly thought, and certainly peripheral blood film scrutiny should never be omitted in patients with low counts. Careful examination of peripheral blood films must be combined with instrument counting for some time lest further causes of discrepant counting emerge. PMID:856881

  4. The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO expresses functional platelet agonist signals mediated through GPVI and thromboxane receptor.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    We have demonstrated that a unique megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO could respond to one of the primary platelet signals through GP (glycoprotein) VI and a secondary signal of the AA (arachidonic acid) cascade. Unlike other megakaryocytic cell lines, UT-7/TPO was found to express GPVI and its associate signal molecule of FcRgamma (Fc receptor gamma chain). When UT-7/TPO was stimulated with the GPVI agonist convulxin, the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) was elevated in a convulxin concentration-dependent manner, and [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by pretreatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the phospholipase inhibitor U73122. These results strongly indicate that endogenously expressed GPVI signal molecules are functional in UT-7/TPO. Concerning the AA cascade, the expression of COX (cyclooxygenase)-1 and TX (thromboxane) synthase was observed, and this cell line was able to produce TX by exogenous AA, followed by [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through the TX receptor. It is worth noting that convulxin stimulation did not cause TX generation, even through the GPVI pathway and the AA cascade are functional in this cell line. As there are many reports that convulxin-stimulated platelets failed to produce TX, it is suggested that UT-7/TPO has the same property as the platelets in regards to convulxin stimulation. Thus, UT-7/TPO is useful for the observation of both the GPVI pathway and AA cascade without requiring either the induction of differentiation or GPVI transfection. Furthermore, this cell line provides a new tool for research on platelet activation signals.

  5. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  6. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for leucopenia include (i) stimulation of erythroid progenitor production at the expense of production of myeloid progenitors, (ii) non-specific haemophagocytosis, or (iii) general suppression of haemopoiesis. Further understanding of the underlying mechanism and the implications of leucopenia as well as the previously reported thrombocytopenia and anaemia may provide a basis for improved antenatal and/or postnatal treatment. PMID:1586179

  7. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  8. Role of eicosanoids and white blood cells in the beneficial effects of limited reperfusion after ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.A.; Dikdan, G.; Lysz, T.W.; Hobson, R.W. II )

    1990-08-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow has been shown to be beneficial locally in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of this on eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene B4), white blood cell activation, and skeletal muscle injury as quantitated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate after ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in 16 anesthetized dogs. One gracilis muscle in each dog was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of limited reperfusion and then by a second hour of normal reperfusion. The other muscle was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of normal reperfusion. Six dogs each were used as normal reperfusion controls (NR) and limited reperfusion controls (LR), with 5 dogs being treated with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (LR/TSI) and another five with a leukotriene inhibitor (LR/LI). LR in all three groups (LR, LR/TSI, and LR/LI) showed a benefit in skeletal muscle injury as measured by triphenyltetrazolim chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate when compared with NR. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with LR regarding eicosanoid levels and white blood cell activation when compared with NR. These results demonstrate that LR produces benefits by mechanisms other than those dependent upon thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, or white blood cell activation.

  9. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  10. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  11. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  12. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    SciTech Connect

    Minamino, Tsutomu; Ito, Yoshiya; Ohkubo, Hirotoki; Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori; Sato, Takehito; Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Narumiya, Shuh; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Majima, Masataka

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  13. Centrally administered histamine evokes the adrenal secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline by brain cyclooxygenase-1- and thromboxane A2-mediated mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Okada, Shoshiro; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Lu, Lianyi; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2006-07-17

    Plasma adrenaline is originated from adrenal medulla, while plasma noradrenaline reflects the release from sympathetic nerves in addition to the secretion from adrenal medulla. The present study was designed to characterize the source of plasma catecholamines induced by centrally administered histamine, with regard to the brain prostanoids. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine (1, 5 and 10 microg/animal) elevated plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline (noradrenalinethromboxane A(2) synthase) (250 and 500 microg/animal, i.c.v.), and abolished by acute bilateral adrenalectomy. These results suggest that centrally administered histamine evokes plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by brain cyclooxygenase-1- and thromboxane A(2)-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  14. Hypertension increases contractile responses to hydrogen peroxide in resistance arteries through increased thromboxane A2, Ca2+, and superoxide anion levels.

    PubMed

    García-Redondo, Ana Belén; Briones, Ana María; Beltrán, Amada Elia; Alonso, María Jesús; Simonsen, Ulf; Salaices, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the response to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mesenteric resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recording and for simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), superoxide anion (O(2)(.)) production was evaluated by dihydroethidium fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) production was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay. H(2)O(2) (1-100 microM) induced biphasic responses characterized by a transient endothelium-dependent contraction followed by relaxation. Simultaneous measurements of tension and Ca(2+) showed a greater effect of H(2)O(2) in arteries from hypertensive than normotensive rats. The cyclooxygenase (cox) inhibitor, indomethacin [1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1-H-indole-3-acetic acid] (1 microM); the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-58560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole] (1 microM); the thromboxane (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor, furegrelate [5-(3-pyridinylmethyl)-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid, sodium salt] (10 microM); and the TXA(2)/prostaglandin H(2) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 ([1S-[1.alpha.,2.alpha.(Z),3.alpha.,4.alpha.

  15. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  16. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  17. Digital image analysis of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and accurate counts of red blood cells (RBCs), nucleated RBCs, platelets, and white blood cells (WBCs) (total and differential WBCs) are important requirements for a hematology laboratory. The detection of abnormal blood cell populations and the recognition of pathologic distributions of leukocytes are also of clinical importance. Manual microscopy counts are still required when a sample is flagged by the hematology analyzer and are still the reference method for WBC differential counts. Automated microscopy analyzers can provide accurate WBC differential counts, which may replace manual microscopy, but should not replace the eye of the cytologist.

  18. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  19. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  20. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  1. [Thromboxane synthetase inhibitors. II. Optical resolution of 4-[alpha-hydroxy-5-(1-imidazolyl)-2-methylbenzyl]-3,5-dimethylbenzo ic acid].

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, M; Shiotsuki, T; Matsumoto, T; Oe, T

    1989-01-01

    The optical resolution of racemic 4-[alpha-hydroxy-5-(1-imidazolyl)-2-methylbenzyl]-3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (dl-I), a new potent and long lasting thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, was investigated. (S)-3-(3,5-Dinitrobenzoylthio)-2-methylpropionyl group was introduced to alpha-hydroxy moiety of methyl ester of dl-I by three steps of reaction to give the corresponding ester compound (VIa). Then, two diastereomers of VIa, alpha-VIa and beta-VIa, were separated by column chromatography using on silica gel. Alkaline hydrolysis of alpha-VIa and beta-VIa, followed by reactions with sodium ethylate gave optically pure sodium salts of (-)-I and (+)-I, respectively. The separative determination methods for the diastereomers of VIa, and for the enantiomers of the sodium salts of dl-I by high performance liquid chromatography were also established.

  2. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  3. Centrally administered N-methyl-d-aspartate evokes the adrenal secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline by brain thromboxane A2-mediated mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shoshiro; Yamaguchi-Shima, Naoko; Shimizu, Takahiro; Arai, Junichi; Yorimitsu, Mieko; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2008-05-31

    Plasma adrenaline mainly originated from adrenaline-containing cells in the adrenal medulla, while plasma noradrenaline reflects the release from sympathetic nerves in addition to the secretion from noradrenaline-containing cells in the adrenal medulla. The present study was undertaken to characterize the source of plasma catecholamines induced by centrally administered N-methyl-d-aspartate with regard to the brain prostanoid, using urethane-anesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered N-methyl-d-aspartate (1.0, 5.0, 10.0 nmol/animal) dose-dependently elevated plasma levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (5.0 nmol/animal, i.c.v.)-induced elevation of both catecholamines was reduced by dizocilpine maleate (5 nmol/animal, i.c.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. Indomethacin (0.6 and 1.2 micromol/animal, i.c.v.), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, dose-dependently reduced the N-methyl-d-aspartate (5.0 nmol/animal, i.c.v.)-induced elevation of both catecholamines. The N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced response was dose-dependently attenuated by furegrelate (0.9 and 1.8 micromol/animal, i.c.v.), an inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthase. Furthermore, the acute bilateral adrenalectomy abolished the N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced responses, indicating that the source of increase in plasma noradrenaline evoked by N-methyl-d-aspartate is due to secretion from the adrenal gland and not due to release from sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest that centrally administered N-methyl-d-aspartate induces the secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by the brain thromboxane A2-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  4. Variations in milk somatic cell count and haematologic values of dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Nikodémusz, E; Bedö, S; Pickler, A; Szép, P

    1994-01-01

    Variations in milk somatic cell count (SCC) and haematologic values were studied in a dairy cow colony of the Holstein-Friesian and Hungarian Red-Spotted breeds (n = 23) from May 1992 to July 1993. Milk and blood samples were taken approximately at monthly intervals and data were assigned into ten lunar months of lactation. After a maximum in month I, SCC dropped abruptly in month II and continued to decline through the subsequent four months, then it again tended to increase through months VII-X. The SCCs varied within the physiological range throughout the lactation period parallel with red blood cells and white blood cells constituting a major segment of the somatic cell population. Positive correlations were recorded between SCC and the blood variables (packed cell volume, red blood cell count, white blood cell count). The lactation pattern of SCC was comparable to previous observations.

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Increased post-induction intensification improves outcome in children and adolescents with a markedly elevated white blood cell count (≥200 × 10(9) /l) with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but not B cell disease: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Caroline; Gaynon, Paul S; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Seibel, Nita L

    2015-02-01

    Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ≥200 × 10(9) /l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 10(9) /l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival.

  7. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  8. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  9. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  10. Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.

    In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.

  11. Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

    2013-01-01

    Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients.

  12. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  13. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  14. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  15. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  16. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  17. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  18. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  20. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  1. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  2. Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…

  3. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  4. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  5. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  6. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  7. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  8. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  9. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  10. Antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol is related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen species, ERK/p38 signaling and thromboxane A{sub 2} production

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chou, Han-Yi; Chang, Bei-En; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-09-15

    Platelet dysfunction is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Many antiplatelet agents are used for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this study, phloroglucinol (2.5–25 μM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}) production, but not U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Phloroglucinol (100–250 μM) showed little cytotoxicity to platelets. Phloroglucinol inhibited the COX-1 and COX-2 activities by 45–74% and 49–72% respectively at concentrations of 10–50 μM. At concentrations of 1 and 5 μM, phloroglucinol attenuated the AA-induced ROS production in platelets by 30% and 53%, with an IC{sub 50} of 13.8 μM. Phloroglucinol also inhibited the PMA-stimulated ROS production in PMN. Preincubation of platelets by phloroglucinol (10–25 μM) markedly attenuated the AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Intravenous administration of phloroglucinol (2.5 and 5 μmol/mouse) suppressed the ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation by 57–71%. Phloroglucinol administration also elevated the mice tail bleeding time. Moreover, phloroglucinol inhibited the IL-1β-induced PGE{sub 2} production in pulp fibroblasts. These results indicate that antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects of phloroglucinol are related to inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation in platelets. Phloroglucinol further suppress PMA-induced ROS production in PMN. The antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol was confirmed by ex vivo study. Clinically, the consumption of phloroglucinol-containing food/natural products as nutritional supplement may be helpful to cardiovascular health. Phloroglucinol has potential pharmacological use. -- Highlights: ► Phloroglucinol suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane production. ► Phloroglucinol inhibited COX activity and IL-1b-induced PGE2 production in fibroblast. ► Phloroglucinol

  11. Rare CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcripts in AML with inv(16)/t(16;16) are associated with therapy-related AML M4eo, atypical cytomorphology, atypical immunophenotype, atypical additional chromosomal rearrangements and low white blood cell count: a study on 162 patients.

    PubMed

    Schnittger, S; Bacher, U; Haferlach, C; Kern, W; Haferlach, T

    2007-04-01

    The spectrum of CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M4eo with inv(16)/t(16;16) is heterogeneous. Approximately 85% show type A CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcripts. In addition, more than 10 different fusion transcripts have been reported. The prognostic impact and biological background of rare fusion transcripts remain open. In this study, a molecular characterization of CBFB-MYH11 transcripts in 162 patients with CBFB-MYH11 positive AML at diagnosis was performed. In total, 128 patients (79.0%) showed the fusion transcript type A, whereas nine different rare CBFB-MYH11 fusion genes were detected in 34 cases (21.0%). Rare fusion transcripts were found more frequently in therapy-related AML (P=0.0106). Numerical gains of the chromosomes 8, 21 and 22 were more frequently associated with type A (28.3%) than with rare fusions (12.9%) (P=0.012). Median white blood cell (WBC) count was higher in type A (35.4 G/l; range=1.1-279 G/l) than in cases with rare types (7.8 G/l; range=0.8-148.0 G/l) (P<0.0001). Rare fusion transcripts were correlated with an atypical cytomorphology not primarily suggestive for the FAB subtype M4eo (P=0.0203). Immunophenotype revealed lower CD2, CD13, CD33 and CD90 levels than in type A fusion cases (P=0.036, 0.002, 0.029 and 0.045, respectively). However, the type of fusion was not an independent prognostic parameter.

  12. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  13. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  14. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hosni, Zainab S; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Al-Qasabi, Jamal; Davis, Hiedi; Al-Lawati, Hatim; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20). Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78). The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037). When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420). Conclusions The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts. PMID:27974955

  15. Counting Heron Triangles with Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    A3 INTEGERS 13 (2013) COUNTING HERON TRIANGLES WITH CONSTRAINTS Pantelimon Stănică Applied Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey...12, Revised: 10/12/12, Accepted: 1/13/13, Published: 1/25/13 Abstract Heron triangles have the property that all three of their sides as well as their...area are positive integers. In this paper, we give some estimates for the number of Heron triangles with two of their sides fixed. We provide a

  16. The MIC photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, J. L. A.; Bone, D. A.; Oldfield, M. K.; Bellis, J. G.; Norton, T. J.

    1992-12-01

    The MIC (Microchannel plate Intensified CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) detector is an advanced performance Micro Channel Plate (MCP) intensified CCD photon counting detector developed for high resolution, high dynamic range, astronomical applications. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is 3072 by 2304 pixels. The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm. The detector is linear to approximately 1,000,000 events/detector area/sec on a flat field and linear to count rates up to 200 events/object/s on star images. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. The second, specifically for the ESA X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM), where the MIC has been accepted as the blue detector for the incorporated Optical Monitor (OM). For the XMM-OM, the system is based around a 25 mm diameter intensifier. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of 6144 by 4608 pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

  17. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  18. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  19. Usefulness of total lymphocyte count as predictor of outcome in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Charach, Gideon; Grosskopf, Itamar; Roth, Arie; Afek, Arnon; Wexler, Dov; Sheps, David; Weintraub, Moshe; Rabinovich, Alexander; Keren, Gad; George, Jacob

    2011-05-01

    Low lymphocyte count has been considered a predictive marker of unfavorable outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF). Baseline blood samples for complete blood counts, differential counts, renal function tests. and lipid profile were prospectively obtained to assess the association between lymphocyte count and clinical outcomes in 305 patients with HF (average New York Heart Association [NYHA] class 2.8). The mean follow-up duration was 4.7 years (range 8 months to 8.4 years), and 111 patients (36%) died during the follow-up period. The mean lymphocyte count for the group was 1,803.64 ± 740.3, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 37%. Patients with low lymphocyte counts (<1,600 median count) after 8 years had significantly lower survival rates than those with lymphocyte counts ≥1,600 (58% vs 72%, p=0.012). The prediction of poorest survival was for patients in NYHA class III or IV and with lymphocyte counts <1,600. Regression analysis showed that lymphocyte level, the LVEF, and NYHA class were predictors of mortality. Of these, NYHA class was the most prominent predictor, followed by lymphocyte count, which was even more significant than the LVEF (hazard ratio 0.76, p=0.037). In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that total lymphocyte count is an important prognostic factor, inversely associated with predicted mortality. Although the total low lymphocyte count was correlated with a lower NYHA class and a lower LVEF, it emerged as an independent death risk factor in patients with chronic HF.

  20. Activation of the thromboxane A2 receptor by 8-isoprostane inhibits the pro-angiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Pei-Suen; Amin, M. Asif; Campbell, Phil; Zakhem, George; Balogh, Beatrix; Edhayan, Gautam; Ohara, Ray A.; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Koch, Alisa E.; Fox, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of scleroderma (SSc) includes components of autoimmunity, vascular dysfunction, and accumulation of extracellular matrix. 8-isoprostane, an oxidized lipid created by oxidative stress, activates the thromboxane A2 receptor (TXAR) and ROCK pathway. In this study we determined whether the TXAR was activated by 8-isoprostane in SSc endothelial cells (ECs), and whether this pathway inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Elevated 8-isoprostane was observed in plasma and conditioned media from SSc patients. SSc conditioned media inhibited EC tube formation, while addition of vitamin E, by reducing 8-isoprostane, increased tube formation. VEGF did not induce angiogenesis in SSc ECs, but vitamin E or TXAR inhibition restored its effect. The expression of TXAR, RhoA, and ROCK1/2 were elevated in SSc ECs. ROCK activity and 8-isoprostane-induced ROCK activation were significantly higher in SSc ECs while VEGF had no effect. The hyper-activation of the TXAR leads to inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as inhibition of the TXAR pathway results in blockade of 8-isoprostane induced ROCK activation and restoration of VEGF activity. These results suggest that the TXAR pathway plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and that 8-isoprostane is not just a by-product of oxidative stress, but also plays a significant role in the impaired angiogenesis that characterizes SSc. PMID:26288351

  1. Role of E-type prostaglandin receptor EP3 in the vasoconstrictor activity evoked by prostacyclin in thromboxane-prostanoid receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhua; Zhang, Yingzhan; Liu, Bin; Luo, Wenhong; Li, Hui; Zhou, Yingbi

    2017-01-01

    Prostacyclin, also termed as prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), evokes contraction in vessels with limited expression of the prostacyclin receptor. Although the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor (TP) is proposed to mediate such a response of PGI2, other unknown receptor(s) might also be involved. TP knockout (TP−/−) mice were thus designed and used to test the hypothesis. Vessels, which normally show contraction to PGI2, were isolated for functional and biochemical analyses. Here, we showed that the contractile response evoked by PGI2 was indeed only partially abolished in the abdominal aorta of TP−/− mice. Interestingly, further antagonizing the E-type prostaglandin receptor EP3 removed the remaining contractile activity, resulting in relaxation evoked by PGI2 in such vessels of TP−/− mice. These results suggest that EP3 along with TP contributes to vasoconstrictor responses evoked by PGI2, and hence imply a novel mechanism for endothelial cyclooxygenase metabolites (which consist mainly of PGI2) in regulating vascular functions. PMID:28165064

  2. Regulation of activator protein-1 by 8-iso-prostaglandin E2 in a thromboxane A2 receptor-dependent and -independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.

    2003-05-01

    The thromboxane (TX) A{sub 2} receptor (TP) encompasses two alternatively spliced forms, termed the platelet/placental (TP-P) and endothelial (TP-E) type receptors. Experimental evidence suggests that TP activity may be modulated by novel ligands, termed the isoprostanes, that paradoxically act as TP agonists in smooth muscle and TP antagonists in platelet preparations. Here we have investigated whether prototypical isoprostanes 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F{sub 2{alpha}} and 8-iso-PGE{sub 2} regulate the activity of TP isoforms expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using activator protein-1 (AP-1)-luciferase activity as a reporter. AP-1-luciferase activity was increased by a TP agonist [9,11-dideoxy-9{alpha},11{alpha}-methanoepoxy PGF{sub 2{alpha}} (U46619)] in CHO cells transfected with the human TP-P and TP-E receptors, and this response was fully inhibited by TP antagonists [1S-[1{alpha},2{beta}(Z),3{alpha},5{alpha}

  3. Production of prostaglandins, isoprostanes and thromboxane by Aspergillus fumigatus: identification by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and quantification by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kupfahl, Claudio; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Niemann, Jonas; Geginat, Gernot; Hof, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been reported to produce prostaglandin (PG)-like substances. The molecular structure of these fungal eicosanoids is however still unknown. By using the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) methodology we identified a number of eicosanoids that were formed upon incubation of the precursor arachidonic acid ethyl ester (AAE, 10 μM) with three strains of A. fumigatus. The eicosanoids identified include the prostaglandins (PG) PGE(2), 6-keto-PGF(1α) (the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin PGI(2)) and PGF(2α), the isoprostanes 15(S)-8-iso-PGF(2α) and 15(S)-8-iso-PGE(2), and thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2), the stable hydrolysis product of TxA(2)). These eicosanoids are identical with those produced by cyclooxygenases (COX) in humans. The biosynthesis of all of these eicosanoids could not be inhibited by the human COX inhibitors indomethacin (100 μM), acetylsalicylic acid (100 μM) or the non-selective human lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (100 μM). By contrast, the selen-containing antioxidant ebselen (100 μM) was found to inhibit their synthesis. Our results suggest that mammals and fungi employ different eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways. As some of the detected eicosanoids are potent immunomodulators and bronchoconstrictors, they could play a possible role in pulmonary diseases associated with A. fumigatus infection.

  4. Urinary excretion of cyclic nucleotides, creatinine prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 from mice exposed to whole-body irradiation from an enhanced neutron field

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Rafferty, M.A.; Wolfe, W.W.; Egan, J.E.; Kennedy, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Urine volume and excretion of cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and creatinine were evaluated as potential indicators of radiation damage in mice given 2-5 Gy to the whole body from an enhanced neutron field. In general, urinary cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, creatinine and urine volumes were positively correlated across time postexposure, for each radiation dose. TxB2 levels positively correlated with urine volume and cyclic AMP excretion only in animals given 2.0Gy. None of these parameters suggests their use as a prognostic indicator of the extent of radiation damage. Urinary excretion of PGE2 was negatively correlated with other urinary parameters. Biphasic increases in urinary PGE2 were also observed. The initial transient elevation 2-3 days postexposure was not correlated with the dose (2-5 Gy). The second elevation of PGE2 excretion occurred at 6-10 days. The magnitude of the latter increase suggests that urinary PGE2 excretion may be a useful indicator of whole-body or kidney exposure to neutron fields.

  5. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  6. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  7. Pharmacokinetics and effects on thromboxane B2 production following intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine to exercised thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S; Chapman, N

    2015-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine is commonly used in horses for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The current ARCI threshold recommendation is 20 ng/mL when administered at least 24 h prior to race time. In light of samples exceeding the regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration, the primary goal of the study reported here was to update the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following intravenous administration, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An additional objective was to characterize the effects of flunixin on COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition when drug concentrations reached the recommended regulatory threshold. Sixteen exercised adult horses received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postadministration and analyzed using LC-MS. Blood samples were collected from 8 horses for determination of TxB(2) and PGE(2) concentrations prior to and up to 96 h postflunixin administration. Mean systemic clearance, steady-state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life was 0.767 ± 0.098 mL/min/kg, 0.137 ± 0.12 L/kg, and 4.8 ± 1.59 h, respectively. Four of the 16 horses had serum concentrations in excess of the current ARCI recommended regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration. TxB(2) suppression was significant for up to 24 h postadministration.

  8. Survey material choices in haematology EQA: a confounding factor in automated counting performance assessment

    PubMed Central

    De la Salle, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most frequently requested tests in laboratory medicine, performed in a range of healthcare situations. The provision of an ideal assay material for external quality assessment is confounded by the fragility of the cellular components of blood, the lack of commutability of stabilised whole blood material and the lack of certified reference materials and methods to which CBC results can be traced. The choice of assay material between fresh blood, extended life assay material and fully stabilised, commercially prepared, whole blood material depends upon the scope and objectives of the EQA scheme. The introduction of new technologies in blood counting and the wider clinical application of parameters from the extended CBC will bring additional challenges for the EQA provider.

  9. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  10. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  12. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24396387

  13. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow.

  14. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  16. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  17. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  18. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  19. Relationship between somatic cell count, polymorphonuclear leucocyte count and quality parameters in bovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Erik; Persson-Waller, Karin; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Ostensson, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-05-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) in bovine bulk tank milk is presently used as an indicator of raw milk quality, reflecting the udder health status of the herd. During mastitis, SCC increases, mostly owing to an influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from blood into milk, with a concomitant change in milk composition. Bulk tank milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, as well as polymorphonuclear leucocyte count (PMNC), to study relationships between SCC, PMNC and various raw milk quality traits, i.e. contents of total protein, whey protein, casein, fat and lactose, casein number, proteolysis and rheological properties. The proportion of PMN, obtained by direct microscopy, was significantly higher in samples with high SCC compared with low SCC samples. SCC and PMNC were strongly correlated, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.85. High SCC samples had lower lactose and casein contents, lower casein number and more proteolysis than low SCC samples. Samples with high PMNC had a lower casein number than low PMNC samples. Samples with high and low SCC or PMNC did not differ in respect to rheological properties. Our results do not indicate that PMNC is a better biomarker than SCC for raw bulk tank milk quality, as previously proposed.

  20. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  1. Comparison of Venous and Capillary Differential Leukocyte Counts Using a Standard Hematology Analyzer and a Novel Microfluidic Impedance Cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Scott; Spencer, Daniel; van Berkel, Cees; Morgan, Hywel

    2012-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling has been identified as a potentially suitable technique for use in diagnostic testing of the full blood count (FBC) at the point-of-care (POC), for which a recent need has been highlighted. In this study we assess the accuracy of capillary blood counts and evaluate the potential of a miniaturized cytometer developed for POC testing. Differential leukocyte counts in the normal clinical range from fingerprick (capillary) and venous blood samples were measured and compared using a standard hematology analyzer. The accuracy of our novel microfluidic impedance cytometer (MIC) was then tested by comparing same-site measurements to those obtained with the standard analyzer. The concordance between measurements of fingerprick and venous blood samples using the standard hematology analyzer was high, with no clinically relevant differences observed between the mean differential leukocyte counts. Concordance data between the MIC and the standard analyzer on same-site measurements presented significantly lower leukocyte counts determined by the MIC. This systematic undercount was consistent across the measured (normal) concentration range, suggesting that an internal correction factor could be applied. Differential leukocyte counts obtained from fingerprick samples accurately reflect those from venous blood, which confirms the potential of capillary blood sampling for POC testing of the FBC. Furthermore, the MIC device demonstrated here presents a realistic technology for the future development of FBC and related tests for use at the site of patient care. PMID:23028467

  2. Microfluidic differential immunocapture biochip for specific leukocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Umer; Watkins, Nicholas N; Reddy, Bobby; Damhorst, Gregory; Bashir, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Enumerating specific cell types from whole blood can be very useful for research and diagnostic purposes—e.g., for counting of cD4 and cD8 t cells in HIV/aIDs diagnostics. We have developed a biosensor based on a differential immunocapture technology to enumerate specific cells in 30 min using 10 µl of blood. this paper provides a comprehensive stepwise protocol to replicate our biosensor for cD4 and cD8 cell counts. the biochip can also be adapted to enumerate other specific cell types such as somatic cells or cells from tissue or liquid biopsies. capture of other specific cells requires immobilization of their corresponding antibodies within the capture chamber. therefore, this protocol is useful for research into areas surrounding immunocapture-based biosensor development. the biosensor production requires 24 h, a one-time cell capture optimization takes 6–9 h, and the final cell counting experiment in a laboratory environment requires 30 min to complete. PMID:26963632

  3. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  4. Reticulocyte quantification by flow cytometry, image analysis, and manual counting.

    PubMed

    Schimenti, K J; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Maston, L; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Lazarus, H M; Jacobberger, J W

    1992-01-01

    Reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry with thiazole orange was compared to manual or automated counting of new methylene blue stained blood smears. Forty-nine samples were compared for manual counting from randomly chosen clinical samples. Two hundred and eighty-nine samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared during the period before and through chemo-irradiation and engraftment. The slopes of correlation plots were less than 1 when flow cytometric data were the dependent variable, suggesting that thiazole orange is less sensitive than new methylene blue. In a third study, 407 samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared after increasing the thiazole orange concentration. The reticulocyte fluorescence distribution was divided into four groups of the brightest (youngest) 40, 60, 80, and 100% of reticulocytes. The slopes from regression analysis were 0.25, 0.49, 0.78, and 1.14, respectively. This demonstrates that thiazole orange is more sensitive than new methylene blue because the window of analysis includes an increased fraction of mature reticulocytes. In addition, the precision of each assay as measured. The rank order of precision from high to low was flow cytometry > image analysis > manual counting.

  5. The Relationship Between Plasma Eosinophil Count and Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Keceoglu, Serdar; Melek, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation and thrombosis. Also vascular anomalies such as aneurysm have been noted in patients with hypereosinophilic syndromes. We aimed to compare the numbers of eosinophil counts of the patients CAE versus controls. Methods This study included 50 CAE patients (20 male, mean age 60.26 ± 10.6 years) and 30 control person (10 male, mean age 57.86 ± 11.6 years). These participants were performed concurrent routine biochemical tests and neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil count and mean platelet volume (MPV) on whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. Results Baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. CAE patients had a higher MPV value, eosinophil, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than controls (8.5 ± 1 vs 76.2 ± 1.6 fl and 0.198 ± 0.14 vs 0.093 ± 0.058 and 3.0 ± 2.5vs 1.14 ± 0.9; P < 0.001, 0.002 and 0.028 respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between eosinophil count, NLR and MPV in patients with CAE.

  6. Prognostic significance of platelet count in SLE patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel Galil, Sahar Mahfouz; Edrees, Azzahra Mohammed; Ajeeb, Afnan Khaled; Aldoobi, Ghadeer Sameer; El-Boshy, Mohamed; Hussain, Waleed

    2017-03-01

    Hematological abnormalities, especially thrombocytopenia (TCP), are highly prevalent among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and at the same time it has been reported as a significant prognostic factor of SLE course. We further investigate the correlation between platelet count and the clinical manifestations and disease activity of SLE, in a cohort of Saudi Arabian female patients. A retrospective analysis was done for the medical records of 100 SLE female patients, selected from all patients diagnosed and treated for SLE at the Rheumatology outpatient clinics in Hera'a General Hospital, Holly Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The data collected from every patient's file included laboratory investigations (complete blood count, platelet parameters, ESR, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANA), clinical manifestations, as well as SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2k) scores throughout a period of six sequential follow-up visits. Patients were divided into three groups according to the SLEDAI-2k: mild, moderate, and high-activity group. We found that, out of 100 patients, TCP was the most prevalent hematological abnormality evident in 15%, more than leucopenia (14%) and anemia (2%). TCP was acute in onset and associated with arthritis, neurologic manifestations, and nephritis. Platelet count showed a significant negative correlation with disease activity, in all of the three groups of patients. We concluded that platelet count has a negative correlation with disease activity in SLE patients, whatever the associated manifestations, and it should be considered as a prognostic factor, identifying patients with aggressive disease course.

  7. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here.

  8. Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-04-07

    Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 μL) and reagents (68 μL in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications.

  9. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost.

  10. Endogenous prostaglandin endoperoxides and prostacyclin modulate the thrombolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator. Effects of simultaneous inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthase and blockade of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptors in a canine model of coronary thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Golino, P; Rosolowsky, M; Yao, S K; McNatt, J; De Clerck, F; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T

    1990-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that simultaneous inhibition of TxA2 synthase and blockade of TxA2/PHG2 receptors is more effective in enhancing thrombolysis and preventing reocclusion after discontinuation of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) than either intervention alone. Coronary thrombosis was induced in 35 dogs by placing a copper coil into the left anterior descending coronary artery. Coronary flow was measured with a Doppler flow probe. 30 min after thrombus formation, the animals received saline (controls, n = 10); SQ 29548 (0.4 mg/kg bolus + 0.4 mg/kg per h infusion), a TxA2/PGH2 receptor antagonist (n = 8); dazoxiben (5 mg/kg bolus + 5 mg/kg per h infusion), a TxA2 synthase inhibitor (n = 9); or R 68070 (5 mg/kg bolus + 5 mg/kg per h infusion), a drug that blocks TxA2/PGH2 receptors and inhibits TxA2 synthase (n = 8). Then, all dogs received heparin (200 U/kg) and a bolus of t-PA (80 micrograms/kg) followed by a continuous infusion (8 micrograms/kg per min) for up to 90 min or until reperfusion was achieved. The time to thrombolysis did not change significantly in SQ 29548-treated dogs as compared with controls (42 +/- 5 vs. 56 +/- 7 min, respectively, P = NS), but it was significantly shortened by R 68070 and dazoxiben (11 +/- 2 and 25 +/- 6 min, respectively, P less than 0.001 vs. controls and SQ 29548-treated dogs). R 68070 administration resulted in a lysis time significantly shorter than that observed in the dazoxiben-treated group (P less than 0.01). Reocclusion was observed in eight of eight control dogs, five of seven SQ 29548-treated dogs, seven of nine dazoxiben-treated dogs, and zero of eight R 68070-treated animals (P less than 0.001). TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, measured in blood samples obtained from the coronary artery distal to the thrombus, were significantly increased at reperfusion and at reocclusion in control animals and in dogs receiving SQ 29548. R 68070 and dazoxiben prevented the increase in plasma TxB2 levels, whereas 6-keto-PGF1

  11. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-07

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  12. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  13. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  14. Yoctocalorimetry: phonon counting in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, M. L.

    1999-03-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three-dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  15. Ca2+ signalling in K562 human erythroleukaemia cells: effect of dimethyl sulphoxide and role of G-proteins in thrombin- and thromboxane A2-activated pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C P; Dunn, M J; Mattera, R

    1995-01-01

    The human leukaemic cell line K562 is a pluripotent stem cell with the potential to mature along a megakaryocytic or erythroid line. In these cells, thrombin and U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9 alpha, 11 alpha-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F2 alpha), a thromboxane A2 analogue, increased intracellular Ca2+ in a rapid and concentration-dependent manner. The peak transient observed with both thrombin and U46619 was preserved upon stimulation in the absence of extracellular calcium and blunted with phorbol myristate acetate, suggestive of activation of phospholipase C. Short-term treatment with leupeptin abolished the calcium response to thrombin, but did not alter that to U46619. Both pertussis toxin (PT) and DMSO pretreatment inhibited thrombin- but not U46619-stimulated intracellular calcium elevation, indicating that these agonists signal through different G-proteins. Western blot analysis of crude membranes from K562 cells revealed the presence of G12 alpha and G13 alpha; the other known PT-substrates, Gi1 alpha and G0 alpha, were not detected. Consistent with this observation, ADP-ribosylation experiments revealed the presence of two PT substrates which co-migrated with human erythrocyte G12 alpha and G13 alpha. An antibody raised against Gq/11 alpha, a subfamily of G-protein alpha subunits unmodified by PT, specifically recognized 42 kDa protein(s) in K562 cells. PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed K562 RNA followed by DNA sequencing showed that these cells express messages for both Gq alpha and G11 alpha. Treatment of K562 cells with DMSO reduced the levels of thrombin receptor mRNA, without simultaneous changes in the expression of G12 alpha and G13 alpha. We have thus identified Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists and related G-proteins in K562 cells, together with changes induced by DMSO in this signalling pathway. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:7492305

  16. Thromboxane A2 Regulates CXCL1 and CXCL8 Chemokine Expression in the Nasal Mucosa–Derived Fibroblasts of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Hao, Sheng-Po; Chen, Chih-Li; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is a common chronic disease and the etiology remains unclear. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) participates in platelet aggregation and tissue inflammation. In this study, the CXCL1/8 chemokine and TXA2-TP receptor expression in the CRSsNP mucosa was investigated. Experimental Approach Immunohistochemistry, chemokine release assay by ELISA, RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, Western blotting, pharmacological and siRNA knockdown analysis were applied in the CRSsNP tissue specimen and cultured nasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts. Results The immunohistochemistry results indicated that CXCL1 and CXCL8 were highly expressed in the CRSsNP mucosa compared with the controls; however, the TP receptors were expressed in both mucosa. Therefore, U46619 and IBOP, a TXA2 analog and TP agonist, were used to explore the role of TP activation in CXCL1/8 expression; both of these induced CXCL1/8 mRNA and protein expression in CRSsNP mucosa-derived fibroblasts. U46619 phosphorylated PI-3K, cyclic AMP (cAMP)/PKA, PKC, and cAMP response element (CREB). Activation of cAMP/PKA, PKC, and CREB was the major pathway for cxcl1/8 gene transcription. Pharmacological and siRNA knockdown analyses revealed that activation of cAMP/PKA and PKCμ/PKD pathways were required for CREB phosphorylation and PKA/C crosstalked with the PI-3K pathway. Conclusion and Implications Our study provides the first evidence for abundant TP receptor and CXCL1/8 expression in human CRSsNP mucosa and for TXA2 stimulation inducing CXCL1/8 expression in nasal fibroblasts primarily through TP receptor, cAMP/PKA, PKCμ/PKD, and CREB-related pathways. PMID:27351369

  17. Expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the thromboxane prostanoid receptor (TP) in prostate cancer: clinical significance and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Eamon P.; Shilling, Christine; Eivers, Sarah B.; Perry, Antoinette S.; Bjartell, Anders; Kay, Elaine W.; Watson, R. William; Kinsella, B. Therese

    2016-01-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 plays a central role in haemostasis and is increasingly implicated in cancer progression. TXA2 signals through two T Prostanoid receptor (TP) isoforms termed TPα and TPβ, with both encoded by the TBXA2R gene. Despite exhibiting several functional and regulatory differences, the role of the individual TP isoforms in neoplastic diseases is largely unknown. This study evaluated expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms in tumour microarrays of the benign prostate and different pathological (Gleason) grades of prostate cancer (PCa). Expression of TPβ was significantly increased in PCa relative to benign tissue and strongly correlated with increasing Gleason grade. Furthermore, higher TPβ expression was associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and significantly shorter disease-free survival time in patients post-surgery. While TPα was more variably expressed than TPβ in PCa, increased/high TPα expression within the tumour also trended toward increased BCR and shorter disease-free survival time. Comparative genomic CpG DNA methylation analysis revealed substantial differences in the extent of methylation of the promoter regions of the TBXA2R that specifically regulate expression of TPα and TPβ, respectively, both in benign prostate and in clinically-derived tissue representative of precursor lesions and progressive stages of PCa. Collectively, TPα and TPβ expression is differentially regulated both in the benign and tumourigenic prostate, and coincides with clinical pathology and altered CpG methylation of the TBXA2R gene. Analysis of TPβ, or a combination of TPα/TPβ, expression levels may have significant clinical potential as a diagnostic biomarker and predictor of PCa disease recurrence. PMID:27689401

  18. A simple, quick, and high-yield preparation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor in full size for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ke-He; Cervantes, Vanessa; Wu, Jiaxin

    2008-07-01

    Human thromboxane A2 receptor (TP), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is one of the most promising targets for developing the next generation of anti-thrombosis and hypertension drugs. However, obtaining a sufficient amount of the full-sized and active membrane protein has been the major obstacle for structural elucidation that reveals the molecular mechanisms of the receptor activation and drug designs. Here we report an approach for the simple, quick, and high-yield preparation of the purified and active full-sized TP in an amount suitable for structural studies. Glycosylated human TP was highly expressed in Sf-9 cells using an optimized baculovirus (BV) expression system. The active receptor was extracted and solubilized by different detergents for comparison and was finally purified to a nearly single band with a ratio of 1:0.9 +/- 0.05 (ligand:receptor molecule) in ligand binding using a Ni column with a relatively low yield. However, a high-yield purification (milligram quantity) of the TP protein, from a modulate scale of transfected Sf-9 cell culture, has been achieved by quick and simple purification steps, which include DNA digestion, dodecyl-maltoside detergent extraction, centrifugation, and FPLC purification. The purity and quantity of the purified TP, using the high-yield approach, were suitable for protein structural studies as evidenced by SDS-PAGE, Western blot analyses, ligand binding assays, and a feasibility test using high-resolution one-dimensional and two-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses. These studies provide a basis for the high-yield expression and purification of the GPCR for the structural and functional characterization using biophysics approaches.

  19. Formation of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and thromboxane A(2) by stimulation with several activators of phospholipase A(2) in the isolated human umbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Sametz, W; Hummer, K; Butter, M; Wintersteiger, R; Juan, H

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the effects of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activators calcium ionophore A 23187, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), bradykinin (BK), histamine and noradrenaline (NA) on the 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) formation in the isolated human umbilical vein and the isolated rabbit ear. For comparison, the influence of these substances on the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) release was also investigated. The release of total (esterified as well as free) 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), free 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and TXB(2), the stable metabolite of TXA(2), was determined by specific enzyme immunoassays. The results show that bolus injections of 5.4 mmol H(2)O(2), 30 nmol A 23187, 10 nmol BK, 50 nmol histamine and 20 nmol NA caused an increased release of total 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) in the umbilical vein and the rabbit ear. A perfusion with H(2)O(2) at a final concentration of 0.3 mM also increased the release of this isoprostane. Increased formation of free 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was induced by A 23187 injection and by both modes of H(2)O(2) administration, but not by the other treatments. Bolus injections of A 23187, BK and histamine induced an increased release of TXB(2) in both organs. Both modes of H(2)O(2) administration and NA showed no releasing effects. In conclusion, our results show that the substances used are able to stimulate the formation of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) concurrently with the release of PGs. This effect might be of pathophysiological relevance in inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in which an enhanced release of free radicals, BK, histamine or NA play an important role.

  20. [Electronic platelet counting with particular reference to thrombocytopenias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuse, R; Burmeister, H; Hausmann, K

    1977-09-29

    Platelet counts in platelet-rich plasma without hematocrit dependent correction were performed by following rapid and simple steps: 1. pre-dilution of 20 microliter of whole blood by an isotonic solution 1:25; 2. stabilized low-speed centrifugation with 55 g for 5 minutes; 3. final dilution 1 : 5000; 4. enumeration by use of a TOA platelet counter PL-100 which has been technically improved in comparison to similar machines. Erroneously high results were obtained after a too short or too low centrifugation. As reason for this artifical small pulses due to disturbances of the flow patterns around the aperture (so-called vortex-effect) can be assumed having been caused by large-volumed erythrocytes and leukocytes in the suspension. The routinely used procedure was reliable for all platelet ranges, especially in thrombocytopenias between 100 X 10(9)/l and 25 X 10(9)l. In lower ranges comparisons with visual counts are essential.

  1. Mechanism of platelet activation induced by endocannabinoids in blood and plasma.

    PubMed

    Brantl, S Annette; Khandoga, Anna L; Siess, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and circulating endocannabinoids might modulate platelet function. Previous studies concerning effects of anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on platelets, mainly performed on isolated cells, provided conflicting results. We therefore investigated the action of three main endocannabinoids [anandamide, 2-AG and virodhamine (arachidonoylethanolamine)] on human platelets in blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). 2-AG and virodhamine induced platelet aggregation in blood, and shape change, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in PRP. The EC50 of 2-AG and virodhamine for platelet aggregation in blood was 97 and 160 µM, respectively. Lower concentrations of 2-AG (20 µM) and virodhamine (50 µM) synergistically induced aggregation with other platelet stimuli. Platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine resembled arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation: shape change, the first platelet response, ATP secretion and aggregation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine were all blocked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or the specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) antagonist daltroban. In addition, platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine in blood and PRP were inhibited by JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). In contrast to 2-AG and virodhamine, anandamide, a substrate of fatty acid amidohydrolase, was inactive. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) agonists lacked stimulatory as well as inhibitory platelet activity. We conclude that 2-AG and virodhamine stimulate platelets in blood and PRP by a MAGL-triggered mechanism leading to free AA and its metabolism by platelet cyclooxygenase-1/thromboxane synthase to TXA2. CB1, CB2 or non-CB1/CB2 receptors are not involved. Our results imply that ASA and MAGL inhibitors will protect platelets from activation by high endocannabinoid levels, and that

  2. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  3. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  4. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  5. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice a decrease in red blood cell levels. Iron overload If you receive multiple blood transfusions, you may end up with too much iron in your blood. Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can damage ...

  6. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  7. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  8. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-24

    signs, blood tests (chemistries, auto-chemistry panel, lipids, iron, ferritin, complete blood count, coagulation profile, hepatitis B surface antigen... hepatitis A antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody), urine tests (drug screen I-abuse, marijuana, and a pregnancy test), and a 12-lead

  9. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  10. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  11. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  12. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Ralph, C.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  13. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  14. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... ineligibility determinations, the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007....

  16. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical called hemoglobin ( ...

  17. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation.

  18. Antiplatelet Effect of Catechol Is Related to Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase, Reactive Oxygen Species, ERK/p38 Signaling and Thromboxane A2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Catechol (benzenediol) is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5–5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10–50 µM) suppressed COX-1 activity by 29–44% and COX-2 activity by 29–50%. It also inhibited IL-1β-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1–10 µM) attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5–5 µmole/mouse) attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet

  19. Regulation of Activator Protein-1 by 8-iso-Prostaglandin E{sub 2} in a Thromboxane A{sub 2} Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.

    2003-05-01

    The thromboxane A{sub 2} (TXA{sub 2}) receptor (TP) is represented by two alternatively spliced forms, termed the platelet/placental (TP-P) and endothelial (TP-E) type receptors. Experimental evidence suggests that TP isoforms may be regulated by novel ligands termed the isoprostanes, which paradoxically act as TP agonists in smooth muscle and TP antagonists in platelet preparations. Here we have investigated whether prototypical isoprostanes (8-iso-PG{sub 2{sub {alpha}}} and 8-iso-PGE{sub 2}) regulate the activity of TP isoforms expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells using activator protein-1 (AP-1)-luciferase activity as a reporter. AP-1-luciferase activity was increased by a TP agonist (U46619) in CHO cells transfected with the human TP-P and TP-E receptors and this response was fully inhibited by TP antagonists (ISAP, SQ29,548). AP-1-luciferase activity was potently (nM) increased by 8-iso-PGE2 in CHO TP-P and TP-E cells, and this response was partially inhibited by cotreatment of cells with TP antagonists, while 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{sub {alpha}}} was without effect. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not abolish 8-iso-PGE{sub 2} mediated AP-1-luciferase activity, indicating that this response is not dependent on de novo TXA2 biosynthesis. Interestingly, 8-iso-PGE{sub 2}-mediated AP-1-luciferase activity was near maximal in naive cells between 1-10 nM concentrations, and this response was not inhibited by TP antagonist or reproduced by agonists for TP or EP1/EP3 receptors. These observations (1) support a role for novel ligands in the regulation of TP-dependent signaling, (2) indicate that TP-P and TP-E couple to AP-1, (3) provide further evidence that isoprostanes function as TP agonists in a cell-type specific fashion, and (4) indicate that additional targets regulated by 8-iso-PGE{sub 2} couple to AP-1.

  20. Low-dose aspirin in prevention of miscarriage in women with unexplained or autoimmune related recurrent miscarriage: effect on prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 production.

    PubMed

    Tulppala, M; Marttunen, M; Söderstrom-Anttila, V; Foudila, T; Ailus, K; Palosuo, T; Ylikorkala, O

    1997-07-01

    Early pregnancies in women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are accompanied by a deficiency in vasodilatory and anti-aggregatory prostacyclin (PGI2) and/or overproduction of its endogenous antagonist thromboxane A2 (TXA2). We evaluated the effect of a low-dose aspirin (LDA) on PGI2 and TXA2 production and on pregnancy outcome in RSA women with and without detectable anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA). Of 82 RSA women studied, 66 became pregnant, and of them, 33 (six with elevated and 27 with normal ACA concentrations) were randomized to receive LDA (50 mg/day) and 33 (six with elevated and 27 with normal ACA concentrations) to receive placebo (PLA) from a mean of 6.6 days after the missed period to delivery. Treatment with LDA inhibited platelet TXA2 production similarly in RSA women with and without detectable ACA and with continuing pregnancies (7.0 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, LDA group versus 254.5 +/- 37.8 ng/ml, PLA group, mean +/- SEM, P < 0.0001) or miscarrying pregnancies (13.8 +/- 3.8 ng/ml compared with 233.6 +/- 59.8 ng/ml, P < 0.0001 respectively). Furthermore, LDA decreased urinary excretion of the TXA2 metabolite (2,3-dinor-TXB2) both in pregnancies which went to term (6.1 +/- 0.6 ng/mmol creatinine, LDA group versus 19.3 +/- 3.0 ng/mmol creatinine, PLA group, P < 0.0001) or again ended in miscarriage (4.7 +/- 0.8 ng/mmol creatinine versus 17.3 +/- 4.4 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.0001 respectively), but did not affect the excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite (2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha). Early pregnancy ultrasound examination revealed a living fetus in 58 women. Of these, seven in the LDA group (23.3%, four with elevated and three with normal ACA concentrations) and five in the PLA group (17.9%, two with elevated and three with normal ACA concentrations; not significant) experienced a miscarriage. All infants were healthy, and the frequency of growth retardation was similar in both groups (13.0%). One woman in the LDA group (4.3%) and three

  1. Antiplatelet effect of catechol is related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen species, ERK/p38 signaling and thromboxane A2 production.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Wang, Tong-Mei; Chan, Chiu-Po; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Catechol (benzenediol) is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5-5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10-50 µM) suppressed COX-1 activity by 29-44% and COX-2 activity by 29-50%. It also inhibited IL-1β-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1-10 µM) attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5-5 µmole/mouse) attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet function and thus

  2. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable…

  3. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  4. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  5. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  6. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  7. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  8. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  9. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  10. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... public health approach is integrating public health-related information systems, such as disease registries. By collaborating with health ... has established the Community Counts program to collect information about ... data systems also can provide data for evaluating comprehensive patient ...

  11. Value of Neutrophil Counts in Predicting Surgery-Related Acute Kidney Injury and the Interaction of These Counts With Diabetes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Xing; Liu, Xin-yao; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Ya-ping; Kuang, Ze-min; Cao, Dongsheng; Chen, Alex F.; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a component of routine blood cell analyses, the quantity of neutrophils present is a proven predictor of morbidity and mortality in several clinical settings. However, whether episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with higher neutrophil counts in vulnerable groups, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between neutrophil counts and the incidence of surgery-related AKI in CKD patients with hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between neutrophils and surgery-related AKI. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In total, 119 (11.9%) of 998 patients experienced surgery-related AKI during hospitalization from October 2008 to February 2013. We divided patients into 4 quartiles according to their neutrophil counts. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the patients in the 4th quartile of neutrophil counts had greater ORs for AKI compared to those in the 1st quartile. The incidence of AKI increased 1.59-fold for those patients with neutrophil counts ≥6.30 × 109/L. There was a positive linear association between the neutrophil count upon admission and the predicted probability of AKI. The cross-validation revealed a statistically significant predictive accuracy for AKI (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.67–0.69). The interaction analyses revealed that higher neutrophil counts are associated with a heightened risk of AKI in the presence of diabetes (OR = 3.38, 95% CI, 1.06–10.80). There were no interactions between neutrophil counts and age (P = 0.371), sex (P = 0.335), estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.487), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.950), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.977), the presence of chronic heart failure (P = 0.226), or sepsis (P = 0.796). The neutrophil count upon

  12. Acute Effects of Prostaglandin E1 and E2 on Vascular Reactivity and Blood Flow in situ in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fay, K.; Dunn, B.E.; Gruenloh, S.K.; Narayanan, J.; Jacobs, E.R.; Medhora, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) subserves gas exchange in the developing embryo and shell-less culture affords a unique opportunity for direct observations over time of individual blood vessels to pharmacologic interventions. We tested a number of lipids including prostaglandins PGE1&2 for vascular effects and signaling in the CAM. Application of PGE1&2 induced a decrease in the diameter of large blood vessels and a concentration-dependent, localized, reversible loss of blood flow through small vessels. The loss of flow was also mimicked by misoprostol, an agonist for 3 of 4 known PGE receptors, EP2-4, and by U46619, a thromboxane mimetic. Selective receptor antagonists for EP3 and thromboxane each partially blocked the response. This is a first report of the effects of prostaglandins on vasoreactivity in the CAM. Our model allows the unique ability to examine simultaneous responses of large and small vessels in real time and in vivo. PMID:22858445

  13. Prognostic value of perioperative leukocyte count in resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Jing; Pei, Dong; Zhou, Chen; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Zhu, Fang; He, Shao-Hua; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Li, Xiao; Ping, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Qian; Wang, Ping; Guo, Ren-Hua; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of perioperative leukopenia in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 614 eligible gastric cancer patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The relationship between pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters and overall survival was assessed statistically, adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: The mean white blood cell count (WBC) significantly decreased after surgery, and 107/614 (17.4%) patients developed p-leukopenia, which was defined as a preoperative WBC ≥ 4.0 × 109/L and postoperative WBC < 4.0 × 109/L, with an absolute decrease ≥ 0.5 × 109/L. The neutrophil count decreased significantly more than the lymphocyte count. P-leukopenia significantly correlated with poor tumor differentiation and preoperative WBC. A higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia were independent negative prognostic factors for survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.602, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.185-2.165; P = 0.002, and HR = 1.478, 95%CI: 1.149-1.902; P = 0.002, respectively] after adjusting for histology, Borrmann type, pTNM stage, vascular or neural invasion, gastrectomy method, resection margins, chemotherapy regimens, and preoperative WBC count. The patients with both higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia had a worse prognosis compared to those with lower baseline WBC and no p-leukopenia (27.5 mo vs 57.3 mo, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative leukocytosis alone or in combination with postoperative leukopenia could be independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:26973420

  14. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  15. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  16. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  17. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  18. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  19. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  20. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...