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Sample records for blood donor population

  1. [Chagas disease screening in the blood donor population].

    PubMed

    Assal, A; Pelletier, B; David, B; Tiberghien, P

    2009-12-01

    In May 2007, the French Blood Service (Etablissement français du sang, EFS) introduced systematic screening of at-risk blood donors for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. This concerned donors originating from an endemic area, donors with mothers originating from such an area and individuals who had lived in or travelled to endemic areas, whatever the length of their stay. Five samples out of 163,740 were positive, all from individuals originating from an endemic area. One thousand three hundred seventy-four blood donations were considered as equivocal because they had discordant results on the two Elisa tests used in screening. The authors discuss difficulties presented by routine screening of travellers and residents as well as the advantages and drawbacks of the strategy used. They present arguments in favour of its simplification.

  2. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population.

    PubMed

    Makroo, R N; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-03-01

    Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  3. [Problems of insufficient number of voluntary blood donors among student youth population in Belgrade].

    PubMed

    Andjelić, D; Gligorović, P; Budisin, Z

    1995-01-01

    The study included 71,918 individuals (70,093 Belgrade University students, 1,325 individuals that donated blood once, 500 individuals that donated blood from 5 to 100 times). The following results of the study were obtained: among voluntary blood donors in Belgrade, in 1991, only 1.02% were students; students comprise 1.66% of the first blood-donor-population; in 1990 among multiblood-donors-population (>5 donations) 1.44% were students; during 1991/92 school year among secondary school pupils there were 14.62% blood donors, that is 1.333% more compared to the group of university students; every fourth secondary school pupil continued to donate blood during his/her university studies. A programme for the formation of the Students voluntary blood donor assocation in all university schools in Belgrade, is also presented.

  4. Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Miller, Laura L; Davey Smith, George; Pembrey, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population. Methods We compare and contrast the two different populations of controls for studies of genetic variation using data from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In addition we compute different biases using a series of hypothetical assumptions. Results The study subjects who had been blood donors differed markedly from the general population in social, health-related, anthropometric, and personality-related variables. Using theoretical examples, we show that blood donors are a poor control group for non-genetic studies of diseases related to environmentally, behaviourally, or socially patterned exposures. However, we show that if blood donors are used as controls in genetic studies, these factors are unlikely to make a major difference in detecting true associations with relatively rare disorders (cumulative incidence through life of <10%). Nevertheless, for more common disorders, the reduction in accuracy resulting from the inclusion in any control population of individuals who have or will develop the disease in question can create a greater bias than can socially patterned factors. Conclusions Information about the medical history of a control and the parents of the control (as a proxy for whether the control will develop the disease) is more important with regard to the choice of controls than whether the controls are a random population sample or blood donors. PMID:23825379

  5. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Simon, Toby L.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. Objectives We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Design Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254 NHANES 2005-2008 venous hemoglobin values using demographically stratified analyses and ANOVA. Fingerstick hemoglobins or hematocrits were converted to venous hemoglobin estimates using regression analysis. Results Venous hemoglobin values from 1,609 first time donors correlated extremely well with NHANES data across different age, gender and demographic groups. Cigarette smoking increased hemoglobin by 0.26 to 0.59 g/dL depending on intensity. Converted fingerstick hemoglobin from 36,793 first time donors agreed well with NHANES hemoglobin (weighted mean hemoglobin of 15.53 g/dL for donors and 15.73 g/dL for NHANES) with similar variation in mean hemoglobin by age. However, compared to NHANES, the larger donor dataset showed reduced differences in mean hemoglobin between Blacks and other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Overall, first-time donor fingerstick hemoglobins approximate U.S. population data and represent a readily available public health resource for ongoing anemia surveillance. PMID:22460662

  6. Epidemiology of viral infections in the Swedish blood-donor population.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A

    1994-12-01

    The epidemiological situation regarding blood-borne infections in Sweden is favourable and under very good control. The prevalence of infectious markers in the blood-donor population is low. In 1993 the frequencies of confirmed positive tests were three in 1,000,000 for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), one in 100,000 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and three in 100,000 for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The safety of the blood supply is high and relies on strict donor selection, information on risky behaviour, and screening for syphilis, HBV and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, HCV, HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type I and II (HTLV-I/-II). No donors with syphilis have been identified for many years. Screening for anti-HTLV-I/-II was introduced in February 1994 and no results have been reported yet. Donation is usually not permitted at the first visit, as the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections is greater in first-time donors. The risk of acquiring a transfusion-transmitted infection is low, but still a few cases of HBV and HCV infection occur each year among about 150,000 patients receiving transfusions. As far as we know, HIV infection has not been transmitted by blood components in Sweden since 1985.

  7. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany. Update 2010 and 5-year comparison].

    PubMed

    Ritter, S; Hamouda, O; Offergeld, R

    2012-08-01

    The Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Since 2006 data not only on the number of donations tested but also on the number of the respective donors have become available. The demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2010 and the percentages among the general population are described and compared to data from 2006. Although the general population eligible to donate blood is on the decline since 2003, with a loss of 2% between 2006 and 2010, this has not led to a decrease in the number of blood donors and donations. Instead, the number of new and repeat whole blood donors increased by 8% and 7%, respectively. At the same time, the number of new plasma donors grew by 23%, that of repeat plasma donors by 41%. In 2010 more than 4.3% of the population aged 18-68 years was active as repeat whole blood donors; 0.4% repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Since 2006 the percentage of donors among the general population increased significantly, especially among the youngest age group (18-24 years). Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 12.5 for plasmapheresis and 5.0 for plateletpheresis. While the donation frequency for whole blood remained unchanged since 2006, the frequency of apheresis donations increased, especially among older donors. By recruiting more new donors and retaining and reactivating existing ones more effectively, the number of whole blood and apheresis donations was augmented.

  8. Screening of blood donors for IgA deficiency: a study of the donor population of south-west England.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P D; Tandy, N P; Anstee, D J

    1977-01-01

    Altogether 29 745 English blood donors were screened for IgA deficiency by double diffusion analysis; 57 had apparent absence of IgA, a frequency of 1:522. Further examination by the more sensitive haemagglutination inhibition assay revealed 34 samples having no detectable IgA, a frequency of 1:875. All donors negative by double diffusion analysis were tested for the presence of antibodies to IgA. Six class specific anti IgA antibodies and four anti IgA antibodies of limited specificity were detected. Three of these had the specificity anti alpha2 and one anti A2m(2). The 34 IgA deficient donors detected provide a source of IgA deficient blood for transfusion to patients with anti IgA antibodies. PMID:304071

  9. A novel approach to detect test-seeking behaviour in the blood donor population: making the invisible visible.

    PubMed

    de Vos, A S; Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Slot, E; Cator, E A; Janssen, M P

    2016-10-01

    Individuals may donate blood in order to determine their infection status after exposure to an increased infection risk. Such test-seeking behaviour decreases transfusion safety. Instances of test seeking are difficult to substantiate as donors are unlikely to admit to such behaviour. However, manifestation in a population of repeat donors may be determined using statistical inference. Test-seeking donors would be highly motivated to donate following infection risk, influencing the timing of their donation. Donation intervals within 2005-2014 of all Dutch blood donors who acquired syphilis (N = 50), HIV (N = 13), HTLV (N = 4) or HCV (N = 2) were compared to donation intervals of uninfected blood donors (N = 7 327 836) using the Anderson-Darling test. We adjusted for length bias as well as for age, gender and donation type of the infected. Additionally, the power of the proposed method was investigated by simulation. Among the Dutch donors who acquired infection, we found only a non-significant overrepresentation of short donation intervals (P = 0·54). However, we show by simulation that both relatively short and long donation intervals among infected donors can reveal test seeking. The power of the method is >90% if among 69 infected donors >35 (51%) are test seeking, or if among 320 infected donors >90 (30%) are test seeking. We show how statistical analysis may be used to reveal the extent of test seeking in repeat blood donor populations. In the Dutch setting, indications for test-seeking behaviour were not statistically significant. This may, however, be due to the low number of infected individuals. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and associated factors in an otherwise healthy population: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Didriksen, Maria; Rigas, Andreas S; Allen, Richard P; Burchell, Brendan J; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Nielsen, Maria H; Jennum, Poul; Werge, Thomas; Erikstrup, Christian; Pedersen, Ole B; Bruun, Mie T; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. RLS often occurs as a comorbid condition. Besides an increased risk of iron deficiency, blood donors are considered to be generally healthy. Blood donors are therefore an ideal population for studying factors associated with RLS occurrence, herein the role of iron. It is suggested that RLS is linked to sex, age, low socioeconomic status, unhealthy lifestyle, and iron deficiency. The objective of this study is therefore to estimate the RLS prevalence and identify associated biological, sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in a population of blood donors. A total of 13,448 blood donors enrolled in the Danish Blood Donor Study from May 2015 to May 2016. RLS cases were identified using the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS-questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the relationship between RLS and data on socially related factors collected using questionnaires and population registers. In this study, 7.2% women and 4.5% men were classified with RLS. RLS was associated with: female sex, high age, smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and low education. RLS-related symptoms were associated with obesity, parity and donation intensity three years prior to inclusion among women. RLS was not related to: reduced plasma ferritin, employment status, and income. RLS is a frequent disorder in otherwise healthy individuals. The associations discovered in this study can be utilized in preventing or reducing RLS symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Babesia microti seroprevalence in blood donor populations using an investigational enzyme immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Andrew E; Williamson, Phillip C; Erwin, James L; Cyrus, Sherri; Bloch, Evan M; Shaz, Beth H; Kessler, Debra; Telford, Sam R; Krause, Peter J; Wormser, Gary P; Ni, Xiaoyan; Wang, Haihong; Krueger, Neil X; Caglioti, Sally; Busch, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis caused by Babesia microti has emerged as a significant risk to the US blood supply. This study estimated the prevalence of B. microti antibodies in blood donors using an investigational enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Study Design and Methods A peptide-based EIA that detects both immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibodies to B. microti was developed and validated. Donor samples randomly selected from areas defined as high-risk endemic, lower-risk endemic, and nonendemic for B. microti were deidentified and tested using the investigational EIA. Samples that were EIA repeat reactive were further tested by B. microti immunofluorescent assay (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on red blood cell lysates, and peripheral blood smear examination. A random subset of 1272 samples from high-risk endemic areas was tested by IFA, PCR, and peripheral blood smear in parallel with EIA. Results Among 15,000 donations tested with the investigational B. microti EIA, EIA repeat-reactive rates were 1.08% (54/5000) in a high-risk endemic area, 0.74% (37/5000) in a lower-risk area, and 0.40% (20/5000) in a nonendemic area. After application of a revised cutoff, these values were reduced to 0.92%, (46/5000), 0.54% (27/5000), and 0.16% (8/5000). Overall concordance between EIA and IFA among donor samples was 99.34%. One seropositive sample was positive by PCR. Conclusion The seroprevalence of B. microti in blood donors in a high-risk area measured by an investigational EIA was approximately 1%. The EIA shows promise as an efficient high-throughput blood donor screening assay for B. microti. PMID:24995863

  12. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  13. [HTLV examination of Norwegian blood donors].

    PubMed

    Samdal, H H; Skaug, K; Stigum, H; Hervig, T; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Skar, A G

    1999-01-20

    Approximately one third of the Norwegian blood donor population has been tested for infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type I and II (HTLV-I/II). This study was initiated to provide an indication as to whether or not the Norwegian transfusion service should screen the entire donor population for HTLV I/II. No HTLV-I infections were found among the blood donors. One new donor was confirmed HTLV-II positive. This individual had previously used drugs intravenously. HTLV-I/II infection can be regarded as a marker for risk behaviour, and testing can be of significance in the quality assurance of the transfusion service. We recommend that the entire blood donor population be tested for HTLV-I/II infections, and thereafter only new donors. The benefit of this scheme should be evaluated in the future.

  14. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, CS; Sabino, EC; Carvalho, SMF; Leao, S; Carneiro- Proietti, AB; Capuani, L; Oliveira, CL; Carrick, D; Birch, RJ; Gonçalez, TT; Keating, S; Swanson, P; Hackett, J; Busch, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil. Methods All HIV-infected donors who returned for counseling at the 4 REDS-II Hemocenters in Brazil from January 2007–March 2011 were invited to participate in a case-control study involving a questionnaire on risk factors. Viral sequencing was also offered to positive cases to assign genotypes and to detect and characterize primary resistance to RT and protease inhibitors according to WHO guidelines. Results Of the 341 HIV seropositive donors who consented to participate in the risk-factor and genetics study, pol sequences were obtained for 331 (97%). Clade B was predominant (76%) followed by F (15%) and C (5%). Primary resistance was present in 36 (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2,15.5) of the 303 individuals not exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), varying from 8.2% (95%CI 2,7,13.6) in Recife to 19.4% in São Paulo (95%CI 9.5,29.2); there were no significant correlations with other demographics or risk factors. Conclusion Although subtype B remains the most prevalent genotype in all 4 areas, increasing rates of subtype C in Sao Paulo and F in Recife were documented relative to earlier reports. Transmitted drug resistance was relatively frequent, particularly in the city of Sao Paulo which showed an increase compared to previous HIV seropositive donor data from 10 years ago. PMID:23507660

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors and various population subgroups in Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Sentjens, R. E. J. H.; Sisay, Y.; Vrielink, H.; Kebede, D.; Adèr, H. J.; Leckie, G.; Reesink, H. W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and risk factors for HIV infection in various population subgroups in Ethiopia. Serum panels from blood donors (n = 2610), from various population subgroups in Ethiopia were tested for anti-HIV-1/2 by ELISA. All ELISA repeatedly reactive samples were subjected for confirmation by immunoblot (IB) and anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 specific ELISAs. 155/2610 (5.9%) blood donors were HIV-1 infected. Of pregnant women, 84/797 (10.5%) were HIV-1 infected, and 1/797 (0.1%) was HIV-2 infected. 1/240 (0.4%) individuals from the rural population were HIV-1 infected. 198/480 (41.3%) female attendees, and 106/419 (25.3%) male attendees at sexual transmitted disease (STD) clinics were HIV-1 infected. One (0.2%) male, and 2 (0.4%) female STD patients were infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2. It was concluded that the prevalence of HIV-1 infection varied from 0.4% among urban residents to 25.3-41.3% among STD attendees. There is a low prevalence of HIV-2 present in Ethiopian subjects. Risky sexual behaviour is significantly associated with HIV-infection in Ethiopia. PMID:12002540

  16. Management of Young Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a blood donor population born prior to and after implementation of universal HBV vaccination in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Zeng, Jinfeng; Li, Tingting; Zheng, Xin; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Ye, Xianlin; Lu, Liang; Zhu, Weigang; Yang, Baocheng; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2016-09-20

    Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program at birth has been implemented nationwide since 1992 in China. However, current HBV prevalence status in blood donors has not been entirely examined, which may impact HBV safety in blood donations as the vaccinees over 18 years old progressively become the majority population of blood donors. In this study, 569,145 blood donors were screened for HBsAg by rapid tests and enzyme immunoassays, among them 475,538 blood samples with negative HBsAg were further screened for HBV DNA by nucleic acid testing between 2005 and 2014 at Shenzhen blood center. An overall 2.3 % HBsAg prevalence was found in the blood donor population during the past 10 years (2.86 % in 2005, 1.76 % in 2010, and 2.79 % in 2014, respectively). HBsAg seroconversion occurred in 0.37 % of repeat-donors. When stratified by age, the prevalence of HBsAg was found significantly higher in younger donors age 18-25 years (2.73 %) than in those 26-35 years (2.13 %), 36-45 years (2.03 %) and 46-58 years (1.71 %) (P < 0.001), unexpectedly suggesting that younger donors remained at risk of chronic HBV infection. Assuming that donors aged 18-22 born before or after 1992 were non-vaccinated and vaccinated, respectively, HBsAg prevalence was higher in first-time donors born ≥1992 (3.9 %) than prior to 1992 (3.5 %, P = 0.005). The incidence of HBV infection in the 5-year period examined was significantly lower in repeat-donors born ≥1992 (0.27 %) than prior to 1992 (0.6 %, P = 0.008). The yield of HBV DNA+/HBsAg- donors was 1:3,302, including 1:4,486 occult infections and 1:43,231 window period infections. Young blood donors born after implementation of universal HBV vaccination in China presented higher prevalence of HBsAg but lower incidence of HBsAg seroconversion than older, presumed unvaccinated, donors. HBV vaccine boosting for adolescents at 15-17 years old prior to reaching blood donor age might help improve blood safety.

  18. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in SÃO PAULO – the most populated city in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Marília Lage; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Damião, Adérson O.M.C.; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice P.; de Arruda Leite, André Zonetti; de Brito, Thales; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; da Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:23018296

  19. Dengue antibodies in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. Obtective The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Methods Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgGTM). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Results Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. Conclusions The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed. PMID:23049418

  20. Antigen negative red blood cell inventory of Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Swati; Vasantha, K; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-08-01

    Screening the donor population for clinically important antigens and creating a database of phenotyped donors will eliminate the tedious task of large scale screening for antigen negative units. The aim of the present study is to identify donors lacking common antigens and a combination of common antigens to establish an antigen negative inventory. Blood samples of 1221 regular blood donors were phenotyped for the clinically important common antigens of the Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd and MNS blood group systems using standard tube technique. Out of 1221 total donors tested, we observed that 261 donors lacked a combination of clinically important common antigens (C, D, e, Fya, Jka, s). After excluding the RhD negative donors in this study 15.56% lacked a combination of two or three common antigens. Of all donors, 3.2% lacked Fya and Jka antigens, 1.96% Fya and s, 1.88% Jka and s antigens and 0.57% lacked three common antigens. An antigen negative inventory of donors who lack a single common antigen or a combination of common antigens was prepared from regular donors which will prove useful for efficient management of transfusion therapy in patients with multiple antibodies against common antigens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections among the general population and blood donors in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem affecting billions of people globally. Limited information is available on this issue in Morocco. This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the aim of determining the seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the general population and among blood donors. Methods Blood samples from volunteers, have been screened with ELISA tests for detecting the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV. Within the seroreactive patients for HCV in the general population, RT-PCR was performed by the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas Amplicor. Results HCV and HBV-seropositivity was documented in 1.58% and 1.81% out of 41269 and 23578 participants respectively from the general population. Two patients were found to be co-infected. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 70.9% of the 195 anti-HCV positive subjects. The anti-HCV prevalence was not different among males and females (P = 0.3). It increased with age; the highest prevalence was observed among subjects with >50 years old (3.12%). Various risk factors for acquiring HCV infection were identified; age, dental treatment, use of glass syringes and surgical history. In addition to these factors, gender and sexual risk behaviors were found to be associated with higher prevalence of hepatitis B. The HBV positivity was significantly higher among males than females participants in all age groups (P < 0.01). The peak was noticed among males aged 30–49 years (2.4%). None of the 152 persons younger than 20 years had HBsAg or anti-HCV. The prevalence of anti-HCV and HBsAg among 169605 blood donors was 0.62% and 0.96% respectively. Conclusions Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis B and C prevalence and risk factors; it confirmed the intermediate endemicity for HCV infection and pointed to a decreasing trend of HBV incidence, which might reclassify Morocco in low HBV endemicity area. This could be

  2. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Sumithira; Leitman, Susan F.; Tisdale, John F.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Childs, Richard W.; Barrett, A. John; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Malech, Harry L.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Khuu, Hanh M.; Wesley, Robert; Yau, Yu Y.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable estimate of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may identify donors at risk for poor mobilization and help optimize transplantation approaches. We studied 639 allogeneic PBSC collections performed in 412 white, 75 black, 116 Hispanic, and 36 Asian/Pacific adult donors who were prescribed G-CSF dosed at either 10 or 16 μg/kg per day for 5 days followed by large-volume leukapheresis (LVL). Additional LVL (mean, 11 L) to collect lymphocytes for donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and other therapies was performed before G-CSF administration in 299 of these donors. Day 5 preapheresis blood CD34+ cell counts after mobilization were significantly lower in whites compared with blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific donors (79 vs 104, 94, and 101 cells/μL, P < .001). In addition, donors who underwent lymphapheresis before mobilization had higher CD34+ cell counts than donors who did not (94 vs 79 cells/μL, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, higher post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts were most strongly associated with the total amount of G-CSF received, followed by the pre–G-CSF platelet count, pre–G-CSF mononuclear count, and performance of prior LVL for DLI collection. Age, white ethnicity, and female gender were associated with significantly lower post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts. PMID:18523146

  3. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Sumithira; Leitman, Susan F; Tisdale, John F; Hsieh, Matthew M; Childs, Richard W; Barrett, A John; Fowler, Daniel H; Bishop, Michael R; Kang, Elizabeth M; Malech, Harry L; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Khuu, Hanh M; Wesley, Robert; Yau, Yu Y; Bolan, Charles D

    2008-09-01

    A reliable estimate of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may identify donors at risk for poor mobilization and help optimize transplantation approaches. We studied 639 allogeneic PBSC collections performed in 412 white, 75 black, 116 Hispanic, and 36 Asian/Pacific adult donors who were prescribed G-CSF dosed at either 10 or 16 microg/kg per day for 5 days followed by large-volume leukapheresis (LVL). Additional LVL (mean, 11 L) to collect lymphocytes for donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and other therapies was performed before G-CSF administration in 299 of these donors. Day 5 preapheresis blood CD34(+) cell counts after mobilization were significantly lower in whites compared with blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific donors (79 vs 104, 94, and 101 cells/microL, P < .001). In addition, donors who underwent lymphapheresis before mobilization had higher CD34(+) cell counts than donors who did not (94 vs 79 cells/microL, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, higher post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts were most strongly associated with the total amount of G-CSF received, followed by the pre-G-CSF platelet count, pre-G-CSF mononuclear count, and performance of prior LVL for DLI collection. Age, white ethnicity, and female gender were associated with significantly lower post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts.

  4. Donor Hemovigilance with Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932

  5. [Clinical selection of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    For 20 years, the organization set up to insure the blood transfusion safety has never stopped strengthening. It is based on clinical and epidemiological selection of the blood donation candidates, biologic selection of blood donations and different physico-chemical techniques for pathogens reduction or inactivation in blood products. In France, this organization is optimized by the assertion of the voluntary and non-remunerated character of blood donation registered in the law of January 4th, 1993. The blood donors selection is structured in three successive stages. The first stage is the pre-donation information. The second stage begins with reading and filling out an info-questionnaire which prepare for an interview with a physician. This interview is specially directed to prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and the prevention of adverse reactions after a 400 to 600 mL collection of whole blood or components. Finally, the third stage is the delivery of a post-donation information which invites the donor to contact the "établissement français du sang" (EFS) in case of a new event arisen after the donation or in case of reviewing of its own answers during the medical interview.

  6. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect.

    PubMed

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Reilly, Marie; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Norda, Rut; Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. Using the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly donors exempted from continued donation because of age criteria. Statistical analyses included 1,182,495 donors of whom 15,401 died during 9,526,627 person-years of follow-up. Analyses adjusted only for demographic characteristics showed a 18.6% reduction in mortality per additional annual donation (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8%-20.4%). After additional adjustment for the internal healthy donor effect, each additional annual donation was associated with a 7.5% decreased mortality risk 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%). We observed an inverse relationship between donation frequency and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect. © 2015 AABB.

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  8. [Volunteer blood donors--relation between gender and motivation].

    PubMed

    Andjelić, D

    1991-01-01

    The study included 1,825 persons, aged from 18 to 65 years. A representative sample was formed of 1,325 persons who donated blood for the first time, and of 500 persons who donated blood five or more times till the moment of investigation. Among blood donors in the Republic of Serbia, regardless the number of blood donations, the percentage of female donors is significantly lower compared to the percentage of male blood donors. The first time donor population consisted of 22.26% of female and 77.74% of male blood donors. The multiple blood donor population was composed of 15.8% of female and 84.2% of male blood donors. Motives for blood donation were studied in 500 persons who donated blood five or more times. The following motives were recorded: a) altruism in 85% of multiple donors; b) the other motives (habit, superiority and/or inferiority complex, self-punishment and benefit) were recorded in 8% of them; c) in 7% of donors the primary motive for blood donation could not be determined.

  9. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  10. Use of replacement blood donors to study the epidemiology of major blood-borne viruses in the general population of Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lina; Plouzeau, Chloé; Ingrand, Pierre; Gudo, Joël Paulo Samo; Ingrand, Isabelle; Mondlane, José; Beauchant, Michel; Agius, Gérard

    2007-12-01

    The seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Mozambique are poorly documented. The epidemiology of these infections was studied in the Maputo region. All donors attending the blood bank during the study period were interviewed and underwent serological and molecular tests for markers of virus exposure. Thus, 1,578 consecutive replacement blood donors were investigated, as they undergo no selection (other than their relation with a patient needing a transfusion), and may thus provide reliable estimates of the prevalence rates in the general population. The age-standardized prevalence rates among 15- to 49-year-old men and women were, respectively, 12.3 and 15.4% for HIV and 0.9 and 1.2% for HTLV. Low educational status (P = 0.014) and tattooing/scarification (P = 0.023) were predictive of HIV infection in multivariate analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of markers of hepatotropic virus among men and women were, respectively, 10.6 and 4.5% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 1.2 and 1.0% for anti-HCV, and 0 and 0% for anti-HDV. Two percent of donors had viral co-infections, involving most frequently the combination of HIV and HBsAg +. A significant association was found between anti-HIV and anti-HBc (P = 0.012). HBsAg was associated with the place of birth (P = 0.011) and a history of transfusion (P = 0.069). Smokers had higher seroprevalence rates than nonsmokers for HIV (P < 0.0001) and HBsAg (P = 0.045). Genotype A was the most frequent HBV genotype (86.3%) followed by E and D. HCV genotypes were 1a, 1b, 3a, and 5a. These results show that HBV vaccination and HIV-preventive measures need to be reinforced in Mozambique. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Incidence of viral markers and evaluation of the estimated risk in the Swiss blood donor population from 1996 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, C; Schneider, P; Fopp, M; Ruefer, A; Lévy, G

    2005-02-01

    Among the well known transfusion-associated risks, the transmission of pathogenic viruses is regarded as one of the most serious. Over the past two decades, a series of overlapping safety procedures have been successively implemented to minimise this risk. It is now generally considered that the risk of transmitting viral infections via blood products is very low in developed countries. The present study analyses the incidence of the key infectious diseases HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) between 1996 and 2003 from 99% of voluntary repeat blood donors visiting the blood transfusion service of the Swiss Red Cross. Furthermore the estimated risk of these viral markers was calculated. From 1996 to 2003 the incidence rate for HCV decreased continuously, whereas no significant decrease in the incidence rate of HIV and HBV was observed. From 2001 to 2003, the last calculated period, the residual risk was estimated to be 1 in 1,900,000 for HIV, 1 in 2,200,0000 for HCV and 1 in 115,000 for HBV, respectively. This agrees with international studies, which have been shown that the estimated residual risk for HBV between 1996 and 2003 is higher than that of HCV and HIV.

  12. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  13. Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in the United States is not sufficient for recovery of hemoglobin and iron stores. Other causes for low hemoglobin deferral range from a medically insignificant deferral of a woman with hemoglobin between 12.0 and 12.4 g/dL, which is within the normal reference range but below the 12.5 g/dL needed to donate blood, to anemia caused by an unrecognized malignancy in a “healthy” individual attempting to donate blood. The diverse causes of anemia in blood donors make it difficult to provide accurate information to donors about the cause of their low hemoglobin deferral and complicate implementation of programs to prevent them by blood collecting agencies. This article reviews how hemoglobin is measured and the demographics and causes of low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors. It provides recommendations for how blood collection agencies can provide donors with accurate information about the cause of their deferral and discusses programs that can be implemented to decrease these deferrals in regular donors. PMID:24332843

  14. The prevalence of moderate and severe FXII (Hageman factor) deficiency among the normal population: evaluation of the incidence of FXII deficiency among 300 healthy blood donors.

    PubMed

    Halbmayer, W M; Haushofer, A; Schön, R; Mannhalter, C; Strohmer, E; Baumgarten, K; Fischer, M

    1994-01-01

    Factor XII (FXII) deficiency has been reported to be a risk factor for the development of arterial and venous thromboembolism. However, no data are available on the prevalence of FXII deficiency within the normal population. Measuring APTT and FXII activity, seven FXII deficiencies could be detected among 300 healthy blood donors. This corresponds to an incidence of FXII deficiency of 2.3%. On the basis of these data the prevalence of severe and mild FXII deficiency in the normal population can be estimated to be 1.5-3.0%. Assessment of FXII antigen levels revealed, that all seven FXII deficient individuals had FXII antigen levels matching the activity. One presented a severe FXII deficiency (1/300, 0.3%) without detectable FXII activity and an APTT prolongation of more than 120 s. The remaining six FXII deficiencies (6/300, 2.0%) were moderate variations with FXII activities ranging from 20-45% and less prolonged APTTs. Among the 300 healthy donors 16 (5.3%) subjects with prolonged APTTs were identified. Causes for APTT-prolongation were FXII deficiency (7/16), lupus anticoagulant (6/16), mild FVIII deficiency (1/16) and hepatic disorder (1/16). In the remaining sample (1/16) the cause for the prolongation of the APTT remained unexplained. Although 8.7% (26/300) of the donors had a positive family-history of thromboembolism (TE-FHx), none of the FXII deficient subjects were among those with positive TE-FHx.

  15. Citrate Anticoagulation: Are Blood Donors Donating Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010 and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response in the donor maintaining serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long term health outcomes in apheresis donors. PMID:26607494

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  17. Iron deficiency in Canadian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mindy; Uzicanin, Samra; Scalia, Vito; O'Brien, Sheila F

    2014-03-01

    The adequacy of communication and knowledge of donors and physicians regarding iron needs and the relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) and iron stores require evaluation to address donor iron deficiency. A prospective cohort study was performed on 550 successful donors and 50 donors deferred for low Hb (<125 g/L on repeat fingerstick). Donors participated in an on-clinic interview and had serum ferritin measured. They were mailed their results and recontacted regarding follow-up. Most donors are unaware of possible health impacts of donation and do not discuss donation with their physician. In successful donors, mean ferritin levels were 37 and 131 μg/L in first-time and reactivated (no donation for 2 years) females and males and 19 and 29 μg/L in frequent repeat females and males, respectively (p < 0.0001), with infrequent donors having intermediate results. Mean ferritin was 12 μg/L in donors deferred for low Hb. Twenty of 22 donors failing initial Hb testing and passing on repeat testing had ferritin below 25 μg/L. On follow-up, 63 of 164 donors (38%) with low ferritin were taking iron supplements 2 months postdonation. Iron deficiency is frequent, particularly in female donors and frequent donors. A fail on initial Hb testing followed by a pass on repeat testing is likely to be due to iron deficiency and borderline anemia. Donors and physicians need to be more aware of iron needs associated with blood donation and appropriate treatment for low iron stores. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. How to motivate whole blood donors to become plasma donors.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Germain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  19. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  20. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ‘e’ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also

  1. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the 'e' antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also in Caucasians (91%), Blacks (98%) and Chinese (100%). Phenotype

  2. The Blood Donor Deferral Register

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhart, Donald E.; Ellis, Frank R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper will describe the American National Red Cross' national hepatitis surveillance registry known as the Donor Defferal Registry (DDR), and its implementation in the Missouri/Illinois Region. Attention will be given specially to computer structure and processing strategy, impact on the clinical incidence of hepatitis and the cost of the DDR.

  3. Restless Legs Syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J.; Glynn, Simone A.; Rye, David B.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of blood donation related iron deficiency with pica or Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15–24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. RESULTS There were 9% and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of Probable or Probable/Possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron replete females, 13% in those with ferritin < 12ng/mL), but not in men. Probable RLS and pica co-expressed in 8 individuals, but no more frequently than expected by chance. CONCLUSION RLS and pica have been associated with iron deficiency in non-donor populations. This study indicates a potentially high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. PMID:23763445

  4. Blood donation mobile applications: are donors ready?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shan; Chang, Shelley; Uyeno, Kasie; Almquist, Gay; Wang, Shirong

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise of mobile communication technologies has the potential to dramatically change and improve blood donor recruitment and retention efforts. E-mail invitations were sent to blood donors in a large metropolitan area to participate in a Web-based survey designed to gauge their readiness and interest level for a blood donation mobile application ("app"). A total of 982 ethnically diverse respondents of various age groups and prior donation experiences were surveyed. Among the respondents, 87.3% had ready access to smart phones. E-mail was chosen by 62.1% as the currently preferred method when contacted by the blood center, followed by texting (10.1%). App features desired by most respondents were the abilities to request appointments 24/7 (76.8%) and to receive appointment confirmations quickly (81.3%). Many were concerned about receiving too many alerts or messages (64.1%) or insufficient protection for personal information (53.5%). Overall, 67.7% of respondents indicated that they were likely to use a blood donation mobile app. Likelihood was not significantly different by sex or ethnicity, and the impact of education level was limited. Donors who currently made donation appointments via telephone or a website were equally likely to use such an app. However, donors older than 45 years were less likely than younger donors (p = 0.001), and donors with more than five lifetime donations were more likely than less frequent donors to use such an app (p = 0.02). In a metropolitan area, donors are very receptive to using a mobile app to manage their donations. © 2015 AABB.

  5. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in female blood donors 1 week after blood donation.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzini, B; Waldvogel, S; Vaucher, P; Cornuz, J; Heinzer, R; Tissot, J-D; Favrat, B

    2014-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent condition with a prevalence of 5-15% in the general population. Clinical and genetic observations have shown that iron deficiency, highly prevalent among blood donors, can be related to RLS. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of RLS in female blood donors 1 week after blood donation. One week after blood donation, 291 female blood donors, aged <50 years, self-responded to all four RLS questions defined by the 1995 International RLS study group. Blood donation rate, fatigue, aerobic capacity, menstruation, mood disorder and quality of life were also assessed along with haemoglobin and ferritin blood concentrations. Prevalence of RLS in female blood donors 1 week after blood donation was 6·9% (CI 95% 4·2-10·4%). Female blood donors with RLS had a higher prevalence of hyper-menorrhaea (P = 0·033) and were significantly more tired (P = 0·001). We observed no associations between RLS and number of previous donations (P = 0·409), aerobic capacity (P = 0·476), mood disorder (P = 0·169), quality of life (P = 0·356), haemoglobin (P = 0·087), and serum ferritin level (P = 0·446). Restless legs syndrome prevalence in female blood donors is not as important as described in some other studies, which could reassure blood donors. The prevalence of hypermenorrhaea and fatigue is higher in RLS blood donors. Therefore, screening for fatigue and hypermenorrhaea could be considered as these symptoms are associated with RLS in female blood donors. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

    PubMed Central

    Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = −0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 μg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 μg/L in AID and 0.092 μg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = −0.201, P < 0.036 and r = −0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

  7. Frequency of FCGR3B Alleles in Thai Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kaset, Chollanot; Leetrakool, Nipapan; Intharanut, Kamphon

    2013-01-01

    Background Human neutrophil antigens (HNAs) are involved in autoimmune and alloimmune neutropenia and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The HNA-1 system is important in immunogenetics, and allele frequencies have been described in different populations. This study investigated the frequency of FCGR3B alleles encoding HNA-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-1c among Thai blood donors and compared these frequencies with those previously reported for other populations. Methods Eight hundred DNA samples obtained from unrelated healthy blood donors at the National Blood Centre, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, and the Blood Bank, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, were included. Samples were simultaneously typed for each FCGR3B allele using an in-house polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. Results The frequencies of FCGR3B*1, FCGR3B*2, and FCGR3B*3 alleles in central Thai blood donors were 0.548, 0.452, and 0.004, respectively; only FCGR3B*1 and FCGR3B*2 alleles were found in northern Thai blood donors (0.68 and 0.32, respectively). Compared with other Asian populations, central Thais had higher frequencies of the FCGR3B*2 allele (P<0.001), while the frequencies of the FCGR3B*1 and FCGR3B*2 alleles in northern Thais were similar to those previously reported in Taiwanese and Japanese populations. In contrast, the frequencies of the FCGR3B*1 and FCGR3B*2 alleles in the northern Thai population were statistically different from those observed in central Thai, Korean, German, and Turkish populations. Conclusions FCGR3B allele frequencies were significantly different between central and northern Thai blood donors. Our in-house PCR-SSP method is a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for FCGR3B allele detection. PMID:24205492

  8. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  9. [Assessment of the status of biological health of the population of tundra Nentsy inhabiting northwestern Siberia from data on analysis of autoantibodies and lipoproteins from blood donors].

    PubMed

    Nevinskiĭ, G A; Osipova, L P; Korovkina, E S; Tuzikov, F V; Tuzikova, N A; Garmashova, N V; Buneva, V N

    2002-01-01

    As a result of large-scale nuclear explosion on Novaya Zemlya test site (1955-62) the Tundra Nentsy population of Yamal-Nentsy autonomous region (YNAR) fell under constant influence of incorporated radioactive isotopes (137Cs and 90Sr). Therefore, it is very important to analyze a possible spectrum of diseases of Tundra Nentsy population. We have developed recently a new method for determination of concentrations of all main fraction and subfraction of lipoproteins (LP, 30 parameters) in human sera using small-angle X-ray scattering, and a general mathematical model to describe LP composition in human blood. The analysis of the 30 parameters characterizing fine spectrum of LPs in 374 YNAR natives showed that only approximately 10% of the donors are normal, while the indices for approximately 90% of the test subjects fall into the range of different pathologies (3-8% incidence in normal population, according to epidemiological studies). Moreover, we found that approximately 41% of European and approximately 56% of Tundra Nentsy have high level of autoantibodies to DNA and cardiolopine like the same for autoimmune diseases patients.

  10. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood.

  11. Combined cell index in assessing blood donor iron stores.

    PubMed

    Vuk, T; Bingulac-Popović, J; Očić, T; Mayer, L J; Milošević, M; Jukić, I

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of using combined cell index (CCI) in the assessment of iron stores in blood donors. This index is calculated by the formula: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) × 10(4) × mean corpuscular volume (MCV)(-1) × mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH)(-1) . Ferritin measurement is a reliable method for estimating iron stores in blood donors. The sensitivity of red blood cell (RBC) parameters of complete blood count in detecting non-anaemic iron deficiency is significantly lower. Consequently, there were several attempts to increase the detection sensitivity by combining these parameters in different indices. This study included 1084 male and 792 female whole blood donors accepted for blood donation. For six RBC parameters with the highest level of correlation relative to ferritin [Hgb, MCV, MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), RDW and CCI], diagnostic efficacy in the detection of iron depletion (ferritin <12 µg L(-1) ) was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. CCI showed the highest degree of correlation with ferritin (r = -0·373 for men and r = -0·590 for women) and the highest area under the curve (0·961 for men and 0·864 for women). Using the cut-off value of 52·6 for men and 50·6 for women, the corresponding Youden index was the highest for CCI in both genders (0·851 for men and 0·612 for women). The sensitivity and specificity of CCI in the population of male donors were higher in comparison to female donors (0·941 and 0·910 vs 0·851 and 0·761, respectively). Study results confirmed the satisfactory diagnostic value of CCI in detecting depleted iron stores in blood donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. A Mobilization Guide for Blood Donor Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    PLATELETS ISOLATED FROM UNITS OF WHOLE BLOOD OR FROM DONORS BY APHERESIS PROCEDURES; FROZEN WITH 6% DMSO AND STORED AT -80 C; AND WASHED WITH SODIUM...8 Meal Pass .............................................. 8 Record of Donation ..................................... 9 UNIT PROCESSING...19 Cryoprecipitate ...................................... 20 Frozen Platelet Concentrates ........................ 20 Frozen Red Cells

  13. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  14. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Iron deficiency in frequent and first time female blood donors.

    PubMed

    Boulahriss, M; Benchemsi, N

    2008-12-01

    Blood donation has a marked influence on the body iron stores especially in female blood donors. Iron deficiency anaemia is an important limiting factor for the number of donations in female regular blood donors. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood donors were selected randomly. In frequent blood donors, only females with at least 10 donations were included. Haemoglobin concentration. serum ferritin, serum iron and total transferrine binding capacity were measured and analysed. The results of haemoglobin concentration, serum ferritin, serum iron were significant lower in frequent female blood donors when compared with the results of same parameters in first time female blood donors. The results show that the frequency of iron deficiency in frequent female blood donors is 43% and in the first time female blood donors is 14%. Iron deficiency is very common in regular female blood donors at Casablanca's transfusion centre. Frequent blood donation has marked influence on the body iron stores in frequent female blood donors. It is therefore recommended that blood transfusion centres focused on maintaining iron balance by measuring serum ferritin and total transferrine binding capacity in frequent female blood donors. They have also to educate the donors about iron supplementation and yearly ferritin checking.

  16. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  17. Blood stem cell procurement: donor safety issues.

    PubMed

    Anderlini, P; Przepiorka, D; Körbling, M; Champlin, R

    1998-06-01

    Allogeneic transplantation of rhG-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is now being increasingly performed, but safety considerations for hematologically normal PBSC donors have not been fully addressed. Experience in this area is rapidly accumulating, however, and on the basis of currently available data, a consensus is gradually emerging on several issues: (1) rhG-CSF treatment and PBSC collection seem to have an acceptable short-term safety profile in normal donors. There is a need for continued safety monitoring, however. (2) rhG-CSF doses up to 10 microg/kg/day show a consistent dose-response relationship with the mobilization (and collection) of CD34+ progenitor cells, and this dose is acceptable for routine clinical use. Whether higher doses are superior (or cost-effective) remains to be determined, and they may produce more severe side-effects. The potential risks of marked leukocytosis (arbitrarily defined as a leukocyte count of more than 70 x 10(9)/l) have been a concern, and rhG-CSF dose reduction is performed by many centers to maintain leukocyte counts below this level. (3) Transient post-donation cytopenias, involving granulocytes, lymphocytes and platelets, may occur and are at least partly related to the leukapheresis procedure. These are generally asymptomatic and self-limited; follow-up blood counts are not necessarily required. Reinfusion of autologous platelet-rich plasma should be considered for donors with expected post-donation thrombocytopenia (platelet count <80-100 x 10(9)/l). (4) Donors should meet the eligibility criteria which apply to donors of apheresis platelets, with the exception that pediatric (as well as elderly) donors may also be considered. There is insufficient information at this time to clearly establish definite contraindications for PBSC collection in a hematologically normal donor. Potential contraindications include the presence of inflammatory, autoimmune or rheumatologic disorders, as well as

  18. [The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].

    PubMed

    Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

    2013-05-01

    This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Motivating blood donors to recruit new donors: experimental evaluation of an evidence-based behavior change intervention.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Karin P H; Ruiter, Robert A C; Abraham, Charles; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T; Schaalma, Herman P

    2010-11-01

    A sustainable, evidence-based intervention to motivate current blood donors to recruit new donors was evaluated using a quasi-experimental, in-service trial at three donation centers. Participating blood donors in three conditions (N = 734), received (1) an evidence-based leaflet designed to enhance recruitment motivation and five postcards facilitating recruitment and donor registration, (2) five postcards alone, or (3) no materials. Self-reported donor recruitment by donors was measured at 1-week and 6-week follow-up. At 1-week and at 6-week follow-up, donors in both intervention conditions reported talking to more people about donation and asking more people to donate than control participants. Intervention participants also reported persuading more people to register as a donor than control participants. Results indicated that postcards plus leaflet was somewhat more effective than the postcards alone. Donors' intentions to recruit at 1-week follow-up mediated the behavioral effects at 6-week follow-up. Motivating and facilitating recruitment of new blood donors through existing donors has the potential to continually replenish the donor population. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Too Many Blood Donors – Response Bias in the Swiss Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Volken, Thomas; Bänziger, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Castelli, Damiano; Fontana, Stefano; Frey, Beat M.; Sarraj, Amira; Sigle, Jörg; Thierbach, Jutta; Weingand, Tina; Mansouri-Taleghani, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on blood donor status obtained from general surveys and health interview surveys have been widely used. However, the integrity of data on self-reported blood donor status from surveys may be threatened by sampling and non-sampling error. Our study aimed to compare self-reported blood donors (including one-time as well as regular donors) from the Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) with register-based blood donors recorded by blood establishments and evaluate the direction and magnitude of bias in the SHS. Methods We compared population-weighted SHS point estimates of the number of blood donors with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals to the respective figures from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1978-1993) and estimates of donors based on period donor tables derived from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1920-1993). Results In the birth cohorts 1978-1993, the SHS-predicted number of donors was 1.8 times higher than the respective number of donors based on registry data. Adjusting for foreign and naturalized Swiss nationals that immigrated after their 18th birthday, the SHS overall predicted number of donors was 1.6 times higher. Similarly, SHS estimates for the 1920-1993 birth cohorts were 2.4 and 2.1 times higher as compared to register-based estimates. Generally, the differences between SHS and register-based donors were more pronounced in men than in women. Conclusion Self-reported blood donor status in the SHS is biased. Estimates of blood donors are substantially higher than respective estimates based on blood donor registries. PMID:27994526

  1. [Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Novelo-Garza, Bárbara Alicia; Benítez-Arvizu, Gamaliel; Peña-Benítez, América; Galván-Cervantes, Jorge; Morales-Rojas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The American trypanosomiasis is the second parasitic disease in importance after paludism and one of the main mechanism of transmission is a blood transfusion. Our objective was to measure the effect the Tripanosoma Cruzi screening test in blood banks in the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Information was obtained from each unit of blood collected. The Tripanosoma cruzi prevalence was calculated only in samples with double reactivity in the blood banks. Of 71 blood banks, only 26 had been doing T. Cruzi screen; after implementation of integrated services 55 are doing the screening. There were 935 donors with double reactivity to the T. Cruzi test from 230,074 samples. The national prevalence was 0.406%. The seroprevalence was 0.013% to 3.118%. The screening of the T. cruzi improved the detection and increased the safety and the prevention of its transmission by blood transfusion.

  2. Signalment and blood types in cats being evaluated as blood donors at two italian university blood banks.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Miglio, Arianna; Proverbio, Daniela; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta; Mangili, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities.

  3. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, R.S.; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R.S.; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Background The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Method Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. Results The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus ‘e’ was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Conclusion Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases. PMID:24600138

  4. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  5. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  6. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  7. Prevalence of immediate vasovagal reaction in blood donors visiting two blood banks of Karachi.

    PubMed

    Rohra, D K; Juriasinghani, V; Rai, K; Azam, S I

    2010-06-01

    Vasovagal reaction (VVR) is a very common adverse event related to blood donation. No study has been conducted in Pakistan to estimate the prevalence of VVR in blood donors. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of immediate VVR in blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. The study was conducted in two blood banks of Karachi. Data regarding the development of immediate VVR were documented. The effect of blood donation on vital parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), temperature and respiratory rate was also observed. Six hundred and seventy-four blood donors were recruited. All the donors who consented were males. Weakness and dizziness were two most common symptoms which were reported by 91 (13.5%) and 73 (10.8%) of the participants, respectively. Out of 91 donors in whom signs and symptoms of immediate VVR were observed, a significant drop in systolic BP (13.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and decrease in pulse rate (13.3 +/- 3.6) were concurrently noted in 55 donors (8.2% of all the participants). There was lack of association of age, body mass index (BMI), estimated blood volume, ethnicity, educational status, profession and first time donation status with the frequency of VVR. Only marital status was found to be significantly associated with higher frequency of immediate VVR, where married donors were having higher odds as compared to singles. The prevalence of VVR in the blood donors at two blood banks of Karachi is at least 8.2%. Furthermore, married men are at more risk of experiencing VVR in our population.

  8. [Blood donation in foreign populations in Marseille].

    PubMed

    Duboz, Priscilla; Boëtsch, Gilles; Cunéo, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Blood donations by populations from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa are a public health necessity for reasons of genetic polymorphism. This article aims to determine whether blood donors' social characteristics ? i.e. greater socio-economic integration and a strong sense of citizenship ? constitute deterrents to blood donation among foreign populations. Results show that donors from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa are not better integrated than non-donors from the same areas. However, blood donors express a significantly greater sense of citizenship than non-donors. Donors from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa feel a greater sense of citizenship than non-donors from the same areas. The study of blood donation in these categories of population has two major implications. In biological terms, blood donation by foreign populations constitutes a response to transfusion needs. In cultural terms, blood donation is used by populations from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa as an active means of expressing their sense of citizenship.

  9. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system.

  10. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saleh M

    2011-04-01

    Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors' serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450 ± 50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (p<0.05) when comparing regular donors in group III (72.4 μg/L), group IV (67.4 μg/L) and group V (26.2 μg/L) with first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L). In contrast, the difference in the concentration of serum ferritin between subjects in group II (98.9 μg/L), who had donated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (p<0.131). None of the group I donors suffered from iron deficiency, whereas 2.8% of the donors who

  11. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  12. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Saleh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors’ serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. Materials and methods. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450±50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. Results. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (p<0.05) when comparing regular donors in group III (72.4 μg/L), group IV (67.4 μg/L) and group V (26.2 μg/L) with first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L). In contrast, the difference in the concentration of serum ferritin between subjects in group II (98.9 μg/L), who had donated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (p<0.131). None of the group I donors suffered from

  14. Blood donors' helping behavior is driven by warm glow: more evidence for the blood donor benevolence hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Taylor, Michael; Keatley, David; Flynn, Niall; Lawrence, Claire

    2012-10-01

    The benevolence hypothesis (both donor and recipient gain) suggests that blood donors, compared to non-blood donors have a general altruistic motivational preference based on warm glow (i.e., "I donate because it makes me feel good"). With objective behavioral economics tests of altruism and warm-glow giving, this paper offers the first direct experimental test of this hypothesis. The prediction that blood donors will be motivated in general by warm glow was compared to predictions from other theoretical models: strong reciprocity and empathy. Four experiments and one prospective study examined blood donors' and nondonors' motivations for general charitable giving and blood donation. Variants of the dictator game (DG; a charity DG [CDG] and a warm-glow version of a CDG) were used to provide objective measures of altruism. Blood donors gave less than nondonors on the CDG, but gave more on the warm-glow version. Blood donors' actual donations (in the CDGs and blood donation) were associated with feelings of warm glow. There was no evidence that blood donors were motivated by strong reciprocity or empathic concerns. This paper offers objective behavioral evidence that blood donors' charitable giving and blood donation, compared to non-blood donors, is more strongly motivated by warm glow. This provides additional support for the benevolence hypothesis of blood donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  16. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Materials and methods Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. Results The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Discussion Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments. PMID:26674814

  17. Alternative allogeneic donor sources for transplantation for childhood diseases: unrelated cord blood and haploidentical family donors.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

  18. SOME CLINICALLY IMPORTANT ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS IN DONORS.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, I; Gorgoshadze, T; Donskov, S; Akhvlediani, L; Nagervadze, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of erythrocyte blood group antigens was evaluated among 656 donors; samples were provided by the diagnostic laboratory "Medina" Ltd Health Centre of Batumi. Lab analysis of the sample was conducted by the immunogenetics laboratory at Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University. The frequency of the ABO allele system in donors was as follows: r (0.70), q (0.23), p (0.07). The distribution of Rhesus (Rh) factor in the donor population was as follows: Rh(-) was found among 16.3±1.43% of investigated donors; the Rh(+) phenotype was found in 83.7±1.43% of donors. Additionally, the CcDee phenotype frequency was 29.9±1.78%; CCD-ee was 17.2±1.47%; ccddee was 14.9±1.38%; and CcD-Ee was 13.9±1.34%; ccD-Ee phenotype was 11.1±1.22%; ccD-ee was 5.5±0.88%; same phenotype indicators -2.1±0.55 were observed for CcD-EE and ccD-EE; CCD-Ee was 1.4±0.45%, CCD-EE was 0.4±0.26%; and finally, the frequency of Ccddee phenotype amounts was 1.1±0.40%, ccddEe and CCddee phenotypes were both 0.2±0.17%. The analysis of the Kell system allele revealed a low frequency for the p allele at 0.05, whereas the frequency of the q allele was 0.95. This large epidemiologic analysis of donor blood provides valuable information for hematological and transfusion centers to inform the preparation of blood components for transfusion.

  19. Characterisation of rh and other blood group systems amongst the maldivian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, S; Muna, I

    2013-10-01

    We here report the first study on the distribution of red cell antigens and phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in Maldives. Randomly selected 123 regular blood donors of O group were phenotyped for seven blood group systems by direct tube agglutination and or indirect antiglobulin tests. Blood group systems studied were Rh, Kidd, Duffy, Lewis, Kell, P and MNS system. Rh blood grouping showed, 7.3% donors were Rh(D) negative, 92.7% were Rh(D) positive with the predominance of genotype complex of DCe/DCe (39.0%). The incidence of Jk(a+b+) phenotype was the most common in Kidd system. In Duffy system, the incidence of Fy(a+b+) phenotype was 50.4%. Lewis system was predominated by Le(a-b+) phenotype accounting to 80.5% of the donors. In the Kell system only two phenotypes were present, K+k- (5.7%) and k+k+ (94.3%), in the Maldivian blood donors. P system was represented by P1, P2 and P2k phenotypes with an incidence of 28.5%, 70.7% and 0.8% respectively. In the MNS system, MNss and MNSs phenotypes summed up to 48.8% of blood donors. The detail knowledge of red cell antigen composition and their frequencies in the Maldivian population will be helpful in terms of population genetic perspectives, in establishing a donor data-bank for in-house production of indigenous screening and identification cell panels, and facilitate availability of antigen negative compatible blood for patients with previously identified multiple alloantibodies.

  20. "Just" blood donors? A study on the multi-affiliations of blood donors.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Sara; Pozzi, Maura; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo; Aresi, Giovanni; Guiddi, Paolo

    2017-07-25

    The present work proposes to explore a phenomenon well known in the world of blood donation, but little explored by literature: multi-affiliations. By that term, in this paper we mean blood donors' engagement in multiple associations of various natures (donation, recreation, sports, etc.) simultaneously. The first objective proposes to explore the phenomenon of multi-affiliations in descriptive terms; the second is to look into the differences-in terms of motivations, family-work-volunteerism reconciliation, life satisfaction, and membership satisfaction-between those who "only" carry out blood donation activity and those who instead participate in multiple associative realities concurrently. Participating in the research were 2674 donors from the Italian Association of Blood Donors (AVIS) (age range 18-65; 66.6% male) to which a self-report questionnaire was administered in the waiting rooms of numerous blood donation centers. Regarding the first objective, it emerged that only 35.9% of the participants "only" donate blood, while a good 64.1% is engaged also in other associations. Regarding the second objective, statistically significant differences emerge regarding many of the variables considered: social, values, ego-protection, and career motivation; capacity to reconcile family-volunteering and work-volunteering; life satisfaction; and membership satisfaction. The study offers precious information to the agencies that handle recruiting and retaining of donors. The agencies in fact can take away information on how to improve the multi-affiliations of their donors, an aspect that can facilitate their long-term retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. Study Design and Methods In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Results Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. Conclusion The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. PMID:24372094

  2. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas.

  4. Prediction of the anti-RhD donor population size for managerial decision-making.

    PubMed

    van Hoeven, L R; Berkowska, M A; Verhagen, O J H M; Koffijberg, H; van der Schoot, C E; Janssen, M P

    2016-08-01

    Rhesus D (RhD)-negative women pregnant with a RhD-positive child receive prophylactic injections to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn. Because of the success of the prophylaxis, the number of naturally immunized women has decreased, thereby also decreasing the number of potential donors who provide the plasma from which the prophylaxis is made. As the current donor pool is ageing, the availability of the prophylaxis is threatened. Objectives are to investigate whether the anti-D population and the changes therein can be described by a relatively simple model, to determine the impact of ageing of the anti-D donors on the decline of the population and how many new donors should be recruited to meet future supply demand. Data on Dutch anti-D donors in 1994-2013 were used to simulate the donor population size and age composition for various donor recruitment scenarios. With a continuous influx of 27 new donors per year and a donor stopping rate of 10% per year, the population size will stabilize at 195 donors, with 2·3% of donors stopping annually due to reaching the donor age limit. A formula is derived to estimate which donor recruitment and retention efforts are required to maintain a prespecified donor pool. A relatively simple model can already describe and predict the size of the anti-D donor population and the impact of ageing accurately. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Qualitative assessment of pica experienced by frequent blood donors.

    PubMed

    Chansky, Melanie C; King, Melissa R; Bialkowski, Walter; Bryant, Barbara J; Kiss, Joseph E; D'Andrea, Pam; Cable, Ritchard G; Spencer, Bryan R; Mast, Alan E

    2017-04-01

    Pica, the compulsive consumption of ice or other nonnutritious substances, is associated with iron deficiency, a common negative consequence of frequent blood donation. Because of this, blood donors, such as those participating in the Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency (STRIDE) study, are an ideal population to explore pica and iron deficiency. STRIDE was a 2-year intervention trial to assess the effectiveness of iron supplementation for mitigating iron deficiency in frequent blood donors. Subjects completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires that included questions about pica symptoms. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 14 of these subjects reporting pica symptoms and eight presumed controls (casual ice chewers) to gain a deeper understanding of pica symptoms and their impact on daily life and to make a final determination on the presence of pica. Pica was confirmed in five of the 14 subjects reporting symptoms and in two of eight controls. Outcome misclassification based on the questionnaire was attributed to inadequate assessment of several pica symptoms identified during the interview. Comparison of subjects' repeated quantitative iron measurements taken throughout STRIDE with subjects' final adjudicated pica status revealed a positive relationship between development of pica and worsening iron status; the opposite was found in those whose pica symptoms resolved. Continued refinement of pica symptom questions will allow for rapid and accurate detection of pica in frequent blood donors and confirmation of successful treatment with iron supplements. © 2016 AABB.

  6. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (p<0.001) and TAI score was higher in those who donate for the first time (p<0.007) compared to previously donated precipitants. In conclusion, this study underscores that the request of the donor to help others is the most important factor for donation. People frequently donate blood to unfamiliar people and recurring blood donations increase the level of empathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  7. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p < 0.05). Of the donors tested, 4.5% showed a SNP-serology discrepancy that segregated within specific ethnic groups. This study provides HEA allele frequency and antigen prevalence data in a cohort of Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Trends in hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Kelantan, Malaysia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R; Rapiaah, M; Ahmed, S A; Rosline, H; Salam, A; Selamah, S; Roshan, T M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.

  9. Iron deficiency in blood donors: a national cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salvin, Hannah E; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Marks, Denese C; Speedy, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is an important consequence of blood donation. The epidemiology of this problem in the blood donor population was therefore studied to enable appropriate targeting of potential solutions to donor ID. A nationally representative, cluster-based cross-sectional study of Australian blood donors was performed. Donors were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled criteria for blood donation or were deferred due to low or falling hemoglobin. Ferritin was measured and demographic and donation data were collected. A total of 3094 blood donors were recruited, of which samples were collected from 3049 donors; 1873 had exclusively donated whole blood (WB only), 242 had exclusively made apheresis donations, and 530 had not donated ("new" donors) in the previous 24 months. The prevalence of ID in new female donors was 12.0% compared with 1.3% in males. The prevalence of ID in female WB-only donors was 26.4%; it increased with donation frequency and decreased with age. The prevalence in male WB-only donors was 6.3% with no evident change with age or donation frequency. The prevalence of ID in apheresis-only donors (females 6.3%; males 2.2%) did not significantly exceed that of new donors nor did it change with donation frequency. Importantly, the risk of ID could not be satisfactorily predicted in an individual donor by his or her anemia status or with predictive modeling incorporating demographic and donation data. ID is especially prevalent in female, premenopausal, frequent WB donors. Strategies to combat ID should be implemented, specifically targeting this group. © 2014 The Australian Red Cross Blood Service. Transfusion © 2014 AABB.

  10. Blood donor well-being: a primary responsibility of blood collection agencies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Current FDA regulations and AABB standards do not adequately protect the well-being of blood donors. Several practices have adverse consequences for donors, including: elevated incidence of donation related reactions and injuries, iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women, and inadequate counseling of donors to obtain medical follow-up for health risks identified during pre-donation health screening. These practices can be improved without impacting negatively on the national blood supply. In addition to revising current blood collection operations, blood centers should explore the feasibility of establishing expanded donor health screening programs and determining their effectiveness in improving donor health, donor recruitment, and donor retention.

  11. Blood donors' attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate.

    PubMed

    Kasraian, Leila; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the factors that motivate donors to donate will facilitate improvements in recruitment programmes. Donation incentives are often used to improve the effect of recruitment programmes. This cross-sectional study was designed to understand donors' attitudes toward incentives. Participants (n=421) were recruited among volunteer donors at the Shiraz Blood Transfusion Centre when they registered for blood donation. They completed a questionnaire with items regarding demographic characteristics, donation status (first-time donor or regular donor), and their motivation for donating, their attitude towards incentives, and the best type of incentives. Multiple logistic regression and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority of donors (85.6%) donated blood for altruistic reasons. One quarter of the donors (25.3%) believed that incentives should be offered to encourage them to donate. Most donors (84.5%) believed that the most effective incentive was offering specific blood tests. Donors who had donated for non-altruistic reasons were more interested in receiving incentives. The desire to receive incentives was more widespread among younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. The desire to receive incentives decreased as age increased. Most of the donors (74.7%) had no desire to receive incentives, and this was even more apparent among donors who donated for altruistic reasons. Non-monetary incentives may be effective in attracting younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations.

  12. Motivational factors for blood donation in first-time donors and repeat donors: a cross-sectional study in West Pomerania.

    PubMed

    Suemnig, A; Konerding, U; Hron, G; Lubenow, N; Alpen, U; Hoffmann, W; Kohlmann, T; Greinacher, A

    2017-08-07

    This study aimed to analyse motivational factors for blood donation in different donor groups. As the demographic change will result in a decrease of the population in age groups of blood donors, the risk of blood product shortage increases. During a 12-month period, every sixth blood donor presenting at the blood donation centre of the University Hospital was asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing motivational factors for blood donation. Despite the formalised enrolment protocol, frequent donors were over-represented in the study cohort, which was adjusted by weighting donors with different numbers of donations per year in such a way that the distribution of numbers of donations per year was the same in the sample as in the donor population. Of 2443 participants, 14·3% were first-time and 85·3% repeat donors. To "help other people" (>90%) and receiving "medical assessment of my blood values" (63-69%) were the strongest motivational factors in all donor groups. Receiving remuneration (49·2% vs 38·1%) was more important for repeat donors than for first-time donors, whereas it was the opposite for "being taken by a friend to the donor clinic" (47·0% vs 15·5%). A potentially important observation is that 33·9% of frequent donors reported feeling physically better after blood donation compared to infrequent donors (29·5%). Identification of motivational factors can lead to the design of targeted motivation campaigns for blood donation. The underlying cause of the perceived well-being after blood donation requires further studies. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. RHD PCR of D-Negative Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franz F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary RHD PCR of blood donors may be used to reveal weak D, partial D, DEL and chimeric D+/D− donors among presumed D-negative blood donors. Units donated by such donors pose a definite yet low risk for anti-D immunization of transfusion recipients. The frequency of DEL donors among D-negative donors is 1:350 to 1:2,000 in Europe and up to 1:5 in Asian countries. Different strategies for RHD PCR of blood donors have been used. Probably, the most cost-efficient implementation is replacement of sensitive D antigen testing with the indirect antiglobulin test by RHD PCR in pools which might even reduce total testing cost. PMID:23922542

  14. The History and Challenges of Blood Donor Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun

    2017-04-01

    Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods

  15. Travel behavior and deferral of Dutch blood donors: consequences for donor availability.

    PubMed

    Lieshout-Krikke, Ryanne W; Oei, Welling; Habets, Karin; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M

    2015-01-01

    Donors returning from areas with outbreaks of infectious diseases may donate infectious blood back home. Geographic donor deferral is an effective measure to ensure the blood safety, but donor deferral may pose a threat for the blood supply especially after holiday seasons. Insight into the travel behavior of blood donors is a first step to define appropriate deferral strategies. This study describes the travel behavior of Dutch donors, the actual deferral, and the consequences of deferral strategies on donor availability. A questionnaire designed to assess travel behavior (destination, frequency, and duration of travels) was sent to 2000 Dutch donors. The impact of travel deferral policies on donor availability was calculated, expressed as proportionate decrease in donor availability. The deferral policies considered were 1) deferral based on entire countries instead of affected regions where an infection is prevalent and 2) deferral after any travel outside Europe ("universal deferral"). Of the 1340 respondents, 790 (58.9%) donors traveled within Europe only, 61 (4.6%) outside Europe only, and 250 (18.7%) within and outside Europe. The deferral for entire countries and universal deferral would lead to 11.1 and 11.4% decrease in donor availability, respectively. Most Dutch donors traveled outside the Netherlands, while 23.2% traveled outside Europe. Universal deferral resulted in an additional decrease in donor availability of 0.3% compared with deferral for entire countries instead of affected regions where an infection is prevalent. Thus, the universal deferral could be considered as a simpler and safer measure. © 2014 AABB.

  16. The knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among voluntary blood donors in chennai, India.

    PubMed

    S, Uma; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2013-06-01

    An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors. A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test. Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood. A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.

  17. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  18. Evaluation of iron stores in blood donors by serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Romilla; Marwaha, Neelam; Basu, Sabita; Mohan, Harsh; Ravi Kumar, A

    2006-12-01

    Regular blood donation can lead to pre-clinical iron deficiency as well as iron deficiency anaemia. There is a need to increase the national voluntary blood donation for safe blood supply. However, there is paucity of data in the country regarding impact of regular voluntary blood donation on iron status of donors. Hence, iron stores were evaluated by serum ferritin estimation in the voluntary blood donors at Chandigarh. 400 voluntary blood donors included in the study were divided into four groups depending upon their periodicity of blood donations. Pre-donation haemoglobin assessment was done by copper sulphate method. Serum ferritin was estimated by indirect ELISA. The number of female donors with deficient iron stores was more as compared to male donors. First time donors had higher mean serum ferritin levels than that in repeat donors. The frequency of donations per year was more predictive of decreased iron stores rather than the number of lifetime donations. An increase in donation frequency was accompanied by a significant decrease in serum ferritin; values <15 microg/l were found in 21 and 46 per cent of male and female donors respectively who donated once per year, in 29 and 27 per cent in those who donated twice per year and in 49 and 100 per cent in those who donated thrice per year. Haemoglobin estimation alone in regular blood donors may not be adequate; serum ferritin estimations may need to be done to detect pre-clinical iron deficiency states. Also, iron supplementation needs to be considered in regular, repeat voluntary blood donors.

  19. Frequency of West Nile Virus Infection in Iranian Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions and organ transplants. This study was a retrospective study which was performed in Blood Transfusion Center to evaluate the WNV infection in blood donors in Iran. A total of 540 blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who referred for blood donation to Chabahar Blood Center. The presence of WNV was studied by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) WNV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Demonstration of elevated WNV IgG confirmed by immunoflouorescence assay (IFA) Euroimmun kit. Out of the 540 samples 17.96 % (97 cases) were seropositive by ELISA and 1.48 % (8 cases) was seropositive by IFA. This means that 8.24 % of ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed by IFA. Special attention should be paid to criteria of donor selection, albeit positive results may be due to a previous infection in these donors.

  20. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  1. [Prevalence of human herpesvirus 7 in Mexican blood donors].

    PubMed

    Rojo Medina, J; Krueger, G R; Bonifaz Gracias, R; Berneman, Z; Koch, B

    1995-01-01

    The human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) has been recently isolated from CD4 cells of healthy persons. The present study describes the antibody prevalence of this virus in a healthy Mexican population. Two hundred blood samples from candidates for blood donation at the Hospital General de Mexico were studied with the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFA) in HHV-7 infected SupT1 cells. The testing was done in the University of Cologne, Germany; 167 were males and 33 female; the donors came from 12 of the 31 states in the Mexican republican, predominantly from Mexico City (60.5%) and the State of Mexico (28%). Their mean age was 29.2 years. All but three samples were positive to the HHV-7 (98.5% positivity). Nearly 85% had high titers (> or = 1:80). Other serology testing in the samples revealed 1% positive tests to hepatitis B, 2% to syphilis, and 0.5% to brucella. Hepatitis C and the HIV test were negative in all. The high prevalence of HHV-7 in our donor population should be further studied in order to determine titers indicative of an active infection and of their association with illnesses.

  2. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron Replacement Therapy in the Routine Management of Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara J.; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M.; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer; Hopkins, Julie A.; Leitman, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors frequently results in deferrals for low hemoglobin, yet blood centers remain reluctant to dispense iron replacement therapy to donors. Study Design and Methods During a 39-month period, 1236 blood donors deferred for hemoglobin <12.5 g/dL and 400 non-deferred control donors underwent health history screening and laboratory testing (CBC, iron studies). Iron depletion and deficiency were defined as ferritin of 9–19 mcg/L and <9 mcg/L in females and 18–29 mcg/L and <18 mcg/L in males. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given a 60-pack of ferrous sulfate 325 mg tablets, and instructed to take one tablet daily. Another 60-pack was dispensed at all subsequent visits. Results In the low hemoglobin group, 30% and 23% of females and 8% and 53% of males had iron depletion or deficiency, respectively, compared with 29% and 10% of females and 18% and 21% of males in the control group. Iron depleted/deficient donors taking iron showed normalization of iron-related laboratory parameters, even as they continued to donate. Compliance with oral iron was 68%. Adverse gastrointestinal effects occurred in 21% of donors. The study identified 13 donors with serious medical conditions, including eight with GI bleeding. No donors had malignancies or hemochromatosis. Conclusion Iron depletion or deficiency was found in 53% of female and 61% of male low hemoglobin donors, and in 39% of female and male control donors. Routine administration of iron replacement therapy is safe, effective, and prevents the development of iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors. PMID:22211316

  4. Laboratory and genetic assessment of iron deficiency in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Joseph E

    2015-03-01

    More than 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the United States. Between 200 and 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss. This article highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Lourençon, Adriana de Fátima; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Ferreira, Oranice; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2011-01-01

    Background To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. Objectives This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. Methods The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. Results Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. Conclusions The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates. PMID:23049294

  6. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Mercado-Suarez, Miguel Francisco; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Fallad-Torres, Laura; Ayala-Ayala, Julio Octavio; Nevarez-Piedra, Luis Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01). The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational

  7. Call of duty: the effects of phone calls on blood donor motivation.

    PubMed

    Bruhin, Adrian; Goette, Lorenz; Roethlisberger, Adrian; Markovic, Alexander; Buchli, Regula; Frey, Beat M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of interventions aimed at increasing turnout among voluntary blood donors. We use a retrospective natural experiment with all 40,653 donors who were repeatedly invited to blood drives in Zurich, Switzerland, between 2010 and 2013. The intervention is a quasi-randomized phone call informing donors of a current shortage of their blood type. The panel structure of the data allows identification of different types of donors reacting to the phone call. Our analysis reveals two types. Type 1 donors make up 27.1% of the population. They are highly motivated and exhibit a baseline donation rate of 59.4% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 9.9% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). However, the phone call reduces their donation rate by 2.3% (p = 0.003) at each future blood drive. In contrast, the 72.9% of Type 2 donors exhibit a low baseline donation rate of 5.8% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 5.8% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). Moreover, the phone call leads to habit formation in Type 2 donors and increases their donation rate by 2.1% at the next blood drive (p = 0.03). Behavioral interventions are effective at increasing donation rates in the short run. However, they can crowd out the intrinsic motivation of the most motivated donors. Thus, blood donation services should avoid interventions for highly motivated donors and target them at irregular donors. Our results also sound a warning on using other interventions. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Cord Blood Stem Cell Procurement in Minority Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    of bankable cord blood units for transplantation. With these findings, we then initiated a program of educating the birth-care providers and public...donor-recipient pair, shorter time to identify a suitable donor, lower potential of transmitting viral infection to recipients and no risk to the...donor since the umbilical cord and placenta is normally discarded as medical waste products.1 A lower risk of graft-versus-host disease, thus

  9. Hepatitis B Viral DNA Among HBs Antigen Negative Healthy Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Vaezjalali, Maryam; Rashidpour, Shabnam; Rezaee, Hanieh; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Zeidi, Majid; Gachkar, Latif; Aghamohamad, Shadi; Najafi, Ronak; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center during 2011. Patients and Methods 1000 serum specimens negative for HBsAg, HCV antibody and HIV antibody were collected from healthy blood donors and tested for HBcAb. Presence of hepatitis B viral DNA was checked in HBcAb positive samples by nested PCR with two sets of primers to amplify part of HBV S gene. Results There were 64 women and 936 men in the population under study. The mean ± SD age of the donors was 38 ± 11 years. 80 out of 1000 samples (8%) were found to be positive for HBcAb. HBV DNA was detected in 50% of HBcAb positive specimens. The mean ± SD age of donors without HBV DNA was 37.7 ± 10.5 years and for donors with HBV DNA was 40.9 ± 11.2 years (P = 0.05). Conclusions OBI was prevalent among 50% of HBcAb positive healthy blood donors. The frequency of positive HBcAb among healthy HBsAg negative blood donors was comparable to previous studies reported from Iran. On the other hand, the frequency of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors was higher than previous reports. PMID:23675384

  10. [Iron deficiency prevalence in blood donors: a systematic review, 2001-2011].

    PubMed

    Mantilla-Gutiérrez, Carmen Yulieth; Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Blood donation is associated with decreased iron stores in blood donors which may affect the development of physiological functions and overall health. Previous studies reported a wide variation in the prevalence of iron deficiency in this population (1% to 62%). So, we want to establish the prevalence of iron deficiency in blood donors from a systematic review of the literature. Exhaustive and reproducible search of literature in 7 databases, based in a protocol for searching in 4 languages between 2001 to 2011 with inclusion and exclusion criteria and information extraction. The analysis was based on the calculation of frequencies and specific prevalence by sex and number of previous donations, with their respective confidence intervals in Excel and Epidat (3.0). A total of 16.979 donors, 5.096 regular, with 59% men. The prevalence of iron deficiency found was 13% (IC 95%: 12,4 to 13,4) with a range between 1% and 62%. Prevalence statistically higher was observed in women (19,56%) and repetitive donors (20,36%). We obtained iron deficiency prevalence in blood donors over higher risk groups like children, being higher in female and repetitive donors. That suggests the need to encouraged blood banks in the application of protocols designed to preserve healthy donors and this will result in an adequate blood supply.

  11. Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Koate, Baribefe Banavule

    2010-04-01

    There is paucity of information on the effect of blood donation on iron stores in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The present study was, therefore, designed to assess, using a combination of haemoglobin and iron status parameters, the development of anaemia and prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this area of Nigeria. Three hundred and forty-eight unselected consecutive whole blood donors, comprising 96 regular donors, 156 relatives of patients and 96 voluntary donors, constituted the study population. Three haematological parameters (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration) and four biochemical iron parameters (serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation) were assessed using standard colorimetric and ELISA techniques. The prevalence of anaemia alone (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL) was 13.7%. The prevalence of isolated iron deficiency (serum ferritin <12 ng/mL) was 20.6% while that of iron-deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL + serum ferritin <12.0 ng/mL) was 12.0%. Among the three categories of the donors, the regular donors were found to be most adversely affected as shown by the reduction in mean values of both haematological and biochemical iron parameters. Interestingly, anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia were present almost exclusively among regular blood donors, all of whom were over 35 years old. Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia are highly prevalent among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It will be necessary to review the screening tests for the selection of blood donors and also include serum ferritin measurement for the routine assessment of blood donors, especially among regular blood donors.

  12. Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Koate, Baribefe Banavule

    2010-01-01

    Background There is paucity of information on the effect of blood donation on iron stores in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The present study was, therefore, designed to assess, using a combination of haemoglobin and iron status parameters, the development of anaemia and prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this area of Nigeria. Materials and Methods Three hundred and forty-eight unselected consecutive whole blood donors, comprising 96 regular donors, 156 relatives of patients and 96 voluntary donors, constituted the study population. Three haematological parameters (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration) and four biochemical iron parameters (serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation) were assessed using standard colorimetric and ELISA techniques. Results The prevalence of anaemia alone (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL) was 13.7%. The prevalence of isolated iron deficiency (serum ferritin <12 ng/mL) was 20.6% while that of iron-deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL + serum ferritin <12.0 ng/mL) was 12.0%. Among the three categories of the donors, the regular donors were found to be most adversely affected as shown by the reduction in mean values of both haematological and biochemical iron parameters. Interestingly, anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia were present almost exclusively among regular blood donors, all of whom were over 35 years old. Conclusion Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia are highly prevalent among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It will be necessary to review the screening tests for the selection of blood donors and also include serum ferritin measurement for the routine assessment of blood donors, especially among regular blood donors. PMID:20383305

  13. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    PubMed

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2015-11-30

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  14. Differentiation of Donor-Derived Cells Into Microglia After Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kakuda, Yumiko; Munemoto, Saori; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Nozaki, Ichiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that microglia originate from immature progenitors in the yolk sac. After birth, microglial populations are maintained under normal conditions via self-renewal without the need to recruit monocyte-derived microglial precursors. Peripheral cell invasion of the brain parenchyma can only occur with disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Here, we report an autopsy case of an umbilical cord blood transplant recipient in whom cells derived from the donor blood differentiated into ramified microglia in the recipient brain parenchyma. Although the blood-brain barrier and glia limitans seemed to prevent invasion of these donor-derived cells, most of the invading donor-derived ramified cells were maintained in the cerebral cortex. This result suggests that invasion of donor-derived cells occurs through the pial membrane. PMID:26226134

  15. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  16. A Call to Arms: Wartime Blood Donor Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jean Cy

    2017-07-06

    To ensure an adequate blood supply, blood collection agencies must design campaigns to recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Such campaigns generally appeal to altruism and humanitarianism, which donors most commonly cite as their reasons for donating. However, large donor registries and the widespread recruitment campaigns that sustain them did not become a necessity until the technology for the collection, storage, and transfusion of blood had advanced to a point that enabled the establishment of transfusion services that could provide large amounts of stored blood to meet high demands. The realization of these milestones was one of the most important medical achievements of the Great War: the desperate need for blood created by war drove earlier adoption of scientific discoveries that might otherwise have been neglected. The medical advances of the Great War in turn enabled the establishment of wide-ranging transfusion services to aid combatants during the Spanish Civil War and Second World War. These services required the support of large civilian donor bases, and donor campaigns tapped into the patriotic feelings of civilians at home. This review will highlight some of the messages and media that were used to recruit blood donors in Spain, Britain, Canada, and the United States during wartime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Switching iron-deficient whole blood donors to plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Alix; Infanti, Laura; Sigle, Jörg; Stern, Martin; Buser, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of whole blood (WB) donation. In contrast, less red blood cell loss and therefore less iron loss results from plateletpheresis. WB donors presenting a decrease in either hemoglobin (Hb) or ferritin levels were offered to switch to plateletpheresis with or without iron supplementation. We analyzed the effect of this intervention on deferral rates for an insufficient Hb level in 168 donors. Further, we assessed how this intervention affected Hb and ferritin levels, anemia occurrence, and platelet (PLT) concentrate yields in the donors who presented at least four successive times for thrombapheresis. Switching WB donors to repetitive plateletpheresis procedures resulted in an increase of median Hb (+12 g/L, p < 0.001) and ferritin (+15.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002) values. Anemia and deferral rates were reduced by 23% (p = 0.004) and 13% (p < 0.001). Between high- and low-frequency apheresis donors, no significant differences in Hb and ferritin levels were found. Similarly, discrepancies in Hb and ferritin values between donors that adopted iron supplementation and those who did not were insignificant. The median PLT concentrate yield was 5.43 × 10(11) PLTs. Switching iron-deficient WB donors to plateletpheresis was an effective intervention that permitted us to correct low Hb and ferritin levels while retaining donors in our pool. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  19. Bone contamination and blood culture in tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Segur, Josep M; Almela, Manuel; Farinas, Oscar; Lazaro, Alexandre; Navarro, Aurora; Trias, Esteve; Domingo, Anna; Marco, Francesc

    2005-01-01

    Swab cultures are the most usual method to detect graft contamination; nevertheless it has been confirmed his limited sensibility. We have studied the relationship between blood cultures, swab surface cultures and cultures of entirely samples of cancellous bone. We have evaluated 5 donors with positive blood culture, from 70 multiorganic donors during 2002. Blood samples were obtained prior the heart arrest. The bone procurement was done just after the organ recovery under aseptic conditions, and surface cultures were performed of each bone. After storage at -80 degrees C, cancellous samples were obtained by trephine and were completely cultured. In one case, the same microorganism grown in blood culture, in 2 of 9 surface cultures, and in 15 of 26 samples of cancellous bone. We conclude that to guarantee allograft's safety it is recommended to add donor's blood culture to the habitual surface swab culture if secondary sterilisation is not performed.

  20. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in blood donors in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Montalvo, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Blood transfusion is the second most frequent way of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) transmission in Latin American countries. Few data exists on the geographic distribution and prevalence of T. cruzi seropositive blood donors in Mexico. The objective was to document T. cruzi antibody distribution, and identify the regions with the highest prevalence of seropositive blood donors. the analyzed data was collected over a six-year period during blood donations made at the Central Blood Bank and at the transfusion services and donation modules of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) located in the Yucatan state. Trypanosoma cruzi antibody reactivity was determined in 86343 blood donors. Overall seroprevalence was 0.70 % (607/86 343). Since 2002 to 2004, the majority (58 %) of seropositive donors were rural residents, but since 2005 to 2007 the majority (56.6 %) were urban residents. The two highest seroprevalences by region were in the Metropolitan area (0.42 %) and in rural south Yucatan (0.09 %). Most seropositive donors resided in the municipality of Merida (60.3 %). seroprevalence distribution was heterogeneous during the study period but urban transmission has apparently surpassed rural transmission in recent years.

  2. High prevalence of subclinical iron deficiency in whole blood donors not deferred for low hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Baart, A Mireille; van Noord, Paulus A H; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; de Kort, Wim L A M; Atsma, Femke

    2013-08-01

    Blood donors that meet the hemoglobin (Hb) criteria for donation may have undetected subclinical iron deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical iron deficiency in whole blood donors with Hb levels above cutoff levels for donation by measuring zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. In addition, prevalence rates based on other iron variables were assessed for comparison. The study population comprised 5280 Dutch whole blood donors, who passed the Hb criteria for donation. During donor screening, Hb levels were measured in capillary samples (finger prick), and venous blood samples were taken for measurements of ZPP and other iron variables. These variables included ferritin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean cell Hb (MCH). With a ZPP cutoff level of at least 100 μmol/mol heme, subclinical iron deficiency was present in 6.9% of male donors and in 9.8% of female donors. Based on other iron variables, iron deficiency was also observed. Prevalence rates ranged from 4.8% (based on transferrin saturation) to 27.4% (based on hepcidin concentration) in men and from 5.6% (based on sTfR concentration) to 24.7% (based on hepcidin concentration) in women. Results from this study showed that subclinical iron deficiency is prevalent among blood donors that meet the Hb criteria for blood donation, based on ZPP levels and on other iron variables. This finding needs attention because these donors are at increased risk of developing iron deficiency affecting Hb formation and other cellular processes. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Effect of laser irradiation of donor blood on erythrocyte shape.

    PubMed

    Baibekov, I M; Ibragimov, A F; Baibekov, A I

    2012-04-01

    Changes in erythrocyte shape in donor blood during storage and after irradiation with He-Ne laser and infrared laser were studied by scanning electron microscopy, thick drop express-method, and morphometry. It was found that laser irradiation delayed the appearance of erythrocytes of pathological shapes (echinocytes, stomatocytes, etc.) in the blood; He-Ne laser produced a more pronounced effect.

  4. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  5. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  6. Blood donor incentives: A step forward or backward

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Hosseini-Divkalayi, Nasim S.; Seighali, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic increase in blood usage and critical seasonal blood shortages are faced by various countries. Countries which previously reached 100% voluntary nonremunerated donation have been led to offer different kinds of incentives to recruit blood donors and meet their blood demands. In some cases, these incentives are considered monetary and are in complete contrast with International standards like World Health Organization (WHO). It seems that attitudes toward sole dependency on nonremunerated voluntary blood donation have been changed in recent years and experts in some developed countries are reevaluating partial reliance on paid donation. On the other hand, besides the effects of such incentives on blood safety, several economic and psychological studies have shown that incentives have discouraging effects on pro-social behaviors like blood donation and will reduce the number of blood donors in long term. With regard to the results of such studies, it seems that implementing incentive-based blood donor recruitment programs to meet blood requirements by some countries is becoming a challenge for blood banks. PMID:20376260

  7. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Valciņa, Olga; Pūle, Daina; Lucenko, Irina; Krastiņa, Dita; Šteingolde, Žanete; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Bērziņš, Aivars

    2015-01-01

    Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG) 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9%) than men (3.3%) and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8%) compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%). Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91). Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1). In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population. PMID:26703696

  8. Romanian blood donors screening: is it really necessary and/or mandatory?

    PubMed

    Hâţu, Giorgiana; Brumboiu, Maria Irina; Gorgan, Iuliana Nela; Bocşan, I S

    2013-01-01

    Blood services are required to provide the safest possible products, but no transfusion can ever be totally free of the risk of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). Over the past decade, the risk of TTI through transfusion has been reduced (e.g. 1 in 300 000 for HBV to 1 in 2 million for HIV). With the introduction in 1999 of sensitive and expensive nucleic acid testing (NAT) technology in some countries, the disease transmission rate and the window period have been significantly reduced, but a remaining concern is the chance that a blood donor will be infected and not detected by such tests. To obtain safe blood and blood components it is important to ensure that the donors are healthy and free from TTI by using a donor selection procedure meticulously made, using a donor questionnaire to assess donor health and safety and for reducing the risk of transmission of infection, in particular for infections for which no suitable screening tests are available. In Romania the prevalence of TTI among donor population is high in comparison with other European Union (EU) countries. This may require significant improvements in the screening process of both donors and donations to minimize the infectious risk.

  9. The rights of blood recipients should supersede any asserted rights of blood donors.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P

    2004-11-01

    Some gay men have argued that the laboratory testing of blood is so accurate that continued deferrals based upon sexual activity are unnecessary and unjust. They also assert that they have a right to donate blood. There has been much debate over altering the rule barring donation from men who have had sex with other men since 1977, with blood organizations disagreeing over the best course of action. Two studies have indicated that changing the rule would increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This dilemma is part of a broader issue, namely: what are the responsibilities of blood services to blood donors and recipients? Blood services should base decisions regarding donor suitability on science rather than on their donors' desires. Blood services must recognize that the rights of blood recipients should supersede any asserted rights of blood donors.

  10. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  11. [Marrow donor registration and cord blood banking: current issues].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Minoko

    2016-03-01

    Marrow donor registration and cord blood banking are essential components of the infrastructure required for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations. We now have a new law to support and regulate the Marrow Donor Coordination Agency, Cord Blood Banks and the Haematopoietic Stem Cell Provision Support Organization. We also need to have a specific goal for bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donor registration, a minimum cord blood bank size, and the demographic data to back the medical needs for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations. To improve bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantations, we need to recruit younger adults for marrow registration and make greater efforts to shorten the coordinating period. For cord blood transplantations, uniting and empowering the cord blood collection sites is needed, to encourage and motivate obstetricians and other staff, as the quality of cord blood units is primarily determined during collection. Also, the cord blood banks must work cooperatively to provide cord blood internationally, which includes coordinating with international agencies and their regulations.

  12. Effects of blood donation on the physical fitness and hemorheology of healthy elderly donors.

    PubMed

    Janetzko, K; Böcher, R; Klotz, K F; Kirchner, H; Klüter, H

    1998-01-01

    International regulations for blood donation recommend a maximum donor age of 65 years. As the average population age is steadily rising in western societies, a considerable group of volunteers is lost to the donor base. In a prospective study we investigated the effect of a 450-ml whole blood donation on the physical fitness and hemorheology of regular elderly allogeneic blood donors (n = 24, aged 63-69 years, mean = 65). Results were compared with a younger group of regular donors (n = 23, aged 55-62 years, mean = 58) and a group of elderly subjects (n = 7, aged 63-66 years, mean = 65), who did not donate blood for this study. Assessing the physical fitness, we determined the submaximal physical working capacity at a heart rate of 130 min-1 (PWC 130) and the maximal working capacity (MWC) by treadmill exercise testing the day before (day -1) and after donation (d +1). The impact of the blood loss on hemorheology was examined by analyzing the plasma viscosity before, during and after donation. We found an increase of mean values of PWC 130 and MWC on day +1 in all study groups, but increases were only significant in the younger group (PWC 130 p = 0.03; MWC p = 0.04). Values did not differ significantly between the three groups. Plasma viscosity decreased significantly directly after donation in both groups of donors. A single blood donation did not alter the physical fitness of otherwise healthy elderly people. The older blood donors and the younger controls showed a similar compensation mechanism to blood loss. We found no general reason for disqualifying blood donors aged 65 years from donating.

  13. Laboratory and Genetic Assessment of Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Over 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the US. Between 200 to 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This amount represents approximately 25% of the average iron stores in men and almost 75% of the iron stores in women. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion, especially in frequent blood donors (e. g., more than 2 times per year). In large epidemiologic studies, donation frequency, female gender, and younger age (reflecting menstrual status), are particularly associated with iron depletion. Currently, a minimum capillary hemoglobin of 12.5 gm/dl is the sole requirement for donor qualification in the US as far as iron levels are concerned, yet it is known that hemoglobin level is a poor surrogate for low iron. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss, including changes in acceptable hemoglobin level, donation interval, donation frequency, testing of iron status, and iron supplementation. This chapter highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation. PMID:25676373

  14. Iron balance in the red blood cell donor.

    PubMed

    Brittenham, G M

    2005-01-01

    Phlebotomy of a unit of blood produces a loss of 200 to 250 mg of iron in haemoglobin. Because of physiological differences in iron balance between women of childbearing age and men, the loss of similar amounts of iron at donation has divergent consequences for committed donors. Women of childbearing age have an increased risk of iron deficiency if they donate more than one unit per year while men are usually able to maintain iron balance while donating four or more units of blood per year. Lack of iron is the most important medical reason for deferral from repeat donation and primarily affects women of childbearing age. Deferral of these women discourages them from further donation and may lead to their loss as donors. Provisions for blood donation should protect those who give blood from adverse consequences of their altruism. Safe and effective approaches to iron replacement after donation have been developed that can prevent iron deficiency in women who give blood repeatedly. Blood centres should consider incorporating programmes of iron replacement for women of childbearing age who give blood repeatedly to protect these donors against iron deficiency and to enhance their retention and commitment as dedicated donors.

  15. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, P A; Shanmugam, J; Hariprasad, D

    1983-01-01

    Of 8085 volunteer donors attending the blood bank at SCTIMST screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, 103 (1.27%) were HBsAg positive. The personal data of donors showed a higher rate of HBsAg among men than women and in the age group of 21 to 30 years than in the other age groups. A significantly higher rate was noted among donors belonging to the lower socioeconomic group (p less than 0.05).

  16. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    PubMed

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  17. Selective Testing of At-Risk Blood Donors for Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp. in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Niederhauser, Christoph; Gottschalk, Jochen; Tinguely, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Population migrations and overseas recreational travel to regions at risk for tropical diseases are increasing. A major challenge in non-endemic countries is to decrease the number of blood donor deferrals due those tropical disease pathogens, without compromising the high level of blood safety. The protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp., the causative organisms of Chagas disease (CD) and malaria are becoming a major focus in the blood transfusion community. Methods: National guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross propose an algorithm for dealing with these pathogens, including a mandatory selective serological testing of donors at risk. Results 6,978 donors at risk for CD were tested. Three of them were confirmed anti-T. cruzi -positive, and in one case a transfusion-transmitted infection was highly possible. The specificity of the assay was 99.94%. For malaria 12,887 donors were at risk and 178 were confirmed positive. The specificity of the assays was 92.8%. Conclusion CD and malaria in non-endemic countries may represent a certain risk for blood transfusion. Switzerland chose a selective testing approach. The specificity of the assays is a crucial topic for this approach because it ensures a minimal loss of false-reactive donors and helps towards an easier counselling of implicated donors. PMID:27403088

  18. [Epidemiological surveillance of blood donors and residual risk of blood-borne infections in France, 2001 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Pillonel, J; Le Marrec, N; Girault, A; David, D; Laperche, S

    2005-07-01

    The national surveillance of French blood donors is performed by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire and the National Reference Center for Hepatitis B and C in transfusion in collaboration with the Etablissement Français du Sang and the Army blood center. The main objectives of this surveillance are to evaluate trends in prevalence and incidence rates of blood-borne infections in the blood donor population, to identify routes of contamination and to assess residual risk. This exhaustive surveillance also contributes to evaluate the blood donor selection and the impact of measures taken to prevent infections in the general population. The analyse of the database of all blood donations obtained from 2001 to 2003 has shown that prevalence rates were stable in the study period (0.60 per 10(4) donors for HIV, 8.0 per 10(4) donors for HCV, 1.8 per 10(4) first-time donors for HBs Ag and 0.56 per 10(4) donors for HTLV), The incidence rate of HIV and HBV (1 per 10(5) person-years) was three-times higher than for HCV (0.35 per 10(5) person-years) and eleven times higher than for HTLV (0.09 per 10(5) person-years). At least, the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections is very low: 1/3,150,000 donations for HIV, 1/10,000,000 donations for HCV and 1/640,000 donations for HBV. The yield of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is limited since only 2 donations for HIV and 3 for HCV which were negative for antibodies were discarded thank to the NAT.

  19. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  20. High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack Ymele, Florent; Keugoung, Basile; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortense; Kouam, Nadege; Mendibi, Sandrine; Dongtsa Mabou, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Background. Infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are currently major public health problems. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted from January to June 2008 at the Blood Bank of the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The objective was to study the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV and their coinfections among blood donors. Results. A total of 4650 donors were identified, and the sex ratio (male/female) was 14/1. The median age of donors was 28 years (range: 16 to 69 years). Among blood donors, HBV, HIV, and HCV infection prevalences were 12.14%  (n = 565) , 4.44%  (n = 206), and 1.44%  (n = 67), respectively. Coinfection with HIV and HBV was observed among 0.77% donors, followed by hepatitis B and C co-infection (0.21%) and HIV and HCV coinfection (0.06%). Co-infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was encountered in 2 donors. The HIV, HBV, and HCV infections lead to a destruction of one out of six sets of blood collected. Conclusion. There is a need to review policies for blood collection from donors, by modifying the algorithm of blood donors testing. Pretesting potential donors using rapid tests could help to avoid collection and destruction of (infected) blood. PMID:24066258

  1. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population.

  2. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Shrivastava, Prabha; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  3. Human neutrophil alloantigen genotype frequencies among blood donors with Turkish and German descent.

    PubMed

    Hauck, B; Philipp, A; Eckstein, R; Ott, S; Zimmermann, R; Dengler, T; Zingsem, J

    2011-12-01

    Antibodies against the human neutrophil antigens (HNA) are able to stimulate transfusion reactions, autoimmune and neonatal neutropenia. The aim of this study was to determine the HNA allele frequencies in the largest ethnic minority group in Germany in comparison with the German population for predicting the risk of alloimmunization and associated transfusion reactions, as well as the risk of developing neonatal neutropenia for the newborn of racial mixed couples. However, there exists no data about HNA genotype distribution in Turkish population. DNA was isolated from blood samples of 119 German and 118 Turkish blood donors and typed them for HNA-1, -3, -4, and -5 by using a commercial polymerase chain reaction kit with sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR) and compared the HNA genotype distribution of both groups. In German blood donors, the gene frequencies for HNA-1a and HNA-1b were 0.391 and 0.601, for HNA-3a and -3b, 0.744 and 0.256, for HNA-4a and -4b, 0.908 and 0.092, and for HNA-5a and -5bw, 0.731 and 0.269. In Turkish blood donors, we observed 0.420/0.564, 0.737/0.263, 0.881/0.119, and 0.754/0.246 for HNA-1a/1b, -3a/3b, -4a/4b, and -5a/5bw. No statistic significant difference between genotypes in these populations was observed. This study is the first to report HNA gene frequencies in a Turkish population. It showed that there is no difference of HNA genotype in blood donors with Turkish descent in comparison with German blood donors. The alternating transfusion of blood and blood components is no increased risk for developing alloantibodies against HNA antigens. In pregnancy of mixed couples no special screening programs for HNA are necessary. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Iron deficiency in blood donors: the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Tobler, Leslie H; Simon, Toby L

    2012-04-01

    Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin (Hb) in a prospective study. Four cohorts of frequent and first-time or reactivated (FT/RA) blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425, were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and Hb were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and Hb deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: iron deficiency erythropoiesis (IDE) [log(sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07] and absent iron stores (AIS; ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Among returning female FT and RA donors, 20 and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8 and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27 and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18 and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the past 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of Hb deferral included female sex, black race, and a shorter interdonation interval. There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and Hb deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  6. [Progress of improving blood donor screening by nucleic acid technology].

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Na; Chen, Bao-An

    2014-08-01

    With increasing application of blood transfusion, the research of side-effects such as transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) became more and more important. Up to the 90's of the 20th century, the first blood donor screening for pathogens transfected from blood transfusion entirely depended on serological test. At this time, the detection of virus were performed mainly by using method of detecting antibody, except hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be detected by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Now, the molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been used in clinic. These technologic methods can provide capability of detection for blood donor screening and reduced possibility of infection from blood transfusion. This review summarises the development of nucleic acid amplification technology and describes its current state.

  7. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  8. Cytomegalovirus in Australian blood donors: seroepidemiology and seronegative red blood cell component inventories.

    PubMed

    Lancini, Daniel V; Faddy, Helen M; Ismay, Sue; Chesneau, Stuart; Hogan, Chris; Flower, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can lead to severe disease in high-risk subpopulations. To prevent transfusion-transmitted CMV in these patient groups, the Australian Red Cross Blood Service maintains inventories of CMV-seronegative fresh blood components. Donor demographic data and CMV seroscreening results for all blood donations and blood components issued in Australia between financial years (FYs) 2008/09 to 2012/13 inclusive were obtained. Population estimates were also extracted for the calculation of age-weighted seroprevalence estimates. Linear regression was used to model trends in red blood cell (RBC) component acquisition and demand. The estimated age-weighted seroprevalence of CMV in 20- to 69-year old Australians was 76.12 ± 0.13%, with higher seroprevalence in females and older age groups. Seroprevalence decreased over the study period, while the demand for CMV-seronegative RBC components increased. It was predicted that component acquisition may be insufficient by FY 2017/18 if current trends persist. These findings represent an evaluation of CMV seroepidemiology in Australia and form a basis to predict the future status of CMV-seronegative RBC component inventories. The results will serve to guide Blood Service operations and inform current international debate on CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.

  9. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors: further observations.

    PubMed

    Szmuness, W; Hirsch, R L; Prince, A M; Levine, R W; Harley, E J; Ikram, H

    1975-02-01

    A survey of 128,000 volunteer blood donors from the Greater New York metropolitan area revealed that first-time male donors were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) 2.5 times more frequently than were first-time female donors; Negroes and Mongols were positive four to 20 times more frequently than Caucasians. The ratio of ad to ay seemed to be higher in non-Caucasian antigen carriers than in Caucasian carriers. Among both Caucasians and non-Caucasians the rate of positivity declined after the age of 50. An excess prevalence of HBsAg was observed in donors with the lowest level of education and in those with the highest level. HBsAg was detectable nine times less frequently among repeat donors than among first-time donors (0.2 vs.1.90 per 1,000). Detection of HBsAg was unrelated to ABO-Rh blood groups. Several mechanisms for these wide variations of antigen detection are possible.

  10. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  11. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-02-13

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000-2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30-39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries.

  12. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000–2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30–39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries. PMID:19216773

  13. Good Feasibility of the New German Blood Donor Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Houareau, Claudia; Deitenbeck, Robert; Sümnig, Ariane; Moeller, Anette; Saadé, Christiane; Stötzer, Frank; Heiden, Margarethe; Northoff, Hinnak; Offergeld, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Background We assessed the effect of the uniform donor questionnaire (UDQ) on deferral rates in first-time and repeat donors. We focused on the introduced question about unprotected sexual contact with a new partner. Another goal was a stratified comparison of the deferral rates of the donor questionnaire (DQ) and UDQ. Methods Data on donors and deferrals using the DQ and UDQ were collected at four blood establishments. The comparison included a 2-year period by questionnaire version. For the comparison of the questionnaires, an adjusted multinomial logistic regression was performed. Results The analysis included 260,848 donations. First-time (FTD) and repeat donations (RD) showed higher deferral rates with the UDQ (FTD +5.4%, RD +1.4%). Deferral due to a new partner was 3.0% in first-time and 0.4% in repeat donors. The majority of these occurred in the youngest age groups. The most frequent deferral criterion was ‘disease’ (5.1%). Conclusion The regression revealed stronger predictors for deferral than the questionnaire version. Especially younger age carried a higher and independent risk for deferral. The additional deferrals of mainly young first-time donors due to a new sexual partner may identify those donors with potential heterosexual risk behavior who would otherwise not be identified. PMID:28924428

  14. Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Lhomme, Sébastien; Piquet, Yves; Sauné, Karine; Abravanel, Florence; Assal, Azzedine; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We screened plasma samples (minipools of 96 samples, corresponding to 53,234 blood donations) from France that had been processed with solvent–detergent for hepatitis E virus RNA. The detection rate was 1 HEV-positive sample/2,218 blood donations. Most samples (22/24) from viremic donors were negative for IgG and IgM against HEV. PMID:25340881

  15. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  16. Undisclosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk Factors Identified through a Computer-based Questionnaire Program among Blood Donors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; Birch, Rebecca; Lopes, Maria Esther; Ferreira, Maria Ines Lopes; Proietti, Anna Barbara Carneiro; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Page, Kimberly; de Almeida Neto, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV risk factor screening among blood donors remains a cornerstone for the safety of blood supply and is dependent on prospective donor self-disclosure and an attentive predonation interview. Residual risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion is higher in Brazil than in many other countries. Audio computer-assisted structured-interview (ACASI) has been shown to increase self-reporting of risk behaviors. Study design and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and March 2011 at four Brazilian blood centers to identify the population of HIV-negative eligible blood donors that answered face-to-face interviews without disclosing risks, but subsequently disclosed deferrable risk factors by ACASI. Compared to the donor interview, the ACASI contained expanded content on demographics, sexual behavior and other HIV risk factors questions. Results 901 HIV-negative blood donors were interviewed. On the ACASI, 13% of donors (N=120) declared a risk factor that would have resulted in deferral that was not disclosed during the face-to-face assessment. The main risk factors identified were recent unprotected sex with an unknown or irregular partner (49 donors), sex with a person with exposure to blood/ fluids (26 donors), multiple sexual partners (19 donors), and male-male sexual behavior (10 donors). Independent factors associated with the disclosure of any risk factor for HIV were age (≥40 years vs. 18–25 years, AOR=0.45; 95% CI 0.23–0.88) and blood center (Hemope vs. Hemominas, AOR=2.51; 95% CI 1.42–4.44). Conclusion ACASI elicited increased disclosure of HIV risk factors among blood donors. ACASI may be a valuable modality of interview to be introduced in Brazilian blood banks. PMID:23521083

  17. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in north Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Beenu; Saluja, Karan; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam

    2010-08-01

    We here report the first study of antigen and phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems by gel technology in north Indian blood donors. A total of 1240 regular repeat voluntary north Indian blood donors of O blood group were included for red cell antigen typing of Rh (D, C, E, c, e) and Kell (K) blood group systems. Out of these, 317 donors were randomly selected for typing of other blood group antigens: Jk(a), Jk(b), k, Kp(a), Kp(b), Fy(a), Fy(b), M, N, S, s, Le(a), Le(b), P(1), Lu(a), Lu(b) and Xg(a). Calculations of antigen and phenotypes frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Out of 1240 O group blood donors, 93.39% were Rh D and 5.56% were K positive. Amongst Rh antigens, e was the most common (98.3%) followed by D, C (84.76%), c (52.82%) and E (17.9%) with DCe/DCe (R(1)R(1), 43.8%) being the most common phenotype. In Kell blood group system, we found k antigen to be 100% and a rare phenotype Kp (a+b+) was found in 0.95% of the donors. For Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (49.21% and 43.85%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S+s+ (19.55%) was the most common whereas M-N+S+s- (1.26%) was least common phenotype found. We found rare Lu (a+b+) and Lu (a-b-) phenotypes in 0.95% and 3.15% of the donors, respectively. Xg(a) antigen was seen in 86.67% and 62.6% of female and male donors, respectively. Knowledge of red cell antigen phenotype frequencies in a population is helpful in terms of their ethnic distribution, in creating a donor data bank for preparation of indigenous cell panels, and providing antigen negative compatible blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis C in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Ladrón-de Guevara, Laura; Gómez, Nicolás; Vázquez-Cantarell, Mariana; García-Méndez, Sergio; Di Silvio, Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Determine hepatitis C prevalence and risk factors in blood donors from the Blood Bank at the Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE, in Mexico City. A total of 41,957 blood donors were included in the study was done from January 1996 to August 2000. To study risk factors, a case-control study cases were defined as blood donors with repeatedly positive anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) ELISA test. Controls were defined as blood donors with negative anti-HCV ELISA test. All cases were interviewed a second time on HCV infection-associated risk factors. Odd ratio (OR) and confidence interval 95% (CI 95%) were calculated for each risk factoring in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed subsequents to determine the independent contribution or each risk factor. HCV crude total prevalence was 0.84%. Risk factors were found in 36.16% anti-HCV-positive blood donors. During the second interview, 30% of sero-positive blood donors recalled one or more risk factors they previously denied. The most important risk factors, found were as follows sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 7.48, CI 95% 1.43-38.92) transfusion (OR 6, CI 95% 2.62-13.72); nasal cocaine use (OR 8.89, CI 95%, 1.01-86.89); dental surgery (OR 8.89, CI 95% 1.01-86.89) and contact with hepatitis-infected subject (OR 3.01, CI 95% 1.17-7.70). Other risk factors did not show a significant association. In this study, we found a crude total prevalence of 0.84%, very close to the prevalence reported in Mexican population by the National Center for Blood Transfusion.

  19. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria: the implications on blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Damulak, O D; Bolorunduro, S A; Egesie, J O; Yakubu, K; Godit, P; Smith, O A

    2013-01-01

    The normal haemoglobin is an efficient transporter of oxygen to the tissues and carbondioxide from tissues to the lungs for elimination. Various abnormal haemoglobin variants including, the sickle cell diseases, have been described with varying sickling tendencies. This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and April 2012; and their haemoglobin levels and protein electrophoresis determined, were reviewed. A total of 937 blood donors, 658 (70.23%) males and 279 (29.79%) females, mean age 32.4 years, donated blood voluntarily, their haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns determined by alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Donor blood haemoglobin levels were determined by automation. Haemoglobin protein electrophoretic patterns identified among our donors were 77.70% AA, 21.88% AS, 0.22% SC, 0.11% AC and 0.11% SS. Mean haemoglobin levels of the donors according to their haemoglobin proteins electrophoretic patterns were, 150.4 +/- 12.5 gms/l for AA, 151.9 +/- 13.8 gms/l for AS and 131.1 +/- 5.0 gms/l for haemoglobin SC. Determination of haemoglobin protein electrophoretic patterns of blood unit for transfusion could enhance selective blood issuing based on recipient's haemoglobin type.

  20. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among blood donors in southwest Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Annatina; Kenfak-Foguena, Alain; André, Cyril; Canellini, Giorgia; Bürgisser, Philippe; Moradpour, Darius; Darling, Katharine E A; Cavassini, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) among blood donors in southwest Switzerland. HEV is recognized as a food-borne disease in industrialized countries, transmitted mainly through pork meat. Cases of transmission through blood transfusion have also been reported. Recent studies have revealed seroprevalence rates of 13.5%, 16.6% and 20.6% among blood donors in England, France and Denmark, respectively. We analyzed 550 consecutive blood donor samples collected in the region of Lausanne, canton of Vaud, Switzerland, for the presence of anti-HEV IgG, using the MP Diagnostics HEV ELISA kit. For each donor, we documented age, sex and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value. The study panel was composed of 332 men (60.4%) and 218 women (39.6%). Overall, anti-HEV IgG was found in 27 of 550 samples (4.9%). The seroprevalence was 5.4% (18/332) in men and 4.1% (9/218) in women. The presence of anti-HEV IgG was not correlated with age, gender or ALT values. However, we observed a peak in seroprevalence of 5.3% in individuals aged 51 to 70 years old. Compared with other European countries, HEV seroprevalence among blood donors in southwest Switzerland is low. The low seroprevalence may be explained by the sensitivity of commercial tests used and/or the strict regulation of animal and meat imports. Data regarding HEV prevalence in Swiss livestock are lacking and merit exploration.

  1. A pool of repeat blood donors can be generated with little expense to the blood center in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sarkodie, Francis; Boateng, Peter; Asenso, Kwame; Kyeremateng, Ernest; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley

    2008-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most collected blood originates from accessible and cheaper replacement donors while recruiting and retaining volunteers requires considerable costs not all countries can afford. The Kumasi Teaching Hospital Blood Center and a local FM radio station developed a partnership calling three times a year for donation at the radio station where music, entertainment, and token gifts were available. To assess the program's impact, attendance, deferral, age, sex, identification, and viral test results of donors attending 12 consecutive sessions in 2003 through 2006 were analyzed, and this donor population was compared to other types of donors in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 3801 donors attended the program and 92 percent of the potential FM donors were eligible to donate compared to 85.5 and 70.3 percent of other volunteer and replacement donors, respectively. Ninety percent of donors were male (median, 25 years) and 4.9 percent were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive compared to 11 and 15 percent in other volunteer and replacement donors. This reflected 63.6 percent spontaneous repeat donations from donors responding to the radio appeal compared to 15 to 30 percent in other volunteer donors. It has been demonstrated that the use of a culturally and socially adapted environment to make the gift of blood a pleasurable and festive experience generated a new pool of blood donors spontaneously repeating donations. This program indicates that retaining Ghanaian blood donors is possible at little extra cost to the blood center and that such an approach may represent a substantial help in the efforts of sub-Saharan Africa to collect volunteer blood.

  2. Frequency and reasons of donor deferral prior to blood donation process: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Khurram, S; Borhany, M; Anwar, N; Naseer, I; Boota, S; Mirza, I; Nadeem, M; Shamsi, T

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and reasons for donor deferral prior to the blood donation process in our population. Transfusion is an irreversible event that carries potential risks as well as benefits to the recipient. Therefore, donor selection prior to blood donation is one of the most important steps in ensuring the safety of blood and blood products. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the blood bank department in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. All the blood donors who visited our department in the study period were included in this study. A total of 25 901 potential donations were recorded during the study period, comprising 24 309 (93·8%) replacement and 1592 (6·2%) voluntary donations. Females accounted for only 222 (0·9%) of potential donations. Deferral occurred in 3156 (12·2%) of attempts; 280 (1·1%) were permanently deferred, while 2876 (11·1%) were temporarily deferred. The most common reason for permanent deferral was a history of hepatitis B infection (n = 147, 4·7% of all deferrals). Major reasons for temporary donor deferral were low levels of haemoglobin (n = 971, 30·76%), low levels of platelets (n = 611, 19·35%) and previous history of jaundice (n = 192, 6·1%). This study reported a fairly similar pattern of donor deferrals as in other regional studies. Low haemoglobin levels and a history of hepatitis B infection were the most common factors for temporary and permanent donor deferrals, respectively. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Hemoglobin and iron indices in nonanemic premenopausal blood donors predict future deferral from whole blood donation.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; McQuilten, Zoe K; Keller, Anthony J; Wood, Erica M

    2011-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is an important reason for blood donor deferral. We prospectively determined whether screening donors with hemoglobin (Hb) and iron indices before donation can predict subsequent deferral due to anemia. We recruited premenopausal, eligible (nonanemic) female donors. Hb, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hepcidin were measured, and the sTfR/(log)ferritin (sTfR-F) index was calculated. After 6 months, the donor database was reviewed and whether donors had returned and undergone successful donation was recorded. Of donors, 59 of 261(22.6%) were iron depleted (ferritin < 15 ng/mL). Iron-depleted donors had donated more often in the previous year, were younger, and had lower Hb. After a minimum of 6 months, 145 eligible donors had returned; of these 10 (6.9%) were deferred for anemia. Donors who developed anemia had significantly lower Hb, ferritin, and hepcidin and higher sTfR and sTfR-F at baseline. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Hb as a predictor of deferral was 0.86, and for ferritin was 0.88. Hb of less than 130 g/L and ferritin of less than 10 ng/mL combined had sensitivity 80% and specificity 96% in predicting deferral. Screening with Hb and iron indices enables prediction of donors at risk of subsequent anemia and who would most benefit from prevention strategies. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. HFE gene mutations and iron status of Brazilian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Santos, P C J L; Cançado, R D; Terada, C T; Rostelato, S; Gonzales, I; Hirata, R D C; Hirata, M H; Chiattone, C S; Guerra-Shinohara, E M

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the HFE and TFR2 genes have been associated with iron overload. HFE and TFR2 mutations were assessed in blood donors, and the relationship with iron status was evaluated. Subjects (N = 542) were recruited at the Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iron status was not influenced by HFE mutations in women and was independent of blood donation frequency. In contrast, men carrying the HFE 282CY genotype had lower total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) than HFE 282CC genotype carriers. Men who donated blood for the first time and were carriers of the HFE 282CY genotype had higher transferrin saturation values and lower TIBC concentrations than those with the homozygous wild genotype for the HFE C282Y mutation. Moreover, in this group of blood donors, carriers of HFE 63DD plus 63HD genotypes had higher serum ferritin values than those with the homozygous wild genotype for HFE H63D mutation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HFE 282CY leads to a 17.21% increase (P = 0.018) and a 83.65% decrease (P = 0.007) in transferrin saturation and TIBC, respectively. In addition, serum ferritin is influenced by age (3.91%, P = 0.001) and the HFE 63HD plus DD genotype (55.84%, P = 0.021). In conclusion, the HFE 282Y and 65C alleles were rare, while the HFE 63D allele was frequent in Brazilian blood donors. The HFE C282Y and H63D mutations were associated with alterations in iron status in blood donors in a gender-dependent manner.

  5. Economic crisis and blood donation: How are donors' motivations changing?

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of HCV among the young male blood donors of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ayesha; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Ikram, Aamer; Rahman, Hazir; Wadood, Abdul; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Kalimullah

    2013-03-13

    Hepatitis C, caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a contagious disease of the liver which infects more than 170 million people world-wide and around 16 million in Pakistan. HCV associated infection spreads mainly by blood-to-blood contact. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Pakistan; however, no data is available on HCV infection from the largest province of Pakistan. Therefore, the present study focuses on the prevalence of HCV infection in the young male blood donor population of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan. A total of 356 blood samples were collected from blood donors (age range 17-25 years) at Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Blood samples were screened for HCV positivity by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). Out of 356 blood samples, the overall HCV prevalence was 20.8%. Among the HCV positive cases, the age group with 25 years was more frequently infected with a prevalence of 26.3%. The present study provides the preliminary information about high HCV prevalence among the young male donor population in Balochistan province. This data may be helpful in formulating public health strategy for the prevention of risk factors associated with spreading of the disease. Furthermore, we recommend that in public sector hospitals and health care units ELISA should be preferred for anti-HCV detection over ICT.

  7. Prevalence of HCV among the young male blood donors of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C, caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a contagious disease of the liver which infects more than 170 million people world-wide and around 16 million in Pakistan. HCV associated infection spreads mainly by blood-to-blood contact. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Pakistan; however, no data is available on HCV infection from the largest province of Pakistan. Therefore, the present study focuses on the prevalence of HCV infection in the young male blood donor population of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan. Methods A total of 356 blood samples were collected from blood donors (age range 17–25 years) at Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Blood samples were screened for HCV positivity by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). Results Out of 356 blood samples, the overall HCV prevalence was 20.8%. Among the HCV positive cases, the age group with 25 years was more frequently infected with a prevalence of 26.3%. Conclusions The present study provides the preliminary information about high HCV prevalence among the young male donor population in Balochistan province. This data may be helpful in formulating public health strategy for the prevention of risk factors associated with spreading of the disease. Furthermore, we recommend that in public sector hospitals and health care units ELISA should be preferred for anti-HCV detection over ICT. PMID:23497435

  8. Rising trend of HIV infection with special reference to blood donors.

    PubMed

    Wadia, M R; Karve, S R

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes the experience in testing for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) at a private institution. A total of 31,003 persons were tested between August 1986 and June 1990 including 20, 321 blood donors. The other 10,712 were visitors to the Ohso International Commune (OIC), a commune for followers of Osho Rajneesh. Another 133 patients, 45 of whom had been repeatedly transfused, were also tested. Thirty two persons tested positive-22 blood donors, 4 visitors to OIC and 6 patients. The seropositivity of unselected blood donors was O of 273 donors in 1986, 1 of 2836 in 1987 (0.04%), 2 of 5373 in 1988 (0.04%), 11 of 7201 in 1989 (0.15%) and 8 of 4640 in the first half of 1990 (0.17%). Since non-professional blood donors represent a sample of the general population, a rise in seropositivity in the former may imply a rise in the latter.

  9. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...). Nonetheless, some donors, especially repeat and premenopausal female donors, can develop iron deficiency, with... reduce donor deferrals due to low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and reduce iron deficiency that can result from blood donation. Different strategies to minimize iron deficiency in blood donors (e.g...

  10. [Risk behavior among blood donors: efficacy of a new questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Courtois, F; Voultoury, P; Ducot, B; Boulard, G; Poutier, P; Tir, R; Worms, B; Bajos, N; Spira, A; Wild, A M

    1999-07-01

    The clinical selection of volunteers for blood donation is essential to reduce the risk of viral transmission by blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire for a pre-donation medical interview. This questionnaire was developed by transfusion practitioners, epidemiologists and professional investigators, and focused on risk behaviors of blood donors and their partners. Five blood banks in the French Ile-de-France region (around Paris), participated in the study from May 1995 to January 1996. All participating doctors were specifically trained by professional investigators. The sex and the age of donors, the type of collection, the duration of interviews and the reasons for exclusion from donation were recorded. The results were compared to those of a prior study dealing with a sample of 15,000 donors presenting the same characteristics, whose blood was taken of at the same collection sites in 1993. Of the 1,527 volunteers donating blood, 14% were interviewed in fixed centers and 86% by moving teams (38% in firms, 22% in towns, 13% in civil service facilities, 13% in school or academic centers). For 15.9% of the volunteers, this was the first donation (range: 7.3% in fixed centers to 41.5% in school and academic centers). The mean duration of the interview was 11 min (10 min for volunteers included, 14 min for donors excluded from donation). It decreased from 14 min at the beginning of the study to 10 min by the end of the study. The percentage of donors excluded for risk behavior (3.7% in 1995-96 vs 1.5% in 1993, P < 0.001), or medical reasons (12.2% in 1995-96 vs 8.4%, in 1993, P < 0.001) was significantly greater in 1995-96 than in 1993 (15.9% vs 9.9%, P < 0.001). In 1995-96, 35.0% of exclusions for risk behavior were related to male homosexuality, multiple partners or the risk behavior of the partner vs 12% in 1993 (P < 0.001). The risk of exclusion was 5.5 times higher for donors not living in a couple. The results obtained

  11. Negative experiences and predonation blood pressure at the subsequent donation in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; van den Hurk, K; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2016-02-01

    Negative donation experiences, like being deferred or experiencing an adverse reaction, might upset blood donors, resulting in anticipatory stress responses such as elevated blood pressure at the subsequent visit. We therefore explored associations between blood donors' negative donation experiences and their blood pressure at the subsequent visit. Blood pressure of donors with no history of negative experiences in three consecutive donations was compared to the blood pressure of donors with a negative experience during the second of the three donations. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) measured prior to the third donation was compared between the two groups, using linear regression analyses. Two types of negative experiences (adverse reactions and deferral) were analysed, stratifying for donation type and sex, and adjusting for age and predonation blood pressure at baseline. In total, 248 118 (50% female) donors were included in the analyses. Eleven per cent (26 380 donors, 61% female) had experienced a negative experience. Fainting and dizziness were associated with significant (P < 0·05) increases in systolic blood pressure: in men, 3·0 mmHg (fainting) and 2·0 mmHg (dizziness); in women, 2·0 mmHg (fainting) and 1·4 mmHg (dizziness). Deferral was associated with significant (P < 0·05) increases in both systolic (men: 0·7 mmHg, women: 0·3 mmHg) and diastolic (men: 0·2 mmHg, women: 0·3 mmHg) blood pressure. Whole blood donations with negative experiences were associated with a statistically significant higher predonation blood pressure at the subsequent visit. This indicates that negative experiences might cause an anticipatory stress reaction in a subsequent donation. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Egyptian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Said, Zeinab N; El Sayed, Manal H; Salama, Iman I; Aboel-Magd, Enas K; Mahmoud, Magda H; El Setouhy, Maged; Mouftah, Faten; Azzab, Manal B; Goubran, Heidi; Bassili, Amal; Esmat, Gamal E

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) to promote safe blood donation. METHODS: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 3167 blood donors negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) and human immunodeficiency virus Ab. They were subjected to the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and screening for anti-HBV core antibodies (total) by two different techniques; [Monoliza antibodies to hepatitis B core (Anti-HBc) Plus-Bio-Rad] and (ARC-HBc total-ABBOT). Positive samples were subjected to quantitative detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) (ETI-AB-AUK-3, Dia Sorin-Italy). Serum anti-HBs titers > 10 IU/L was considered positive. Quantitative HBV DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (QIAGEN-Germany) with 3.8 IU/mL detection limit was estimated for blood units with negative serum anti-HBs and also for 32 whose anti-HBs serum titers were > 1000 IU/L. Also, 265 recipients were included, 34 of whom were followed up for 3-6 mo. Recipients were investigated for ALT and AST, HBV serological markers: HBsAg (ETI-MAK-4, Dia Sorin-Italy), anti-HBc, quantitative detection of anti-HBs and HBV-DNA. RESULTS: 525/3167 (16.6%) of blood units were positive for total anti-HBc, 64% of those were anti-HBs positive. Confirmation by ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay were carried out for 498/525 anti-HBc positive samples, where 451 (90.6%) confirmed positive. Reactivity for anti-HBc was considered confirmed only if two positive results were obtained for each sample, giving an overall prevalence of 451/3167 (14.2%) for total anti-HBc. HBV DNA was quantified by real time PCR in 52/303 (17.2%) of anti-HBc positive blood donors (viral load range: 5 to 3.5 x 105 IU/mL) with a median of 200 IU/mL (mean: 1.8 x 104 ± 5.1 x 104 IU/mL). Anti-HBc was the only marker in 68.6% of donors. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis for identifying risk

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  14. TT virus (TTV) genotyping in blood donors and multiple transfused patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2007-12-01

    TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed in the general population. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of TTV genotypes among blood donor candidates and multiple transfused patients in the Southeast region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. TTV-DNA detection by amplification of a segment of the ORF-1 region, presented a prevalence of 11.9% in 270 serum samples from blood donors, of 46.2% in 18 samples from patients with coagulopathies, and of 31.8% in 15 samples from patients with hemoglobinopathies. When specific primers for the non-coding (UTR) region of the TTV genome were used the prevalences were 50.5%, 95.0%, and 82.0% for blood donors, patients with coagulopathies and patients with hemoglobinopathies, respectively. Positive samples from 49 individuals were sequenced and partial segments of 230 base pairs referring to the ORF-1 region of the TTV genome were used for the determination of their genotypes with the aid of phylogenetic analysis. The most frequent genotype was 1 (74.0%), followed by genotype 2 (26.0%). These data indicate a high prevalence of this virus in the populations of blood donors and transfused patients, providing further evidence for the role of transfusions as an efficient pathway in the transmission chain.

  15. Prevalance of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups in Blood Donors: A Study from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Garg, Parul; Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer

    2014-12-01

    Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group 'O' and 'A' had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System.

  16. Recruitment and representativeness of blood donors in the INTERVAL randomised trial assessing varying inter-donation intervals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carmel; Bolton, Thomas; Walker, Matthew; Kaptoge, Stephen; Allen, David; Daynes, Michael; Mehenny, Susan; Sambrook, Jennifer; Watkins, Nicholas A; Miflin, Gail; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Ouwehand, Willem H; Roberts, David J; Danesh, John; Thompson, Simon G

    2016-09-20

    The interpretation of trial results can be helped by understanding how generalisable they are to the target population for which inferences are intended. INTERVAL, a large pragmatic randomised trial of blood donors in England, is assessing the effectiveness and safety of reducing inter-donation intervals. The trial recruited mainly from the blood service's static centres, which collect only about 10 % of whole-blood donations. Hence, the extent to which the trial's participants are representative of the general blood donor population is uncertain. We compare these groups in detail. We present the CONSORT flowchart from participant invitation to randomisation in INTERVAL. We compare the characteristics of those eligible and consenting to participate in INTERVAL with the general donor population, using the national blood supply 'PULSE' database for the period of recruitment. We compare the characteristics of specific groups of trial participants recruited from different sources, as well as those who were randomised versus those not randomised. From a total of 540,459 invitations, 48,725 donors were eligible and consented to participate in INTERVAL. The proportion of such donors varied from 1-22 % depending on the source of recruitment. The characteristics of those consenting were similar to those of the general population of 1.3 million donors in terms of ethnicity, blood group distribution and recent deferral rates from blood donation due to low haemoglobin. However, INTERVAL participants included more men (50 % versus 44 %), were slightly older (mean age 43.1 versus 42.3 years), included fewer new donors (3 % versus 22 %) and had given more donations over the previous 2 years (mean 3.3 versus 2.2) than the general donor population. Of the consenting participants, 45,263 (93 %) donors were randomised. Compared to those not randomised, the randomised donors showed qualitatively similar differences to those described above. There was broad similarity of

  17. Prevalence of blood donor iron deficiency and feasibility ferritin-based iron replacement: a blood collection agency-based study.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, J; Katz, L; Elsmore, D; Kirbach, K; Erickson, Y; Hove, A; Black, C; Walsh-Jahnke, R

    2016-08-01

    Iron depletion is high in frequent whole-blood donors. It is of interest to blood centres to develop ways to mitigate this risk while maintaining the current blood supply. Our feasibility study shows that blood collection agencies can measure iron stores and safely offer iron replacement in frequent blood donors with low ferritin to reduce the risk of iron depletion and future donor deferrals for low haemoglobin. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Noninvasive methods for haemoglobin screening in prospective blood donors.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, A; Benni, M; Tazzari, P L; Pagliaro, P

    2013-08-01

    The haemoglobin level of prospective blood donors is usually performed on blood obtained by from the finger pulp by fingerstick with a lancet and filling a capillary tube with a sample. New noninvasive methods are now available for rapid, noninvasive predonation haemoglobin screening. Prospective blood donors at our blood centre were tested, in two different trials, as follows: by the NBM 200 (OrSense) test (n = 445 donors) and by the Pronto-7 (Masimo) test (n = 463 donors). The haemoglobin values of each trial and the haemoglobin of finger pulp blood obtained by fingerstick with a lancet (HemoCue) were compared with the haemoglobin values obtained from a venous sample on a Cell Counter (Beckman Coulter). Comparison of Beckman Coulter Cell Counter and OrSense and results showed a bias of 0.29 g/dl, the standard deviation of the differences (SDD) of 0.98 and 95% limits of agreement from -1.64 to 2.21, using Bland and Altman statistical methodology. Comparison of Masimo and Beckman Coulter Cell Counter results showed a bias of -0.53 g/dl, SDD of 1.04 and 95% limits of agreement from -2.57 to 1.51. Cumulative analysis of all 908 donors, as tested by the usual fingerstick test showed a bias of 0.83 g/dl, SDD of 0.70 and 95% limits of agreement from -0.54 to 2.20 compared with the Coulter Cell Counter. Compared with the Coulter Counter, the specificity of the methods was 99.5% for fingerstick, 97% for OrSense and 83% for Massimo, and the sensitivity was 99, 98 and 93%, respectively. Analysis of finger pulp blood by either direct sampling by fingerstick and Hemocue, or by noninvasive haemoglobin tests does not replicate the results of cell counter analysis of venous samples. Compared with fingerstick, noninvasive haemoglobin tests eliminate pain and reduce stress, but have a lower level of specificity and sensitivity. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. [Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in blood donors from Misiones Province].

    PubMed

    Malan, Richard; Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, María E; Delfino, Cecilia M; Pedrozo, Williams; Krupp, Ramón; García Plichta, Atilio; Biglione, Mirna M

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human oncoretrovirus to be discovered, is the etiologic agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Mielopathy or Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is endemic worldwide, including the North of Argentina where both associated diseases have also been detected. No etiologic role has been described for HTLV-2, although it has been associated with HAM/TSP-like neurologic syndromes. Both retroviruses are endemic in native populations of The Americas, Africa and at-risk populations. They are transmitted through sex contact, parenterally and from mother to child. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in a blood donor population from Misiones province. A total of 6912 accepted blood donations in 2008 were analyzed. HTLV-1/2 screening was performed with ELISA and particle agglutination, and reactive samples were confirmed by Western Blot. From the total, 5 samples resulted seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.00072. Out of the 5 positive samples, one was an HTLV, three HTLV-1 and one HTLV-2. These blood donors were residents of Posadas, Eldorado and Oberá, with no risk antecedents. This study demonstrates the presence of HTLV-1/2 in a population of Misiones with a prevalence rate similar to those reported among blood donors from non-endemic areas.

  20. Rh phenotype, allele and haplotype frequencies among 51,857 blood donors in North India.

    PubMed

    Makroo, Raj; Gupta, Richa; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, Nakamatathil L

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to provide information on the frequencies of Rh antigens, alleles, phenotypes, and haplotypes from our region in India and to compare them with those from other races. This observational study was conducted on blood donors from March 2009 to August 2011 using a fully automated system for Rh typing of blood cells. The data were collected and calculations done to determine the antigen, phenotypes, allele and haplotype frequencies. The chi square test was used for comparisons between the results of our study and those of other studies. A total of 51,857 donors were included in this study. The most common Rh antigen found was "e". DCCee was the most prevalent phenotype in our study with the phenotype distribution being significantly different between our study and other studies from different regions of the world. We have determined the prevalence of Rh antigens and Rh phenotypes in the North Indian blood donor population and derived the allele and haplotype frequencies in the same population. The Rh blood group distribution in this population was different from that in other populations.

  1. Deferral of blood donors with risk factors for HIV infection saves lives and money in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McFarland, W; Kahn, J G; Katzenstein, D A; Mvere, D; Shamu, R

    1995-06-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of three strategies to avert transfusion-associated HIV infection in Zimbabwe: HIV antibody testing, deferral of donors with HIV risk factors, and deferral of donors with risk factors followed by antibody testing ("Defer/Test"). The Defer/Test strategy averted the most HIV infections. Compared with antibody testing alone, the Defer/Test strategy, using history of genital ulcer or any sexually transmitted disease as a criterion for deferral, resulted in net savings. The cost per HIV-infected unit averted using history of paying for sex or having had multiple sex partners was $ 127 and $ 773, respectively. We discern four benefits of risk factor-based deferral before antibody testing. First, deferring donors at risk lessens collection of blood in the window period. Second, deferring donors likely to be HIV positive minimizes the number of units discarded. Third, ascertainment of donor risk provides an opportunity for AIDS education and prevention. Fourth, the number of false negatives is lower with a lower HIV prevalence among accepted donors. The Defer/Test strategy is cost-effective in Zimbabwe because additional recruitment costs are offset by discarding fewer HIV-positive units. We predict the Defer/Test strategy will be cost-effective in other sub-Saharan African donor populations.

  2. Blood donors' motivation and attitude to non-remunerated blood donation in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Stonienë, Laimutë; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kazlauskaite, Ruta; Skudiene, Vida

    2006-06-22

    In the Soviet period, the blood donation system operated in Lithuania exclusively on a remunerative basis. After joining the EU, Lithuania committed itself to meeting the EU requirements to provide all consumers within its boundaries with safe blood products made from voluntary unpaid blood donations. However, the introduction of a non-remunerated donation system may considerably affect donors' motivation and retention. Thus the aim of the current research was to determine blood donation motives among the present donors and investigate their attitude towards non-remunerated donation. A questionnaire survey of 400 blood donors. Survey data processed using SPSS statistical analysis package. Statistical data reliability checked using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Paid donors comprised 89.9%, while non-paid ones made 10.1% of the respondents. Research findings show that 93 per cent of the paid donors give blood on a regular basis; while among the non-remunerated donors the same figure amounted merely to 20.6 per cent. The idea of the remuneration necessity is supported by 78.3 per cent of the paid donors, while 64.7 per cent of the non-remunerated respondents believe that remuneration is not necessary. The absolute majority of the paid donors (92%) think they should be offered a monetary compensation for blood donation, while more than half of the non-remunerated donors (55.9) claim they would be content with a mere appreciation of the act. Provided no remuneration were offered, 28.44 per cent of the respondents would carry on doing it, 29.6 per cent would do it only in emergency, 29.6 per cent would donate blood merely for their family or friends, and 12.3 per cent would quit it completely. Most respondents admitted having donated blood for the following reasons: willingness to help the ill or monetary compensation. Majority would consent to free blood donation only in case of emergency or as a family replacement, which leads to a conclusion that provided monetary

  3. Blood donors' motivation and attitude to non-remunerated blood donation in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Stonienë, Laimutë; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kazlauskaite, Ruta; Skudiene, Vida

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Soviet period, the blood donation system operated in Lithuania exclusively on a remunerative basis. After joining the EU, Lithuania committed itself to meeting the EU requirements to provide all consumers within its boundaries with safe blood products made from voluntary unpaid blood donations. However, the introduction of a non-remunerated donation system may considerably affect donors' motivation and retention. Thus the aim of the current research was to determine blood donation motives among the present donors and investigate their attitude towards non-remunerated donation. Methods A questionnaire survey of 400 blood donors. Survey data processed using SPSS statistical analysis package. Statistical data reliability checked using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Results Paid donors comprised 89.9%, while non-paid ones made 10.1% of the respondents. Research findings show that 93 per cent of the paid donors give blood on a regular basis; while among the non-remunerated donors the same figure amounted merely to 20.6 per cent. The idea of the remuneration necessity is supported by 78.3 per cent of the paid donors, while 64.7 per cent of the non-remunerated respondents believe that remuneration is not necessary. The absolute majority of the paid donors (92%) think they should be offered a monetary compensation for blood donation, while more than half of the non-remunerated donors (55.9) claim they would be content with a mere appreciation of the act. Provided no remuneration were offered, 28.44 per cent of the respondents would carry on doing it, 29.6 per cent would do it only in emergency, 29.6 per cent would donate blood merely for their family or friends, and 12.3 per cent would quit it completely. Conclusion Most respondents admitted having donated blood for the following reasons: willingness to help the ill or monetary compensation. Majority would consent to free blood donation only in case of emergency or as a family replacement, which leads to

  4. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition - to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue.

  5. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost–effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition – to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue. PMID:28250512

  6. [The prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies among volunteer blood donors with elevated blood transaminase and antibodies to the B virus core antigen].

    PubMed

    Gavilán Carrasco, J C; González Santos, P; Rosario Díaz, E

    1996-05-01

    The use of non-specific markers before 1989 (increased serum transaminase values and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen) as a screening method for blood donors in an attempt to decrease the incidence of post-transfusional non-A non-B hepatitis (currently hepatitis C virus) was a matter of controversy. To determine the impact of the use of these markers on the detection of blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus, a prospective study was undertaken in Málaga (1988-1989) with 5,003 volunteer donors with two objectives: a) to know the prevalence of these non-specific markers (anti-HBc and increased serum transaminase) and antibodies to HCV (anti-C100) in our blood donor population; b) to determine whether the presence of some of these non specific markers in blood donors was associated with a higher rate of virus C infection. The prevalence of antibodies to HCV in blood donors with increased serum transaminase and/or anti-HBc was significantly higher than the prevalence found among the general blood donor population.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis A viral RNA and antibodies among Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Su, N; Lin, F Z; Ma, L; Wang, H J; Rong, X; Dai, Y D; Li, J; Jian, Z W; Tang, L H; Xiao, W; Li, C Q

    2015-12-09

    Like other developing countries, China was reported to have a relatively high seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (anti-HAV). However, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV and HAV RNA among voluntary blood donors with or without elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Anti-HAV antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out for detection of HAV RNA. In the current study, we analyzed a total of 450 serum samples with elevated ALT levels (≥40 U/L) and 278 serum samples with non-elevated ALT levels. Seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV were 51.6% in donors with elevated ALT and 41.4% in donors with non-elevated ALT; however, none of the samples was positive for HAV RNA. The results of our study showed lower seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV in blood donors (irrespective of ALT levels) than those in published data on Chinese populations. Although donors with elevated ALT had statistically higher prevalence rates of anti- HAV than did those with non-elevated ALT, none of the serum samples had detectable levels of the active virus. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transmission of hepatitis A by blood transfusion will occur rarely.

  9. Blood donors' physical characteristics are associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms - Donor InSight.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hurk, Katja; Peffer, Karlijn; Habets, Karin; Atsma, Femke; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M; Van Noord, Paulus A H; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T; De Kort, Wim L A M

    2017-09-01

    Observational data suggest that some donors might benefit from donating while others may be harmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential, routinely measured, determinants of pre- and post-donation symptoms. In Donor InSight, questionnaire data from 23,064 whole blood donors (53% female) were linked to routinely measured data on donors' physical characteristics (haemoglobin, blood pressure, body mass index and estimated blood volume) from the Dutch donor database. Absolute and relative associations between donors' physical donor and the presence of pre- and post-donation symptoms were studied using multivariable logistic regression. Pre-donation symptoms (lack of energy, headaches) were reported by 3% of men and 3% of women. Five percent of men and 4% of women reported positive post-donation symptoms (feeling fit, fewer headaches). Negative symptoms (fatigue, dizziness) were more common, occurring in 8% of men and 19% of women. All the studied donors' physical characteristics were positively associated with pre- and positive post-donation symptoms and negatively associated with negative symptoms. Body mass index was most consistently and independently associated with symptoms. Donors' physical characteristics, in particular body mass index, were consistently associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms. This indicates that subgroups of donors more and less tolerant to donation might be identifiable using routinely measured data. Further research is warranted to study underlying mechanisms and potential strategies to predict and prevent donor reactions.

  10. Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation: considerations for donors.

    PubMed

    Anderlini, P; Körbling, M; Dale, D; Gratwohl, A; Schmitz, N; Stroncek, D; Howe, C; Leitman, S; Horowitz, M; Gluckman, E; Rowley, S; Przepiorka, D; Champlin, R

    1997-08-01

    Allogeneic transplantation of cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is now being increasingly performed, but safety considerations for hematologically normal PBSC donors have not been fully addressed. Progenitors are generally mobilized for collection from normal donors using recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Although the short-term safety profile of rhG-CSF seems acceptable, experience remains limited and its optimal dose and schedule have not been defined. Minimal data exist regarding long-term safety of rhG-CSF, primarily derived from experience in patients with chronic neutropenia or cancer. An "ad hoc" workshop was recently convened among a group of investigators actively involved in the field of allogeneic stem cell transplantation to discuss the safety issues pertaining to normal PBSC donors. There was agreement on the following points: (1) On the basis of available data, it appears that rhG-CSF treatment and PBSC collection have an acceptable short-term safety profile in normal donors. However, the need for continued safety monitoring was recognized. (2) rhG-CSF doses up to 10 microg/kg/d show a consistent dose-response relationship with the mobilization (and collection) of CD34+ progenitor cells, and this dose is acceptable for routine clinical use. Whether higher doses are superior (or cost effective) remains to be determined, and they may produce more severe side effects. The potential risks of marked leukocytosis (arbitrarily defined as a leukocyte count of more than 70 x 10(9)/L) have been a concern, and rhG-CSF dose reduction is performed by many centers to maintain leukocyte counts below this level. (3) Transient post donation cytopenias, involving granulocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, may occur and are at least partly related to the leukapheresis procedure. These are generally asymptomatic and self-limited; follow-up blood counts are not necessarily required. Reinfusion of autologous platelet

  11. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  12. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of transmitted drug-resistance mutations was 14%. Non-B subtypes, circulating recombinant forms, and transmitted drug-resistance mutation sequences circulate among HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions Among Non-Blood Donor Female Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Zahid, Ibrahim; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Saeeduddin, Fawad; Saad, Muhammad; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Moorpani, Manpreet; Khan, Midhat Zafar; Tariq, Ahsan; Habib, Haya; Islam, Tehrema; Advani, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Blood donation is necessary in order to maintain an adequate supply of blood to patients who are suffering from any kind of disease or trauma, which requires them to have blood transfusion. Female non-blood donors are generally low in number. Therefore, this research was carried out to assess the main reasons behind the lack of blood donations made by females, and their knowledge, attitude and perceptions towards voluntary blood donation. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 664 female health professionals, who were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from two tertiary care hospitals. A pretested questionnaire was presented to the sample population, and the data was entered and analyzed on SPSS (V17). Results: 94.6 % were aware with the fact that blood is screened for AIDS, Hepatitis B and C before transfusion. Moreover, 83.7% said that they will only donate blood if a family, relative or friend would need it and similarly 83.4% suggested that they would donate blood if blood donation camps are arranged in hospital premises. 81.8 % thought that blood donors can contract Hepatitis B after donation whereas only 29.5% did not blood due already blood loss in menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The participants had adequate knowledge about the benefits of blood donation. The most important reason identified for not donating blood is the lack of facilities within the workplace or lack of approach by responsible authorities. The results of the study may help in minimizing the misconceptions of the participants about blood transfusion, which would increase their contribution towards blood donation. PMID:26573048

  14. Usutu Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors and Healthy Forestry Workers in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Percivalle, Elena; Sassera, Davide; Rovida, Francesca; Isernia, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Marone, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0.23% seroprevalence in blood donors. In this study, antibodies against USUV were measured in 3 consecutive blood samples collected from October 2014 to December 2015 from 33 forestry workers in the Po river valley, while samples from 200 blood donors from the same geographical area were tested in parallel. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies were found in six forestry workers (18.1%) and in two blood donors (1%). Our results indicate that USUV circulation in the examined area, part of a highly populated region in Northern Italy, is higher than expected. Healthy subjects exhibit a higher prevalence than what was found in a previous report in an adjoining region (0.23%), while the population at risk shows a much higher prevalence value (18.1%).

  15. The association between blood group and the risk of vascular disease in Quebec blood donors.

    PubMed

    Blais, Claudia; Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Grégoire, Yves

    2016-09-01

    The association between antigens A and B and arterial thrombosis, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease, is still unclear. We evaluated the association between blood groups and thrombotic events in a cohort of blood donors from the province of Quebec, Canada. Among all whole blood donors aged ≥18 years in Quebec between June 1990 and March 2009, a study sample with known blood groups was linked with the provincial hospitalisation and death records to count vascular events. All hospital admissions and deaths with codes for primary and relevant secondary diagnoses of coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases, including coronary heart disease interventions, were included. Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratio associated between blood groups and these events adjusted for other baseline characteristics. Among the blood donors, 64,686 had a known blood group and were linked with the provincial health databases. The mean age of these donors was 38 years. The Cox multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.40) for subjects with blood group AB compared to those with blood group O. There were no statistically significant associations with other blood groups. Only among women aged ≥40 years did those with blood group A have a higher hazard ratio for coronary heart disease (1.40 [1.01-1.92]) than those with blood group O, after adjusting for other characteristics. When compared to blood group O, only blood group AB was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation or death because of thrombotic events such as coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases. However, the associations differed according to age and sex because only females aged ≥40 years with blood group A had a higher risk of coronary heart disease.

  16. The association between blood group and the risk of vascular disease in Quebec blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Claudia; Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Grégoire, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between antigens A and B and arterial thrombosis, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease, is still unclear. We evaluated the association between blood groups and thrombotic events in a cohort of blood donors from the province of Quebec, Canada. Material and methods Among all whole blood donors aged ≥18 years in Quebec between June 1990 and March 2009, a study sample with known blood groups was linked with the provincial hospitalisation and death records to count vascular events. All hospital admissions and deaths with codes for primary and relevant secondary diagnoses of coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases, including coronary heart disease interventions, were included. Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratio associated between blood groups and these events adjusted for other baseline characteristics. Results Among the blood donors, 64,686 had a known blood group and were linked with the provincial health databases. The mean age of these donors was 38 years. The Cox multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.40) for subjects with blood group AB compared to those with blood group O. There were no statistically significant associations with other blood groups. Only among women aged ≥40 years did those with blood group A have a higher hazard ratio for coronary heart disease (1.40 [1.01–1.92]) than those with blood group O, after adjusting for other characteristics. Discussion When compared to blood group O, only blood group AB was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation or death because of thrombotic events such as coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases. However, the associations differed according to age and sex because only females aged ≥40 years with blood group A had a higher risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:27177404

  17. Potential impact on blood availability and donor iron status of changes to donor hemoglobin cutoff and interdonation intervals.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Bryan R; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J; Kleinman, Steven; Glynn, Simone A; Cable, Ritchard G

    2016-08-01

    A minimum male hemoglobin (Hb) level of 13.0 g/dL becomes a Food and Drug Administration requirement effective May 2016. In addition, extending whole blood (WB) interdonation intervals (IDIs) beyond 8 weeks has been considered to reduce iron depletion in repeat blood donors. This study estimates the impact these changes might have on blood availability and donor iron status. Six blood centers participating in Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) collected information on all donation visits from 2006 to 2009. Simulations were developed from these data using a multistage approach that first sought to adequately reproduce the patterns of donor return, Hb and ferritin levels, and outcomes of a donor's visit (successful single- or double-red blood cell donation, deferral for low Hb) observed in REDS-II data sets. Modified simulations were used to predict the potential impact on the blood supply and donor iron status under different Hb cutoff and IDI qualification criteria. More than 10% of WB donations might require replacement under many simulated scenarios. Longer IDIs would reduce the proportion of donors with iron depletion, but 80% of these donors may remain iron-depleted if minimal IDIs increased to 12 or 16 weeks. Higher Hb cutoffs and longer IDIs are predicted to have a potentially large impact on collections but only a modest impact on donor iron depletion. Efforts to address iron depletion should be targeted to at-risk donors, such as iron supplementation programs for frequent donors, and policy makers should try to avoid broadly restrictive donation requirements that could substantially reduce blood availability. © 2016 AABB.

  18. [Hepatitis B and delta: the prevalence of seroepidemiological markers in volunteer blood donors and their families].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Muñoz, M T; Bustamante-Calvillo, M E; Guiscafré-Gallardo, J P; Muñoz, O

    1991-01-01

    41 volunteer blood donors and his relatives were studied in order to know about the prevalence of hepatitis B and D virus infections in selected groups. Frequency of HBsAg+ carriers was 0.34 per cent in the Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea and 0.15 per cent in the Banco Central de Sangre, IMSS. Most of the HBsAg+ blood donors were 21 to 40 years old (87.8%); 21.9 per cent had IgM antibodies against HBc and just 2.4 per cent were HBeAg positive. Forty one (26.9%) of 152 relatives had one or more of the HBV markers, 3.9 per cent were HBsAg carriers and 1.3 per cent were HBeAg positive. In the infected relatives group 36.6 per cent were ancestory or brothers and just 14.6 per cent of wives were infected. None of the HBsAg+ blood donors or his relatives had antibodies against delta agent. These results support the fact that the frequency of asymptomatic carriers of HBsAg in the volunteer blood donors group is similar to he frequency in the general population and identifies the group of relatives as those with the highest risk to acquire HBV infection.

  19. rhG-CSF does not affect the phenotype of adult donor peripheral blood NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lassailly, F; Sielleur, I; Blaise, D; Chabannon, C

    2005-01-01

    Considerable evidence in preclinical models as well as in human transplantation now suggests that donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells can contribute to alloimmune recognition of recipient residual tumour cells. This makes the NK cell population an attractive target for in vitro or in vivo manipulations, in order to improve the antitumour effect of allogeneic transplantation. However, conditions in which allogeneic donor cells are collected vary; several reports have emphasised the different phenotypic and functional properties of T cells derived from marrow, cord blood or mobilised peripheral blood grafts; others have demonstrated different clinical outcomes following blood or marrow transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimens. NK cells have been examined in this setting; the availability of new tools to study the expression of a variety of surface antigens that are involved in the control of NK cell activity offered us an opportunity to extensively characterise the phenotypic properties of NK cells from donors, before and after administration of pharmacological doses of rhG-CSF used for haematopoietic progenitor mobilisation. Our study suggests that rhG-CSF does not reproducibly alter blood NK cell phenotype in normal individuals, and thus that donor-derived cells are fully equipped to exert their potential antitumour effect.

  20. Gene frequencies of human neutrophil antigens in the Tunisian blood donors and Berbers.

    PubMed

    Abid, S; Zili, M; Bouzid, L; Kibech, R; Foudhaili, N; Joudi, K; Ren Regaya, Z; Abdennaji, B; Mrad, R; Boukef, K

    2001-08-01

    Human neutrophil antigens play an important role in provoking immune neutropenia and transfusion-reactions. The aim of this study was to determine granulocyte-specific antigens on the neutrophil Fc gamma receptor IIIb (Fc gamma RIIIb, CD16b), namely, the HNA-1a(NA1) and HNA-1b(NA2) antigens and their gene frequencies in Tunisian blood donors and Berbers. One hundred and ninety-nine unrelated healthy Tunisian blood donors and Berbers were typed for HNA-1a and HNA-1b(NA1 and NA2), using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). In 24 granulocyte samples, the HNA-1a and HNA-1b phenotypes was additionally determined by the granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and correlated with the genotyping results. A subsequent analysis of the genotyping study showed that, the HNA-1a and HNA-1b gene frequencies observed, were 0.342 and 0.658 for Berbers, and 0.311 and 0.668 for blood donors, respectively. In the genotyping study conducted, it was determined that the HNA-1a and HNA-1b gene frequencies observed in Tunisian blood donors and Berbers are similar to those previously reported in other white populations.

  1. Translation strategies, contradiction, and the theory of social representations: Why discussing needles may improve blood donor retention.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Gail; Hayman, Jane; Gamble, Marguerite; Smith, Geoff; Hall, Rob

    2017-02-15

    Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements. Individual difference scaling analysis revealed all donor groups (including non-donors) associated blood donation with a few central, albeit contradictory ideas/beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis performed on a split data set of the Likert-style items reiterated this finding. Interpreted through Guimelli's dichotomy, all donor groups were aware of these contradictory normative and functional ideas/beliefs but when explicitly asked, it was the functional aspect that differentiated the groups. We argue the key to retaining donors is understanding the interdependence between how blood donation is socially understood at the societal level of discourse and donor behaviour. Translational strategies for recruitment and retention are discussed.

  2. Frequency of hepatitis C viral RNA in anti-hepatitis C virus non- reactive blood donors with normal alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadir; Moinuddin; Ahmed, Syed Azhar; Chotani, Rashid A; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2010-10-01

    To determine the frequency of HCV RNA in an anti-HCV non-reactive blood donor population with normal ALT, and its cost effectiveness. An observational study. Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, and Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2008. After initial interview and mini-medical examination, demographic data of blood donors was recorded, and anti-HCV, HBsAg and HIV were screened by third generation ELISA. Those reactive to anti-HCV, HbsAg and/or HIV were excluded. Four hundred consecutive donors with ALT within the reference range of 15-41 units/L were included in study. HCV RNA RT-PCR was performed on 5 sample mini-pools using Bio-Rad Real time PCR equipment. All 400 donors were male, with mean age 27 years SD + 6.2. ALT of blood donors varied between 15-41 U/L with mean of 31.5+6.4 U/L, HCV RNA was detected in 2/400 (0.5%) blood donors. Screening one blood bag for HCV RNA costs Rs 4,000.00 equivalent to 50 US dollars, while screening through 5 sample mini-pools was Rs. 800.00 equivalent to approximately 10 US dollars. HCV RNA frequency was 0.5% (2/400) in the studied anti-HCV non-reactive normal ALT blood donors. Screening through mini-pools is more cost-effective.

  3. Risk factors for deferral due to low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a Brazilian center

    PubMed Central

    Dauar, Eloísa Tedeschi; Patavino, Giuseppina Maria; Mendrone Júnior, Alfredo; Gualandro, Sandra Fátima Menosi; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center. Method A case–control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women. Results Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion. Conclusion This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral. PMID:26408364

  4. Effects of repeated blood donations on iron status and hematologic variables of canine blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui R F; Gopegui, Rafael R; Araujo, Maria Manuela R C; de Matos, Augusto J F

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the bone marrow regenerative response and iron status of canine blood donors subjected to repeated blood collections for 1 year. Prospective cohort study. 57 blood donor dogs. Hematologic variables, including reticulocyte percentage, were evaluated before and 10 days after each blood collection in 16 dogs donating 13% of total blood volume (TBV) every 2 months (group 1), 16 dogs donating 13% of TBV every 3 months (group 2), and 25 dogs donating 15% of TBV every 3 months (group 3) for 1 year. Serum concentrations of iron, transferrin, and ferritin were analyzed before inclusion in the study and 10 days after the last donation. Significant increases in RBC distribution width, platelet count, WBC count, and reticulocyte percentage were detected after blood donation in all groups. Dogs of group 2 had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than did dogs of group 1; dogs of group 1 had a significant decrease in serum ferritin concentration. A positive correlation between the number of blood donations and both RBC distribution width and reticulocyte percentage was found for all groups. All blood donation regimens induced a bone marrow regenerative response, which was able to restore depleted blood cells within 10 days after blood donation while maintaining iron status within the calculated reference range. However, dogs donating 13% of TBV every 2 months had a significant decrease in iron stores, which suggested that iron-related variables must be monitored during prolonged blood donor programs.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Viet, Le; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ty, Phung Xuan; Björkvoll, Björn; Hoel, Hedda; Gutteberg, Tore; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen, Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri, Vietnam. A total of 1,200 blood samples collected from potential blood donors were tested by an enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) for detection of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV). The EIA test outcome was validated by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc in the study population was 11.4 per cent (95% CI 9.6 - 13.2) and 51.7 per cent (95% CI 48.8 - 54.5), respectively, the prevalences being higher in males than females. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.17 per cent. The test agreement between the EIA and CMIA techniques was high both for HBsAg detection (κ = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.99) and for anti-HBc detection (κ = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81 - 0.97). Compared to CMIA results, the positive and negative predictive values of the EIA tests were found to be 94.9 per cent (95% CI 87.5 - 98.6) and 97.5 per cent (95% CI 86.8 - 99.9) for HBsAg, and 92.4 per cent (95% CI 84.2 - 97.2) and 100 per cent (95% CI 91.2 - 100) for anti-HBc. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in rural areas of Vietnam and that almost half of the population is or has been infected. Hepatitis C infection is rare, but false negative test results cannot be ruled out. Also, the results indicate that the EIA performance in blood donor screening in Vietnam may be sub-optimal, missing 2.5 per cent

  6. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo.

    PubMed

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged <40 (74.92%). 98.90% of the donors were Rh D positive. Phenotypic distribution of each ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, P I; Ullum, H; Jensen, K; Secher, N H

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8.3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P<0.0001). The data demonstrate that high hemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal people and especially in competition athletes.

  8. Evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in the Trinidad and Tobago National Blood Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Charles, K S; Hughes, P; Gadd, R; Bodkyn, C J; Rodriguez, M

    2010-02-01

    The majority of blood donations in Trinidad and Tobago are made as replacement by family members or friends. National Blood Transfusion Policy was drafted in 2007 to promote voluntary, repeated donation. The objective of this study is to assess the current rate and reasons for donor deferral, and the aim is to guide the proposed donor education and recruitment programme. A retrospective study of pre-donation deferral of prospective blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, was conducted. Records of all pre-donation deferrals over a 12-month period were studied. As many as 11,346 pre-donation screening interviews were conducted. There were 4043 (35.6%) deferrals. The most common reasons for donor deferral were exposure to high-risk sexual activity (27.6%), low haemoglobin 22.2% and hypertension 17.5%. Other reasons such as medication, chronic medical illness, tattoos, travel history, recent pregnancy, surgery or presentation outside the accepted age limit caused 33.8% of all deferrals and the majority (34.7%) of male deferrals. Low haemoglobin (44.5%) was the most common reason among females. The rate of deferral of voluntary donors was not significantly different from that for replacement donors (31.7 vs. 35.4%, P = 0.25). This study exposed a lack of public awareness as the principal reason for an unacceptably high rate of donor deferral. Donor education about selection criteria needs to be urgently addressed as an objective of the National Policy. Monitoring and evaluation of deferral rates and reasons could be used as one indicator of the effectiveness of the Policy.

  9. Blood Donors on Medication – an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian D.K.; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Wichmann, Michael G.; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. Material and Methods To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. Results For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of tmax + 5 t1/2 were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of tmax + 24 t1/2 is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. Conclusion Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  10. The JAK2V617F tyrosine kinase mutation in blood donors with upper-limit haematocrit levels

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Rosanna; Sartori, Roberto; Zanotto, Daniela; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Salviato, Roberta; Tassinari, Cristina; Toffano, Nunzio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is not rare to observe in blood donors a level of haematocrit (Hct) above or close to the highest normal limit. In the case of blood donors the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of this alteration may be complicated by regular blood donations that can mask an underlying disease such as polycythaemia vera. Recently a single acquired mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) on chromosome 9 was identified and it was found that the incidence of this mutation was high in patients with polycythaemia vera. Material and Methods From the January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006 all consecutive donors with a Hct above 50% if males (n=84) and 46% if females (n=19) underwent JAK2 mutation analysis. Seventy-nine donors (59 males and 20 females) whose Hct was normal at their last blood donation were randomly selected and used as controls. Results Among the group of blood donors with a high Hct, we identified one donor who was positive for the JAK2 mutation. This man had a Hct of 50.6% at his last donation, while his average Hct in the preceding year was 51.7%. The prevalence of the JAK2 mutation could be estimated to be 1%, 0.6% or 0.02% in the three different populations considered: donors with a Hct level above the upper limit of normal, all tested donors or the entire donor cohort attending our transfusion service, respectively. Conclusions The present study suggests that apparently healthy subjects with repeatedly high levels of Hct may have the acquired mutation in JAK2. Laboratory screening tests for JAK2 may be offered to blood donors at transfusion services with expertise in molecular genetics. PMID:19503632

  11. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease: A Study of 1.5 Million Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar; Ullum, Henrik; Titlestad, Kjell-Einar; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-04-12

    ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88). In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations.

  13. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  14. Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Using Reticulocyte Indices in Dogs Enrolled in a Blood Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Foy, D S; Friedrichs, K R; Bach, J F

    2015-01-01

    People donating blood more than twice annually are at risk of developing iron deficiency. Little is known about the iron status of dogs enrolled in blood donor programs. Dogs donating blood ≥6 times annually will show evidence of iron deficiency based on their reticulocyte indices. Thirteen dogs enrolled in a blood donor program donating ≥6 times over the preceding 12 months and 20 healthy nondonor control dogs. Prospective observational study. Mature red blood cell (RBC) indices, reticulocyte indices, serum iron, serum ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were compared between groups. Packed cell volume (median 47%, range 40-52%, P < .01), hematocrit (median 46.4%, range 40.3-52.5%, P < .01), and reticulocyte count (median 16,000/μL, range 9,000-38,000/μL, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor dogs. No statistically significant differences were noted in the mature RBC indices between groups. Both reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume (median 88.8 fL, range 83.4-95.5 fL, P = .03) and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (median 24.6 pg, range 23.1-26.6 pg, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor group. Serum iron and ferritin were similar between groups; however, TIBC was significantly higher in the control group (median 403 μg/dL, range 225-493 μg/dL, P = .02). The findings in dogs donating ≥6 times annually suggest the presence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis in this population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Getting personal with blood donors - the rationale for, methodology of and an overview of participants in the UK blood donor survey.

    PubMed

    Davison, K L; Reynolds, C A; Andrews, N; Brailsford, S R

    2015-08-01

    To design and pilot a survey of UK blood donors to assess, on a large scale, their understanding of and compliance with the donor selection guidelines (DSG). Compliance with the DSG is important for maintaining blood safety, however, little is currently known about the extent of this among UK donors. The online, unlinked survey was based on the donor health check form with a focus on behaviours associated with blood borne infections, sexual contact, drug use and travel. The survey materials were reviewed by a donor focus group and the survey was piloted among 2982 UK donors. Percentage responses were calculated, complaints monitored and answers to questions reviewed. The survey went live in 2013; 225 091 donors were invited via email to participate followed by two reminders. The survey was well received by the focus group, with little concern about the sensitive and personal questions. Their feedback led to important refinement in the survey materials. In the pilots, 21·0% (627/2982) responded, a reminder was necessary to achieve this. Among responders, there was evidence of non-compliance and test seeking behaviour, and no evidence that intention to donate again was affected. In the live survey, 29% (65 439) responded; responders were generally representative of donors overall. A large scale survey of donor compliances is feasible, acceptable and effective in ascertaining appropriate information; involving donors and the blood services in the development stages through a focus group and pilots was important to achieve this. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  16. Splitting blood and blood product packaging reduces donor exposure for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Nuszkowski, M M; Jonas, R A; Zurakowski, D; Deutsch, N

    2015-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery requires packed red cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to be available, both for priming of the circuit as well as to replace blood loss. This study examines the hypothesis that splitting one unit of packed red blood cells and one unit of fresh frozen plasma into two half units reduces blood product exposure and wastage in the Operating Room. Beginning August 2013, the blood bank at Children's National Medical Center began splitting one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and one unit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The 283 patients who utilized CPB during calendar year 2013 were divided into 2 study groups: before the split and after the split. The principal endpoints were blood product usage and donor exposure intra-operatively and within 72 hours post-operatively. There was a significant decrease in median total donor exposures for FFP and cryoprecipitate from 5 to 4 per case (p = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). However, there was no difference in the volume of blood and blood products used; in fact, there was a significant increase in the amount of FFP that was wasted with the switch to splitting the unit of FFP. We found that modification of blood product packaging can decrease donor exposure. Future investigation is needed as to how to modify packaging to minimize wastage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Iron deficiency in blood donors: analysis of enrollment data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L

    2011-03-01

    Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics that predispose to this condition are poorly defined. A total of 2425 red blood cell donors, either first-time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors, were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual and/or pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by a ferritin level of less than 12 ng/mL and iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by a log(sTfR/ferritin) value of 2.07 or greater. A total of 15.0% of donors had AIS and 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4 and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1 and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS and/or IDE (odds ratios from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS and/or IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a nonsmoker, previous pregnancy, and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS and/or IDE, as was race and/or ethnicity. A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, sex and/or menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS and/or IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group “A” and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  19. Motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist before their first donation experience.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van Dongen, Anne

    2013-08-01

    The demand for plasma products has increased rapidly. It is therefore important to understand donating behavior by plasma donors. This study investigates whether motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist at the beginning of a donor career. New donors (n = 4861) were invited to fill out a questionnaire before their first donation (response, 61%). The questionnaire assessed variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and norms), conscientiousness, and donation anxiety. Three years later it was determined who became whole blood or plasma donor. Multivariable linear regression analyses for intention were fitted separately for whole blood and plasma donors. A logistic regression analysis was executed to estimate the effect of intention at the beginning of a donor career on becoming a plasma donor. Plasma donors had a higher intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and conscientiousness and a lower anxiety than whole blood donors. In plasma and whole blood donors, both self-efficacy and cognitive attitude were positively related to intention but with different strength (plasma, β = 0.47 and β = 0.30; whole blood, β = 0.57 and β = 0.17). Having a high level of intention increased the odds of becoming a plasma donor (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.59). Motivational differences already exist between future whole blood and plasma donors before their first donation. Although a feeling of self-efficacy is necessary for all new donors, more favorable cognitions are important for future plasma donors. Recruitment strategies for plasma donors should focus on attracting the more self-confident donors by highlighting the usefulness of plasma donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh -ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of distribution of

  2. The potential impact of selective donor deferrals based on estimated blood volume on vasovagal reactions and donor deferral rates.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jorge A; Fang, Junyong; Tu, Yongling; Wright, David J; Spencer, Bryan; Hillyer, Christopher D; Hillyer, Krista L; Eder, Anne F; Benjamin, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    Whole blood donation in the United States is restricted in volume to 10.5 mL/kg or less in an effort to prevent hypovolemic reactions, but still may exceed more than 15% of a donor's estimated blood volume (EBV). We analyzed the association of EBV with prefaint and systemic vasovagal reactions (SVRs) among whole blood donors and the potential impact of an EBV-based deferral policy. Independent predictors for prefaint reactions and SVRs were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis on 591,177 unique donors participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II study. Young age (16 years old odds ratio [OR], 3.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.78-4.94), low EBV (<3.5 L OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.57-4.23), and first-time donation status (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.03-2.67) were the strongest predictors for SVRs, with similar trends seen for prefaint reactions. Sex, height, race, blood center, and donation site were weakly associated predictors. A total of 5.6% of all donors had an EBV of less than 3.5 L and experienced 12.5% of all prefaint reactions and 14.5% of SVRs. The highest reaction rates were seen in donors less than 23 years old with an EBV of less than 3.5 L who comprised 2.7% of all donors, who were mostly female (99.9%), and who experienced 8.8% of prefaint reactions and 11.0% of SVRs. Young age, low EBV, and first-time donation status are the major correlates of prefaint reactions and SVRs, suggesting that high school and college donors are at particular risk. Deferral of donors with low EBV who are less than 23 years old may offer a rational approach to protecting donors at greater risk of reactions without jeopardizing the adequacy of the blood supply.

  3. Donor blood procurement and utilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A

    2004-08-01

    Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood.

  4. (C)ces haplotype screening in Tunisian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hajer; Ghommen, Néjiba; Romdhane, Houda; Abdelkefi, Saadia; Chakroun, Taher; Houissa, Batoul; Jemni, Saloua Yacoub

    2014-01-01

    Background The (C)ces haplotype, mainly found in black individuals, contains two altered genes: a hybrid RHD-CE-Ds gene segregated with a ces allele of RHCE with two single nucleotide polymorphisms, c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) in exon 5 and c. 1006G>T (Gly336Cys) in exon 7. This haplotype could be responsible for false positive genotyping results in RhD-negative individuals and at a homozygous level lead to the loss of a high incidence antigen RH34. The aim of this study was to screen for the (C)ces haplotype in Tunisian blood donors, given its clinico-biological importance. Material and methods Blood samples were randomly collected from blood donors in the blood transfusion centre of Sousse (Tunisia). A total of 356 RhD-positive and 44 RhD-negative samples were tested for the (C)ces haplotype using two allele-specific primer polymerase chain reactions that detect c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) and c. 1006G>T (p. Gly336Cys) substitutions in exon 5 and 7 of the RHCE gene. In addition, the presence of the D-CE hybrid exon 3 was evaluated using a sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Results Among the 400 individuals only five exhibited the (C)ces haplotype in heterozygosity, for a frequency of 0.625%. On the basis of the allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction results, the difference in (C)ces haplotype frequency was not statistically significant between RhD-positive and RhD-negative blood donors. Discussion These data showed the presence of the (C)ces haplotype at a low frequency (0.625%) compared to that among Africans in whom it is common. Nevertheless, the presence of RHD-CE-Ds in Tunisians, even at a lower frequency, should be considered in the development of a molecular genotyping strategy for Rh genes, to ensure better management of the prevention of alloimmunisation. PMID:24333089

  5. Incidence and Residual Risk of HIV, HBV and HCV Infections Among Blood Donors in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Saber, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Abasian, Ali; Jamali, Mostafa; SalekMoghadam, Ebadollah; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Mirrezaie, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of residual risk is essential to monitor and improve blood safety. Our epidemiologic knowledge in the Iranian donor population regarding transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs), is confined to a few studies based on prevalence rate. There are no reports on residual risk of TTIs in Iran. In present survey, a software database of donor records of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC) was used to estimate the incidence and residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, by applying the incidence rate/window period (IR-WP) model. A total of 1,207,155 repeat donations was included in the analysis and represented a mean of 8.4 donations per donor over 6 years. The incidence amongst repeat donors was estimated by dividing the number of confirmed seroconverting donors by the total number of person-years at risk. The residual risk was calculated using the incidence/window period model. Incidence rate and residual risk for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were calculated for total (2005-2010) and two consecutive periods (2005-2007 and 2008-2010) of the study. According to the IR-WP model, overall residual risk for HIV and HCV in the total study period was 0.4 and 12.5 per million units, respectively and for HBV 4.57/100,000 donations. The incidence and residual risk of TTIs, calculated on TBTC's blood supply was low and comparable with developed countries for HIV infection but high for HCV and HBV infections. Blood safety may therefore be better managed by applying other techniques like nucleic acid amplification tests.

  6. POTENTIAL IMPACT ON BLOOD AVAILABILITY AND DONOR IRON STATUS OF CHANGES TO DONOR HEMOGLOBIN CUTOFF AND INTERDONATION INTERVALS

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Kleinman, Steven; Glynn, Simone A.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A minimum male hemoglobin (Hb) of 13.0 g/dL will become an FDA requirement in May 2016. In addition, extending whole blood (WB) interdonation intervals (IDIs) beyond 8 weeks has been considered in order to reduce iron depletion in repeat blood donors. This study estimates the impact these changes might have on blood availability and donor iron status. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Six blood centers participating in REDS-II collected information on all donation visits from 2006–09. Simulations were developed from these data using a multi-stage approach that first sought to adequately reproduce the patterns of donor return, Hb and ferritin levels, and outcomes of a donor’s visit (successful single or double RBC donation, deferral for low Hb) observed in REDS-II datasets. Modified simulations were used to predict the potential impact on the blood supply and donor iron status under different Hb cutoff and IDI qualification criteria. RESULTS More than 10% of WB donations might require replacement under many simulated scenarios. Longer IDIs would reduce the proportion of donors with iron depletion, but 80% of these donors may remain iron-depleted if minimal IDIs increased to 12 or 16 weeks. CONCLUSION Higher Hb cutoffs and longer IDIs are predicted to have a potentially large impact on collections but only a modest impact on donor iron depletion. Efforts to address iron depletion should be targeted to at-risk donors, such as iron supplementation programs for frequent donors, and policy makers should try to avoid broadly restrictive donation requirements that could substantially reduce blood availability. PMID:27237451

  7. Hepatitis B escape mutants in Scottish blood donors.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Osmany; Dow, Brian; Jarvis, Lisa; Davidson, Fiona; Petrik, Juraj

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains as the viral infection with the highest risk of transmission by transfusion. This risk is associated with window period donations, occult HBV infection (OBI) and the emergence of escape mutants, which render blood donations false negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serological testing. A retrospective study was conducted to gain insights into the molecular epidemiology of HBV escape mutants in Scottish blood donors. The criterion for selection was HBV positivity either by serology or nucleic acid testing (NAT). HBsAg detection was compared across several commercial immunoassays. The full length S gene from plasma samples was PCR amplified, cloned and expressed in HepG2 cells. Eight samples showed HBsAg discordant results, while 5 OBI samples were found. Four escape mutants, containing missense mutations in the S gene, are described here. These mutations impaired HBsAg detection both from HBV infected plasma samples and from recombinant proteins derived from its infected donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the mutants were clustered in the genotype D and were closely related to strains from Asia and the Middle East. We report here a proline substitution, outside the major hydrophilic region, that impaired HBsAg detection in vivo and in vitro, warning about the risk for the emergence of vaccine escape mutants with mutations outside the major neutralisation site.

  8. Impact of allogeneic 2-RBC apheresis on iron stores of Brazilian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mendrone, Alfredo; Arrais, Cyntia Araújo; Almeida Neto, César; Gualandro, Sandra de Fátima Menocci; Dorlhiac-Llacer, Pedro Enrique; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2009-08-01

    One limiting factor for automated two-red blood cells collections (2-RBC) is its potential iron depletion. We analyzed hematological parameters and iron balance before, two and four months after 2-RBC of 96 non-supplemented male donors. Four months after 2-RBC, ferritin level was significantly lower (P<0.01) than baseline levels and the number of donors who presented ferritin <30 ng/ml increased from 18 to 47. We concluded that four months was not sufficient for iron recuperation in the population studied. In an attempt to avoid iron depletion after 2-RBC, we recommend augmentation in the interval between blood donations and pre-donation ferritin measurement.

  9. [Prevalence of types of hepatitis C virus in Spanish blood donors: results of a state-based multicenter study. Spanish Group for the Study of Blood Donors with Risk of HCV Transmission].

    PubMed

    León, P; López, J A; Amela, C; Elola, C; Echevarría, J M

    1999-11-01

    The prevalences established up to the present in Spain for the different types of hepatitis C virus are based on data obtained in populations in which the nature of the population itself may have based the data in favor of certain types of the virus. The study of seropositive blood donors identified through screening of blood donations may provide prevalences closer to the truth among the general population. Typing of genomes in samples from 441 donors was performed using the blood bank generated during the multicenter study performed by the Spanish Study Group of Blood Donors with Risk of Transmission of the Hepatitis C Virus. The antibodies present were typed in the seropositive samples in the above donors and in 337 more in whom a viral genoma was not detected. In total, the infection was typed in 685 donors. On analysis of the results corresponding to 386 donors, whose number and distribution by autonomous communities were previously fixed to represent all of Spain, type 1 was largely the more prevalent (85.5%) followed by types 3 (4.4%), 2 (4.1%), 4 (3.4%) and 5 (0.5%) and by a group of apparent mixed infections which altogether represented 2.1% of the total. Among the donors in whom the genomes were typed, infectious due to the 1b subtype (78% of the 441 samples genotypes) clearly predominated. The participation of the different types of type 1 was significantly greater in those lacking antibodies detectable versus epitopes codified in the NS4 region of the viral genome. This study avoids some bias in sampling which may have affected previous studies and provides data which should more closely approach the real prevalence in the general Spanish population. Thus, it should provide a better base of comparison for any study on the distribution of the types of the hepatitis C virus in selected populations or others performed during tha investigation of outbreaks of hepatitis C virus infection.

  10. [Prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection among blood donors in Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brun, Roque O; Astarloa, Laura; Salomon, Horacio E; Biglione, Mirna M

    2004-01-01

    Subsequent to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance Program developed in 1997 by the National AIDS Program, anti-HTLV-I/II antibodies among blood donors in Santa Fe Province started to be detected. On the basis of this initial finding, it was regarded of interest to evaluate the true HTLV-I/II seroprevalence in this population during a four-year survey. Thus, from 1997 up to 2002, 9425 samples were studied from 17 out of the 19 provincial departments. Out of the total sampling, 38 proved reactive by agglutination techniques, 18 of which were confirmed by western blot (WB). Out of the latter, 10 were HTLV-I/II seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.1% (10/9425), whereas 7 were indeterminate and 1 negative. Among these 10 confirmed sera, 2 (0.02%) were HTLV, 3 (0.03%) HTLV-I and 5 (0.05%) HTLV-II. It should be highlighted that the presence of HTLV-I/II infection in blood donors in Santa Fe Province was demonstrated for the first time, with a prevalence greater than that reported for blood donors in non-endemic Argentine areas. Such findings confirm the need of corresponding systematic screening through regulatory blood bank norms in Santa Fe Province.

  11. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: Analysis of Enrollment Data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics which predispose to this condition are poorly defined. Methods 2425 red cell donors, either first time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual/pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by ferritin < 12 ng/mL and iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by log (sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07. Results 15.0% of donors had AIS, 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4% and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1% and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS/IDE (ORs from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS/IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a non-smoker, previous pregnancy and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS/IDE, as was race/ethnicity. Conclusion A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, gender/menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS/IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. PMID:20804527

  12. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  13. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder among HTLV-I/II infected former blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Guiltinan, Anne M.; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Behan, Dee; Marosi, Cheryl; Hutching, Sheila; Kaiser, Mandi; Moore, Elane; DeVita, Deborah; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Other studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety among human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected subjects, and have even suggested that HTLV-I causes psychiatric disease. Study design and methods We interviewed HTLV-I, HTLV-II and demographically similar HTLV seronegative blood donors with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Prevalences of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in each group were calculated and compared to published U.S. population data. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) controlling for educational achievement, alcohol intake and self-reported health status were calculated with multivariate logistic regression. Results Major depression was diagnosed in 5 (5.4%) of 93 HTLV-I positive subjects (aOR = 2.19, 95% CI 0.63–7.55) and 17 (6.6%) of 256 HTLV-II positive subjects (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.66–3.927), compared to 12 (2.1%) of 585 HTLV seronegative blood donors. The prevalence of major depression among infected subjects was comparable to the 6.7% prevalence in the U.S. general population. Generalized anxiety disorder was diagnosed in 5 (5.4%) HTLV-I positive subjects (OR= 2.32, 95% CI 0.74–7.26) and 12 (4.7%) HTLV-II positive subjects (OR = 1.65 95% CI 0.68–4.01), compared to 15 (2.6%) seronegatives and 3.1% in the U.S. general population. Conclusion Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were not significantly more prevalent among HTLV-I and HTLV-II infected former blood donors after controlling for health status and other confounding variables. HTLV seronegative blood donors had lower prevalence of these conditions than the U.S. population, probably due to a “healthy blood donor effect”. PMID:22554308

  15. Determining staffing requirements for blood donor clinics: the Canadian Blood Services experience.

    PubMed

    Blake, John T; Shimla, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Canadian Blood Services runs approximately 16,000 donor clinics annually. While there were more than 220 different clinic configurations used in 2011 and 2012, 67% of all clinic configurations followed one of 51 standard models. As part of operational planning for current and future configurations it was necessary for Canadian Blood Services to calculate staffing requirements for standard clinic models. In this article we present a method that incorporates both cost control and impact on donor experience. We calculate staffing requirements to minimize costs, but adjust using queuing theory to ensure donor wait time metrics are met. The method can be applied in a wide variety of situations. Although developed for a particular study, the methods described in this article can be applied in a wide variety of situations. A case study in which the model is used to review existing staffing arrangements at Canadian Blood Services is presented. The staffing model can be used to balance the requirements of minimizing staffing costs with that of ensuring that donors do not suffer unnecessary delays. Moreover, in an example application, savings of 3.4% were identified through the modeling process. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Cutaneous Manifestations in HTLV-I Positive Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Maleki, Masoud; Joneidi, Nasaibe; Khalighi, Amir Reza; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Shahabi, Majid; Esmaeil Khayami, Mohammad; Livani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Infection with the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I (HTLV-I) is endemic in Mashhad, Iran. In our research we evaluated the relation between exposure to this infection and the occurrence of dermatologic manifestations. Materials and Methods: 100 blood donors, who were seropositive but asymptomatic for infection with HTLV-I, were selected as case group. They were identified by the Blood Transfusion Organization Mashhad via the ELISA test and documented by PCR. Another 100 blood donors, that were seronegative for HTLV-I via the ELISA test and who were matched to the case group for age, gender, and existence of systemic diseases, were considered as the controls. Dermatologic evaluations and skin biopsies were performed if deemed necessary, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: 73% of the case and control groups were male, while 27% in each of these groups were female. The mean age in both groups was 40.96±11.94 years. The examination indicated that 58% of the case group and 37% of the control group had cutaneous manifestations (P<0.01). The most common diseases found in the case group were aphthous stomatitis, herpes labialis, and non-genital warts, while common diseases found in the control group were herpes labialis, aphthous stomatitis, and skin tag. The frequency of aphthous stomatitis, eczema, and non-genital warts in the case group were significantly more than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion : Cutaneous diseases can be found more frequent in asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-I than those who are HTLV-I seronegative. The aphthous stomatitis, eczema, and non-genital warts are more prevalent in those infected by HTLV-I. PMID:24470876

  17. Dombrock genotyping in Brazilian blood donors reveals different regional frequencies of the HY allele

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Fabiana Chagas Camargos; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; de Castilho, Lilian Maria; Baleotti Júnior, Wilson; Suzuki, Rodrigo Buzinaro; da Cunha, Débora Moura

    2013-01-01

    Background Dombrock blood group system genotyping has revealed various rearrangements of the Dombrock gene and identified new variant alleles in Brazil (i.e., DO*A-SH, DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL). Because of the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population, interregional differences are expected during the investigation of Dombrock genotypes. Objective The present study aims to determine the frequencies of Dombrock genotypes in blood donors from Minas Gerais and compare the frequencies of the HY and JO alleles to those of another population in Brazil. Methods The frequencies of the DO alleles in Minas Gerais, a southeastern state of Brazil, were determined from the genotyping of 270 blood donors. Genotyping involved polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the 323G>T, 350C>T, 793A>G, and 898C>G mutations, which are related to the HY, JO, DO*A/DO*B, and DO*A-WL/DO*B-WL alleles, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of rare HY and JO alleles were statistically compared using the chi-square test with data from another Brazilian region. Results The HY allele frequency in Minas Gerais (2.4%) was almost twice that of the JO allele (1.5%). The frequency of the HY allele was significantly higher (p-value = 0.001) than that in another Brazilian population and includes a rare homozygous donor with the Hy- phenotype. In addition, the DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL alleles, which were first identified in Brazil, were found in the state of Minas Gerais. Conclusions The data confirm that the frequencies of DO alleles differ between regions in Brazil. The population of Minas Gerais could be targeted in a screening strategy to identify the Hy- phenotype in order to develop a rare blood bank. PMID:24478605

  18. A spatial regression analysis of German community characteristics associated with voluntary non-remunerated blood donor rates.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, C; Schneider, S; Litaker, D; Weck, E; Klüter, H

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial geographical variation in blood donation within developed countries. To understand this issue better, we identified community characteristics associated with blood donor rates in German municipalities in an ecological analysis. We calculated an aggregated rate of voluntary blood donors from each of 1533 municipalities in south-west Germany in 2007 from a database of the German Red Cross Blood Service. A multiple linear regression model estimated the association between the municipality-specific donor rate and several community characteristics. Finally, a spatial lag regression model was used to control for spatial autocorrelation that occurs when neighbouring units are related to each other. The spatial lag regression model showed that a relatively larger population, a higher percentage of inhabitants older than 30 years, a higher percentage of non-German citizens and a higher percentage of unemployed persons were associated with lower municipality-specific donor rates. Conversely, a higher donor rate was correlated with higher voter turnout, a higher percentage of inhabitants between 18 and 24 years and more frequent mobile donation sites. Blood donation appears to be a highly clustered regional phenomenon, suggesting the need for regionally targeted recruiting efforts and careful consideration of the value of mobile donation sites. Our model further suggests that municipalities with a decreasing percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds and an increasing percentage of older inhabitants may experience substantial declines in future blood donations. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Blood and marrow cultures as indicators of bone contamination in cadaver donors.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Octavio V; Buck, Billy E; Hernandez, Maribel; Malinin, Theodore

    2003-04-01

    Of 770 cadaver bone donors evaluated, 185 had positive blood or ilium marrow aspirate cultures. These donors were matched with an immediately preceding or subsequent donor with negative blood and marrow cultures. Donors with cultures positive for skin contaminants only were not included in the study. Samples of the blood and bone marrow, surface swab cultures, and cultures of tissue samples of the excised skeletal tissues were obtained at the time of tissue procurement. There were 88 (48%) donors with similar microbial species recovered from the blood and ilium marrow. These donors had a higher rate of positive bone cultures (30%) than donors with positive blood (15%) or marrow cultures only (11%) or donors with negative blood and marrow culture results (7.3%). Recovery of similar isolates from the blood and marrow had a positive predictive value of 72% for the isolation of the same types of organisms from the excised tissues compared with 38% for donors with positive blood cultures only. Although not absolute predictors of tissue contamination, combined blood and bone marrow cultures were more reliable indicators of tissue contamination than blood cultures alone.

  20. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon: implications for transfusion policy

    PubMed Central

    Moresco, M. N. dos S.; Virgolino, H. de A.; de Morais, M. P. E.; da Motta-Passos, I.; Gomes-Gouvêa, M. S.; de Assis, L. M. S.; Aguiar, K. R. de L.; Lombardi, S. C. F.; Malheiro, A.; Cavalheiro, N. de P.; Levi, J. E.; Torres, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brazil requires the performance of both a test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and a test for antibodies to the core of hepatitis B for blood donor screening. Blood centres in regions of high HBV endemicity struggle to maintain adequate stocks in face of the high discard rates due to anti-HBc reactivity. We evaluated the potential infectivity of donations positive for anti-HBc in search of a rational approach for the handling of these collections. Study Design and Methods We tested anti-HBc reactive blood donations from the state of Amazonas for the presence of HBV DNA and for titres of anti-HBs. The study population consists of village-based donors from the interior of Amazonas state. Results Among 3600 donations, 799 were anti-HBc reactive (22·2%). We were able to perform real-time PCR for the HBV S gene on specimens from 291 of these donors. Eight of these samples were negative for HBsAg and positive for HBV DNA and were defined as occult B virus infections (2·7%). Six of those eight specimens had anti-HBs titres above 100 mIU/ml, indicating the concomitant presence of the virus with high antibody titres. Conclusion A small proportion of anti-HBc reactive donors carry HBV DNA and anti-HBs testing is not useful for predicting viremia on them. This finding indicates the possibility of HBV transmission from asymptomatic donors, especially in areas of high HBV prevalence. Sensitive HBV DNA nucleic acid testing may provide another level of safety, allowing eventual use of anti-HBc reactive units in critical situations. PMID:24697276

  1. [Acceptance by blood donors of the public blood bank in Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Fábia Michelle Rodrigues; Feliciano, Katia Virginia de Oliveira; Mendes, Marina Ferreira de Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the acceptance of blood donors concerning the donation stages (attendance, medical and nursing selection and collection) at the Recife public blood bank with emphasis on the attendance. A sample of 527 donors was obtained: each 19th person sequentially was invited to answer a questionnaire. Chi-square (x2) was used in the analysis. Of those interviewed, 81.4% were men, 81% were repeat donors, 50.3% were dissatisfied regarding the time spent in donation and 36.4% had difficulties in reaching the service. The firm acceptance given to the attendance was due mainly to the communication and the quality of treatment. Of statistical significance were women donors of higher educational level who asked for more information and men who had a more positive perception towards the selection process. The best evaluation was attributed to the collection sector. However, mention was made of impersonal treatment, persistence of doubts and the cursory nature of the medical interview. Attention focused on the donor requires that ongoing education should concentrate on the humanitarian formation of the professionals involved.

  2. Frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative donor population of north India.

    PubMed

    Samir, Sazia; Jain, Ashish; Marwaha, Neelam

    2015-08-01

    There is a paucity of data for DEL phenotype in the Indian population. Ours is a tertiary care Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in north India collecting more than 50,000 blood units out of which 8-9% are RhD negative donors. To determine the frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative blood donor population at our centre. A total of 200 RhD-negative blood donor samples were included in this study which was conducted over a period of 4 months (October 2013 to January 2014). All these blood samples were tested for extended Rh typing including C, E, c and e antigens and also for adsorption elution testing. The heat elution method at 56 °C in water bath for 10 minutes was utilized. The eluate and the last wash supernatant were used for indirect antiglobulin test against O RhD positive and O RhD negative cells by gel technique using the LISS Coombs' AHG gel cards (Biorad, Morat, Switzerland). Those donor samples which were found positive on adsorption elution testing were also further investigated by gel technique for Direct Antiglobulin test (DAT), Weak D testing and Auto Control test. Out of the total 200 Rh D negative donor samples tested, 3 (1.5%) samples were found to give positive result and, thus, were the DEL phenotypes. It was found that 20 (10%) donor samples were positive for C antigen, 5 (2.5%) for E antigen, 200 (100%) for c antigen and 200 (100%) for e antigen. Among the DEL negative (= 197), 193 (98%) were E antigen negative and only 4 (2%) were E antigen positive, whereas among the DEL positive samples (= 3), 2 (66.6%) were E antigen negative and 1 (33.3%) was E antigen positive. The C antigen positivity was only in 2 (66.6%) individuals in the DEL positive group and 178 (90.3%) in the DEL negative samples. All the three samples which were found to be positive as DEL phenotype also gave negative result for DAT, Weak D testing and Auto Control. The frequency of DEL phenotype in north Indian RhD negative donor population is 1.5%. Copyright

  3. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    PubMed Central

    Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Safabakhsh, Hamidreza; Jamili, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors’ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17–59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations. PMID:26420946

  4. Development of chagas cardiac manifestations among Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Rossmann, Susan N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Ontiveros, Alejandra; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Rhodes, Charles E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Aguilar, David

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has recently been identified as an important emerging parasitic disease in the United States. To describe the cardiac abnormalities in T. cruzi-positive blood donors in southeastern Texas, a pilot study of donors who had screened positive from 2007 to 2012 was performed. This one-time assessment included (1) a questionnaire to evaluate the source of infection, cardiac symptoms, and health co-morbidities; (2) electrocardiography; (3) echocardiography if electrocardiographic findings were abnormal; and (4) measurement of a high-sensitivity troponin T biomarker. Of those with confirmed infection, 41% (7 of 17) had electrocardiographic abnormalities consistent with Chagas cardiomyopathy. In addition, 36% (6 of 17) were suspected to be locally acquired cases. High-sensitivity troponin T serum levels increased with cardiac severity. In conclusion, cardiologists should consider Chagas disease in their differential diagnoses for patients who may have clinically compatible electrocardiographic changes or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, even if the patients have no histories of residing in Chagas-endemic countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infection and blood transfusion: a guide to donor screening.

    PubMed

    Reine, Nyssa J

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, blood-component therapy has become more accessible in veterinary practice. As with human medicine, care must be taken to minimize the risk of disease transmission from donor to recipient. Determining the appropriate diseases to screen for is complicated by regional variations in disease incidence, the existence of chronic carrier states for some diseases, the difficulty in screening-test selection, and testing cost. The feline diseases considered include retroviral infections, feline coronaviruses, ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis-like), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), neorickettsiosis (Neorickettsia risticii), hemoplasmosis (Mycoplasma hemofelis and M. hemominutum, previously feline hemobartonellosis), and cytauxzoonosis (Cytauxzoon felis). The canine diseases considered in this paper include babesiosis (Babesia canis and B. gibsonii,) ehrlichiosis (E. canis and E. ewingii), anaplasmosis (A. phagocytophilum), neorickettsiosis (N. risticii var. atypicalis), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani complex), brucellosis (Brucella canis), hemoplasmosis (M. hemocanis, previously canine hemobartonellosis), and bartonellosis (Bartonella vinsonii).

  6. [Prevalence of antitoxoplasma antibodies in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako].

    PubMed

    Maïga, I; Kiemtoré, P; Tounkara, A

    2001-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan disease. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and blood donors in Bamako (Mali, West Africa). A one year study of toxoplasmosis prevalence was carried out among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako. The toxoplasmosis prevalence was 60% from AIDS patients, 22.6% from the HIV-seropositive blood donors and 21% from the HIV-seronegative blood donors. The specific antibodies were IgG and IgA. The specific IgM were not detected.

  7. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).   Conclusion The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions. PMID:27168923

  8. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  9. Genotyping of 28 blood group alleles in blood donors from Mali: Prediction of rare phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ba, Alhassane; Bagayoko, Seydou; Chiaroni, Jacques; Baiily, Pascal; Silvy, Monique

    2016-04-01

    We determined the frequencies of clinically relevant blood group alleles in 300 blood donors from Mali. Multiplex test based on xMAP technology was used to investigate six blood group systems (RH, KEL, MNS, FY, JK, DO, HPA) and complementary analysis were conducted for MNS and RH systems. Polymorphisms that affect the specificity of molecular tests leading to discrepant genotype results are discussed. Antigen expressions were predicted showing that 50% of donors expressed at least one traditional low prevalence antigen, and 11.6% lacked the ability to express at least one high prevalence antigen compatible with Dob-, HPA1a-, S-s-U-, Jsb-, RH:-31 and/or RH:-34 phenotypes.

  10. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections.

  11. The risk for hepatitis C infection in blood donors in Cluj County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Hâţu, G; Brumboiu, M I; Czernichow, P; Bocşan, I S

    2014-05-01

    Blood products safety is based on different criteria including the selection of blood donors. Blood donors referred to Cluj County (Romania) Blood Transfusion Centre in January-March 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire and were examined by a physician. Data collected from first-time and repeat donors were compared for possible risk factors for hepatitis C infection. In total, 1100 donors were selected. In first-time donors, most frequent factors were age<26 years, female gender and history of health care procedures. Behavioural risk factors (e.g. drug use, sexual promiscuity) may not be properly filtered out in blood donors, suggesting the necessity of improving the health screening process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.

  13. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Shrein H; Guiltinan, Anne M; Schlumpf, Karen S; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L; D'Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L

    2011-06-01

    Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. A study of the predonation hemoglobin and iron status among Hong Kong Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Wong, H K; Hong, J; Leung, J N S; Tsoi, W C; Lin, C K

    2013-02-01

    Predonation hemoglobin (PDH) is used to safeguard donors' welfare, and low hemoglobin (Hb) is known to be the most frequent reason for donor deferral. A study was initiated to assess the PDH and iron status of blood donors in Hong Kong. This observational study was designed with four groups of whole blood donors invited (group 1-eligible first time donors, group 2-eligible repeat donors with zero or one donation in preceding 12 months, group 3-eligible repeat donors with at least two donations in preceding 12 months, group 4-repeat donors being deferred for low PDH). Predonation blood samples were obtained for blood counts and iron status. Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and chi-square test for trend were applied for statistical analysis. A total of 836 donors were recruited, of which 35 were excluded because of hemoglobinopathy. An inverse relationship between serum ferritin level and number of donations in the preceding 12 months was observed in both sexes. Iron deficiency was significantly seen in 35.1% of male and 65.3% of female deferred donors. More importantly, up to 7.2, 5.8, and 29.5% of the female donors in groups 1, 2, and 3 were found to be iron deficient despite having a high enough PDH. This is the first study to assess PDH and iron status in Chinese blood donors. Iron depletion is noted with increasing number of blood donations in the preceding 12 months. Advice on iron repletion is a necessary step for donor welfare and strategies should be developed to ensure that donors have adequate PDH. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Who donates? Cross-country and periodical variation in blood donor demographics in Europe between 1994 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Wittock, Nathan; Hustinx, Lesley; Bracke, Piet; Buffel, Veerle

    2017-08-25

    Ageing European populations put pressure on national blood supplies, increasing the need for blood and donor base rejuvenation. Therefore, we investigate how European countries' blood donor populations differ and how they have evolved over the last 2 decades. Previous comparative research, based on 1994 Eurobarometer data, indicate that the typical donor is an educated, middle-aged, white, married male. Other sociodemographic and socioeconomic correlates, such as employment status and type of community, are less clear. Multilevel analyses are performed on repeated cross-level data from the Eurobarometer (waves 1994, 2002, 2009, and 2014) to compare information on "ever having donated" across sociodemographic categories, countries, and periods. There are consistent but moderate country and period differences. The donor population rose to become largest in most countries by 2009, and stabilized thereafter. Over the studied period, donors were more likely to be higher educated, married men. Nevertheless, changes across time in donor profiles within countries did occur. Women were less likely to donate blood, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe, but this gender gap has declined. Furthermore, educational attainment seems more relevant for women, although, more recently, to a lesser extent. Although there is a promising trend in which women, young people, and students are increasingly likely to donate, more attention is needed to reach the unemployed and the low to medium educated. Because the unemployed may lack structural opportunities to donate, and the low to medium educated may lack relevant knowledge on blood donation necessity, we recommend providing practical opportunities and information on the necessity of blood donation. © 2017 AABB.

  16. [Contributions of the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee to the determination of rules for the selection of donors of blood and blood components and the study of sexual behaviors having an impact on blood safety].

    PubMed

    Behr-Gross, M-E; Heiden, M; Norda, R

    2013-05-01

    In November 2009, the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee created a group of experts to explore the problem of behaviors having an impact on the management of donors of blood and blood components and on blood transfusion safety in Europe. This ad hoc group sought a harmonised interpretation of temporary exclusion (or temporary deferral), as opposed to permanent exclusion (or permanent deferral), in the context of the selection of donors of blood and blood components. It was also given the mandate to assess, on the basis of available data, the possibility of differentiating "at risk" behaviours from behaviours "at high risk" of contamination by serious infectious diseases transmitted by blood, blood components or derived therapeutic products. The primary objective of this work was to ensure the safety of blood, blood components and derived therapeutic products for future recipients by promoting a risk analysis-based approach, given that some countries envisaged amending their provisions for donor selection. However, a risk analysis can only be performed on groups, not individuals, which may give the impression of a discriminatory approach, so it needed to be justified in the context of transfusion safety. A collaborative project, which included an investigation phase, led to the drafting of a technical memorandum that summarised the data collected in ten Council of Europe member states on the selection criteria for blood donors and the epidemiology of infectious diseases (with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus) in the general population and among blood donors. The technical memorandum was published in 2011 on the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare website dedicated to this project. A draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe was then developed by the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee. This text was circulated among member and observer states of the Council

  17. Analysis of blood donor pre-donation deferral in Dubai: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Al Shaer, Laila; Sharma, Ranjita; AbdulRahman, Mahera

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to define donor pre-donation deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred donors in Dubai. This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation between January 1, 2010, until June 30, 2013, in Dubai Blood Donation Centre, accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. The donation and deferral data were analyzed to determine the demographic characteristics of accepted and deferred donors, and frequency analyses were also conducted. Among 142,431 individuals presenting during the study period, 114,827 (80.6%) were accepted for donation, and 27,604 (19.4%) were deferred. The overall proportion of deferrals was higher among individuals less than 21 years old (35%, P<0.000), females (44% were deferred compared to 15% of males, P<0.0001), and first-time donors (22% were deferred vs 14% of repeat donors, P<0.0001). The main causes for a temporary deferral were low hemoglobin and high blood pressure. The deferral rate among blood donors in Dubai is relatively high compared to the internationally reported rates. This rate was higher among first-time donors and females, with low hemoglobin as the major factor leading to a temporary deferral of donors. Strategies to mitigate deferral and improve blood donor retention are urged in Dubai to avoid additional stress on the blood supply.

  18. Motivation and Social Capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, Thelma T.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Moreno, Elizabeth C.; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A.; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7,635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, HIV testing and knowledge, social capital and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined prior to the donor screening process. Results Among participants, 43.5% and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3% and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism was associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Conclusion Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. PMID:22998740

  19. RHD alleles in Brazilian blood donors with weak D or D-negative phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, B R; Chiba, A K; Moritz, E; Bordin, J O

    2012-04-01

    The RHD gene is highly polymorphic and the existence of a large number of alleles results in RhD variant phenotypes. RHD genotyping has been used to distinguish normal D antigen from D variants due to limitations of serologic methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic frequency of RhD and RhCE antigens and to investigate the RHD alleles present in samples with the weak D or D- phenotypes from Brazilian blood donors. A total of 2007 donors were phenotyped for D, C, c, E and e antigens. Samples phenotyped as D- were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers, and exon 10 and intron 4 of the RHD gene were analysed. D- samples containing the RHD gene or samples considered weak D were further characterised using genotyping platform or nucleotide sequencing. Using serologic methods we found that 87.3% of the donors were D+, 11.9% D- and 0.8% weak D. The frequency of RHD gene in D- individuals was 9.2%. Five RHD alleles from phenotypically D- donors were characterised in six molecular backgrounds: RHDΨ, RHD-CE-D(s), RHD-CE-(2-9)-D, RHD/RHDΨ, RHDΨ/RHD-CE-D(s) and RHD-CE(2)-D. The most common weak D antigens types found were 1, 3, 4.0/4.1 and 4.2, whereas the most prevalent weak D type was 4.2 (or DAR). The RHD genotyping proved to be a necessary tool to characterise RHD alleles in donors phenotyped as D- or weak D to increase the transfusion safety in highly racial mixed population. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Effectiveness of confidential unit exclusion in screening blood donors of the regional blood bank in Londrina, Paraná State

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Ingridt Hildegard; Saito, Mariza; Spinosa, Adriana Aparecida; da Silva, Marilza Celina; Munhoz, Egberto; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2011-01-01

    Background For transfusion purposes, blood donors must be accepted both in clinical and serological evaluations and must not have excluded their own donation using the confidential unit exclusion. Aim The objective of this study was to verify whether blood donors who choose self exclusion are more likely to be positive in serological tests than donors who do not. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out of 51,861 consecutive whole blood donations from January 2004 to December 2008 at a public blood bank in Londrina, Southern Brazil. Results Self exclusion was chosen in 1672 (3.2%) donations, most frequently by first-time blood donors (p-value < 0.0001), by blood donors from external collections (p-value < 0.0001), by men (p value < 0.0001) and by under 30-year-old donors (p-value < 0.0001). The frequency of positive serology was 5.3% in the group that chose self exclusion and 3.5% in the group that did not choose self exclusion (p-value < 0.0001). Conclusions These results show that confidential unit exclusion used in this blood bank is effective and is inexpensive. However, the diagnostic power to detect blood-borne infections was low and resulted in the discard of a high number of blood bags without any direct or indirect serologic markers of pathogens. The use of confidential unit exclusion could be replaced with molecular tests to screen blood donors. PMID:23049338

  1. Distribution of Parvovirus B19 DNA in Blood Compartments and Persistence of Virus in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tzong-Hae; Kleinman, Steven H.; Wen, Li; Montalvo, Lani; Todd, Deborah S.; Wright, David J.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Busch, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Because the receptor for Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is on erythrocytes, we investigated B19V distribution in blood by in-vitro spiking experiments and evaluated viral compartmentalization and persistence in natural infection. Methods Two whole blood protocols (ultracentrifugation and a rapid RBC lysis/removal protocol) were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Whole blood (WB) was spiked with known concentrations of B19V and recovery in various blood fractions was determined. The rapid RBC lysis/removal protocol was then used to compare B19V concentrations in 104 paired whole blood and plasma samples collected longitudinally from 43 B19V infected donors with frozen specimens in the REDS Allogeneic Donor and Recipient Repository (RADAR). Results In B19V spiking experiments, ~one-third of viral DNA was recovered in plasma and two-thirds was loosely bound to erythrocytes. In the IgM positive stage of infection in blood donors when plasma B19V DNA concentrations were > 100 IU/mL, median DNA concentrations were ~30-fold higher in WB than in plasma. In contrast, when IgM was absent and when the B19V DNA concentration was lower, the median whole blood to plasma ratio was ~1. Analysis of longitudinal samples demonstrated persistent detection of B19V in WB but declining ratios of WB/plasma B19V with declining plasma VL levels and loss of IgM-reactivity. Conclusions The WB/plasma B19V DNA ratio varies by stage of infection. Further study is required to determine if this is related to the presence of circulating DNA-positive erythrocytes derived from B19V infected erythroblasts, B19V-specific IgM mediated binding of virus to cells, or other factors. PMID:21303368

  2. False-reactive microbiologic screening test results in Swedish blood donors-how big is the problem? A survey among blood centers and deferred donors.

    PubMed

    Tynell, Elsa; Norda, Rut; Ekermo, Bengt; Sanner, Margareta; Andersson, Sören; Björkman, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Screening of blood donors for markers of transfusion-transmissible infectious agents leads to a varying number of false-reactive test results and sometimes thereby temporary or permanent deferral of donors and also to loss of collected units. Data on false-reactive screening test results in 2002 and 2003 were collected from 19 blood centers in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to donors deferred because of false-reactive screening test results to investigate their perception of the information and their reaction to the deferral. Testing of 21,189 samples from new donors and 423,543 donations from regular and/or repeat donors produced 1,059 false-reactive test results, mostly from hepatitis C virus antibody testing, and 299 deferrals. Six different human immunodeficiency virus tests led to between 0.02 and 0.2 percent false-reactive results. The deferral rate varied considerably between different counties. Of 204 deferred donors contacted, 180 (88%) answered the questionnaire. More than 80 percent were worried about their test results and worry was more common among those who did not feel sufficiently informed. The results imply that there is a need for a more standardized approach to the screening of blood donors and donations with the aim of minimizing the number of false-reactive screening test results. They also emphasize the importance of appropriate information and support to deferred donors.

  3. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Shrein H.; Guiltinan, Anne M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L.; D’Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L.; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J.; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. RESULTS Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). CONCLUSION Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. PMID:21658037

  4. The prevalence of SEN virus infection in blood donors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Mahmoodian-Shooshtari, Mahmood; Talebian, Ali

    2008-07-01

    SEN virus is a blood-borne, single-stranded, nonenveloped DNA virus. Two of its strains (D and H), appear to be associated with non-A-to-E hepatitis more frequently than the others, although it is not clear whether this observation has any significance. The prevalence of SEN virus in otherwise healthy individuals, including blood donors, differs markedly by geographic region. In this study, an investigation to evaluate the prevalence of SEN virus strains among blood donors in Tehran was carried out. Sera of 260 blood donors who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) were tested for SEN virus-D and -H DNA. DNA was extracted from plasma of 260 blood donors and amplified by semi- nested polymerase chain reaction. SEN virus-D viremia was detected in four (1.5%) of the 260 blood donors (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0 - 3%). SEN virus-H viremia was detected in 47 (18.08%) of the 260 blood donors (95% CI, 13.4 - 22.8%). Both SEN virus-D and SEN virus-H viremia were detected in nine (3.4%) of the 260 blood donors (95% CI, 1.2 - 5.7%). SEN virus-D or SEN virus-H viremia was identified in 60 (23.08%) of the 260 blood donors (95% CI, 18.08 - 28.08%). Out of the 260 blood donors, 60 (23%) were infected by SEN virus-D/H. The prevalence of SEN virus-H is more than SEN virus-D. Our results also showed that the high prevalence of SEN virus in healthy blood donors with no history of blood transfusion may attribute to the transmission modes other than parenteral transmission.

  5. The operational implications of donor behaviors following enrollment in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency in blood donors).

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Birch, Rebecca J; Spencer, Bryan R; Wright, David J; Bialkowski, Walter; Kiss, Joseph E; Rios, Jorge; Bryant, Barbara J; Mast, Alan E

    2017-07-13

    Donor behaviors in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency), a trial to reduce iron deficiency, were examined. Six hundred ninety-two frequent donors were randomized to receive either 19 or 38 mg iron for 60 days or an educational letter based on their predonation ferritin. Compliance with assigned pills, response to written recommendations, change in donation frequency, and future willingness to take iron supplements were examined. Donors who were randomized to receive iron pills had increased red blood cell donations and decreased hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE donations. Donors who were randomized to receive educational letters had fewer hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls. Of those who received a letter advising of low ferritin levels with recommendations to take iron supplements or delay future donations, 57% reported that they initiated iron supplementation, which was five times as many as those who received letters lacking a specific recommendation. The proportion reporting delayed donation was not statistically different (32% vs. 20%). Of donors who were assigned pills, 58% reported taking them "frequently," and forgetting was the primary reason for non-compliance. Approximately 80% of participants indicated that they would take iron supplements if provided by the center. Donors who were assigned iron pills had acceptable compliance, producing increased red blood cell donations and decreased low hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE rates. The majority of donors assigned to an educational letter took action after receiving a low ferritin result, with more donors choosing to take iron than delay donation. Providing donors with information on iron status with personalized recommendations was an effective alternative to directly providing iron supplements. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis; Banifazl, Mohammad; Sofian, Masoomeh; Mahdaviani, Fatemeh-Alsadat; Yaghmaie, Farhad; Aghakhani, Arezoo

    2014-06-01

    Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT) has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated. A total of 530 consecutive blood donor samples were collected from Blood Transfusion Organization, Central province of Iran. All samples were tested for diphteria and tetanus IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 530 cases, 91.9% were male and 8.1% were female. 99.6% of cases had protective levels of diphtheria antibody. Protective levels of tetanus antibody were found in 96% of subjects. There was not any significant difference between diphtheria and tetanus antibodies levels and age and sex. The obtained data showed that high proportion of the adult population in Arak have sufficient protection against diphtheria and tetanus. The high protective level of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in Iran can be due to widespread use of booster vaccines in Iranian high schools and during the military services or for pregnant women in their 3(rd) trimester.

  7. Characterization of rubella seronegative females in the zambian blood donor community.

    PubMed

    Mazaba, Mazyanga L; Monze, Mwaka; Babaniyi, Olusegun A; Siziya, Seter; Michelo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection caused by a teratogenic enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, rubella virus, a member of the togaviridae family. Though causing generally mild infections in children and adults, it is a disease of public health importance in pregnant women causing major problems including abortions, miscarriages, and congenital rubella syndrome in more than 20% of the susceptible population. This study was carried out to determine the characteristics associated with rubella seronegativity among female blood donors in Zambia. Rubella-specific IgG antibody levels were measured in the blood serum. Proportions were compared using the Chi-squared test at the 5% significance level, and magnitudes of associations were determined using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Of the 124 female blood donors tested for rubella IgG 46.0% were aged <20 years. Overall, 66.7% of the participants had never been married. More than half (62.1%) of the participants resided in rural areas of the country. Of the 114 participants with recorded level of education, 50.1% had at least completed secondary school. Out of 43 participants with recorded current employment status, 44.2% were not working for pay. A total of 10 (8.1%) participants were seronegative to rubella IgG antibodies. No factors were associated with seronegativity. Protection against rubella through natural infection appears inadequate to protect the population, increasing the risk of CRS.

  8. Seroprevalence of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 in Blood Donors in Northern Pakistan: Implications for Blood Donor Screening.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat

    2015-12-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Descriptive study. Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test-reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended.

  9. Relationship between blood donors' iron status and their age, body mass index and donation frequency.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Natanzi, Mahboobeh Mehrabani; Djalali, Mahmoud; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Zareei, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Regular blood donation may decrease body iron storage and lead to anemia. The aim here was to evaluate the iron status of Iranian male blood donors and the impact of age, body mass index (BMI) and donation frequency over one year, on iron status indices. Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study at Tehran Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran. Between July and September 2011, 117 male blood donors were selected and divided into four groups according to their frequency of blood donation. Thirty male non-donors were also recruited as controls after adjusting for age, weight, height, smoking habits and monthly income. Iron status indices and some criteria such as general health and dietary measurements were determined among all subjects. The values of the iron-related parameters were significantly lower among donors than among non-donors. Only total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was found to be significantly higher among different donor groups than in the controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and serum ferritin (SF) only among the donors who had donated once within the preceding year. The iron status indices did not show any significant relationship with BMI among donors or non-donors. A donation frequency of more than twice a year had a significant influence on iron-related parameters. Therefore, without annual measurement of these parameters, further phlebotomies may lead to iron deficiency and donor rejection in the future.

  10. Platelet function abnormalities in qualified whole-blood donors: effects of medication and recent food intake.

    PubMed

    Paglieroni, T G; Janatpour, K; Gosselin, R; Crocker, V; Dwyre, D M; MacKenzie, M R; Holland, P V; Larkin, E C

    2004-01-01

    Platelet function abnormalities have been reported in blood donors who have not consumed aspirin. Our objective was to identify factors other than aspirin that may contribute to impaired platelet function in qualified volunteer blood donors. Blood samples were obtained from 24 donors following routine blood donation. Donors completed a study questionnaire that included questions about recent food consumption, medication and medical history. Platelet activation was measured using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding on platelets were used as indicators of platelet activation. Platelet function was measured on a platelet function analyser (PFA-100) using both collagen/epinephrine (cEPI) and collagen/ADP (cADP) cartridges. Fifty-four per cent of donors (13 of 24) had normal platelet function. Thirty-eight per cent (nine of 24) had prolonged cEPI closure times, of whom four (17%) had no cEPI closure (> 300 seconds). No closure was associated with aspirin use (two donors) or chocolate consumption (two donors) before donation. Two donors (8%) had either a shortened cEPI or cADP closure time. Platelet dysfunction in qualified blood donors is underestimated. Platelet function screening can identify donors with diet-related platelet dysfunction or with poor recollection of aspirin use.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Human Blood Cytometries: Potential Donors and Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Segovia-Olvera, P.; Mancilla-Escobar, B. E.; Palomares, P.

    2004-09-01

    The histograms of the cell volume from human blood present valuable information for clinical evaluation. Measurements can be performed with automatic equipment and a graphical presentation of the data is available, nevertheless, an statistical and mathematical analysis of the cell volume distribution could be useful for medical interpretation too, as much as the numerical parameters characterizing the histograms might be correlated with healthy people and patient populations. In this work, a statistical exercise was performed in order to find the most suitable model fitting the cell volume histograms. Several trial functions were tested and their parameters were tabulated. Healthy people exhibited an average of the cell volume of 85 femto liters while patients had 95 femto liters. White blood cell presented a small variation and platelets preserved their average for both populations.

  12. Infectivity of blood components from donors with occult hepatitis B infection - results from an Australian lookback programme.

    PubMed

    Seed, C R; Maloney, R; Kiely, P; Bell, B; Keller, A J; Pink, J

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transfused blood components from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) are potentially infectious. This study reports the results of an Australian lookback programme for the period subsequent to the commencement of individual donation HBV NAT in July 2010 and estimates the HBV transmission rate for components from two categories of donors, confirmed OBI and HBV inconclusive (anti-HBc reactive with non-discriminated NAT result). Using the results of lookback investigations, we estimated HBV transmission rates by donor category and type of component transfused based on the prevalence of antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in recipients adjusted for the estimated prevalence in the general population. After subtracting the background anti-HBc rate, we derived an adjusted transmission rate (all components) with lower and upper bounds as follows: 0·85% (0·00-2·35%) for OBI donors, 2·83% (1·23-4·33%) for inconclusive donors and 1·81% (0·21-3·31%) for total (OBI and inconclusive) donors. The median adjusted transmission rate for total donors was higher (but not statistically) for plasma (3·01%) than RCCs (2·86%), but there was no evidence of transmission for cryoprecipitate or platelets (0% for both components). Our lookback study suggests a low (0·2-3·3%) but measurable rate of HBV transmission in Australia associated with donors with OBI and supports published evidence that at least some blood component types from OBI donors, including a proportion undetectable by ID-NAT can transmit HBV by transfusion. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    high population density and thereby reduce the theoretical advantage of ATK (but definitely would not nullify it!). It is equally plausible, however, that this agent would behave like a prion, non-sexual transmission, or like a West-Nil virus, a non-contagious vector-transmitted agent. For PTK this would mean a relative risk up to 4 times (PTK from 4 BCs) or 5 times (PTK from 5 BCs) higher than the risk estimated by the Robert-Koch-Institute. If, taking the passive surveillance data and the changing variables (donor frequency, donor population, and donor location) into account, the risk of transmission of an infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) with HIV, HCV, and HBV moves closer to the higher risk of PTK (exposure to 4 or 8 donors, in case of double ATK per patient), this result of the risk model calculation by no means indicates any equivalency between PTK and ATK with respect to the risk of transmission of infection. The modifiable variables of donor frequency, donor population, and donor location need to be modified, as scientific deductions, in such a way that the avoidable risk of ATK which is influenced by these variables can be corrected to the minimum risk of a transmission of infection of HIV, HBV, and HCV via ATK in comparison to PTK. The minimum risk of a possible transmission of infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) is the basic intrinsic risk of each individual blood donation. The basic intrinsic risk increases relative to the number of blood donations or exposure to donors (PtK has an unalterable, production-dependent exposure to 4 or 8 donors). Let us consider a 1:1.000 prevalence for a new pathogen, which is spread equally in each donor population (apheresis and whole blood) and the present case of approximately 500,000 transfused platelet concentrates in Germany. This means that for the production of 4 PTK about 2 million donations are processed, 2,000 infectious Buffy-Coats are obtained and, thereby, 2,000 infectious PTK. In the case of ATK

  14. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infections among Healthy Volunteer Blood Donors in the Central California Valley

    PubMed Central

    Atla, Pradeep R.; Ameer, Adnan; Sadiq, Humaira; Sadler, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The Central California Valley has a diverse population with significant proportions of Hispanics and Asians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthy blood donors in the Valley. Methods A total of 217,738 voluntary blood donors were identified between 2006 and 2010 (36,795 first-time donors; 180,943 repeat donors). Results Among the first-time donors, the HBV and HCV prevalence was 0.28% and 0.52%, respectively. Higher HBV prevalence seen in Asians (3%) followed by Caucasians (0.05%), African Americans (0.15%), and Hispanics (0.05%). Hmong had a HBV prevalence of 7.63% with a peak prevalence of 8.76% among the 16- to 35-year-old age group. Highest HCV prevalence in Native Americans (2.8) followed by Caucasians (0.59%), Hispanics (0.45%), African Americans (0.38%), and Asians (0.2%). Conclusions Ethnic disparities persist with regard to the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the Central California Valley. The reported prevalence may be an underestimate because our study enrolled healthy volunteer blood donors only. The development of aggressive public health measures to evaluate the true prevalence of HBV and HCV and to identify those in need of HBV and HCV prevention measures and therapy is critically important. PMID:23423771

  15. Impact of predictive scoring model and e-mail messages on African American blood donors.

    PubMed

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Timm, Brad; Dasgupta, Pinaki; Hillyer, Christopher D; Kessler, Debra; Rebosa, Mark; France, Christopher R; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-06-01

    Expanding the African American (AA) donor pool is critical to sustain transfusion support for sickle cell disease patients. The aims were to: 1) apply cognitive computing on donation related metrics to develop a predictive model that effectively identifies repeat AA donors, 2) determine whether a single e-mail communication could improve AA donor retention and compare retention results on higher versus lower predictive score donors, and 3) evaluate the effect of e-mail marketing on AA donor retention with culturally versus nonculturally tailored message. Between 2011 and 2012, 30,786 AA donors donated blood at least once on whom predictive repeat donor scores (PRDSs) was generated from donor-related metrics (frequency of donations, duration between donations, age, blood type, and sex). In 2013, 28% (8657/30,786) of 2011 to 2012 donors returned to donate on whom PRDS was validated. Returning blood donors had a higher mean PRDS compared to nonreturning donors (0.649 vs. 0.268; p < 0.001). In the e-mail pilot, high PRDS (≥0.6) compared to low PRDS (<0.6) was associated with 89% higher donor presentation rate (p < 0.001), 20% higher e-mail opening rate (p < 0.001), and, specifically among those who opened the e-mail, 159% higher presentation rate (p < 0.001). Finally, blood donation rate did not differ (p = 0.79) as a function of generic (n = 9312, 1.4%) versus culturally tailored (n = 9326, 1.3%) message. Computational algorithms utilizing readily available donor metrics can identify highly committed AA donors and in conjunction with targeted e-mail communication has the potential to increase the efficiency of donor marketing. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Distribution and genetic analysis of TTV and TTMV major phylogenetic groups in French blood donors.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Philippe; Gallian, Pierre; Cantaloube, Jean-François; Attoui, Houssam; de Micco, Philippe; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2006-02-01

    TTV and TTMV (recently assigned to the floating genus Anellovirus) infect human populations (including healthy individuals) at high prevalence (>80%). They display notably high levels of genetic diversity, but very little is known regarding the distribution of Anellovirus genetic groups in human populations. We analyzed the distribution of the major genetic groups of TTV and TTMV in healthy voluntary blood donors using group-independent and group-specific PCR amplifications systems, combined with sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of Anellovirus groups revealed a non-random pattern of group distribution with a predominant prevalence of TTV phylogenetic groups 1, 3, and 5, and of TTMV group 1. Multiple co-infections were observed. In addition, TTMV sequences exhibiting a high genetic divergence with reference sequences were identified. This study provided the first picture of the genetic distribution of the major phylogenetic groups of members of the genus Anellovirus in a cohort of French voluntary blood donors. Obtaining such data from a reference population comprising healthy individuals was an essential step that will allow the subsequent comparative analysis of cohorts including patients with well-characterized diseases, in order to identify any possible relationship between Anellovirus infection and human diseases.

  17. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  18. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infectious agents among volunteer blood donors between 2006 and 2012 in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaofan; Ding, Wei; Li, Gan; Wu, Yaling; Wu, Danxiao; Zhu, Hong; He, Ji; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Longyou; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), paralleling the growing epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (TP) infections in the general population, poses a great threat to blood safety in China. This study investigated the prevalence of serological markers for causative agents of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI), i.e. HBV, HCV, HIV and TP, among volunteer blood donors in five cities/regions of Zhejiang Province, China. Material and methods We investigated whole blood and apheresis donations collected at the Blood Services in five cities/regions in Zhejiang Province between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012. Two rounds of serological testing were performed for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2 and anti-TP using different kits. The rates of serological positivity were calculated and further analysis was performed to examine the association between donors’ characteristics and seroprevalence. Results Of the 1,615,120 donations, approximately 40% came from first-time donors and 60% from repeat donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV, HIV and TP were 0.51%, 0.25%, 0.15% and 0.52%, respectively. The overall prevalences of HCV and HIV remained relatively steady, whereas the prevalence of TP increased sharply after 2010. However, the prevalence of TTI agents varied among volunteer blood donors in different cities/regionsand demographic groups. Discussion We collected data on the seroprevalence of TTI agents among volunteer blood donors. Although the risk of TTI is low in China compared to that in some developing countries, sensitive screening methods and recruitment of regular donors are still very important for blood safety and availability. PMID:26192780

  19. The effect of plasmapheresis on blood pressure in voluntary plasma donors

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Bray, M; Wisdom, C; Marier, J F; Mouksassi, M-S; Wada, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donor plasmapheresis involves the removal of a weight-adjusted volume of plasma and the return of cellular components to the donor. Although plasma volume generally returns to normal, some residual effect on vital signs may be possible. This analysis was performed to determine the possible effects of plasmapheresis on blood pressure. Materials and Methods A 16-week study was conducted to evaluate the effects of plasma donations on cholesterol levels in healthy donors. From this study, the vital signs obtained prior to donation were analysed using statistical and dynamic analytical predictive models. Results Preliminary analyses revealed a change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from the corresponding baseline values (Pearson Coefficient −0·44 and −0·47, respectively). Statistical models predicted a marked decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following multiple donations in donors with baseline pressure in the Stage 2 hypertension range with less pronounced decreases predicted in Stage 1 donors. Little or no change in blood pressure was predicted in donors with baseline normal blood pressure or prehypertension. Dynamic models including time between donations supported these results and predicted a recovery period of about 14 days without donation in donors with Stage 2 baseline levels. Conclusions Results suggest that systolic and diastolic blood pressure may be decreased following plasmapheresis used for plasma donations at intervals of <14 days in donors with high baseline blood pressure levels. PMID:25169580

  20. [Reference values for the blood coagulation tests in Mexico: usefulness of the pooled plasma from blood donors].

    PubMed

    Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.

  1. Blood donation in a large urban centre of southeast Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, E C; Bolina-Santos, E; Mendes-Oliveira, F; Miranda, C; Sabino, E C; Cioffi, J G M; Camargos, V; Caiaffa, W; Xavier, C C; Proietti, F A; Carneiro-Proietti, A B de Freitas

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and characterise potential blood donors and non-donors in a well-populated and representative urban area of Southeastern Brazil. Studies on blood donation usually evaluate individuals who donate. Population-based studies may contribute to characterise those who never reach the blood centre, trying to increase the range of donors. This was a secondary analysis of a population-based survey and a blood donor motivation study [Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation study (REDS II) International]. In a cross-sectional study 4047 individuals representing a metropolitan area answered the question 'Have you ever donated blood at least once in your life?'. The profiles ('Yes/No') were compared. Non-donors from this reference population were compared with donors of a local blood center, in a case control analysis. A total of 69·0% of the population had never donated blood and was composed mostly of women, younger than 30 years old, people not contributing to social security and not subscribing to newspapers. In the case-control study, the likelihood of donating was higher for: men, younger than 50 years old, longer time of education, married, participating in political campaigns and with a good self-perception of health. The factors associated with no blood donation were: self-reported mixed or white race/ethnicity, income higher than two minimum wages and belonging to trade union, political, religious/spiritual, or other social group and worse self perception of health. This population-based study allowed us to characterise a high proportion of people that never reaches the blood centre. The results may be used to diversify the donor profile, creating strategies to target those least likely to donate blood, as women, white people and those with higher income and purchasing power. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Lymphocyte T subsets and natural killer cells in Italian and Philippino blood donors.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, D; Ghirardini, A; Cafolla, A; Biffoni, M; Coluzzi, S; Vaglio, S; Girelli, G

    2003-01-01

    The characterization of lymphocyte subsets in blood donors has been utilized to determine the normal ranges that can be related to race. A study was performed in blood donors from two racial groups - Caucasian (Italians) and Asian (Philippinos) - to define respective T-lymphocyte subsets and levels of cytokines. Ninety-two blood donors (46 Italians and 46 Philippinos) were enrolled. Blood count and immunophenotyping of lymphocytes by flow cytometry were carried out, and cytokine production was tested in six blood donors of each group. Philippino blood donors showed a significantly higher mean value of leucocytes (P = 0.01) and lymphocytes (P < 0.001) than Italians. The mean absolute count of lymphocyte subsets CD3- CD16+ CD56+ and CD3+ CD8+ were both significantly higher in Philippino than in Italian subjects, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001. Philippinos showed a statistically significant higher frequency of lymphocytes producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) compared to Italians (P = 0.02). T-lymphocyte subsets in Italian and Philippino blood donors seem to be correlated to ethnic background. The higher levels of CD3+ CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and IFN-gamma-producing cells found in Philippinos suggest leucoreduction in Asian blood donors.

  3. Isolation of precursor endothelial cells from peripheral blood for donor-specific crossmatching before organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Dilki; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2002-12-15

    The clinical importance of endothelial-cell (EC) antibodies (Abs) in allo-transplantation (Tx) has been reported. However, lack of a suitable method for isolation of donor-specific ECs has prevented routine detection of these Abs before Tx. We describe a quick and simple method for the direct isolation of ECs from whole blood, for routine crossmatching (XM) to detect anti-EC Abs. ECs were isolated using magnetic beads coated with Abs against the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 that is expressed on EC precursors. A retrospective analysis of 50 previously well-characterized XM sera taken immediately before transplantation from patients with end-stage kidney disease were tested. Tie-2+ cells expressed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, class II, and other EC markers. Sera known to contain only EC-specific or EC- and monocyte (EM)-reactive Abs reacted positively with Tie-2+ cells but not with Tie-2- cells from the same individual. In addition, the Tie-2+ cells reacted with sera containing only HLA class I or class II Abs. In all, 3 of 25 sera from patients with stable graft outcome and no rejections reacted with Tie-2+ cells. For the first time, with use of a single-target cell population, the detection of clinically relevant donor-specific HLA class I, class II, EM, and EC-specific Abs can be performed routinely before Tx. This method is promising because it is quick, specific, and easy to perform on whole blood samples and can therefore be used to perform routine donor-specific EC crossmatching (ECXM) in the future. Routine use of ECXM will aid in identifying better donor-recipient combinations and thus have a greater impact on transplant survival as compared with lymphocyte crossmatch (LXM).

  4. Collaboration between hematopoietic stem cell donor registry and cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Raffoux, C

    2010-10-01

    Despite the huge number of volunteer donors registered worldwide, only a mean of 50% of patients not having a family donor are transplanted with an unrelated donor. Since 1990, a network has been implemented among some European registries. With the help of the European Community, a more sophisticated network has been developed, the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS). A new project underwent development by registries and the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide: the EMDIS Cord Blood Registry. It will in the future permit to obtain after a search request, one report containing all of the best donors worldwide and best umbilic cord blood for each patient, taking into account possible double cord blood transplantations and other factors, such as number of nucleated cells, number of CD34+ cells, and methods of reduction. Only a strong collaboration between all hematopoietic stem cell registries and cord blood banks would allow a Registry to propose the best donor/cord blood unit for each patient in each country. Progress in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be obtained by the parallel development of cord blood banks worldwide and bone marrow donor registries among countries that include minorities.

  5. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  6. A perspective on the selection of unrelated donors and cord blood units for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spellman, Stephen R.; Eapen, Mary; Logan, Brent R.; Mueller, Carlheinz; Rubinstein, Pablo; Setterholm, Michelle I.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Confer, Dennis L.; Hurley, Carolyn K.

    2012-01-01

    Selection of a suitable graft for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves consideration of both donor and recipient characteristics. Of primary importance is sufficient donor-recipient HLA matching to ensure engraftment and acceptable rates of GVHD. In this Perspective, the National Marrow Donor Program and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research provide guidelines, based on large studies correlating graft characteristics with clinical transplantation outcomes, on appropriate typing strategies and matching criteria for unrelated adult donor and cord blood graft selection. PMID:22596257

  7. A perspective on the selection of unrelated donors and cord blood units for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Stephen R; Eapen, Mary; Logan, Brent R; Mueller, Carlheinz; Rubinstein, Pablo; Setterholm, Michelle I; Woolfrey, Ann E; Horowitz, Mary M; Confer, Dennis L; Hurley, Carolyn K

    2012-07-12

    Selection of a suitable graft for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves consideration of both donor and recipient characteristics. Of primary importance is sufficient donor-recipient HLA matching to ensure engraftment and acceptable rates of GVHD. In this Perspective, the National Marrow Donor Program and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research provide guidelines, based on large studies correlating graft characteristics with clinical transplantation outcomes, on appropriate typing strategies and matching criteria for unrelated adult donor and cord blood graft selection.

  8. Design of a donor-driven data collection strategy for operational improvement of blood donation process.

    PubMed

    Padman, R; Heuston, M; Ashley, S; Bhortake, A; Carey, R; Dua, S; Mihelic, M; Rajderkar, S; Saini, V

    2010-07-01

    Prior studies have noted that donor retention may be negatively impacted by the total time it takes to complete the blood donation process. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the blood donation process and examine opportunities for operational improvements, an educational partnership established between a blood bank and a university designed and implemented a donor-driven data collection strategy. A large amount of real-time, comprehensive, donor-reported data was collected as donors navigated the process, which has enabled a thorough analysis of the process and its potential improvements. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation efforts, examine the challenges in operationalizing a donor-driven data collection approach, and present insights and recommendations for its application in similar settings. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. [Standardization of serological tests for Chagas disease: an immunoenzymatic test for blood donors triage].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A W; Belem, Z R; Moura, M E; Camargo, M E

    1991-01-01

    In the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease large divergences may be found even between laboratories with experience, as a consequence of different criteria for the standardization of the tests. To standardize a immunoenzymatic test developed primarily for screening blood donors, serum panels were carefully chosen so as to best represent chagasic and non-chagasic populations. Produced for the highest sensibility and stability, the new reagent (bioELISA cruzi, Biolab Diagnóstica S/A, Brasil), was tested in serum from 1648 patients 219 with Chagas disease and 104 with other diseases, plus a comparison with well standardized immunofluorescence and hemagglutination tests in 1325 sera. In the immunoenzymatic assays, the cut off was indicated by the absorbance value of a chagasic serum showing a minimal reactivity. ELISA sensibility was 0.9954 and specificity 0.9969, as co-negativity. False positive results were absent with sera from syphilis, toxoplasmosis, mononucleosis and high titered sera for antistreptolysin 0 antibodies. However they were seen in 5 to 15 cases of tegumentar leishmaniasis, 1 of 12 Kala-azar 1 of 15 rheumatoid arthritis and 1 of 12 systemic lupus erythematosus. The high sensibility in chagasics and high specificity in the general population indicate the confiability of the immunoenzymatic assay for screening blood donors and even to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Chagas' disease.

  10. Effects of plateletpheresis on blood coagulation parameters in healthy donors at National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti Nadiah, A K; Nor Asiah, M; Nur Syimah, A T; Normi, M; Anza, E; Aini, A Nor; Mohd Zahari, T H; Shahnaz, M; Faraizah, A K; Faisal, M A

    2013-12-01

    Plateletpheresis is a method used to remove platelet from the body either from random volunteer donors, patient's family members or HLA matched donors. A cross sectional study was carried out on 59 plateletpheresis donors aged between 18 and 55 years at National Blood Center (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. We compared the blood parameters before and after plateletpheresis and we found that the platelet count, FVIII, fibrinogen and thrombophilia markers anti-thrombin (AT), protein C and protein S were significantly reduced (p<0.05) with prolonged PT and APTT. There were significant changes in blood coagulation parameters but it is within acceptable range.

  11. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  12. Motivation in Italian whole blood donors and the role of commitment.

    PubMed

    Bani, Marco; Strepparava, Maria Grazia

    2011-12-01

    The literature contains numerous reports on motivation in blood donors, although none of these are specific to blood donation in Italy and almost all of them focus on altruism and the desire to help others. Altruism is important, but a comprehensive analysis of donor motivation should examine all the factors affecting the decision to donate, including commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The aims of this paper are to verify if the motivational factors that influence the choice to donate blood in Italy are generally consistent with the findings from other countries reported in the literature and to focus on commitment to donor organizations as an additional factor. A sample of 895 whole blood donors completed a self-report questionnaire containing questions about: reasons for beginning to donate, people who influenced this choice, and level of commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood for the first time were "to help others" (56%), "influence of family/friends" (22%), and "social/moral obligation" (11.2%); commitment did not vary as a function of the leading motivation reported. Differences emerged between males, who more frequently reported having been influenced by parents and friends, and females, who referred more often to altruistic motives. The opportunity to check one's own state of health also played an important role (6.9%), especially for male donors. Overall, however, the decision to donate was primarily a personal choice (41.3%), although influence was also attributed to relatives (21.8%), friends (22.3%), and voluntary blood donor organizations (21.8%). The reported level of commitment to the donor organization was positively correlated with the number of total and annual donations made and number of new donors recruited.

  13. Survey of the seroprovalence of HTLV I/II in hemodialysis patients and blood donors in Urmia.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Baradaran, Mohammad; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2008-09-01

    Human T lymphocytotropic virus HTLV is a virus from retroviridae family, and more than 20 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. It can cause leukemia/lymphoma in adults, tropical spastic paralysis, HTLV associated myelopathy, spastic paraparesis, tropical myelopathy (HAM/TSP), and some other nervous system diseases. It is transmitted by means of blood products via blood transfusion. In Iran, except the Great Khorasan region, none of blood products undergo screening for HTLV. Immunodeficiency in HD patients, results in increased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HTLV-I/II antibody among hemo-dialysis patients and healthy blood donors in Urmia, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2005 to January 2006 among healthy blood donors and in 2006 among hemodialysis patients. The serum of 2046 blood donors and 95 Hemodialysis patients was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti HTLV-I/II, and positive cases were confirmed by western blot. Three seropositive cases among 95 hemodialysis patients were detected, and only one of them was confirmed by western blot. Of the healthy blood donors 1910 (93.4%) were males and 136 (6.6%) were females. Serum of 1997 (97.6%) subjects was negative, and 49 (2.6%) cases were positive for HTLV by ELISA. Among the positive cases western blot confirmed only 7 (14.3%) persons as HTLV positive, 37 (75.5%) as negative, and 5 (10.2%) as indeterminate. Among the 7 positive cases 6 (85.6%) were infected with HTLV-I, and only one (14.3%) with HTLV-I /II infection. Total Serologic prevalence of HTLV in healthy blood donors was 0.34%. We conclude that such high serologic prevalence in the population of blood donors in Urmia city, suggests the high probability of transmission through blood transfusion, and therefore screening of blood donors for human T-lymphocyte virus is essential in this region. HD patients should be screened for HTLV and positive

  14. Prevalence of anti-A and anti-B hemolysis among blood group O donors in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Adeyemo, T A; Ogbenna, A A; Akanmu, A S

    2015-01-01

    Group O donor blood is more readily available and is frequently used as universal red cell donor in our environment. The presence of hemolysins in the donors may however lead to hemolysis in the recipients. Attempts have been made to study the prevalence of hemolysins in various populations with results from our environment showing wide variation (20-80%). To determine the prevalence and titer of anti-A and anti B hemolysins among blood donors at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and compare results with that obtained elsewhere. Determine if the practice of transfusion of group O blood to nongroup O recipients is permissible in this environment. Test for hemolysis was done using the standard tube method. Samples positive for hemolysis were then scored and titrated with the titers read visually and photometrically at 540 nm. Three hundred and fifty blood group O donors with age range 18-58 years and median age of 28 ΁ 8.4 years were enrolled in the study. The overall prevalence of anti-A and/or anti-B hemolysins obtained was 30.3%. Prevalence of anti-A and anti-B hemolysins only was 15.4% and 5.1% respectively whereas both anti-A and anti-B hemolysins were present in 9.7% donor samples. Though anti-A hemolysins were more prevalent than anti-B hemolysins, anti-B hemolysins had higher mean visual (6:7) and spectrophotometric titers (81:101). A visual titer of 8 and above which is considered significant was seen in 18.6% of donor samples. Anti-A and anti-B hemolysins exist in significant frequencies and titers among blood group O donors in Lagos. It is recommended that the use of group O donor blood for recipients who are non-O be discouraged. Clinical studies to determine the frequency and severity of hemolysis in non-group O recipients of blood group O are required.

  15. The strategies to reduce iron deficiency in blood donors randomized trial: design, enrolment and early retention.

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, W; Bryant, B J; Schlumpf, K S; Wright, D J; Birch, R; Kiss, J E; D'Andrea, P; Cable, R G; Spencer, B R; Vij, V; Mast, A E

    2015-02-01

    Repeated blood donation produces iron deficiency. Changes in dietary iron intake do not prevent donation-induced iron deficiency. Prolonging the interdonation interval or using oral iron supplements can mitigate donation-induced iron deficiency. The most effective operational methods for reducing iron deficiency in donors are unknown. 'Strategies To Reduce Iron Deficiency' (STRIDE) was a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in blood donors. 692 donors were randomized into one of two educational groups or one of three interventional groups. Donors randomized to educational groups either received letters thanking them for donating, or, suggesting iron supplements or delayed donation if they had low ferritin. Donors randomized to interventional groups either received placebo, 19-mg or 38-mg iron pills. Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 52·7% of males and 74·6% of females at enrolment. Adverse events within 60 days of enrolment were primarily mild gastrointestinal symptoms (64%). The incidence of de-enrolment within 60 days was more common in the interventional groups than in the educational groups (P = 0·002), but not more common in those receiving iron than placebo (P = 0·68). The prevalence of iron deficient erythropoiesis in donors enrolled in the STRIDE study is comparable to previously described cohorts of regular blood donors. De-enrolment within 60 days was higher for donors receiving tablets, although no more common in donors receiving iron than placebo. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. CMV infection after transplant from cord blood compared to other alternative donors: the importance of donor-negative CMV serostatus.

    PubMed

    Mikulska, Małgorzata; Raiola, Anna Maria; Bruzzi, Paolo; Varaldo, Riccardo; Annunziata, Silvana; Lamparelli, Teresa; Frassoni, Francesco; Tedone, Elisabetta; Galano, Barbara; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Viscoli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are important complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, particularly after transplant from alternative donors. Allogeneic cord blood transplantation (CBT) is being increasingly used, but immune recovery may be delayed. The aim of this study was to compare CMV infection in CBT with transplants from unrelated or mismatched related donors, from now on defined as alternative donors. A total of 165 consecutive transplants were divided in 2 groups: (1) alternative donors transplants (n = 85) and (2) CBT recipients (n = 80). Donor and recipient (D/R) CMV serostatus were recorded. The incidence of CMV infection, its severity, timing, and outcome were compared. Median follow-up was 257 days (1-1328). CMV infection was monitored by CMV antigenemia and expressed as CMV Ag positive cell/2 × 10(5) polymorphonuclear blood cells. There was a trend toward a higher cumulative incidence of CMV infection among CBT than alternative donor transplant recipients (64% vs 51%, P = .12). The median time to CMV reactivation was 35 days, and was comparable in the 2 groups (P = .8). The maximum number of CMV-positive cells was similar in the 2 groups (11 versus 16, P = .2). The time interval between the first and the last positive CMV antigenemia was almost 4 times longer in CBT compared with alternative donor transplants (109 vs 29 days, respectively, P = .008). The incidence of late CMV infection was also higher in CBT (62% vs 24%, P < .001). The incidence of early and late CMV infection in CBT was similar to D-/R+ alternative transplants, and higher than in D+/R+ alternative transplants: early infection, 72% in CBT versus 69% in D-/R+ alternative versus 55% in D+/R+ alternative (P = .21); and late infection, 67% in CBT versus 60% in D-/R+ alternative versus 7% in D+/R+ alternative (P < .001). Transplant-related mortality and overall survival were similar between the groups: 34% versus 36% (P = .6) and 54% versus 46% (P = .3) for

  17. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors. PMID:27757184

  18. Occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors in South–Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nna, Emmanuel; Mbamalu, Chinenye; Ekejindu, Ifeoma

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10.6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0.9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti-HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8.0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8.0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24995918

  19. Prolongation of rat heart allografts by donor-specific blood transfusion treated with ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators.

  20. Occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nna, Emmanuel; Mbamalu, Chinenye; Ekejindu, Ifeoma

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10·6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0·9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti-HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8·0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8·0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  2. Epidemiologic and laboratory findings from 3 years of testing United States blood donors for Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Custer, Brian; Agapova, Maria; Bruhn, Roberta; Cusick, Robin; Kamel, Hany; Tomasulo, Peter; Biswas, Hope; Tobler, Leslie; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Caglioti, Sally; Busch, Michael

    2012-09-01

    At most blood centers in the United States routine testing of donations for Trypanosoma cruzi using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is followed by supplemental testing by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). The objective of this study was to report the results of routine testing and risk factor data from allogeneic blood donors. T. cruzi testing data from January 2007 through December 2009 were analyzed, and risk factor interviews and follow-up studies were conducted on seroreactive donors. Prevalences of confirmed infection and risk factors associated with infection were assessed using logistic and multivariable logistic regression. Of 2,940,491 allogeneic donations from 1,183,076 donors, 305 (0.01% per donation tested and 0.026% per blood donor) were repeat reactive (RR) and 89 of those were confirmed positive by RIPA, yielding an overall seroprevalence of 1 per 33,039 donations and 1 per 13,292 donors. Country of birth and US blood center location differences in the seroprevalence of T. cruzi were evident. The odds of confirmed infection were highest if the donor reported having been bitten by the reduviid (kissing) bug (odds ratio [OR], 76.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-3173) followed by having lived in a rural area of Latin America (OR, 38.6; 95% CI, 15.1-102.5). In multivariable analyses, having spent 3 months or more in Mexico or Central and/or South America was associated with the highest odds of RIPA-confirmed infection (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 2.7-26.5). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of ELISA RR donors exhibited low sensitivity (1/22 [4%] RIPA-confirmed donors was PCR positive). Risk factors for confirmed infection in US blood donors are consistent with the known epidemiology of Chagas disease. Blood donors or transfusions do not substantially contribute to the burden of T. cruzi infection in the United States. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in blood donors: results of the CARDIORISK study in the Parma Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Paolo; Adorni, Daniela; Bernuzzi, Gino; Cantarelli, Stefano; Cepparulo, Alberto; Cocchi, Tiziano; Dell'anna, Loretana; Formentini, Alessandro; Sassi, Maria; Scognamiglio, Fiorella; Vescovi, Maurizio; Franchini, Massimo

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease, which is one of the main causes of mortality in industrialised countries, is ever increasingly the focus of prevention. In this study, called "Cardiorisk", we evaluated cardiovascular risk in the population of blood donors at the Service of Immunohaematology and Transfusion Medicine in Parma. Between January 2007 and December 2008, 6,172 consecutive blood donors (aged 35-65 years) were enrolled in this project which entailed calculating each subject's cardiovascular risk score, based on an evaluation of both unalterable risk factors (age and gender) and modifiable risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glycaemia, smoking, hypertension) as well as anti-hypertensive and/or cholesterol-lowering therapy. Of the 6,172 donors enrolled in the study, 5,039 (81.7%) had a low cardiovascular risk (score from 0-10), 774 (12.5%) had a moderate cardiovascular risk (score from 11-19) and 359 (5.8%) donors had a high cardiovascular risk (score from 20-28). In our opinion, the calculation of cardiovascular risk is an important instrument for preventive medicine in blood donors.

  4. A behavior model for blood donors and marketing strategies to retain and attract them

    PubMed Central

    Aldamiz-echevarria, Covadonga; Aguirre-Garcia, Maria Soledad

    2014-01-01

    Objective analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others) in their efforts to capture and retain donors. Methods analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years. Results a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process. Conclusion the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations. PMID:25029059

  5. A behavior model for blood donors and marketing strategies to retain and attract them.

    PubMed

    Aldamiz-Echevarria, Covadonga; Aguirre-Garcia, Maria Soledad

    2014-01-01

    analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others) in their efforts to capture and retain donors. analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years. a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process. the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations towards blood donations among blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaiya, M A; Alakija, W; Ajala, A; Olatunji, R O

    2004-02-01

    Summary. interviewed with questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations about blood donations. It was found that a large number of them (92.9%) donated because of the benefits they will obtain from the hospital. Such benefits include antenatal registration (67.1%) and saving the lives of relations (25.8%). Even though many of the donors are educated (98.9%), majority of whom have university degrees (36.1%) and have heard about blood donation before, 52.4% of them believe they can contact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis infection from blood donation. A good number (47.0%) are afraid of what they regard as side effects, such as weight loss (23.8%), sexual failure (5.9%), high blood pressure (5.2%), sudden death (3.3%), and convulsion (1.47%). About 41.0% prefers certificates as an incentive for donation, whereas 13.6% prefers money; less than 3% will like their names announced or published on the media and 2.58% will donate for nothing. It is recommended that an intensive blood donation campaign should be maintained. This will allow people to be well informed, turning the positive attitude of saving life through blood donation to a regular practice.

  7. [Seroprevalence of viral markers among blood donors at the Blood Donor Center of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat, Morocco].

    PubMed

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among blood donors at the Blood Donor Center, Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital between 2010 and 2012. We conducted a retrospective study among military blood donors aged 18-50 years, with a male predominance (95%). Pre-donation interview is the first selection barrier for individuals at risk. Biological screening was performed by liquid enzyme immunoassay technique using antibodies and/or antigen. Fourth generation combined HCV and HIV antigen/antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test was used. The Blood Donor Center and the laboratory of virology used the same technique performed in duplicate to confirm results. Out of 25661 tested samples, the prevalence rate of HBV infections was 3.97 ‰ (n = 102), the prevalence rate of HCV infections was 2.45 ‰ (n = 63) and the prevalence rate of HIV infections was 0.15 ‰ (n = 4). A single case with HBV and HCV virus co-infection (0.039 ‰) was registered, no association between HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV or HBV, HCV and HIV infections was recorded. The low seroprevalence rates of viral markers recorded in our study show improvement in preventive measures for donor selection and screening tests. The registered prevalence encourages the use of combined reagent, which is the only alternative to molecular biology in developing countries.

  8. Influence of postmortem time on the outcome of blood cultures among cadaveric tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Saegeman, V; Verhaegen, J; Lismont, D; Verduyckt, B; De Rijdt, T; Ectors, N

    2009-02-01

    Tissue banks provide tissues of human cadaver donors for transplantation. The maximal time limit for tissue retrieval has been set at 24 h postmortem. This study aimed at evaluating the evidence for this limit from a microbiological point of view. The delay of growth in postmortem blood cultures, the identification of the species isolated and clinical/environmental factors were investigated among 100 potential tissue donors. No significant difference was found in the rate of donors with grown blood cultures within (25/65=38%) compared with after (24/65=37%) 24 h of death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and gastro-intestinal microorganisms were isolated within and after 24 h of death. Two factors--antimicrobial therapy and "delay before body cooling"--were significantly inversely related with donors' blood culture results. From a microbiological point of view, there is no evidence for avoiding tissue retrieval among donors after 24 h of death.

  9. Post-prandial rise of microvesicles in peripheral blood of healthy human donors.

    PubMed

    Suštar, Vid; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Stukelj, Roman; Frank, Mojca; Ogorevc, Eva; Janša, Rado; Mam, Keriya; Veranič, Peter; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2011-03-21

    Microvesicles isolated from body fluids are membrane - enclosed fragments of cell interior which carry information on the status of the organism. It is yet unclear how metabolism affects the number and composition of microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood. To study the post - prandial effect on microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood of 21 healthy donors, in relation to blood cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations. The average number of microvesicles in the isolates increased 5 hours post - prandially by 52%; the increase was statistically significant (p = 0.01) with the power P = 0.68, while the average total blood cholesterol concentration, average low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) and average high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) all remained within 2% of their fasting values. We found an 11% increase in triglycerides (p = 0.12) and a 6% decrease in blood glucose (p < 0.01, P = 0.74). The post - prandial number of microvesicles negatively correlated with the post - fasting total cholesterol concentration (r = - 0.46, p = 0.035) while the difference in the number of microvesicles in the isolates between post - prandial and post - fasting states negatively correlated with the respective difference in blood glucose concentration (r = - 0.39, p = 0.05). In a population of healthy human subjects the number of microvesicles in isolates from peripheral blood increased in the post - prandial state. The increase in the number of microvesicles was affected by the fasting concentration of cholesterol and correlated with the decrease in blood glucose.

  10. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    PubMed

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  11. Is seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among blood donors in Lebanon relevant?

    PubMed

    Tamim, Hala; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Ramia, Sami; Almawi, Wassim Y; Al-Jisr, Tamima; Ayoub, Tanios; Nabulsi-Majzoub, Malak; Kazma, Hassan; Baz, Elizabeth Kfoury

    2004-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with certain hematologic and neurologic disorders. Seroprevalence studies demonstrated that the distribution of HTLV-I is heterogeneous worldwide and not specific to 1 region. Because blood is one of the major routes of transmission of the virus, blood banks of several countries routinely screen all blood donations for HTLV-I. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I/II antibodies among Lebanese blood donors. Between August 2001 and March 2002, consecutive blood samples of 3529 blood donors were collected at blood banks of 4 major hospitals in Lebanon. Initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening resulted in 23 (0.7%) positive samples, of which 12 (0.3%) were reconfirmed positive by ELISA. Further analysis by Western blot resulted in 2 (0.06%) positive samples, of which 1 tested positive for HTLV-I by PCR (0.028%). Although its very low prevalence among Lebanese blood donors does not support routine screening of Lebanese blood donors for HTLV-I, screening of blood donors from other nationalities may be exercised, especially those from HTLV-I endemic areas.

  12. The strategies to reduce iron deficiency in blood donors randomized trial: design, enrolment and early retention

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, W.; Bryant, B. J.; Schlumpf, K. S.; Wright, D. J.; Birch, R.; Kiss, J. E.; D’Andrea, P.; Cable, R. G.; Spencer, B. R.; Vij, V.; Mast, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Repeated blood donation produces iron deficiency. Changes in dietary iron intake do not prevent donation-induced iron deficiency. Prolonging the interdonation interval or using oral iron supplements can mitigate donation-induced iron deficiency. The most effective operational methods for reducing iron deficiency in donors are unknown. Materials and Methods ‘Strategies To Reduce Iron Deficiency’ (STRIDE) was a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in blood donors. 692 donors were randomized into one of two educational groups or one of three interventional groups. Donors randomized to educational groups either received letters thanking them for donating, or, suggesting iron supplements or delayed donation if they had low ferritin. Donors randomized to interventional groups either received placebo, 19-mg or 38-mg iron pills. Results Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 52.7% of males and 74.6% of females at enrolment. Adverse events within 60 days of enrolment were primarily mild gastrointestinal symptoms (64%). The incidence of de-enrolment within 60 days was more common in the interventional groups than in the educational groups (P = 0.002), but not more common in those receiving iron than placebo (P = 0.68). Conclusion The prevalence of iron deficient erythropoiesis in donors enrolled in the STRIDE study is comparable to previously described cohorts of regular blood donors. De-enrolment within 60 days was higher for donors receiving tablets, although no more common in donors receiving iron than placebo. PMID:25469720

  13. [Motivation and sociology of blood donors in Tunisia: reality and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, I; Krichene, C; Rekik, H; Rekik, T; Menif, H; Gargouri, J

    2013-12-01

    In Tunisia, blood donation is voluntary, anonymous and non-remunerated. The aim of the study is to analyze donor motivation and sociology in the regional center of transfusion of Sfax. Between 14 May 2007 and 23 June 2007, a total of 903 Tunisian blood donors filled a questionnaire. Among the donors, 81.8% were men and have a mean age of 34.2 years and the majority of them have an age between 18 and 29 years. The middle social class was majority (77.8%) as well as the liberal profession (65.1%). Primary and secondary education were dominant (79.3%). Among the blood donors, 41.6% were new donors and 28.6% had a history of a single donation, 50.3% were voluntary and 49.7% replacement donors. The reasons motivating the voluntary donation were solidarity (69.9%), religion (21.2%), health benefit (3.6%) and insurance for the family (5.2%). The replacement donors refuse the voluntary donation for not obvious reasons (51%), lack of availability (13.3%), difficulties of accessibility of the sites of collection (7.6%), phobia of the blood and the stings (4.02%) or by refusal of blood donation (1.79%). The information and the raising awareness of the replacement donors could change in a near future their attitudes to become voluntary and regular donors. The implication of donor associations in the organization of the collections and the promotion of the blood donation would be of considerable contribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the prevalence of hepatitis C virus amongst blood donors in Libya: An investigation of providing a preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Daw, Mohamed A; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A; Habas, Moktar

    2016-02-12

    To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence among the Libyan population using blood donors and applying the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to predict future trends and formulate plans to minimize the burden of HCV infection. HCV positive cases were collected from 1008214 healthy blood donors over a 6-year period from 2008 to 2013. Data were used to construct the ARIMA model to forecast HCV seroprevalence among blood donors. The validity of the model was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error between the observed and fitted seroprevalence. The fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast the incidence of HCV beyond the observed period for the year 2014 and further to 2055. The overall prevalence of HCV among blood donors was 1.8%, varying over the study period from 1.7% to 2.5%, though no significant variation was found within each calendar year. The ARIMA model showed a non-significant auto-correlation of the residuals, and the prevalence was steady within the last 3 years as expressed by the goodness-of-fit test. The forecast incidence showed an increase in HCV seropositivity in 2014, ranging from 500 to 700 per 10000 population, with an overall prevalence of 2.3%-2.7%. This may be extended to 2055 with minimal periodical variation within each 6-year period. The applied model was found to be valuable in evaluating the seroprevalence of HCV among blood donors, and highlighted the growing burden of such infection on the Libyan health care system. The model may help in formulating national policies to prevent increases in HCV infection and plan future strategies that target the consequences of the infection.

  15. Modelling the prevalence of hepatitis C virus amongst blood donors in Libya: An investigation of providing a preventive strategy

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Mohamed A; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A; Habas, Moktar; Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis and HIV

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence among the Libyan population using blood donors and applying the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to predict future trends and formulate plans to minimize the burden of HCV infection. METHODS: HCV positive cases were collected from 1008214 healthy blood donors over a 6-year period from 2008 to 2013. Data were used to construct the ARIMA model to forecast HCV seroprevalence among blood donors. The validity of the model was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error between the observed and fitted seroprevalence. The fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast the incidence of HCV beyond the observed period for the year 2014 and further to 2055. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HCV among blood donors was 1.8%, varying over the study period from 1.7% to 2.5%, though no significant variation was found within each calendar year. The ARIMA model showed a non-significant auto-correlation of the residuals, and the prevalence was steady within the last 3 years as expressed by the goodness-of-fit test. The forecast incidence showed an increase in HCV seropositivity in 2014, ranging from 500 to 700 per 10000 population, with an overall prevalence of 2.3%-2.7%. This may be extended to 2055 with minimal periodical variation within each 6-year period. CONCLUSION: The applied model was found to be valuable in evaluating the seroprevalence of HCV among blood donors, and highlighted the growing burden of such infection on the Libyan health care system. The model may help in formulating national policies to prevent increases in HCV infection and plan future strategies that target the consequences of the infection. PMID:26870670

  16. Recruitment and retention of blood donors in four Canadian cities: an analysis of the role of community and social networks.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; Matthews, Ralph; Fiddler, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This study approaches the decision to donate blood as a dynamic process involving interplay between blood donors' personal motives, donors' social contexts, and the donor recruitment and retention activities of blood collection agencies. Data were gathered from four blood donation clinics using in-depth interviews with Canadian Blood Services employees, donors, and nondonors in 25 organizations participating in Life Link, a donor recruitment program that supports organizations to educate employees about the benefits of blood donation. Further data were obtained from ethnographic observations of blood collection and donor recruitment activities. Thematic analysis resulted in three umbrella themes: leveraging social networks, embedding the clinic in the community, and donating blood and social reciprocity. Donor recruitment activities at all four clinics enhanced awareness of blood donation in the workplace by using experienced donors to motivate their coworkers in making a first-time donation. Clinic employees reported varying success in improving awareness of blood donation in the broader community, in part because of varying employee engagement in community-wide activities and celebrations. Altruistic motives were mentioned by experienced donors, who also identified a desire to reciprocate to their community as another strong motive. This study contextualizes donor recruitment and retention as involving activities that tie blood donation to meaningful aspects of donors' social networks and community. The findings point to the need for further analyses of the institutional dimensions of blood donation to develop effective strategies beyond appeals to altruism. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA among accepted blood donors in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Posttransfusion hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection still occurs although its incidence has been substantially reduced since the introduction of screening of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors. This study aimed to investigate the occult HBV infection in accepted blood donors in Nanjing, China. Results The lower detection limit of the nested PCR in this study was estimated to be 20 copies/ml HBV DNA. The positive rate of occult HBV infection was 0.13% (5 of 2972) in the accepted blood donors. Sequencing data showed that the amplified HBV sequences were not identical each other and to the known sequences cloned in our laboratory, excluding the false-positive caused by cross-contamination. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HBV in all five donors was genotype B; a single base deletion was detected in the S region of HBV DNA from one donor, and no mutation was observed in the "a" determinant of HBsAg from four other donors. All five donors were negative for anti-HBs and one was positive for anti-HBc. Conclusions The prevalence of occult HBV infection in the accepted blood donors in Nanjing, China is relatively high. The data would be meaningful in adapting strategy to eliminate posttransfusion HBV infection in China. PMID:20718994

  18. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  19. [Seroprevalence of antinuclear antibodies in blood donors in the Yaqui Valley].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Osuna, Ricardo; López-López, Rocío Milagro; Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; Sabag-Ruiz, Enrique; Pérez-Fernández, Héctor; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are immunoglobulins that recognize autologous nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular components. In healthy persons they are not associated with autoimmune disease. However, they may be related to an immune risk phenotype that has not been sufficiently studied. We undertook this study to examine the presence of antinuclear antibodies in serum from blood donors. Cross-sectional study on 379 blood donors between 18 and 65 years old. Serum for the presence of antinuclear antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence in HEp-2 cells was analyzed. The prevalence and pattern of expression were compared with age, gender, and history of rheumatic or thyroid disease. Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in the study population was 13%. Most of the positive subjects were between 21 and 40 years old. Male gender expressed a greater proportion of positivity (11%) than females (2%). Likewise, 82% of males had low titers (1:80) and nucleolar type in 66% of cases (OR = 10.66 [1.83 to 62.18], p = 0.007). The presence of antinuclear antibodies in healthy individuals at low levels may not mean an autoimmune condition; however, it could reflect exposure to environmental factors that have not been sufficiently studied. New studies of healthy individuals are necessary in order to explain the association between the presence of these antibodies and toxic and environmental factors and their effects on health.

  20. Prevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in blood donors in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Damasco, P V; Pimenta, F P; Filardy, A A; Brito, S M; Andrade, A F B; Lopes, G S; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on the immunity of adults in Brazil against diphtheria prompted us to analyse sera from 234 blood donors aged 18-61 years (30.3% females and 69.7% males). IgG diphtheria antitoxin levels determined by means of an ELISA, validated by toxin neutralization test in Vero cells, showed that 30.7% (95% CI 25.0-37.1) of the population was fully protected (>or=1 IU/ml). The highest percentage of subjects fully protected was in the 31-40 years age group. Most of the subjects with uncertain or no protection (<1 IU/ml) were found in the 18-30 years age group (43.8%, OR 2.18, P=0.01). Antitoxin levels were not influenced by the increase in age. Males were more protected than females (80.5%, OR 0.44, P=0.01). The prevalence of 30% of individuals fully protected against diphtheria in blood donors in Rio de Janeiro supports the fact that immunity to diphtheria among healthy Brazilian adults is inadequate. To avoid diphtheria epidemics in the future the immunity among adults should be raised in the coming years.

  1. A question of clarity: redesigning the American Association Of Blood Banks blood donor history questionnaire--a chronology and model for donor screening.

    PubMed

    Fridey, Joy L; Townsend, Mary J; Kessler, Debra A; Gregory, Kay R

    2007-07-01

    A new donor history questionnaire, introduced by the American Association of Blood Banks in 2004 and approved by Food and Drug Administration in 2006, is now in widespread use in the United States. The development of this questionnaire involved an in-depth look at the entire system of donor screening questions, and is notable for its use of survey design experts as well as blood banking experts, government agencies, and an ethicist who represented the public interest in developing the actual questions. The end result is a questionnaire that uses capture questions in a time bounded format, donor educational materials, and a medication deferral list. Detailed instructions for donor screeners include follow-up questions in easy-to-follow flow-charts. Most importantly, for the first time in the history of developing donor history questions, all materials were tested for donor comprehension using cognitive interview evaluation. This article discusses the development of the questionnaire, explains the methodology, and describes the thinking and rationale for decisions made during redesign of the questionnaire.

  2. Pro-hepcidin and iron metabolism parameters in multi-time blood donors.

    PubMed

    Boinska, J; Zekanowska, E; Kwapisz, J

    2010-10-01

    A high number of blood donations may cause iron depletion. The pathophysiology behind this process may involve hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide that acts by inhibiting iron absorption and promoting iron retention in reticuloendothelial macrophages. The aim of this study was to determine serum pro-hepcidin levels and iron metabolism parameters in multi-time blood donors. The study group consisted of 132 multi-time male blood donors and 25 healthy male volunteers (nondonors). Complete blood cell count and iron status including serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), erythropoietin and pro-hepcidin (ELISA) were assessed. In blood donors, ferritin level drops markedly in relation to donation frequency (P < 0.001). In contrast, TIBC and UIBC levels increase progressively corresponding to annual donation frequency. Pro-hepcidin concentration increases significantly with the number of donations per year (P = 0.0290). In blood donors having donated blood with the highest frequency per year, pro-hepcidin levels were positively correlated with haemoglobin (R = 0.31, P < 0.05) and negatively with sTfR (R = -0.31, P < 0.05). Pro-hepcidin levels increase in relation to blood donation frequency per year. Longitudinal studies focusing on changes in serum hepcidin levels are required to address the question whether hepcidin may contribute to iron metabolism disturbances in multi-times blood donors.

  3. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Ajacio BM; Costa Fuchs, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Background In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors for presence of anti-HCV antibody in blood donors in southern Brazil. Methods One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users. Conclusion Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered. PMID:12169200

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics of blood donors with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, C; Tanprasert, S; Chumnijarakij, T; Thanomchat, S; O'Prasert, B; Adulwijit, S

    1995-03-01

    Of 782,190 volunteer blood donors in Bangkok and nearby areas, who were screened for infection with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) from January 1988 through December 1992, 3,219 tested positive on both enzyme immuno assay and Western blot assay. The identification variables of the donor were collected. The majority of HIV seropositive blood donors were male. The average age (median) of HIV seropositive was 26-29 years all through 1988-2992. The prevalence of HIV seropositive in male donors was higher than that in females. HIV seropositivity was confirmed in blood donations from first-time male donors in this study during 1988-1992. This rate has increased progressively from 0.87/1,000 in 1988 to 15.95/1,000 in 1992 with much higher rates in repeat donors. The repeat male donors increased from 0.77/1,000 in 1988 to 5.26/1,000 in 1991 and since then showed a decreased rate to 3.93/1,000 in 1992. Female donors were infected with HIV more frequently with the prevalence by sex ratio M:F rising from 27:1 in 1988 to 6.6:1 in 1992. Comparing the seropositive rate between first time and repeat female donors, the results showed an increase in rate from 0.11/1,000 in 1990 to 2.02/1,000 in 1992, but essentially the same rate in report donors. A majority of HIV seropositive blood donors (1990-1992) lived in Bangkok (42-49%) and among those who lived in one eastern province (Samut Prakan), 90-93% lived in the industrial areas. Of those who lived in Chon Buri Province, 73-88% lived in Sattaheep District, which is a naval base.

  5. BLISS: a computer program for the protection of blood donors. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Catsimpoolas, N.; Cooke, C.; Valeri, C.R.

    1982-06-28

    A BASIC program has been developed for the Hewlett-Packard Model 9845 desk-top computer which allows the creation of blood donor files for subsequent retrieval, update, and correction. A similar modified version was developed for hte HP 9835 Model. This software system has been called BLISS which stands for Blood Information and Security System. In addition to its function as a file management system, BLISS provides warnings before a donation is performed to protect the donor from excessive exposure to radioactivity and DMSO levels, from too frequent of donations of blood, and from adverse reactions. The program can also be used to select donors who have participated in specific studies and to list the experimental details which have been stored in the file. The BLISS system has been actively utilized at the Naval Blood Research Laboratory in Boston and contains the files of over 750 donors.

  6. Frequency of dengue virus infection in blood donors in Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2014-02-01

    Risk of dengue virus in the blood supply has been demonstrated in recent studies. In this paper, Chabahar in Sistan and Baluchestan province, south east of Iran, was selected for studying dengue infection because of its climatic and geographical situation in the middle of the transit way between East Asia and other countries. The blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who were referred to the Chabahar Blood Center for blood donation. The presence of dengue virus (DENV) was studied by detecting IgG to DENV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive ELISA results were confirmed by an immune flouorescence assay (IFA). According to the results, some of the healthy donors were infected by DENV, which could not been recognized in donor selection. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the criteria of donor selection and additional screening tests are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and trends of markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human Immunodeficiency virus in Argentine blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in blood donors of 27 transfusion centers covering the whole country over a period of eight years (2004-2011). Serologic screening assays for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV were performed in all centers and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 2 out of the 27 centers. Results The 2,595,852 samples tested nationwide from 2004 to 2011 showed that the prevalence of HBsAg decreased from 0.336% to 0.198% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HBc from 2.391% to 2.007% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HCV from 0.721% to 0.460%, (p < 0.0001) and that of anti-HIV from 0.208% to 0.200 (p = 0.075). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was unevenly distributed among the different regions of the country. Two out of 74,838 screening- negative samples were positive in NAT assays (1 HIV-RNA and 1 HCV-RNA); moreover, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA were detected in 60.29, 24.54 and 66.67% of screening-positive samples of the corresponding assays. As regards donors age, positive HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA donors were significantly older than healthy donors (46.6, 50.5 and 39.5 y respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Argentina has a low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in blood donors, with a decreasing trend for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV but not for anti-HIV over the last 8 years. The uneven distribution of transfusion-transmitted infections prevalence among the different regions of the country highlights the need to implement regional awareness campaigns and prevention. The discrepancy between samples testing positive for screening assays and negative for NAT assays highlights the problem of blood donors who test repeatedly reactive in screening assays but are not confirmed as positive upon further testing. The

  8. Lead levels in milk and blood from donors to the Breast Milk Bank in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koyashiki, Gina Ayumi Kobayashi; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Oliveira, Márcia Maria Benevenuto; Mezzaroba, Leda; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; Turini, Conceição; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Barbosa, Claudia Santiago Dias

    2010-04-01

    Brazilian scientific literature on the adverse effects of lead on the general population is still very limited. Lead, a potentially toxic substance, has become a public health problem due to its effects, mainly those affecting the central nervous system and on the synthesis of heme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of lead exposure of donors to the Breast Milk Bank in the city of Londrina, Parana, by estimating the levels of that metal in milk and blood samples. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period between January and July 2007. All mothers enrolled as donors in the Breast Milk Bank were included in this study. A total of 92 volunteers presenting the following inclusion criteria were evaluated in the project: volunteers who were healthy, without any chronic disease, full-term pregnancy, breastfeeding between the 15th and 210 th day after giving birth, and living in the city of the study. Lead in milk and blood was quantified using the inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique. All mothers signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee from Londrina State University. The median lead concentration in milk samples was 3.0 microg/L, varying from 1.0 to 8.0 microg/L. The median of lead in blood was of 2.7 microg/dl, varying from 1.0 to 5.5 microg/dl. In Spearman correlation analysis, significant but modest correlations could be observed between the concentration of lead in blood and in milk (r(s)=0.207, p=0.048), hemoglobin and ALAD activity (r(s)=-0.264, p=0.011), level of lead in blood and mother's age (r(s)=0.227, p=0.029). However, for hematocrit and hemoglobin, the correlation was higher (r(s)=0.837, p<0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between concentrations of lead in milk and blood and demographic variables studied, obtained through interviews and validated questionnaire. The mean of milk/blood lead ratio was equal to 0.11. In general, the values found in the

  9. Impact of nucleic acid amplification test on screening of blood donors in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat; Ghani, Eijaz; Tayyab, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion located in Rawalpindi, Northern Pakistan, acts as a regional blood center with more than 50,000 donations collected annually. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was introduced in our institution in September 2012 for screening all seronegative blood donors. The study was conducted from September 21, 2012, to September 20, 2013. Samples from the seronegative donors were run on cobas s 201 platform (Roche) in pools of six. Reactive donors were followed up for further confirmatory testing to rule out false-positive results. Viral load estimation was done for all NAT-reactive donors. After serologic screening of 56,772 blood donors, 2334 were found to be reactive; 719 (1.27%) were reactive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 1046 (1.84%) for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), 12 (0.02%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, and 557 (0.98%) for syphilis antibodies. A total of 27 NAT-reactive donors were confirmed after testing 54,438 seronegative donors, with an overall NAT yield of one in 2016 donors: 23 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (HBV NAT yield, 1:2367) and four for HCV RNA (HCV NAT yield, 1:13,609). The residual risk after NAT implementation, calculated for the first-time blood donors, was 62.5 and 4.4 per million donors for HBV and HCV, respectively. NAT has improved the safety of blood products at our transfusion institution. Confirmation of NAT results must always be done either on follow-up samples or on samples from the retrieved frozen plasma bag. © 2015 AABB.

  10. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256

  11. Vasovagal syncope and blood donor return: examination of the role of experience and affective expectancies.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Etzel, Erin N; Ciesielski, Bethany G

    2010-03-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predict the likelihood of donor return, even when controlling for affective expectancies. Participants presenting at community blood drives indicated how many times they have given blood and provided ratings of expected anxiety, pain, disgust, as well as fear of fainting before giving blood. After donating, participants completed a measure of vasovagal sensations experienced during blood donation. They also rated the pleasantness of the experience and willingness to donate blood in the future. The findings showed that experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predicted willingness to donate blood in the future even when controlling for age and negative affective expectancies about giving blood. This finding suggests that vasovagal sensations and experience with blood donation have unique (and perhaps additive) effects on willingness to donate blood in the future, suggesting that behavior modification interventions that directly target these variables could potentially increase donor retention.

  12. Mechanism of altruism approach to blood donor recruitment and retention: a review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E

    2015-08-01

    Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection among young and unsuspecting Hmong blood donors in the Central California Valley.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Atla, Pradeep R; Raoufi, Rahim; Sadiq, Humaira; Sadler, Patrick C

    2012-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may result in cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma and is one of the leading causes of mortality in Asian Americans including Hmong Americans. The Central California Valley is home to a huge Hmong population. To date, the true prevalence of HBV among Hmong is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to contribute to the limited data on HBV prevalence and its trends in Hmong population in the Central California Valley. Between fiscal years 2006 and 2010, a total of 219, 450 voluntary donors were identified at Central California Blood Center in Fresno. Of these, 821 (399 males and 422 females) were Hmong donors. A cross-sectional review of the HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen) positivity among all donors was carried out. Prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ninety-two percent of Hmong donors were between age groups 16 and 35 years, and only 8% were ≥36 years. The overall prevalence in Hmong was noted at 3.41% (95%CI 2.3-4.9) compared to 0.06% (95%CI 0.05-0.07) in donors of all ethnicities. The calculated prevalence could be an underestimate of the true HBV prevalence in Hmong as the study enrolled only healthy blood donors with predominant younger age (≤35 years) population. These results underscore the persistent burden of HBV infection and potentially increased risk of premature death even in the second generation Hmong community of the Central California Valley. This study reemphasizes the unequivocal need to develop robust preventive and treatment strategies for HBV in Hmong community.

  14. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Sabih, Sidra; Khan, Ayisha Farooq; Jillani, Umaima Ayesha; Syed, Mujtaba Jamal; Mumtaz, Madiha; Mumtaz, Yasmeen; Dawani, Om; Khan, Saima; Munir, Sheheryar; Asad, Nava; Kazi, Abdul Nafey

    2014-01-01

    All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350) being males and 69.4% (243/350) being females. 93.4% (327/350) of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350) of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350) also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood. PMID:25436175

  15. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sana; Wasim, Anum; Sabih, Sidra; Khan, Ayisha Farooq; Rizvi, Madiha Hasan; Jillani, Umaima Ayesha; Syed, Mujtaba Jamal; Mumtaz, Madiha; Mumtaz, Yasmeen; Shehzad, Abdul Moid; Dawani, Om; Khan, Saima; Munir, Sheheryar; Asad, Nava; Kazi, Abdul Nafey

    2014-01-01

    All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350) being males and 69.4% (243/350) being females. 93.4% (327/350) of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350) of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350) also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  16. Paying donors and the ethics of blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez del Pozo, P

    1994-01-01

    Countries may be erring in the current trend towards relying entirely on volunteers to fulfil blood and plasma needs. Complementing uncompensated blood with compensated blood is vitally necessary not only effectively to meet the blood and plasma needs of most countries, but it is also ethically sound. PMID:8035437

  17. [Groupamatic 360 C1 and automated blood donor processing in a transfusion center].

    PubMed

    Guimbretiere, J; Toscer, M; Harousseau, H

    1978-03-01

    Automation of donor management flow path is controlled by: --a 3 slip "port a punch" card, --the groupamatic unit with a result sorted out on punch paper tape, --the management computer off line connected to groupamatic. Data tracking at blood collection time is made by punching a card with the donor card used as a master card. Groupamatic performs: --a standard blood grouping with one run for registered donors and two runs for new donors, --a phenotyping with two runs, --a screening of irregular antibodies. Themanagement computer checks the correlation between the data of the two runs or the data of a single run and that of previous file. It updates the data resident in the central file and prints out: --the controls of the different blood group for the red cell panel, --The listing of error messages, --The listing of emergency call up, --The listing of collected blood units when arrived at the blood center, with quantitative and qualitative information such as: number of blood, units collected, donor addresses, etc., --Statistics, --Donor cards, --Diplomas.

  18. Labeling of previous donation to encourage subsequent donation among experienced blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sénémeaud, Cécile; Georget, Patrice; Guéguen, Nicolas; Callé, Nathalie; Plainfossé, Candice; Touati, Christelle; Mange, Jessica

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of persuasive messages focused on the labeling of previous blood donation behavior on subsequent donation among experienced blood donors. Participants (N = 410) received blood drive invitations by mail that were categorized with the labeling of the previous donation. They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: functional labeling (which underlines the utility of their donation), social labeling (which underlines their own social value), and no label of previous donation (control condition). Dependent Variable: Number of participants who made a new blood donation. Donors are more likely to make a new blood donation when they have received a message labeling their previous donation (26.7%), whether it be social or functional, compared with a nonlabeled message (17.5%). Moreover, labeling condition interacted with age parameter indicating that the older the donor, the more sensitive the donor to the labeling technique. Labeling condition also interacted with gender, revealing that women were almost three times more likely to come back to give their blood in labeling conditions compared with the no-label condition. Our findings highlight the interest in using strategies based on the recall of previous donation, that is a labeling technique, to help blood centers to stimulate repeat donation. Labeling the previous donation increases the likelihood of a new donation among experienced donors, especially among older people and women, the latter being a part of the most reluctant profiles to repeat blood donation.

  19. Determination of Eligibility in Related Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Donors: Ethical and Clinical Considerations. Recommendations from a Working Group of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Association.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Menachem; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Worel, Nina; Ball, Lynne M; Styczynski, Jan; Torrabadella, Marta; Witt, Volker; Shaw, Bronwen E; Seber, Adriana; Yabe, Hiromasa; Greinix, Hildegard T; Peters, Christina; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Halter, Joerg; Pulsipher, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Related donors for hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation are a growing population in recent years because of expanding indications for allogeneic transplantation. The safety and welfare of the donor are major concerns for the transplantation community, especially for related sibling donors of young recipients who are children and, thus, not able to fully consent. Because donation of HC does not improve the donor's own physical health and carries a risk of side effects, careful assessment of medical risks specific to the individual donor, as well as consideration of ethical and legal aspects associated with donation from a child, must be considered. In addition, donor centers must balance the needs of both the donor and the recipient, understanding the inherent conflict parents may have as they can be overly focused on the very sick child receiving a transplant, rather than on the relatively less significant health or emotional problems that a sibling donor may have, which could impact risk with donation. Likewise, consideration must be made regarding the nature of the relationship of the sibling donor to the recipient and also aspects of performing research on pediatric HC donors. In this article, as members of the Donor Issues Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we review key ethical concerns associated with pediatric donation and then give recommendations for screening potential child donors with underlying health conditions. These recommendations are aimed at protecting the physical and emotional well-being of childhood donors and arise out of the Third International Conference on Health and Safety of Donors sponsored by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

  20. Change in haematological and selected biochemical parameters measured in feline blood donors and feline whole blood donated units.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Baggiani, Luciana; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta; Perego, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The quality of whole blood (WB) units is influenced by many factors, starting with selection of donors and the method of blood collection. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes that occur in haematological and selected biochemical parameters in blood transferred from a feline blood donor to feline WB unit. Methods Data from 27 feline blood donations were used in this study. Cats were anaesthetised with a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam. Blood (10 ml/kg body weight to a maximum of 60 ml/cat) was collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) anticoagulant. Lactated Ringer's solution (10 ml/kg) was administered intravenously starting halfway through the donation. Haematological and selected biochemical parameters (complete blood count, free haemoglobin, % haemolysis, glucose, sodium, potassium, pH) were measured in the blood donor before donation and in the corresponding donated WB unit soon after collection. Results Significant decreases occurred between blood donor and WB unit in red blood cells (mean difference -1.06 × 10(12)/l; P <0.0001), haemoglobin (mean difference -1.6 g/dl; P <0.0001), haematocrit (mean difference -4.6%; P <0.0001), red cell distribution width (mean difference -0.9%; P = 0.0003), white blood cells (mean difference -2.17 × 10(9)/l; P <0.0001), pH (mean difference -0.5; P <0.0001) and potassium (mean difference -1.4 mmol/l; P <0.0001). Significant increases occurred between blood donor and WB unit in platelets (mean difference +87.00 ×10(9)/l; P = 0.0039), glucose (mean difference +25.42 mmol/l; P <0.0001) and sodium (mean difference +20 mmol/l; P <0.0001). Conclusions and relevance When using a blood collection protocol with intravenous fluid administration midway through the donation and a CPDA:blood ratio of 1:7, there were significant changes in both the haematological and biochemical characteristics between the blood donors and WB units. The majority of these changes may be the result of the

  1. Iron and cardiac ischemia: a natural, quasi-random experiment comparing eligible with disqualified blood donors.

    PubMed

    Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Blais, Claudia; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Décary, Francine; Grégoire, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The theory that elevated iron stores can induce vascular injury and ischemia remains controversial. We conducted a cohort study of the effect of blood donation on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by taking advantage of the quasi-random exclusion of donors who obtained a falsely reactive test for a transmissible disease (TD) marker. Whole blood donors who were permanently disqualified because of a false-reactive test between 1990 and 2007 in the province of Quebec were compared to donors who remained eligible, matched for baseline characteristics. The incidence of CHD after entry into the study was determined through hospitalization and death records. We compared eligible and disqualified donors using an "intention-to-treat" framework. Overall, 12,357 donors who were permanently disqualified were followed for 124,123 person-years of observation, plus 50,889 donors who remained eligible (516,823 person-years). On average, donors who remained eligible made 0.36 donation/year during follow-up and had an incidence of hospitalizations or deaths attributable to CHD of 3.60/1000 person-years, compared to 3.52 among permanently disqualified donors (rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.13). Donors who remained eligible did not have a lower risk of CHD, compared to donors who were permanently disqualified due to a false-reactive TD marker. Because of the quasi-random nature of false-reactive screening tests, this natural experiment has a level of validity approaching that of a randomized trial evaluating the effect of regular blood donation on CHD risk. These results do not support the iron hypothesis. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. [Investigation of West Nile virus RNA in blood donors by real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Avcı, Ismail Yaşar; Bedir, Orhan; Koru, Ozgür; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of Flaviviridae family, is an enveloped, icosahedral symmetric RNA virus. Primary reservoir hosts of WNV are birds, but the virus can cause various infections in humans and other mammals. The most common and natural transmission way of WNV infections is mosquito bites, however, humans can be infected by different routes. The most important non-mosquito transmission route is contaminated blood and blood products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products in Ankara, Turkey. The presence of WNV RNA was investigated by in house real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in serum samples obtained from 729 healthy blood donors (mean age: 27.7 years; 711 were male), regardless of the donor's seropositivity status since the virus can be transmitted at the early stages of infection when seroconversion has not yet developed. Serum samples were collected in August-September 2009, the period when these infections are more frequent due to mosquito activity. The vast majority of donors (n= 702, 96.3%) have been inhabiting in Ankara and 569 (78%) of donors have had risk factors for arboviral infections (e.g. outdoor activity, mosquito and tick bites). WNV RNA was not detected by real-time RT-PCR analysis in any serum sample included in this study. According to the results of our study, it can be said that the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products is low in Ankara. However, WNV seropositivity was detected within the range of 0.56 to 2.4% among blood donors in previous studies and probable and confirmed WNV infections have been reported in our region. In addition, WNV outbreaks have emerged in some countries neighbouring Turkey recently. Thus, the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products should not be ignored and blood donor questionnaires should be evaluated in detail.

  3. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  4. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies.

  5. Discovering blood donor arrival patterns using data mining: a method to investigate service quality at blood centers.

    PubMed

    Testik, Murat Caner; Ozkaya, Banu Yuksel; Aksu, Salih; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami

    2012-04-01

    Blood centers without fixed appointments for collecting blood often experience nonconstant donor arrival rates, which vary due to time-of-day, day-of-week, etc. When a constant workforce size is employed in such blood centers, there is either idle personnel, or donor satisfaction is compromised due to long waiting times, or both conditions alternate over time. Consequently, a method to obtain adaptive workforce requirements might be valuable. This study utilized the Two-Step Cluster method and the Classification and Regression Trees method in succession to identify both daily and hourly donor arrival patterns at Hacettepe University Hospitals' Blood Center. A serial queuing network model of the donation process was then employed for each of the identified donor arrival patterns. By considering and accommodating variations in the donor arrival patterns, required workforce sizes and their decomposition among process steps were predicted to achieve predetermined target values of expected waiting times and to balance workforce utilizations in the blood donation processes. Although a blood center is considered for the proposed methodology, the approach is general and applications in various operations of healthcare organizations are possible.

  6. Incidence of Cytomegaloviremia in Blood-Bank Donors and in Infants with Congenital Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, R.; Werch, J.; South, M. A.; Benyesh-Melnick, M.

    1971-01-01

    During a 15-month period, cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolations were attempted from leukocytes derived from 290 healthy blood-bank donors. The major proportion of the specimens were tested 2 to 5 hr after donation. However, CMV was not recovered from any of the specimens examined. At the time of donation, 75% of donors had CMV complement-fixing antibodies demonstrable in titers of 10 to ≥320. The age of the study group ranged from 17 to 57 years. During the same time period and with the use of identical isolation techniques, postnatal cytomegaloviremia was demonstrated in four infants with cytomegalic inclusion disease. Failure to detect cytomegaloviremia in 290 normal blood donors questions its occurrence outside pathological conditions. These results do not support the concept that CMV infection, concurrent with post-transfusion mononucleosis syndrome, is transmitted through the blood donor's leukocytes. PMID:16557945

  7. The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors

    PubMed Central

    Yousefinejad, Vahid; Darvishi, Nazila; Arabzadeh, Masoumeh; Soori, Masoumeh; Magsudlu, Mahtab; Shafiayan, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC) and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X2, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test. Results: Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them. PMID:20859513

  8. [Guide for the organisation of ceremonies for delivering pins and certificates of recognition to volunteer blood donors. Etablissement français du sang Auvergne-Loire. Associations pour le don du sang bénévole].

    PubMed

    Courbil, R; Gras, A; Motta Cano, A; Chenus, F; Julien, H; Garraud, O

    2009-03-01

    Award ceremonies constitute an important means of promotion among the blood donor population, and also the general population. They contribute to the development of blood donation loyalty. Even so, their organization must be rigorously and perfectly codified. With this aim, the Etablissement français du sang Auvergne-Loire, in partnership with the departmental representation of the blood donors national federation, worked out a guide for their associations.

  9. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries.

  10. Blood Donor Screening for West NiIe Virus in Oklahoma and Its Contribution to Disease Surveillance, 2003 -2013.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Walter E; Bradley, Kristy; Duncan, Ashten; Smith, James

    2015-08-01

    Upon recognition that West Nile virus (WNV) was transmissible by transfusion, universal testing of blood donors by nucleic acid testing (NAT) was initiated in 2003. A retrospective review of 2003-2013 blood donor records and public health surveillance data in Oklahoma was undertaken to determine the percentage of WNV-positive blood donors who developed clinical symptoms post-donation and to examine the incidence and timing of WNV viremic donors in the context of WNV disease reported statewide. Among all WNV NAT-positive blood donors, 19% had self-described symptoms consistent with WNV disease. A viremic blood donor was the seasonal index case of WNV transmission in Oklahoma during one year [2006] of the study period. Blood donors remain an important surveillance component for epidemiologic monitoring of WNV in Oklahoma.

  11. The use of vascular access ports for blood collection in feline blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Isabelle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.; Sylvestre, Anne M.; Dyson, Doris H.; Allen, Dana G.; Johnstone, Ian B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vascular access ports for feline blood donation. Eight cats were anesthetized for conventional blood collection by jugular venipuncture at the beginning and end of the study. In-between conventional collections, vascular access ports were used for collection with or without sedation every 6 to 8 wk for 6 mo. Ports remained functional except for one catheter breakage, but intermittent occlusions occurred. Systolic blood pressure was lower during conventional collection. Behavioral abnormalities occurred during 3 port collections. Packed red cells prepared from collected blood were stored at 4°C for 25 d and assessed for quality pre- and post-storage. With both collection methods, pH and glucose level declined, and potassium level, lactate dehydrogenase activity and osmotic fragility increased. There were no differences between methods in pre-storage albumin and HCO3− levels, and pre and post-storage hematocrit, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and glucose and potassium levels. Pre-storage pH and pCO2 were higher with conventional collection, and pre- and post-storage osmotic fragility were greater with port collection. One port became infected, but all cultures of packed red cells were negative. Tissue inflammation was evident at port removal. In a second study of conventional collection in 6 cats, use of acepromazine in premedication did not exacerbate hypotension. The use of vascular access ports for feline blood donation is feasible, is associated with less hypotension, and may simplify donation, but red cell quality may decrease, and effects on donors must be considered. PMID:21461192

  12. Peripheral blood stem cell collection in allogeneic donors: impact of venous access.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Kristina; Blechschmidt, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Zimmer, Kristin; Kroschinsky, Frank; Poppe-Thiede, Kirsten; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection is accepted as a routine procedure in related and unrelated healthy donors worldwide. Venous access can be accomplished by peripheral veins or a central venous catheter (CVC). STUDY DESING AND METHODS: We compared efficacy and tolerability of 40 PBSC collections via CVC with 6267 PBSC collections via peripheral veins in healthy allogeneic donors. Results of the leukapheresis procedures and side effects in the donors were evaluated. The median CD34+ cell counts on Day 5 and the results of the stem cell collection were not significantly different between the two groups of allogeneic donors. Pain or problems at the site of puncture or catheter insertion occurred in 58.6% of the donors with a CVC versus 37.8% of the donors with peripheral venous access (p = 0.03). The incidence and severity of paresthesia during the leukapheresis was not significantly different in both groups of donors (p = 0.09). During follow-up no major adverse events related to CVC were reported. Central femoral lines proved to be safe and tolerable in healthy allogeneic donors but peripheral venous access should be preferred, whenever possible. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Iron depletion in blood donors - Have extended erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters diagnostic utility?

    PubMed

    Aardal Eriksson, Elisabeth; Mobäck, Caroline; Jakobsson, Sandra; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2015-08-01

    Blood donation is associated with iron depletion, but donor iron status is not usually investigated, as such tests are cumbersome and costly. It would therefore be desirable to have simple, fast and inexpensive tests that give information on a donor's risk of developing iron depletion. In a pilot study we investigated whether novel erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters can serve this goal. In regular blood donors extended red cell parameters were measured using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer and conventional biochemical tests of iron status. Donors were compared with a regionally matched group of non-donating controls. In the controls, the reference ranges of extended RBC parameters were well comparable to published data. Donors had significantly more microcytic RBC than controls (median 0.9 vs 0.6%), lower serum ferritin concentration (median 43 vs 91 mg/L) and higher soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index (median 1.60 vs 1.27). Overall 18-28% of the donors were iron depleted. Moreover, 3.3% of donors had iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Microcytic RBC and reticulocyte mean cell hemoglobin content predicted iron depletion with 70% and 64% sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 78%, respectively. When combined these two parameters increased the sensitivity to 82%. Our results in Swedish blood donors confirm a high prevalence of iron depletion, despite iron supplementation used by about half of the donors. Microcytic RBC and MCHr appeared to be helpful in identifying iron-depleted donors, who might benefit from iron supplementation. We recommend larger prospective investigations in order to confirm and extend the findings of this pilot study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A pilot iron substitution programme in female blood donors with iron deficiency without anaemia.

    PubMed

    Pittori, C; Buser, A; Gasser, U E; Sigle, J; Job, S; Rüesch, M; Tichelli, A; Infanti, L

    2011-04-01

    Blood donation can contribute to iron deficiency. The possibly resulting anaemia importantly affects donor return rate. The determination of serum ferritin levels revealed iron deficiency in many non-anaemic premenopausal female blood donors at our Institution. We started an iron substitution programme targeting this donor group to prevent anaemia and enhance donor retain. Women aged≤50 with haemoglobin levels adequate for donation and serum ferritin≤10 ng/ml were offered iron supplementation. Substitution lasted 16 weeks and the donation interval was extended. History collection including iron deficiency-related symptoms, whole blood count and serum ferritin determination was performed at baseline and after 2 and 6 months. Data were recorded prospectively and compared with those of 108 female controls with iron deficiency not receiving iron substitution (retrospective data). Of the 116 participating subjects, 60% completed the programme. Significant results were serum ferritin increase (from a mean value of 7.12 to 25.2 ng/ml), resolution of prostration, fatigue, sleep disturbances, tension in the neck, hair loss and nail breakage. No case of anaemia occurred. Sixty per cent of the women completed the programme and donated blood again. Targeted iron substitution prevents the development of anaemia and enhances donation return in premenopausal female blood donors with iron deficiency. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p < 0.05) in viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time at equivalent shear rates over seven weeks of storage indicating a decrease in RBC deformability. No statistically significant differences in RBC deformability or relaxation time were observed between male and female RBCs at any storage time. The decrease in RBC deformability during blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  16. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Richard, Pascale; Maire, Françoise; Flusin, Olivier; Djoudi, Rachid; Chiaroni, Jacques; Charrel, Remi; Tiberghien, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. Methods/Principal findings Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited "silent" CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys. PMID

  17. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Gallian, Pierre; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Richard, Pascale; Maire, Françoise; Flusin, Olivier; Djoudi, Rachid; Chiaroni, Jacques; Charrel, Remi; Tiberghien, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited "silent" CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively. This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys.

  18. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  19. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in healthy blood donors: an unexpectedly common finding

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Jane M.; Ghia, Paolo; Boren, Jeff; Abbasi, Fatima; Dagklis, Antonis; Venable, Geri; Kang, Jiyeon; Degheidy, Heba; Plapp, Fred V.; Vogt, Robert F.; Menitove, Jay E.; Marti, Gerald E.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating monoclonal B cells may be detected in healthy adults, a condition called monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). MBL has also been identified in donated blood, but no systematic study of blood donors has been reported. Using sensitive and specific laboratory methods, we detected MBL in 149 (7.1%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0% to 8.3%) of 2098 unique donors ages 45 years or older in a Midwestern US regional blood center between 2010 and 2011. Most of the 149 donors had low-count MBL, including 99 chronic lymphocytic leukemia–like (66.4%), 22 atypical (14.8%), and 19 CD5– (12.8%) immunophenotypes. However, 5 donors (3.4%) had B-cell clonal counts above 500 cells per µL, including 3 with 1693 to 2887 cells per µL; the clone accounted for nearly all their circulating B cells. Four donors (2.7%) had 2 distinct MBL clones. Of 51 MBL samples in which immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH)V-D-J genotypes could be determined, 71% and 29% used IGHV3- and IGHV4-family genes, respectively. Sequencing revealed 82% with somatic hypermutation, whereas 18% had >98% germ-line identity, including 5 with entirely germ-line sequences. In conclusion, MBL prevalence is much higher in blood donors than previously reported, and although uncommon, the presence of high-count MBL warrants further investigations to define the biological fate of the transfused cells in recipients. PMID:24345750

  20. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in healthy blood donors: an unexpectedly common finding.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn K; Rachel, Jane M; Ghia, Paolo; Boren, Jeff; Abbasi, Fatima; Dagklis, Antonis; Venable, Geri; Kang, Jiyeon; Degheidy, Heba; Plapp, Fred V; Vogt, Robert F; Menitove, Jay E; Marti, Gerald E

    2014-02-27

    Circulating monoclonal B cells may be detected in healthy adults, a condition called monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). MBL has also been identified in donated blood, but no systematic study of blood donors has been reported. Using sensitive and specific laboratory methods, we detected MBL in 149 (7.1%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0% to 8.3%) of 2098 unique donors ages 45 years or older in a Midwestern US regional blood center between 2010 and 2011. Most of the 149 donors had low-count MBL, including 99 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like (66.4%), 22 atypical (14.8%), and 19 CD5(-) (12.8%) immunophenotypes. However, 5 donors (3.4%) had B-cell clonal counts above 500 cells per µL, including 3 with 1693 to 2887 cells per µL; the clone accounted for nearly all their circulating B cells. Four donors (2.7%) had 2 distinct MBL clones. Of 51 MBL samples in which immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH)V-D-J genotypes could be determined, 71% and 29% used IGHV3- and IGHV4-family genes, respectively. Sequencing revealed 82% with somatic hypermutation, whereas 18% had >98% germ-line identity, including 5 with entirely germ-line sequences. In conclusion, MBL prevalence is much higher in blood donors than previously reported, and although uncommon, the presence of high-count MBL warrants further investigations to define the biological fate of the transfused cells in recipients.

  1. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  2. Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States

    PubMed Central

    Gilner, Jennifer B.; Hernandez, Jose; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Heine, R. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007–2014. Nineteen maternal donors tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi parasites (0.04%). Because perinatal transmission of Chagas disease is associated with substantial illness, targeted prenatal programs should screen for this disease. PMID:27433974

  3. Protocol for a national blood transfusion data warehouse from donor to recipient.

    PubMed

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W

    2016-08-04

    Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion recipients are linked. This paper describes the design of the data warehouse, challenges and illustrative applications. Quantitative data on blood donors (eg, age, blood group, antibodies) and products (type of product, processing, storage time) are obtained from the national blood bank. These are linked to data on the transfusion recipients (eg, transfusions administered, patient diagnosis, surgical procedures, laboratory parameters), which are extracted from hospital electronic health records. Expected scientific contributions are illustrated for 4 applications: determine risk factors, predict blood use, benchmark blood use and optimise process efficiency. For each application, examples of research questions are given and analyses planned. The DTD project aims to build a national, continuously updated transfusion data warehouse. These data have a wide range of applications, on the donor/production side, recipient studies on blood usage and benchmarking and donor-recipient studies, which ultimately can contribute to the efficiency and safety of blood transfusion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  5. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Among Blood Donors From Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Rahil; Adibzadeh, Setare; Behzad Behbahani, Abbas; Farhadi, Ali; Yaghobi, Ramin; Rafiei Dehbidi, Gholam Reza; Hajizamani, Saeideh; Rahbar, Sanaz; Nikouyan, Negin; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Naderi, Samaneh; Salehi, Saeede; Alizadeh, Marzieh; Ranjbaran, Reza; Zarnegar, Golnoosh; Alavi, Parnian

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in developing countries and reveals significant regional differences. Several studies have reported virus transmission via blood transfusion. To date, however, no cases of HEV RNA detection in blood donors have been reported from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HEV RNA in plasma samples of blood donors referred to a blood transfusion center in Shiraz in the southwest of Iran. The HEV genotypes were also investigated using nucleotide sequencing. Patients and Methods Blood samples were collected from 700 blood donors who were referred to Fars blood transfusion organization from January to March 2014. Plasma samples were screened for the presence of HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by standard enzyme immunoassay. Samples seroreactive to anti-HEV were further tested for the presence of HEV RNA using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers for detection of all four HEV genotypes. Positive PCR samples were then subjected to DNA sequencing for further analysis. Results Fifty (50, 7.1%) out of 700 plasma samples tested positive for anti-HEV antibodies. HEV RNA was detected in 7/50 (12%) of the antibody-positive samples, the majority of which were IgM positive. Sequence analysis of seven isolates of the HEV RNA ORF 2 gene region revealed > 80% similarity with genotype 1. Conclusions The analysis indicates that the HEV isolated from blood donors in the southwest of Iran belongs to genotype 1. However, more samples from other geographic regions of Iran are needed to confirm these findings. Because transmission of HEV by administration of blood or blood components is likely to occur, it may be sensible to screen donor blood for HEV to eliminate transfusion-transmitted HEV infection when the recipient is immunocompromised. PMID:27630719

  6. Is there a right to donate blood? Patient rights; donor responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ian M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and assess critically whether there is a right to donate blood in the UK. The aim was to provide a basis for blood services, in particular within the UK and European Union (EU), to address claims from deferred donors that there is a right to donate. Recent and ongoing campaigns to change the current life-long deferral from blood donation in the UK, Canada and USA of men who have/have had sex with men (MSM) have highlighted issues over whether individuals have a right to donate blood. The issue is complicated by allegations of discriminatory behaviour, and in some countries politicians have contributed to the argument. As anti-discrimination and equality legislation is strengthened in the UK, other groups in addition to MSM may wish to claim a right to donate blood. The methods adopted included discussions with colleagues in UK and European blood services and a review of the medical literature and wider sources using Internet search engines. No clear right to donate blood is apparent, although it is recommended that donor deferral criteria should have a sound basis of evidence. Potential donors have a right to expect a clear explanation of the reason(s) for refusing a donation. Legal safeguards for recipients to receive safe blood transfusions exist. It is concluded that blood recipients in the EU have a right to receive safe blood, and that this should be viewed as the overriding responsibility of blood services.

  7. EVALUATION OF RED BLOOD CELL INDICES RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ELIGIBLE BLOOD DONORS AT THE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA (UPM).

    PubMed

    Riahi, Shahrzad; Mei, I Lai; Idris, Fariddh Binti; George, Elizabeth; Noor, Sabariah Md

    2015-09-01

    Pre-donation screening declarations and hemoglobin (Hb) testing are measures used to determine the quality of donated blood. The copper sulphate (CuSo4) method used to screen for blood abnormalities can give inaccurate results if strict quality control is not applied. Blood donors who are carriers of thalassemia and those with mild iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are usually asymptomatic and frequently missed at blood donation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the red blood cell (RBC) indices related disorders among blood donors who were deemed qualified to donate blood after screening with CuSo4 method. One hundred fifty-eight volunteer blood donors at the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), who had passed the CuSo4 screening method, were recruited for this study. Their bloods specimens were examined with a complete blood count. Subjects with a low mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) level were examined further by checking a serum ferritin level, Hb quantification, and molecular analysis to examine for common RBC disorders. Fourteen point six percent of subjects had a low Hb level, two (1.3%) had IDA and four (2.5%) had thalassemia or some other hemoglobinopathy. Using a MCH level < 27 pg as a cut-off point, 58 subjects (36.7%) had suspected IDA, thalassemia or some other hemoglobinopathy. Eight point nine percent of subjects with a normal Hb level had thalassemia, and 3.8% had IDA. Malaysia has a high prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies. Pre-donation accurate screening is crucial to protect the quality of blood transfusion products. Public education regarding RBC disorders especially among blood donors is important.

  8. Comparison of Stored Umbilical Cord Blood and Adult Donor Blood: Transfusion Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Tokan, Rola Sahyoun; Arsan, Saadet; Erdeve, Ömer; Solaz, Nuri; Avcı, Aslıhan; Ülkar, Serenay Elgün; Gülyapar, Elif; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Bıyıklı, Zeynep; Kemahlı, Sabri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates of umbilical cordblood (UCB) and adult donor blood (ADB), and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologoussource for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. Material and Methods: In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term) UCB and 31 ADB units were collected.RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K+), 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG),adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. Results: The K+ level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storaged 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K+ levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADBunits. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storageboth UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, andpH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRCsamples. Conclusion: The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions requiredduring the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns.The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observedin ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standardconditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns. PMID:24744666

  9. Comparison of stored umbilical cord blood and adult donor blood: transfusion feasibility.

    PubMed

    Tokan, Rola Sahyoun; Arsan, Saadet; Erdeve, Omer; Solaz, Nuri; Avcı, Aslıhan; Ulkar, Serenay Elgün; Gülyapar, Elif; Ustünyurt, Zeynep; Bıyıklı, Zeynep; Kemahlı, Sabri

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates of umbilical cordblood (UCB) and adult donor blood (ADB), and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologoussource for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term) UCB and 31 ADB units were collected.RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K(+)), 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG),adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. The K(+) level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storaged 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K(+) levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADBunits. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storageboth UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, andpH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRCsamples. The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions requiredduring the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns.The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observedin ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standardconditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors in Argentina: prevalence of infection, genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Pisano, María Belén; Blanco, Sebastián; Carrizo, Horacio; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Gallego, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HBV infection based on detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA by NAT in 70,102 blood donors in Argentina (Córdoba province) and shows the viral genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) in this population. Forty-two donors were confirmed positive for HBV infection (0.06 %), and four had OBI. Genotype F was the most prevalent (71.4 %), followed by A (14.3 %), C (7.1 %) and D (7.1 %). This is the first report of the prevalence of confirmed HBV infection and the high frequency of occult HBV infection in a blood bank in Argentina.

  11. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.

  12. Using ultrasonography to monitor liver blood flow for liver transplant from donors supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xian-Sheng; Wang, Sha-Sha; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Chuang-Wen; Huo, Feng; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to support brain-dead donors for liver procurement. This study investigated the potential role of ultrasonographic monitoring of hepatic perfusion as an aid to improve the viability of liver transplants obtained from brain-dead donors who are supported on ECMO. A total of 40 brain-dead patients maintained on ECMO served as the study population. Hepatic blood flow was monitored using ultrasonography, and perioperative optimal perfusion was maintained by calibrating ECMO. Liver function tests were performed to assess the viability of the graft. The hepatic arterial blood flow was well maintained with no significant changes observed before and after ECMO (206 ± 32 versus 241 ± 45 mL/minute; P = 0.06). Similarly, the portal venous blood flow was also maintained throughout (451 ± 65 versus 482 ± 77 mL/minute; P = 0.09). No significant change in levels of total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, and lactic acid were reported during ECMO (P = 0.17, P = 0.08, and P = 0.09, respectively). Before the liver is procured, ultrasonographic monitoring of hepatic blood flow could be a valuable aid to improve the viability of a liver transplant by allowing for real-time calibration of ECMO perfusion in brain-dead liver donors. In our study, ultrasonographic monitoring helped prevent warm ischemic injury to the liver graft by avoiding both overperfusion and underperfusion of the liver. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    PubMed

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  14. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return

    PubMed Central

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C.; Marijt-van derKreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G.; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. Materials and methods We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. Results In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Discussion Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return. PMID:23867173

  15. An Adapted Post-Donation Motivational Interview Enhances Blood Donor Retention

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Kadian S.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Carey, Patricia M.; Langevin, Eric; Bowser, Brent; France, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood donors may hold conflicting thoughts about future donation. While they may perceive the direct benefit to themselves and others, they often report compelling reasons not to give again. As a result the standard encouragements to return may not be sufficient to motivate some donors. The present study examined the effects of a post-donation adapted motivational interview on blood donor attitudes and repeat donation behavior. Study Design and Methods Donors (n=215) were randomly assigned to either an adapted motivational interview (AMI) or a no-interview control group. Approximately one month after their index donation, donors in the AMI group completed a brief telephone interview to clarify individual-specific motivations and values concerning blood donation and address potential barriers. They were then asked to complete questionnaires regarding donation attitudes, anxiety, self-efficacy and intention to donate. Donors in the control group were also contacted one month post-donation and asked to complete the same series of questionnaires. Results Donors in the AMI group reported greater intention to provide a future donation, F = 8.13, p < 0.05, more positive donation attitudes, F = 4.59, p < 0.05, and greater confidence in their ability to avoid adverse reactions, F = 10.26, p < 0.01. Further, AMI was associated with higher rates of attempted donation at 12 months (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.27–4.87). Conclusion Application of an adapted motivational interview may be an effective strategy to increase the donor pool by enhancing retention of existing donors. PMID:20456674

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Motivations Among Blood Donors in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Chen, Sanny; Salles, Nanci Alves; Chamone, Dalton A. F.; McFarland, Willi; Murphy, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting safe, volunteer blood donors requires understanding motivations for donating and knowledge and attitudes about HIV. We surveyed 1,600 persons presenting for blood donation at a large blood bank in São Paulo, Brazil using a self-administered, structured questionnaire, and classified motivations into three domains as well as categorizing persons by HIV test-seeking behavior. Motivations, in descending order, and their significant associations were: “altruism”: female gender, volunteer donor and repeat donor status; “direct appeal”: female gender, repeat donor status and age 21–50 years; “self-interest”: male gender, age under 20 years, first-time donor status and lower education. HIV test-seekers were more likely to give incorrect answers regarding HIV risk behavior and blood donation and the ability of antibody testing to detect recent HIV infections. Altruism is the main motivator for blood donation in Brazil; other motivators were associated with specific demographic subgroups. HIV test-seeking might be reduced by educational interventions. PMID:18389356

  17. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Results Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. Conclusions These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. PMID:24117697

  18. Phosphatidylserine exposure on stored red blood cells as a parameter for donor-dependent variation in product quality.

    PubMed

    Dinkla, Sip; Peppelman, Malou; Van Der Raadt, Jori; Atsma, Femke; Novotný, Vera M J; Van Kraaij, Marian G J; Joosten, Irma; Bosman, Giel J C G M

    2014-04-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outside of red blood cells contributes to recognition and removal of old and damaged cells. The fraction of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells varies between donors, and increases in red blood cell concentrates during storage. The susceptibility of red blood cells to stress-induced phosphatidylserine exposure increases with storage. Phosphatidylserine exposure may, therefore, constitute a link between donor variation and the quality of red blood cell concentrates. In order to examine the relationship between storage parameters and donor characteristics, the percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells was measured in red blood cell concentrates during storage and in fresh red blood cells from blood bank donors. The percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells was compared with red blood cell susceptibility to osmotic stress-induced phosphatidylserine exposure in vitro, with the regular red blood cell concentrate quality parameters, and with the donor characteristics age, body mass index, haemoglobin level, gender and blood group. Phosphatidylserine exposure varies between donors, both on red blood cells freshly isolated from the blood, and on red blood cells in red blood cell concentrates. Phosphatidylserine exposure increases with storage time, and is correlated with stress-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. Increased phosphatidylserine exposure during storage was found to be associated with haemolysis and vesicle concentration in red blood cell concentrates. The percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells showed a positive correlation with the plasma haemoglobin concentration of the donor. The fraction of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells is a parameter of red blood cell integrity in red blood cell concentrates and may be an indicator of red blood cell survival after transfusion. Measurement of phosphatidylserine exposure may be useful in the selection of donors and

  19. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  20. A motivational interview promotes retention of blood donors with high internal motivation.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Slepian, P Maxwell; Ankawi, Brett; Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hypothesis that self-determined motivation is associated with an increased likelihood of future behavior, the present study examined the ability of a motivational interview to promote internal motivation for giving blood and future donation attempts. A sample of 484 recent whole-blood and double red blood cell donors (62.4% female; age = 30.2 ± 11.8 years) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered motivational interview or a control call approximately 6 weeks after donating. Several weeks before the call and again 1 week after the call, participants completed the Blood Donor Identity Survey, a multidimensional measure of donor motivation, to derive indices of amotivation, external motivation, and internal motivation to give blood. Repeat donation attempts were tracked using blood center records. Relative to controls, participants in the motivational interview group showed a shift toward more self-determined motivation, as indicated by significant decreases in amotivation (p = 0.01) and significant increases in external (p = 0.009) and internal (p = 0.002) motivation. Furthermore, those with initially high levels of autonomous motivation were more likely to make a donation attempt in the subsequent year if they completed the motivational interview (71.1%) versus the control call (55.1%). Motivational interviewing is a potentially useful strategy to enhance retention of existing blood donors, particularly among those who express a greater sense of internal motivation for giving. © 2017 AABB.

  1. High-dose intravenously administered iron versus orally administered iron in blood donors with iron deficiency: study protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Macher, Susanne; Drexler, Camilla; Lindenau, Ines; Sareban, Nazanin; Schlenke, Peter; Amrein, Karin

    2016-10-28

    About 2-3 % of the population participates in blood donation programmes. Each whole blood donation or ten apheresis donations cause a loss of 200-250 mg of iron. As a result, one of the most common risks of regular blood donors is iron deficiency. Although this has been known for decades, in most countries, iron status is currently not assessed or treated in this population. Premenopausal women are particularly affected, as they have lower iron reserves and higher daily requirements. Besides anaemia, iron deficiency may lead to fatigue and impaired cognitive and physical performance. Current iron preparations for intravenous administration are well tolerated and allow for application of large doses up to 1 g in one visit. Our hypothesis is that in blood donors with iron deficiency, intravenously administered iron is more efficient and as safe as oral iron supplementation. Since anaemia is one of the most frequent reasons for permanent or intermittent donor deferral, maintaining an iron-replete donor pool may help to prevent shortages in blood supply and to avoid iron deficiency-related comorbidities. In this randomised clinical trial we include male and female blood donors aged ≥18 and ≤65 years with a ferritin value of ≤30 ng/ml. Stratified by gender, participants are randomized with a web-based randomisation tool in a 1:1 ratio to either 1 g of intravenously administered ferric carboxymaltose or 10 g of iron fumarate supplements at one to two daily doses of 100 mg each. Eight to 12 weeks after the first visit, iron status, blood count and symptoms are assessed in both groups. The primary endpoint is the difference in transferrin saturation (%) following the intervention between both groups. Secondary endpoints include other parameters of iron metabolism and red blood cell count, the number of patients with drug-related adverse events, and subjective symptoms including those of the restless legs syndrome, quality of life, and fatigue. Iron

  2. Laboratory variables for assessing iron deficiency in REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Joseph E; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Mast, Alan E; Carey, Patricia M; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerry L; Simon, Toby L; Cable, Ritchard G

    2013-11-01

    Iron deficiency is common in regular blood donors. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) hematology analyzer indices to assess iron status as a part of donor management. A total of 1659 male and female donors from the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study who were either first-time/reactivated (FT/RA; no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited into a longitudinal study of regular donation of RBCs. Of these, 1002 donors returned 15 to 24 months later for a final assessment. Absent iron stores (AIS) was defined as plasma ferritin level of less than 12 μg/L. Logarithm of the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin of at least 2.07 (≥97.5% in FT/RA males) was used to define iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess selected RBC indices (e.g., percentage of hypochromic mature RBCs, proportion of hypochromic mature RBCs [HYPOm], and hemoglobin [Hb] content of reticulocytes [CHr]) in identifying AIS and IDE. HYPOm and CHr detected IDE with comparable sensitivity, 72% versus 69%, but differed in specificity: HYPOm 68% and CHr 53%. For detecting AIS, sensitivity was improved to 85% for HYPOm and 81% for CHr but specificity was reduced for both. Venous Hb had high specificity but poor sensitivity for IDE and AIS. A plasma ferritin level of less than 26.7 μg/L was a good surrogate for assessing IDE. RBC indices correlate with AIS and IDE and are more informative than Hb measurement, but lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as diagnostic tools in blood donors at risk for iron deficiency. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. The Prevalence of the Hepatitis B Core Antibody and the Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    KS, Maheswari; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The infection with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a global health problem which affects 2 billion people worldwide. In India, the prevalence of the Hepatitis B infection is 4% in the general population. The prevalence of the HBV infection in voluntary blood donors is 1-3%. It has been reported that the viraemia continues even after the clinical recovery from the acute HBV infection. Some blood donors who were negative for the surface antigen but positive for the core antibody have been reported to transmit HBV, leading to acute hepatitis. This study was done to determine the seroprevalence of the hepatitis B core antibody in voluntary blood donors in Chennai, India. Materials and Method This prospective study was conducted in our department during 2008-2009. A total of 9100 donor samples were screened for the Hepatitis B surface antigen and the Hepatitis B core antibody (IgM and IgG) by ELISA. The samples which were positive for the core antibody were subjected to Real-time PCR for the Hepatitis B DNA detection. Results Among the 9100 donors, 911 (10.01%) donors were positive for the core antibody. The Hepatitis B Surface antigen was positive in 199 (2.18%) donors. Among the 911 donors who were positive for the core antibody, 820 (90.01%) donors were negative for the HBsAg and 2 donors were positive for Hepatitis B DNA. Conclusion If a routine screening of the sera for the core antibody is not done, the low-level HBV viraemia may not be identified. The absence of the surface antigen in the blood of apparently healthy individuals may not be sufficient to ensure the lack of the circulating virus. PMID:23373034

  4. A linked donor-recipient study to evaluate parvovirus B19 transmission by blood component transfusion.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven H; Glynn, Simone A; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Tobler, Leslie H; Schlumpf, Karen S; Todd, Deborah S; Qiao, Hannah; Yu, Mei-Ying W; Busch, Michael P

    2009-10-22

    Parvovirus B19V infection can be a serious infection for hematology patients with underlying hemolysis or compromised erythropoiesis syndromes. Although case reports of B19V transmission by blood component transfusion (as contrasted to manufactured plasma derivatives) are rare, no studies have systematically determined a rate of transmission to recipients transfused with B19V DNA-positive components. We used a linked donor and recipient repository and a sensitive, quantitative B19V DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to assess such transmission in B19V-susceptible (ie, anti-B19V immunoglobulin G [IgG] negative) recipients. We assessed 112 B19V DNA-positive components from 105 donors (of 12 529 tested donations) transfused into a population of surgical patients with a pretransfusion B19V IgG seroprevalence of 78%. We found no transmission to 24 susceptible recipients from transfusion of components with B19V DNA at concentrations less than 10(6) IU/mL (upper 95% confidence interval, 11.7%). We found an anamnestic IgG response in one pretransfusion seropositive recipient transfused with a component containing greater than 10(10) IU/mL B19V DNA. These findings show either that transmission from components with less than 10(6) IU/mL does not occur, or, if it does, it is an uncommon event. These data do not support the need to routinely screen blood donations with a sensitive B19V DNA nucleic acid assay.

  5. Predictors of hemoglobin recovery or deferral in blood donors with an initial successful donation.

    PubMed

    Custer, Brian; Bravo, Marjorie; Bruhn, Roberta; Land, Kevin; Tomasulo, Peter; Kamel, Hany

    2014-09-01

    Donation eligibility is based on hemoglobin (Hb) level among other factors. This study assesses factors that influence Hb levels among first-time (FT) donors returning for a second donation. Allogeneic FT donors who successfully donated a red blood cell (RBC)-containing donation on their index presentation and returned to donate at least once more between August 1, 2009, and July 31, 2012, were included. Interdonation intervals and delta Hb (subsequent donation - index donation value) were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression and survival analysis methods were used to determine factors associated with 1) Hb recovery to preindex donation value or 2) deferral at the second presentation. During the study, 135,040 FT donors returned to donate. Overall, 44% of donors returned with a Hb level at or above their index value (defined as recovery for this study), 48.1% for males and 39.9% for females. Logistic regression revealed that the factor most strongly associated with Hb recovery was index Hb, with lower Hb having much higher odds of recovery. Shorter interdonation intervals were associated with decreased likelihood of recovery. Certain demographic characteristics were also associated with higher odds of recovery. Factors associated with deferral were similar to the factors associated with recovery, except for donor sex. As early as the second blood donation, allogeneic donors can be differentiated into two subpopulations: those who recover to index Hb levels and those who do not. Current data routinely collected by US blood centers cannot reliably distinguish between the two groups. © 2014 AABB.

  6. How do we manage blood donors and recipients after a positive Zika screening result?

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Alexandra; Shaz, Beth H; Kessler, Debra; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic. ZIKV is notable for its severe neurologic sequelae in babies born to infected mothers. High rates of subclinical infection, as evidenced by the finding of ZIKV RNA in asymptomatic donors, raise concerns of risk to the blood supply. To date, a total of four suspected cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV have been reported (all in Brazil), none of which were associated with clinical infection in the transfusion recipients. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance mandating national blood donor screening for ZIKV in the United States. Five days after implementation of donor screening at our facility, we encountered a ZIKV-positive donor. We provide a practical approach to donor, recipient, and blood product management in the setting of a positive donor ZIKV result. Such has been informed by the challenges we faced in the workup of a ZIKV-reactive donation and recipient lookback. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Tayou, Claude Tagny; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean Jacques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. RESULTS During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%–36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. CONCLUSIONS The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. PMID:22014098

  8. [Guidelines for Chagas disease: Part III. Chagas disease in donors to blood banks].

    PubMed

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism prevents iron deprivation in healthy blood donors.

    PubMed

    Torti, Lorenza; Teofili, Luciana; Capodimonti, Sara; Nuzzolo, Eugenia R; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Massini, Giuseppina; Coluzzi, Serelina; Tafuri, Agostino; Fiorin, Francesco; Girelli, Gabriella; Zini, Gina; Larocca, Luigi M

    2013-10-01

    Frequent blood loss induces progressive depletion of iron stores, leading to iron deficiency and, ultimately, to overt iron-deficient anaemia. The erythropoietin-mediated bone marrow response to anaemia is under the control of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), the master regulators of oxygen and iron homeostasis. Since the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) variant is associated with elevated trans-activation capacity of hypoxia responsive elements of target genes, we investigated whether the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism might influence the response to repeated blood withdrawals. Using polymerase chain reaction analysis and DNA sequencing, we retrospectively investigated the presence of HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) in a series of 163 blood donors. Haematological findings, serum ferritin levels and frequency of donations were compared according to the mutational status of the HIF-1α gene. We found that male carriers of the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism had higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels than individuals homozygous for the wild-type allele. Moreover, the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism protected regular blood donors from developing iron deficiency and anaemia and predicted uninterrupted donation activity. These findings show for the first time that the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism significantly affects red blood cell and iron homeostasis after blood loss, conferring to male carriers a resistance to anaemia. Regarding the female gender, large series of individuals should be investigated to establish whether there is an effect of the HIF-1α(Pro-582-Ser) polymorphism in this population. Although these data need to be confirmed in prospective studies, they could have important implications in blood donor selection and donation procedures.

  10. [GBV-C/HGV and TTV infection markers in Polish blood donors and haemophilia patients].

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Brojer, Ewa; Windyga, Jerzy; łopaciuk, Stanisław; Klukowska, Anna; Mikulska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Viruses GBV-C/HGV and TTV were identified in patients with hepatitis of unknown etiology. Aim of our study was to assess the frequency of infection markers of these viruses in blood donors and haemophilia patients treated with virucidaly activated and non inactivated blood products. Material and methods. TTV DNA (by PCR using primers to coding ORFI and non-coding region NC) and GBV-C/HGV (RNA by RT-PCR and anti-E2 by EIA) were tested in blood donors (200 for TTV and 219 for GBV-C/HGV), 122 haemophilia patients treated in the past with non inactivated blood products and in 20 haemophilia children treated exclusively with inactivated clotting preparations. Results RNA GBV-C/HGV were identified in 3,2%; 23,7% and in 0%, respectively blood donors, adult and children haemophilia patients. Antibody anti-E2 were found in 23,6%; 37% i 25% of studied groups respectively. DNA TTV was detected most frequently by NC than ORF1 primers: in 78% vs.10% of blood donors, 100% vs 43,5% of adult haemophilia patients and in 95% vs. 15% young haemophiliacs. Conclusions Haemophilia patients were at risk of GBV-C/HGV and TTV infection. Following implementation of viral inactivation methods in the process of clotting factor concentrates production, the risk for GBV-C/HGV transmission was significantly reduced and in less extant for TTV.

  11. False positive tests for anti-hepatitis C antibodies and the problem of notifying blood donors.

    PubMed

    Bar-Shany, S; Green, M S; Shinar, E

    1996-06-01

    All donated blood in Israel is tested for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and donors are notified of the result. There is evidence that at low antibody titres, the percentage of false positives may be high, with consequent labelling of healthy people as being infected with HCV. In this study we examined the correlation between anti-HCV antibody titres determined by a second generation EIA test with supplemental EIA tests and evidence of abnormal liver function. Blood samples of 201 Israeli civilians who donated blood during 1992 and were repeat reactive for anti-HCV antibody based on second generation EIA, were tested by a supplemental test. Follow-up data were obtained from the donors and their family physicians. Results of anti-HCV EIA tests on two separate occasions of blood donation were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.86). Positive supplemental tests and abnormal liver function tests were found only in those subjects with high antibody titres. Furthermore low antibody titres were more prevalent during the winter months, suggesting that seasonal intercurrent infections may increase the percentage of false positives. A high proportion of blood donors labelled as anti-HCV antibody positive based on low antibody titres, may not be at increased risk of carrying HCV. Since labelling would result in creating unnecessary anxiety among blood donors, it is important to confirm such results with test such as radioimmunoblot assay (RIBA).

  12. Insulin sensitivity, vascular function, and iron stores in voluntary blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haoyi; Patel, Milan; Cable, Ritchard; Young, Lawrence; Katz, Stuart D

    2007-10-01

    Reduced iron stores after blood donation are associated with improved vascular function and decreased cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine whether iron-dependent changes in glucose metabolism may contribute to improved vascular function in blood donors. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in 21 high-frequency blood donors (more than eight donations in the last 2 years) and 21 low-frequency blood donors (one to two donations in the last 2 years) aged 50-75 years. Serum markers of iron stores, whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) during oral glucose tolerance testing, and flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery were determined in all subjects. Serum ferritin was decreased (median values 23 vs. 36 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery was increased (median values 5.9 vs. 5.3%, P < 0.05) in high-frequency donors compared with low-frequency donors, respectively, but WBISI (median values 4.8 vs. 4.7) and related measures of glucose tolerance did not differ between groups. Flow-mediated dilation significantly decreased at 1 h after oral glucose loading in both groups, but the decrease in flow-mediated dilation at 1 h did not differ between high- and low-frequency donors. High-frequency blood donation reduced serum ferritin and increased flow-mediated dilation compared with low-frequency donation but did not improve insulin sensitivity or protect the vascular endothelium from the adverse effects of acute hyperglycemia after oral glucose loading. These findings suggest that the mechanisms linking blood donation to improved vascular function are not likely related to changes in glucose metabolism.

  13. The effect of a standardized protocol for iron supplementation to blood donors low in hemoglobin concentration.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin < or = 30 microg/L). In the donors returning once or twice, an increase in cHb and P-ferritin was seen. Fifteen donors were permanently deferred due to disease and 36 due to low cHb, but 2 years after the start of the study, 79 percent of the women and 85 percent of the men were still active donors. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.

  14. Laboratory variables for assessing iron deficiency in REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Wright, David J.; Mast, Alan E.; Carey, Patricia M.; Murphy, Edward L.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Simon, Toby L.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Iron deficiency is common in regular blood donors. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) hematology analyzer indices to assess iron status as a part of donor management. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1659 male and female donors from the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study who were either first-time/reactivated (FT/ RA; no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited into a longitudinal study of regular donation of RBCs. Of these, 1002 donors returned 15 to 24 months later for a final assessment. Absent iron stores (AIS) was defined as plasma ferritin level of less than 12 µ.g/L. Logarithm of the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin of at least 2.07 (≥97.5% in FT/RA males) was used to define iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess selected RBC indices (e.g., percentage of hypochromic mature RBCs, proportion of hypochromic mature RBCs [HYPOm], and hemoglobin [Hb] content of reticulocytes [CHr]) in identifying AIS and IDE. RESULTS HYPOm and CHr detected IDE with comparable sensitivity, 72% versus 69%, but differed in specificity: HYPOm 68% and CHr 53%. For detecting AIS, sensitivity was improved to 85% for HYPOm and 81% for CHr but specificity was reduced for both. Venous Hb had high specificity but poor sensitivity for IDE and AIS. A plasma ferritin level of less than 26.7 u.g/L was a good surrogate for assessing IDE. CONCLUSION RBC indices correlate with AIS and IDE and are more informative than Hb measurement, but lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as diagnostic tools in blood donors at risk for iron deficiency. PMID:23617531

  15. A retrospective analysis of false-positive infectious screening results in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle T.; Bruhn, Roberta; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Custer, Brian S.; Murphy, Edward L.; Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND False-positive infectious transfusion screening results remain a challenge with continued loss of both donors and blood products. We sought to identify associations between donor demographic characteristics (age, race, sex, education, first-time donor status) and testing false positive for viruses during routine blood donation screening. In addition the study assessed the prevalence of high-risk behaviors in false-positive donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Blood Systems, Inc. donors with allogeneic donations between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, were compared in a case-control study. Those with a false-positive donation for one of four viruses (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], human T-lymphotropic virus [HTLV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were included as cases. Those with negative test results were controls. For a subset of cases, infectious risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with HCV and HTLV false-positive results. Male sex and lower education were associated with HCV false positivity, and age 25 to 44 was associated with HTLV false positivity. First-time donors were more likely to be HCV false positive although less likely to be HBV and HTLV false positive. No significant associations between donor demographics and HIV false positivity were observed. A questionnaire for false-positive donors showed low levels of high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION Demographic associations with HCV and HTLV false-positive results overlap with those of true infection. While true infection is unlikely given current testing algorithms and risk factor evaluation, the findings suggest nonrandom association. Further investigation into biologic mechanisms is warranted. PMID:26509432

  16. Cost and effectiveness comparison of two methods for screening potential blood donors for anaemia in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, A; Worrall, E; Que, T N; Bates, I

    2011-06-01

    To compare the cost and effectiveness of Copper Sulphate (CS) and HemoCue (HC) methods for screening blood donors for anaemia. Robust information from developing countries about cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods for blood donors is scarce. In such countries there are widespread shortages of blood, so the most cost-effective method should maximise blood supply without compromising donor safety. Economic data (e.g. staff time, equipment and buildings) were collected from direct observation of procedures and purchase data from Hanoi's Central Blood Bank administrative department. A framework for comparing the cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods was developed and a cost per effective (i.e. usable and accurate) test was generated for each method. Samples from 100 potential donors from the Hanoi Central Blood Bank (static) and 198 from two mobile units were tested. The mean probability of an ineffective anaemia test was 0·1 (0·05-0·2). The average cost of an HC test was $0·75 (static $0·61 and mobile $0·89) and a CS test was $0·31 (static $0·17 and mobile $0·45). The difference between static and mobile units was predominantly due to transport costs; the difference between the two methods was predominantly due to the HC microcuvettes. In this setting the CS yields greater value for money than the HC method for screening blood donors. The relative cost and effectiveness of CS and HC may be different in places with higher staff turnover, lower test accuracy, higher anaemia prevalence or lower workload than in Vietnam. © 2010 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. [Non-donor patients' opinions about general practitioners' influence on first blood donation].

    PubMed

    Pruvot, J; Calafiore, M; Dambricourt, P-A; Messaadi, N

    2015-10-01

    Needs for labile blood products are continuously increasing in France. National self-sufficiency is currently achieved because important promotional efforts for blood donation have resulted in more than three million donations per year. Despite the peculiar relationship general practitioners (GPs) have with every patient and with public health actions, GPs are not included in the blood donation promotion chain. In this study, the main goal was to determine, from a non-donor patient's point of view, whether a discussion with their GP could be an efficient tool in blood donation promotion. The study was also designed to identify barriers to donation and information patients would expect from their GPs in such a discussion. This was an epidemiological analytical cross-sectional and multicenter study. All patients aged 18 to 70 years attending a GP's clinic in Nord-Pas-de-Calais was asked to complete a seven-item closed-question survey. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who stated that the discussion with their GP could be an efficient tool for promoting blood donation. One thousand and forty-eight surveys were included in the analysis. Four hundred and fifty of the 660 non-donors interviewed (68.2 %) declared that a discussion with their GP could encourage them in the blood donation process. Non-donors declared that lack of time was the main barrier (33.5 %) and that they expected information from their GP about when and where they could donate blood (40.3 %). Many non-donor patients attending primary care clinics declare that a discussion with their GP could encourage them to make a blood donation and therefore significantly increase the number of potential donors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral, biochemical, and genetic analysis of iron metabolism in high-intensity blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Foster, Tisha M; Pinder, Holly L; Beczkiewicz, Craig A; Bellissimo, Daniel B; Murphy, Anthony T; Kovacevic, Steve; Wroblewski, Victor J; Witcher, Derrick R

    2008-10-01

    Individuals donating whole blood 13 times in a 2-year period without development of iron deficiency anemia (superdonors) are a self-selected population that is deferred for low hematocrit (Hct) level less frequently than other donors. Iron metabolism was assessed in 138 superdonors through a questionnaire and measurement of Hct, serum ferritin, serum hepcidin, and serum growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). Genetic testing for HFE and JAK-2 mutations was also performed. Iron deficiency (ferritin level, <30 microg/L) is present in more than 60 percent of superdonors. Behaviors altering iron status included casual use of iron supplements in males, but not in females, and cigarette smoking that produced increased Hct associated with decreased ferritin. The striking biochemical characteristic of superdonors is greatly decreased serum hepcidin, consistent with their need to absorb maximal amounts of dietary iron to replace that lost from blood donation. GDF15 is normal in most superdonors, indicating that GDF15 overexpression arising from the expanded erythroid pool necessary to replace donated red cells is not the biochemical mechanism for the decreased serum hepcidin. Mutations in JAK-2 were not found, indicating that undiagnosed polycythemia vera is not a common cause for successful repeated blood donation by superdonors. Mutations in HFE associated with hemochromatosis were present in superdonors at the same frequency as the normal population. However, superdonors heterozygous for the H63D mutation in HFE had significantly decreased hepcidin : ferritin ratios demonstrating for the first time that the heterozygous state for HFE mutations is associated with alterations in hepcidin expression.

  19. Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population.

    PubMed

    Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2014-09-01

    Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population.

  20. A randomized comparison of plateletpheresis with the same donors using four blood separators at a single blood center.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Grace C; Strauss, Ronald G; Wieland, Martha J; Behlke, Timothy A; Ludwig, Gerald A

    2002-01-01

    At one blood center, each of 20 donors underwent plateletpheresis on four blood cell separators in random order. We compared the CS3000+, Amicus V 2.41, MCS Plus, and Spectra LRS V 7 Turbo regarding platelet (PLT) yield, pre- and post-procedure PLT counts, percent fall in donor PLT count, process time, efficiency, PLT product and donor PLT volume (MPV). Using >or= 150 x 10(9) PLTs/L pre-donation counts, a goal was set of 4.5 x 10(11) PLTs unit in up to 100 minutes processing time. Results were (mean values) PLT yields of Amicus, Spectra, CS3000+, and MCS Plus: 4.3, 4.6, 4.3, 4.0 x 10(11) PLTS, respectively; percent donor PLT fall: 24, 32, 30, 29%, respectively; processing times: 50, 74, 87, 101 minutes, respectively; relative efficiency (RE): 2.2, 1.6, 1.2,1.0, respectively (based on the MCS Plus performance with RE of 1 = 4 x 10(9) PLTS/min); PLT product MPV: 6.7, 7.4, 6.8,7.1 fL, respectively; pre-procedure donor MPV: 7.7, 7.3, 7.6 and 7.6 fL, respectively; and percent donor MPV change: -5.2, 0, -6.6, and -10%, respectively. Significant changes in the donor MPV were noted (P < 0.05) but could not be related to product MPV. Spectra seemed to collect larger PLTs (higher MPV); the significance remains unknown for both donors and recipients. Importantly, all four separators gave acceptable and comparable PLT yields (P < 0.05) with Spectra trending higher. The short process time and high RE together indicate highly efficient collections particularly by Amicus and Spectra.

  1. Retrospective Study Evaluating Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Blood Donors and in Swine Veterinarians in Italy (2004).

    PubMed

    De Sabato, L; Di Bartolo, I; Montomoli, E; Trombetta, C; Ruggeri, F M; Ostanello, F

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general populatio