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Sample records for blood flow restriction

  1. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise training can increase skeletal muscle size, strength, and endurance when performed in a variety of ambulatory populations. This training methodology couples a remarkably low exercise training load (approximately 20%–50% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with an inflated external cuff (width, ranging between approximately 30–90 mm; pressure, ranging between approximately 100–250 mmHg) that is placed around the exercising limb. BFR aerobic (walking and cycling) exercise training methods have also recently emerged in an attempt to enhance cardiovascular endurance and functional task performance while incorporating minimal exercise intensity. Although both forms of BFR exercise training have direct implications for individuals with sarcopenia and dynapenia, the application of BFR exercise training during exposure to microgravity to prevent deconditioning remains controversial. The aim of this review is to present an overview of BFR exercise training and discuss the potential usefulness of this method as an adjunct exercise countermeasure during prolonged spaceflight. The work will specifically emphasize ambulatory BFR exercise training adaptations, mechanisms, and safety and will provide directions for future research. PMID:23849078

  2. Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Okita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  3. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    PubMed

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2017-04-12

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cardiovascular response to bouts of exercise with blood flow restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bunevicius, Kestutis; Sujeta, Arturas; Poderiene, Kristina; Zachariene, Birute; Silinskas, Viktoras; Minkevicius, Rimantas; Poderys, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Occlusion training with low-intensity resistance exercises and blood flow restriction increases muscle cross-sectional area and strength. This form of training is used in rehabilitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of one occlusion training session on the cardiovascular response to bouts of exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Two groups took part: a control group without blood flow restriction and an experimental group with blood flow restriction. A single training session was used with the exercise intensity set at 40% of the one repetition maximum. Maximum voluntary contraction, arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiogram measurements were performed. [Results] Heart rate was slightly higher in the control group. The performed training had no effect on diastolic blood pressure in either group, however, a tendency for a small systolic blood pressure increase was observed during the session in the experimental group. JT interval changes did not reveal significant differences between groups. There were no significant changes in ST-segment depression during the exercise or at rest. A lower tendency for JT/RR increases was observed during the repeated exercise tasks with partial blood flow restriction. [Conclusion] Low intensity exercises carried out with a partial blood flow restriction do not result in significant overload of cardiac function. PMID:28174436

  5. Cardiovascular response to bouts of exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Kestutis; Sujeta, Arturas; Poderiene, Kristina; Zachariene, Birute; Silinskas, Viktoras; Minkevicius, Rimantas; Poderys, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] Occlusion training with low-intensity resistance exercises and blood flow restriction increases muscle cross-sectional area and strength. This form of training is used in rehabilitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of one occlusion training session on the cardiovascular response to bouts of exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Two groups took part: a control group without blood flow restriction and an experimental group with blood flow restriction. A single training session was used with the exercise intensity set at 40% of the one repetition maximum. Maximum voluntary contraction, arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiogram measurements were performed. [Results] Heart rate was slightly higher in the control group. The performed training had no effect on diastolic blood pressure in either group, however, a tendency for a small systolic blood pressure increase was observed during the session in the experimental group. JT interval changes did not reveal significant differences between groups. There were no significant changes in ST-segment depression during the exercise or at rest. A lower tendency for JT/RR increases was observed during the repeated exercise tasks with partial blood flow restriction. [Conclusion] Low intensity exercises carried out with a partial blood flow restriction do not result in significant overload of cardiac function.

  6. Efficacy, Safety and Mechanisms of Blood Flow Restricted Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This 20 minute talk will review studies in the peer-reviewed literature related to the effectiveness of blood flow restricted exercise as an exercise training program. There is controversy regarding the talk with cover the effectiveness of various exercise protocols and these differences will be compared and contrasted. Unpublished data from my laboratory at Syracuse University will be presented (see other abstract), as well as some unpublished work from the labs of Manini, Clark and Rasmussen (none are NASA funded).

  7. Efficacy, Safety and Mechanisms of Blood Flow Restricted Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This 20 minute talk will review studies in the peer-reviewed literature related to the effectiveness of blood flow restricted exercise as an exercise training program. There is controversy regarding the talk with cover the effectiveness of various exercise protocols and these differences will be compared and contrasted. Unpublished data from my laboratory at Syracuse University will be presented (see other abstract), as well as some unpublished work from the labs of Manini, Clark and Rasmussen (none are NASA funded).

  8. Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Wilson, Jacob M; Marín, Pedro J; Zourdos, Michael C; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to quantitatively identify which training variables result in the greatest strength and hypertrophy outcomes with lower body low intensity training with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR). Searches were performed for published studies with certain criteria. First, the primary focus of the study must have compared the effects of low intensity endurance or resistance training alone to low intensity exercise with some form of blood flow restriction. Second, subject populations had to have similar baseline characteristics so that valid outcome measures could be made. Finally, outcome measures had to include at least one measure of muscle hypertrophy. All studies included in the analysis utilized MRI except for two which reported changes via ultrasound. The mean overall effect size (ES) for muscle strength for LI-BFR was 0.58 [95% CI: 0.40, 0.76], and 0.00 [95% CI: -0.18, 0.17] for low intensity training. The mean overall ES for muscle hypertrophy for LI-BFR training was 0.39 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.43], and -0.01 [95% CI: -0.05, 0.03] for low intensity training. Blood flow restriction resulted in significantly greater gains in strength and hypertrophy when performed with resistance training than with walking. In addition, performing LI-BFR 2-3 days per week resulted in the greatest ES compared to 4-5 days per week. Significant correlations were found between ES for strength development and weeks of duration, but not for muscle hypertrophy. This meta-analysis provides insight into the impact of different variables on muscular strength and hypertrophy to LI-BFR training.

  9. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercises with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Costa, Pablo B; Salles, Belmiro F; Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2015-04-01

    The effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (RE) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on blood pressure (BP) are an important factor to be considered because of the acute responses imposed by training. The aim of this study was to compare the hypotensive effect of RE performed with and without BFR in normotensive young subjects. After 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests, 24 men (21.79 ± 3.21 years; 1.72 ± 0.06 m; 69.49 ± 9.80 kg) performed the following 4 experimental protocols in a randomized order: (a) high-intensity RE at 80% of 1RM (HI), (b) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM (LI), (c) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM combined with partial BFR (LI + BFR), and (d) control. Analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was conducted over a 60-minute period. The 3 RE protocols resulted in hypotensive SBP (HI = -3.8%, LI = -3.3%, LI + BFR = -5.5%) responses during the 60 minutes (p ≤ 0.05). The LI + BFR protocol promoted hypotensive (-11.5%) responses in DBP during the 60 minutes (p ≤ 0.05), and both the HI and LI + BFR protocols resulted in mean blood pressure (MBP) hypotension between 30 (-7.0%, -7.7%) and 60 minutes (-3.6%, -8.8%), respectively. In conclusion, postexercise hypotension may occur after all 3 exercise protocols with greater reductions in SBP after HI and LI + BFR, in DBP after LI + BFR, and in MBP after HI and LI + BFR protocols.

  10. Repeated blood flow restriction induces muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Kano, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    We recently developed an animal model to investigate the effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle tissue at the cellular level. This study clarified the effects of repeated BFR, ECC, and BFR combined with ECC (BFR+ECC) on muscle fiber hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: BFR, ECC, and BFR+ECC. The contralateral leg in the BFR group served as a control (CONT). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tibialis anterior was determined after the respective treatments for 6 weeks. CSA was greater in the BFR+ECC group than in the CONT (P < 0.01) and ECC (P < 0.05) groups. CSA was greater in the BFR group than that in the CONT group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that repeated BFR alone as well as BFR+ECC induces muscle fiber hypertrophy at the cellular level. Muscle Nerve 55: 274-276, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Blood flow restriction rehabilitation for extremity weakness: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hylden, Christina; Burns, Travis; Stinner, Daniel; Owens, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Blood flow restricted (BFR) training, the brief and partial restriction of venous outflow of an extremity during low load resistance exercises, is a safe and effective method of improving strength in healthy, active individuals. A relatively unexplored potential of this adjunctive modality lies in treating patients with severe musculoskeletal trauma, persistent chronic quadriceps and hamstring weakness despite traditional therapy, and low improvement during early postoperative strengthening. This case series describes patients with chronic quadriceps and hamstring weakness who received an intervention of BFR at low loads, 20% of 1 repetition max (1RM), to restore strength. A case series was conducted of seven patients, all located at one hospital and all with traumatic lower extremity injuries. The seven patients were treated at the same medical center and with the same BFR protocol. All seven patients had isokinetic dynamometer testing that showed persistent thigh muscle weakness despite previous rehabilitation with traditional therapy and 35% to 75% peak torque deficit in either knee extension or flexion compared with the contralateral lower extremity. Patients underwent 2 weeks of BFR training therapy using a pneumatic tourniquet set at 110mmHg while performing leg extensions, leg presses, and reverse leg presses. All affected extremities were retested after 2 weeks (six treatment sessions). Dynamometer measurements were done with flexion and extension at two speeds: 90° and 300°/sec. The data recorded included peak torque normalized for body weight, average power, and total work. All seven patients demonstrated improvements in peak torque, average power, and total work for both knee flexion and extension, with power being the most improved overall. Peak torque improved an average of 13% to 37%, depending on contraction direction and speed. Average power improved an average of 42% to 81%, and total work improved an average of 35% to 55%. BFR therapy at low

  12. Femoral Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Blood Flow Restricted Leg Press Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Artery diameter did not change from baseline. BF increased (p<0.05) after exercise in each condition except LBFR(sub SBP) in the order of HL (12.73+/-1.42 cm3,mean+/-SE) > LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of

  13. Effect of isokinetic resistance training under a condition of restricted blood flow with pressure.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Keishoku; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of isokinetic training under the condition of restricted blood flow with pressure. The subjects were 21 athletes at a university. They were classified into four training groups: group A (high speed under restricted blood flow condition with pressure); group B (low speed under restricted blood flow condition with pressure); group C (high speed without restricted blood flow condition); group D (low speed without restricted blood flow condition). The training session consisted of three sets of knee extension and flexion (repeated 10 times) using an isokinetic training machine (Biodex system 3). The training period was 4 weeks, with regular training sessions twice a week during this period. Before and after the training period, all of the subjects underwent measurements of quadriceps muscular strength of concentric contraction (CC) and eccentric contraction (EC) after isokinetic contraction as well as measurement of the thigh diameter. In addition, the group with restricted blood flow with pressure underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In regard to quadriceps muscular strength before and after training, there was a significant difference between groups A and C at many degrees of velocity. For the muscular volume measurements by MRI before and after training, no significant difference was seen in group A or group B. A significant increase was not seen even when comparing groups A and B. Isokinetic resistance training with restricted blood flow with pressure had an effect on muscular strength improvement.

  14. Effects of high-intensity blood flow restriction exercise on muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Santos, Heleodório H; Sousa, Juliana B C; Júnior, Adenilson T A; Araújo, Joamira P; Aniceto, Rodrigo R; Sousa, Maria S C

    2014-06-28

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  15. A tale of three cuffs: the hemodynamics of blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Mouser, J Grant; Dankel, Scott J; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Counts, Brittany R; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-07-01

    The blood flow response to relative levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) across varying cuff widths is not well documented. With the variety of cuff widths and pressures reported in the literature, the effects of different cuffs and pressures on blood flow require investigation. To measure blood pressure using three commonly used BFR cuffs, examine possible venous/arterial restriction pressures, and measure hemodynamic responses to relative levels of BFR using these same cuffs. 43 participants (Experiment 1, brachial artery blood pressure assessed) and 38 participants (Experiment 2, brachial artery blood flow assessed using ultrasound, cuff placed at proximal portion of arm) volunteered for this study. Blood pressure measurement was higher in the 5 cm cuff than in the 10 and 12 cm cuffs. Sub-diastolic relative pressures appear to occur predominantly at <60% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP). Blood flow under relative levels of restriction decreases in a non-linear fashion, with minimal differences between cuffs [resting: 50.3 (44.2) ml min(-1); 10% AOP: 42.0 (36.8); 20%: 33.6 (28.6); 30%: 23.6 (20.4); 40%: 17.1 (15.9); 50%: 12.5 (9.4); 60%: 11.5 (8.1); 70%: 11.4 (7.0); 80%: 10.3 (6.3); 90%: 7.9 (4.8); 100%: 1.5 (2.9)]. Peak blood velocity remains relatively constant until higher levels (>70% of AOP) are surpassed. Calculated mean shear rate decreases in a similar fashion as blood flow. Under relative levels of restriction, pressures from 40 to 90% of AOP appear to decrease blood flow to a similar degree in these three cuffs. Relative pressures appear to elicit a similar blood flow stimulus when accounting for cuff width and participant characteristics.

  16. The acute effect of resistance exercise with blood flow restriction with hemodynamic variables on hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joamira P; Silva, Eliney D; Silva, Julio C G; Souza, Thiago S P; Lima, Eloíse O; Guerra, Ialuska; Sousa, Maria S C

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the heart rate (HR) before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM) and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR). In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years) performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to identify significant variables (2 × 5; group × time). The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  17. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Joamira P.; Silva, Eliney D.; Silva, Julio C. G.; Souza, Thiago S. P.; Lima, Eloíse O.; Guerra, Ialuska; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the heart rate (HR) before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM) and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR). In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years) performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to identify significant variables (2 × 5; group × time). The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity. PMID:25713647

  18. Maternal tissue blood flow and oxygen saturation in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Karanam, V L; Page, N M; Anim-Nyame, N

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that impaired maternal tissue perfusion occurs in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and this correlates with maternal tissue oxygenation. Strain gauge plethysmography was used to compare maternal calf blood flow during the third trimester in 16 women with pre-eclampsia, 6 women with IUGR and 16 normal pregnant controls. A Mediaid iPOX pulse oximeter was used to measure maternal tissue oxygenation in the three groups and these were compared with tissue blood flow. Maternal tissue blood flow was significantly reduced in pre-eclampsia compared to the two other groups (p=0.003). Blood flow was significantly reduced in pre-eclampsia compared to IUGR (p=0.03). However there was no difference in blood flow between normal pregnancy and IUGR groups (p=0.76). No significant difference was noted in maternal tissue oxygenation between the normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and IUGR groups (mean±S.E.M. [97.13±0.4, 96.69±0.33, 97.83±0.47 respectively], p=0.26). No correlation was noted between blood flow and tissue oxygenation in the three groups of women. We have demonstrated that reduced maternal resting tissue blood flow present in women with pre-eclampsia is not seen in women with IUGR and the reduction in blood flow in pre-eclampsia is not associated with changes in maternal tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Lucas; Bezerra, Ewertton; Paladino, Kayo; dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni; Priego Quesada, Jose I.; Rossato, Mateus

    2016-11-01

    Training with blood flow restriction could lead to an effect on skin temperature. Additionally, this effect could be higher in people with lower physical fitness level due to their lower capacity of heat loss. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to evaluate the effects of training experience on the acute and chronic thermal skin responses after performing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. The study included ten men, of these, five were trained. All subjects performed tests and re-tests for maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) through unilateral leg extensions (right thigh at 45 ± 6.7 kg and left thigh at 45.5 ± 8.1 kg, p > 0.05). The protocol consisted of four sets to concentric failure, with one-minute rest intervals between sets at an intensity corresponding to 40% of 1 RM. There were 7-day intervals between experimental sessions (150 mmHg versus unrestricted flow restriction). The thermal images were made before the protocol (pre), immediately after the end of the series (post), and 24 h afterward (post 24 h). When comparing temperature variation (Δ exercise and Δ 24 h) between groups, it was observed that the trained participants showed a greater drop in temperature 24 h after exercise with 150 mmHg restriction (confidence interval: 95% of Δ 24 h [-0.2 to -0.9 °C]) compared to untrained subjects (p = 0.006 and ES > 1.5, confidence interval: 95% Δ 24 h [-0.1 to 0.6 °C].) In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that training experience interferes with the chronic cutaneous thermal temperature of the anterior thigh when strength training associated with blood flow restriction 150 mmHg was performed.

  20. Hemodynamic response to resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Poton, Roberto; Polito, Marcos Doederlein

    2016-05-01

    To compare the hemodynamic response during resistance exercise at high intensity (HI), low intensity (LI) and low intensity with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR) in healthy subjects. Twelve men performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercises at LI-BFR and LI (15 repetitions; 20% of 1RM) and HI (8 repetitions; 80% of 1RM). The blood flow restriction was accomplished using a sphygmomanometer positioned on the thigh and inflated to the point of blood flow interruption (167·9 ± 16·6 mmHg). The hemodynamic variables were obtained by continuous beat-to-beat photoplethysmography. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were also measured. The HI session showed higher values (P<0·05) in all sets than the LI and LI-BFR for diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and rate-pressure product. The LI-BFR showed higher values than the LI only in the 3rd set for systolic blood pressure, heart rate and rate-pressure product. Blood lactate was higher in the HI (4·2 ± 0·2 mmol) and LI-BFR (4·1 ± 0·3 mmol) than the LI (3·5 ± 0·3 mmol). Rating of perceived exertion was higher in the LI-BFR (7·9 ± 0·3) than the HI (6·4 ± 0·4) and LI (3·2 ± 0·4). The LI-BFR session exhibited similar blood lactate to the HI, a higher rating of perceived response than the HI and LI, and equal or lower hemodynamic responses than the HI. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading.

    PubMed

    Cook, Summer B; Brown, Kimberly A; Deruisseau, Keith; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LL(BFR)) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LL(BFR) three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at 20% of the subject's isometric maximum voluntary contraction coupled with a suprasystolic blood flow restriction. After 30 days of limb suspension, the ULLS + Exercise group experienced minimal and insignificant losses in knee extensor cross-sectional area and strength (1.2% and 2.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Muscular endurance in the knee extensors improved 31% in the ULLS + Exercise group, while it decreased 24% in the ULLS group (P = 0.01). No changes were seen in hormone concentrations throughout the study. In conclusion, LL(BFR) of the knee extensors is effective in maintaining muscle strength and size during 30 days of ULLS and results in improved knee extensor muscular endurance.

  2. Adaptation of Perceptual Responses to Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ruiz-Aguado, Jorge; Herrero, Azael J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Aagaard, Per; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Menéndez, Héctor; Marín, Pedro J

    2017-03-01

    Martín-Hernández, J, Ruiz-Aguado, J, Herrero, AJ, Loenneke, JP, Aagaard, P, Cristi-Montero, C, Menéndez, H, and Marín, PJ. Adaptation of perceptual responses to low-load blood flow restriction training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 765-772, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over 6 consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restriction training (BFRT) group or a high-intensity resistance training (HIT) group. Blood flow-restricted training group performed 4 sets (30 + 15 + 15 + 15, respectively) of unilateral leg extension at an intensity of 20% one repetition maximum (1RM) while a restrictive cuff was applied to the most proximal part of the leg. The HIT group performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions with 85% 1RM. Ratings of perceived exertion and pain were assessed immediately after each exercise set along the 6 training sessions and were then averaged to obtain the overall RPE and pain per session. Statistical analyses showed significant main effects for group (p ≤ 0.05) and time (p < 0.001). Ratings of perceived exertion values dropped from session 1 to session 6 in both BFRT (8.12 ± 1.3 to 5.7 ± 1.1, p < 0.001) and HIT (8.5 ± 1.2 to 6.40 ± 1.2, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed regarding pain ratings (BFRT: 8.12 ± 1.3 to 5.90 ± 1.55, p < 0.001; HIT: 6.22 ± 1.7 to 5.14 ± 1.42, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that RPE was higher after HIT, whereas differences did not reach significance regarding pain. These perceptual responses were attenuated over time, and the time course of this adaptive response was similar between BFRT and HIT. In summary, BFRT induces a marked perceptual response to training, comparable with that observed with HIT. However, this response becomes attenuated with continuous practice, leading to moderate values of RPE and pain. Perceptual responses may not limit the application of BFRT to highly motivated

  3. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  4. Similar hypotensive responses to resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moriggi, R; Mauro, HS Di; Dias, SC; Matos, JM; Camarço, NF; Neto, IV Sousa; Nascimento, DC; Tibana, RA; Assumpção, CO; Prestes, J; Urtado, CB

    2015-01-01

    Low intensity resistance exercise (RE) with blood flow restriction (BFR) has gained attention in the literature due to the beneficial effects on functional and morphological variables, similar to those observed during traditional RE without BFR, while the effects of BFR on post-exercise hypotension remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the blood pressure (BP) response of trained normotensive individuals to RE with and without BFR. In this cross-over randomized trial, eight male subjects (23.8 ± 4 years, 74 ± 3 kg, 174 ± 4 cm) completed two exercise protocols: traditional RE (3 x 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) and low intensity RE (3 x 15 repetitions at 20% 1-RM) with BFR. Blood pressure measurements were performed after 15 min of seated rest (0), immediately after and 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min, 50 min and 60 min after the experimental sessions. Similar hypotensive effects for systolic BP (SBP) were observed for both protocols (P < 0.05) after exercise, with no differences between groups (P > 0.05) and no statistically significant difference for diastolic BP (P > 0.05). These results suggest that in normotensive trained individuals, both traditional RE and RE with BFR induce hypotension for SBP, which is important to prevent cardiovascular disturbances. PMID:26681830

  5. Blood flow restriction training and the exercise pressor reflex: a call for concern.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Marty D; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Levy, Phillip D; O'Leary, Donal S; Smith, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth. Therefore, the premise of BFR training is to simulate and receive the benefits of high-intensity resistance exercise while merely performing low-intensity resistance exercise. This technique has also been purported to provide health benefits to the elderly, individuals recovering from joint injuries, and patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Since the seminal work of Alam and Smirk in the 1930s, it has been well established that reductions in blood flow to exercising muscle engage the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), a reflex that significantly contributes to the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. However, the EPR and its likely contribution to the BFR-mediated cardiovascular response to exercise is glaringly missing from the scientific literature. Inasmuch as the EPR has been shown to generate exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity in disease states such as hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD), concerns are raised that BFR training can be used safely for the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease, as has been suggested. Abnormal BFR-induced and EPR-mediated cardiovascular complications generated during exercise could precipitate adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death). Moreover, although altered EPR function in HTN, HF, and PAD underlies our

  6. Transcriptional profiling of rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy under restriction of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shouyu; Liu, Xueyun; Chen, Zhenhuang; Li, Gaoquan; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Guoqing; Ma, Ruijie; Yao, Xinmiao; Huang, Xiao

    2016-12-15

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) under low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) can produce similar effects upon muscles to that of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) while overcoming many of the restrictions to HIRT that occurs in a clinical setting. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of BFR induced muscle hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Here, using a BFR rat model, we aim to better elucidate the mechanisms regulating muscle hypertrophy as induced by BFR and reveal possible clinical therapeutic targets for atrophy cases. We performed genome wide screening with microarray analysis to identify unique differentially expressed genes during rat muscle hypertrophy. We then successfully separated the differentially expressed genes from BRF treated soleus samples by comparing the Affymetrix rat Genome U34 2.0 array with the control. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) we also analyzed other related differentially expressed genes. Results suggested that muscle hypertrophy induced by BFR is essentially regulated by the rate of protein turnover. Specifically, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways act as positive regulators in controlling protein synthesis where ubiquitin-proteasome acts as a negative regulator. This represents the first general genome wide level investigation of the gene expression profile in the rat soleus after BFR treatment. This may aid our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating and controlling muscle hypertrophy and provide support to the BFR strategies aiming to prevent muscle atrophy in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise.

  8. Effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction on haemodynamics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Jefferson S; Dias, Ingrid; Brown, Amanda; Vianna, Jeferson; Cirilo-Sousa, Maria S

    2016-04-20

    This study systematically reviewed the available scientific evidence on the changes promoted by low-intensity (LI) resistance training (RT) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate-pressure product (RPP). Searches were performed in databases (PubMed, Web of Science(™) , Scopus and Google Scholar), for the period from January 1990 to May 2015. The study analysis was conducted through a critical review of contents. Of the 1 112 articles identified, 1 091 were excluded and 21 met the selection criteria, including 16 articles evaluating BP, 19 articles evaluating HR and four articles evaluating RPP. Divergent results were found when comparing the LI protocols with BFR versus LI versus high intensity (HI) on BP, HR and RPP. The evidence shows that the protocols using continuous BFR following a LIRT session apparently raise HR, BP and RPP compared with LI protocols without BFR, although increases significantly in BP seem to exist between the HI protocols when compared to LI protocols. Haemodynamic changes (HR, SBP, DBP, MBP, RPP) promoted by LIRT with BFR do not seem to differ between ages and body segments (upper or lower), although they are apparently affected by the width of the cuff and are higher with continuous BFR. However, these changes are within the normal range, rendering this method safe and feasible for special populations.

  9. Acute Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Responses to Low Intensity Eccentric Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction.

    PubMed

    Bazgir, Behzad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid; Fathi, Rouhollah; Ojaghi, Seyed Mojtaba; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Neto, Gabriel R; Rahimi, Mostafa; Asgari, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    Recently it has been suggested that low intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) alone or in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) can be applied for cardiovascular function improvement or rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of LI eccentric RE with and without BFR on heart rate (HR), rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure (BP) parameters [systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). In a semi-experimental study 16 young adults (26.18 ± 3.67 years) volunteered and performed LI (30% maximum voluntary contraction) eccentric RE alone or combined with BFR. The results indicated that HR, RPP, and RPE increased significantly within both groups (P < 0.05); SBP and DBP increased significantly only with BFR (P < 0.05); MAP increased significantly during exercise without BFR (P < 0.05); and no change was observed in SpO2 in either groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, studied parameters did not vary amongst different groups (P > 0.05). It is concluded that LI eccentric RE with BFR positively regulated the hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses. Therefore, the eccentric RE combined with BFR seems to be a good option for future studies with the aim of time efficacy, since it alters these parameters within normal values.

  10. Haemodynamics of aerobic and resistance blood flow restriction exercise in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Craig A; May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 years). On two occasions, participants completed BFRE or control exercise (CON). One occasion was leg press (LP; 20 % 1-RM) and the other was treadmill walking (TM; 4 km h(-1)). Haemodynamic responses (HR, Q, SV and BP) were recorded during baseline and exercise. At baseline, YA and OA were different for some haemodynamic parameters (e.g. BP, SV). The relative responses to BFRE were similar between YA and OA. Blood pressures increased more with BFRE, and also for LP over TM. Q increased similarly for BFRE and CON (in both LP and TM), but with elevated HR and reduced SV (TM only). While BFR conferred slightly greater haemodynamic stress than CON, this was lower for walking than leg-press exercise. Given similar response magnitudes between YA and OA, these data support aerobic exercise being a more appropriate BFRE for prescription in older adults that may contribute to limiting the effects of age-related muscle atrophy.

  11. Hemodynamic Responses to Blood Flow Restriction and Resistance Exercise to Muscular Failure.

    PubMed

    Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Miquelini, Maiara; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Minatel, Vinicius; Alvarez, Ieda Fernanda; Milan-Mattos, Juliana Cristina; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic responses between blood flow-restricted resistance exercise (BFR-RE), high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE) and low-intensity resistance exercise (LI-RE) performed to muscular failure. 12 men (age: 20±3 years; body mass: 73.5±9 kg; height: 174±6 cm) performed 4 sets of leg press exercises using BFR-RE (30% of 1-RM), HI-RE (80% of 1-RM) and LI-RE (30% of 1-RM) protocols. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured on a beat-to-beat continuous basis by a noninvasive photoplethysmographic arterial pressure device. The HI-RE and LI-RE showed higher values (P<0.05) in all of the sets than the BFR-RE for SBP, DBP, HR. Additionally, HI-RE showed higher SBP (4(th) set) and DBP (all sets) (P<0.05) values than the LI-RE. However, the SV, CO and TPR showed significantly greater values for LI-RE compared to HI-RE and BFR-RE (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the BFR-RE promotes a lower hemodynamic response compared to the HI-RE and LI-RE performed to muscular failure.

  12. Acute Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Responses to Low Intensity Eccentric Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid; Fathi, Rouhollah; Ojaghi, Seyed Mojtaba; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Neto, Gabriel R.; Rahimi, Mostafa; Asgari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently it has been suggested that low intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) alone or in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) can be applied for cardiovascular function improvement or rehabilitation. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of LI eccentric RE with and without BFR on heart rate (HR), rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure (BP) parameters [systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods In a semi-experimental study 16 young adults (26.18 ± 3.67 years) volunteered and performed LI (30% maximum voluntary contraction) eccentric RE alone or combined with BFR. Results The results indicated that HR, RPP, and RPE increased significantly within both groups (P < 0.05); SBP and DBP increased significantly only with BFR (P < 0.05); MAP increased significantly during exercise without BFR (P < 0.05); and no change was observed in SpO2 in either groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, studied parameters did not vary amongst different groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that LI eccentric RE with BFR positively regulated the hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses. Therefore, the eccentric RE combined with BFR seems to be a good option for future studies with the aim of time efficacy, since it alters these parameters within normal values. PMID:28144415

  13. Contractile function and sarcolemmal permeability after acute low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Nilsen, Tormod S; Hisdal, Jonny; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding muscle damage with low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) by pressure cuffs. This study investigated muscle function and muscle fibre morphology after a single bout of low-intensity resistance exercise with and without BFR. Twelve physically active subjects performed unilateral knee extensions at 30% of their one repetition maximum (1RM), with partial BFR on one leg and the other leg without occlusion. With the BFR leg, five sets were performed to concentric torque failure, and the free-flow leg repeated the exact same number of repetitions and sets. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis before and 1, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Maximum isometric torque (MVC) and resting tension were measured before and after exercise and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h post-exercise. The results demonstrated significant decrements in MVC (lasting ≥48 h) and delayed onset muscle soreness in both legs, and increased resting tension for the occluded leg both acutely and at 24 h post-exercise. The percentage of muscle fibres showing elevated intracellular staining of the plasma protein tetranectin, a marker for sarcolemmal permeability, was significantly increased from 9% before exercise to 27-38% at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for the BFR leg. The changes in the free-flow leg were significant only at 24 h (19%). We conclude that an acute bout of low-load resistance exercise with BFR resulted in changes suggesting muscle damage, which may have implications both for safety aspects and for the training stimulus with BFR exercise.

  14. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during mid-gestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; ...

  15. Hormone responses to an acute bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in college-aged females.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Gregg, Lee D; Kim, Ldaeyeol; Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs), who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR) (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps) and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI) (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM) on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL(-1)) and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL(-1)) significantly (p < 0.05) increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L(-1)) and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01) higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women. Key PointsGrowth hormone and cortisol levels significantly increased after a single bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in young women.There were no significant differences in hormone responses between the low intensity blood flow restricted protocol and the traditional high intensity higher total workload protocol.Low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise provides a sufficient stimulus to elicit anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  16. Influence of cuff material on blood flow restriction stimulus in the upper body.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Counts, Brittany R; Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Mattocks, Kevin T; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute skeletal muscle and perceptual responses to blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise to failure between narrow nylon and elastic inflatable cuffs at rest and during exercise. Torque and muscle thickness was measured pre, post, and 5, 20, 40, and 60 min post-exercise with muscle activation being measured throughout exercise. Resting arterial occlusion pressure was different between the nylon [139 (14) mmHg] and elastic [246 (71) mmHg, p < 0.001] cuffs. However, when exercising at 40 % of each cuff's respective arterial occlusion pressure [nylon: 57 (7) vs. elastic: 106 (38) mmHg, p < 0.001], there were no differences in repetitions to failure, torque, muscle thickness, or muscle activation between the cuffs. Exercising with cuffs of different material but similar width resulted in the same acute muscular response when the cuffs were inflated to a pressure relative to each individual cuff.

  17. Effects of Walking with Blood Flow Restriction on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, G V; Vaz, J R; Pezarat-Correia, P; Fernhall, B

    2015-02-09

    This study determined the influence of walking with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of healthy young men. 17 healthy young men (22.1±2.9 years) performed graded treadmill exercise to assess VO2peak. In a randomized fashion, each participant performed 5 sets of 3-min treadmill exercise at their optimal walking speed with 1-min interval either with or without BFR. Participants were then seated in a chair and remained there for 30 min of recovery. Expired gases were continuously monitored during exercise and recovery. BFR increased the O2 cost of walking as well as its relative intensity and cumulative O2 deficit (p<0.05). The EPOC magnitude after walking with BFR was greater than in the non-BFR condition (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were seen for the duration of EPOC. The EPOC magnitude was no longer different between conditions after controlling for the differences in relative intensity and in the cumulative O2 deficit (p>0.05). These data indicate that walking with BFR increases the magnitude of EPOC. Moreover, they also demonstrate that such increment in EPOC is likely explained by the effects of BFR on walking relative intensity and cumulative O2 deficit.

  18. Muscle damage after low-intensity eccentric contractions with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Thiebaud, R S; Loenneke, J P; Fahs, C A; Kim, D; Ye, X; Abe, T; Nosaka, K; Bemben, M G

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies exist whether blood flow restriction (BFR) exacerbates exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study compared low-intensity eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with and without BFR for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage. Nine untrained young men (18-26 y) performed low-intensity (30% 1RM) eccentric contractions (2-s) of the elbow flexors with one arm assigned to BFR and the other arm without BFR. EIMD markers of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle thickness and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis were recorded during exercise. EMG amplitude was not significantly different between arms and did not significantly change from set 1 to set 4 for the biceps brachii but increased for the brachioradialis (p ≤ 0.05, 12.0% to 14.5%) when the conditions were combined. No significant differences in the changes in any variables were found between arms. MVC torque decreased 7% immediately post-exercise (p ≤ 0.05), but no significant changes in ROM, circumference, muscle thickness and muscle soreness were found. These results show that BFR does not affect EIMD by low-intensity eccentric contractions.

  19. Influence of relative blood flow restriction pressure on muscle activation and muscle adaptation.

    PubMed

    Counts, Brittany R; Dankel, Scott J; Barnett, Brian E; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, J Grant; Allen, Kirsten M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Michael G; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic skeletal muscle response to differing levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) pressure. Fourteen participants completed elbow flexion exercise with pressures from 40% to 90% of arterial occlusion. Pre/post torque measurements and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of each set were quantified for each condition. This was followed by a separate 8-week training study of the effect of high (90% arterial occlusion) and low (40% arterial occlusion) pressure on muscle size and function. For the acute study, decreases in torque were similar between pressures [-15.5 (5.9) Nm, P = 0.344]. For amplitude of the first 3 and last 3 reps there was a time effect. After training, increases in muscle size (10%), peak isotonic strength (18%), peak isokinetic torque (180°/s = 23%, 60°/s = 11%), and muscular endurance (62%) changed similarly between pressures. We suggest that higher relative pressures may not be necessary when exercising under BFR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The acute muscular response to blood flow-restricted exercise with very low relative pressure.

    PubMed

    Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Counts, Brittany R; Dankel, Scott J; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the acute responses to blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise across low, moderate and high relative pressures. Muscle thickness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were assessed following exercise with six different BFR pressures: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 90% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP). There were differences between each time point within each condition for muscle thickness, which increased postexercise [+0·47 (0·40, 0·54) cm] and then trended towards baseline. For MVC, higher pressures resulted in greater decrements than lower pressures [e.g. 10% AOP: -20·7 (-15·5, -25·8) Nm versus 90% AOP: -24 (-19·1, -28·9) Nm] postexercise. EMG amplitude increased from the first three repetitions to the last three repetitions within each set. When using a common BFR protocol with 30% 1RM, applying BFR does not seem to augment acute responses over that of exercise alone when exercise is taken to failure. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Muscular adaptations after two different volumes of blood flow-restricted training.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, J; Marín, P J; Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Loenneke, J P; Herrero, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to gain an insight into the adaptations of muscle strength and skeletal muscle thickness after two different volumes of blood flow restriction training (BFRT), and compare them with high-intensity training. The sample was divided into four groups: low-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT LV); high-volume, low-intensity BFRT (BFRT HV); traditional high-intensity resistance training (HIT); and a control group, which maintained their routine activities (CON). Leg extension one repetition maximum (1RM), isokinetic peak knee extension, and flexion torques at 60°/s and 180°/s as well as muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were assessed at baseline and after 5 weeks of training BFRT LV (7.03%, P < 0.05), BFRT HV (6.24%, P < 0.05) and HIT (18.86%, P < 0.001) groups increased 1RM performance, while no changes were observed in the CON group. Muscle thickness of the RF and VL was increased irrespective of the training group (7.5%, P < 0.001; and 9.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). We conclude that doubling the exercise volume with BFRT causes no further benefit with muscular size or strength. Although similar increases in muscle thickness were observed between training groups, HIT increased 1RM performance to a greater extent compared to either volume of BFRT.

  2. Blood flow restricted and traditional resistance training performed to fatigue produce equal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; de Paoli, F; Bjerg, K; Riis, S; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48 h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P < 0.001). Both BRF and low-load TRT increased muscle volume by approximately 12% at post-3 and post-10 (P < 0.01) with no changes in MRI-determined water content. Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48 h post-exercise (P < 0.001) and to greater extent with BRF (P < 0.05) in the early training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Muscular adaptations to fatiguing exercise with and without blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Kim, Daeyeol; Abe, Takashi; Beck, Travis W; Feeback, Daniel L; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the muscular adaptations to low-load resistance training performed to fatigue with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Middle-aged (42-62 years) men (n = 12) and women (n = 6) completed 18 sessions of unilateral knee extensor resistance training to volitional fatigue over 6 weeks. One limb trained under BFR, and the contralateral limb trained without BFR [free flow (FF)]. Before and after the training, measures of anterior and lateral quadriceps muscle thickness (MTh), strength, power and endurance were assessed on each limb. The total exercise training volume was significantly greater for the FF limb compared with the BFR limb (P<0·001). Anterior quadriceps thickness and muscle function increased following the training in each limb with no differences between limbs. Lateral quadriceps MTh increased significantly more (P<0·05) in the limb trained under BFR (BFR: 3·50 ± 0·61 to 3·67 ± 0·62 cm; FF: 3·49 ± 0·73 to 3·56 ± 0·70 cm). Low-load resistance training to volitional fatigue both with and without BFR is viable options for improving muscle function in middle-aged individuals. However, BFR enhanced the hypertrophic effect of low-load training and reduced the volume of exercise needed to elicit increases in muscle function.

  4. Practical blood flow restriction training increases muscle hypertrophy during a periodized resistance training programme.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; de Souza, Eduardo O; Machado, Marco; Dudeck, Joshua E; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-07-01

    Resistance training in combination with practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) is thought to stimulate muscle hypertrophy by increasing muscle activation and muscle swelling. Most previous studies used the KAATSU device; however, little long-term research has been completed using pBFR. To investigate the effects of pBFR on muscle hypertrophy. Twenty college-aged male participants with a minimum of 1 year of resistance training experience were recruited for this study. Our study consisted of a randomized, crossover protocol consisting of individuals either using pBFR for the elbow flexors during the first 4 weeks (BFR-HI) or the second 4 weeks (HI-BFR) of an 8-week resistance training programme. Direct ultrasound-determined bicep muscle thickness was assessed collectively at baseline and at the end of weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences in muscle thickness between groups at baseline (P = 0·52). There were time (P<0·01, ES = 0·99) but no condition by time effects (P = 0·58, ES = 0·80) for muscle thickness in which the combined values of both groups increased on average from week 0 (3·66 ± 0·06) to week 4 (3·95 ± 0·05) to week 8 (4·11 ± 0·07). However, both the BFR-HI and HI-BFR increased significantly from baseline to week 4 (6·9% and 8·6%, P<0·01) and from weeks 4 to 8 (4·1%, 4·0%, P<0·01), respectively. The results of this study suggest that pBFR can stimulate muscle hypertrophy to the same degree to that of high-intensity resistance training. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Time Course Change in Muscle Swelling: High-Intensity vs. Blood Flow Restriction Exercise.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Eduardo D S; Poole, Christopher; Miller, Ryan M; Heishman, Aaron David; Kaur, Japneet; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael

    2017-10-01

    This study determined the time course for changes in muscle swelling and plasma volume following high (HI) and low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (LI-BFR). Ten male participants (22.1±3.0 yrs) completed three experimental conditions: high-intensity exercise (HI - 80% of 1RM), low-intensity exercise with BFR (LI-BFR -20% of 1RM, and 160 mmHg of BFR), and control (CON - no exercise or BFR). Muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA), muscle thickness, thigh circumference, and percentage change in plasma volume (PV%∆) were measured. mCSA was significantly greater than rest values at 15 min post-exercise (p<0.01) for HI and LI-BFR, and at 75 min post-exercise (p<0.01) for HI. Muscle thickness was significantly greater than rest immediately post-exercise (p<0.01) and 30 min post-exercise (p<0.01) for HI and LI-BFR, and at 60 min post-exercise for HI (p=0.01). Muscle thickness was greater for BFR immediately post-exercise compared to HI (p=0.01) post-exercise. Thigh circumference was significantly greater from rest at 15 min post-exercise (p=0.01) and at 75 min post-exercise for both LI-BFR (p=0.03) and HI (p<0.01). PV%∆ significantly decreased from rest immediately post-exercise for both HI (p<0.01) and LI-BFR (p<0.01). In conclusion, BFR exercise induces changes in muscle swelling and plasma volume similar to those observed at high-intensities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The acute muscular response to two distinct blood flow restriction protocols.

    PubMed

    Dankel, S J; Buckner, S L; Counts, B R; Jessee, M B; Mouser, J G; Mattocks, K T; Laurentino, G C; Abe, T; Loenneke, J P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine acute physiological and perceptual responses to two commonly implemented blood flow restriction protocols. Using a within-subject design, 15 participants (age ∼25) performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion with each arm. One arm exercised using a 3-cm elastic cuff inflated to 160 mmHg, whereas the other arm exercised using a 5-cm nylon cuff inflated to 40% of the individual's arterial occlusion pressure. While both protocols elicited increases in acute muscle thickness [pre: 4.5 (0.2) cm, post: 5.0 (0.2) cm; p < 0.001] and electromyography amplitude [first 3 reps: 55 ( 5 ) %MVC; last 3 reps: 87 ( 10 ) %MVC], there were no differences between conditions. Both protocols produced decreases in post-exercise strength (pre: 70 Nm, post: 51 Nm; p < 0.001) with no difference between conditions. The nylon protocol resulted in more repetitions during sets 2 [13 ( 2 ) vs. 9 ( 4 ); p = 0.001] and 3 [10 ( 2 ) vs. 7 ( 4 ); p = 0.05], while producing lower levels of discomfort following each set (average 3 vs. 4; p < 0.05). In conclusion, both protocols produced similar acute responses thought to be important for promoting muscle growth. However, the use of arbitrary pressures may place some individuals under complete arterial occlusion which may increase the potential risk of an adverse event.

  7. Delayed onset muscle soreness and perceived exertion following blood flow restriction exercise.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-01-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptual responses to resistance exercise with either heavy-loads (80% 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]), light-loads (20% 1-RM), or light-loads in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Despite the use of light-loads, it has been suggested that the adoption of BFR resistance exercise may be limited due to increases in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and perceived exertion. Seventeen healthy untrained males participated in this balanced, randomized cross-over study. Following four sets of elbow-flexion exercise, participants reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), with DOMS also recorded for seven days following each trial. DOMS was significantly greater for low-pressure continuous BFR (until 48 h post-exercise) and high-pressure intermittent BFR (until 72 h post-exercise) compared with traditional heavy-load and light-load resistance exercise. In addition, RPE was higher for heavy-load resistance exercise and high-pressure intermittent BFR compared with low-pressure continuous BFR, with all trials greater than light-load resistance exercise. For practitioners working with untrained participants, this study provides evidence to suggest that in order to minimize the perception of effort and post-exercise muscle soreness associated with BFR resistance exercise, continuous low-pressure application may be more preferential compared with intermittent high-pressure application. Importantly, these perceptual responses are relatively short-lived (∼2 days) and have previously been shown to subside after a few exercise sessions. Combined with smaller initial training volumes (set x repetitions) this may limit RPE and DOMS to strengthen uptake and adherence, and assist in program progression for muscle hypertrophy and gains in strength.

  8. A review on the mechanisms of blood-flow restriction resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2015-02-01

    It has traditionally been believed that resistance training can only induce muscle growth when the exercise intensity is greater than 65% of the 1-repetition maximum (RM). However, more recently, the use of low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) has challenged this theory and consistently shown that hypertrophic adaptations can be induced with much lower exercise intensities (<50% 1-RM). Despite the potent hypertrophic effects of BFR resistance training being demonstrated by numerous studies, the underlying mechanisms responsible for such effects are not well defined. Metabolic stress has been suggested to be a primary factor responsible, and this is theorised to activate numerous other mechanisms, all of which are thought to induce muscle growth via autocrine and/or paracrine actions. However, it is noteworthy that some of these mechanisms do not appear to be mediated to any great extent by metabolic stress but rather by mechanical tension (another primary factor of muscle hypertrophy). Given that the level of mechanical tension is typically low with BFR resistance exercise (<50% 1-RM), one may question the magnitude of involvement of these mechanisms aligned to the adaptations reported with BFR resistance training. However, despite the low level of mechanical tension, it is plausible that the effects induced by the primary factors (mechanical tension and metabolic stress) are, in fact, additive, which ultimately contributes to the adaptations seen with BFR resistance training. Exercise-induced mechanical tension and metabolic stress are theorised to signal a number of mechanisms for the induction of muscle growth, including increased fast-twitch fibre recruitment, mechanotransduction, muscle damage, systemic and localised hormone production, cell swelling, and the production of reactive oxygen species and its variants, including nitric oxide and heat shock proteins. However, the relative extent to which these specific mechanisms are

  9. Blood flow restriction prevents muscle damage but not protein synthesis signaling following eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that resistance training exercise combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle size and strength in humans. Eccentric contraction (ECC) frequently induces severe muscle damage. However, it is not known whether and to what extent muscle damage occurs following ECC + BFR due to the difficulty of conducting definitive invasive studies. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle fiber damage following ECC + BFR at the cellular level. High-intensity ECC was purposefully selected to maximize the opportunity for muscle damage and hypertrophic signaling in our novel in vivo animal model. Male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: ECC and ECC + BFR at varying levels of occlusion pressure (140, 160, and 200 Torr). In all conditions, electrical stimulation was applied to the dorsiflexor muscles simultaneously with electromotor-induced plantar flexion. We observed severe histochemical muscle fiber damage (area of damaged fibers/total fiber area analyzed) following ECC (26.4 ± 4.0%). Surprisingly, however, muscle damage was negligible following ECC + BFR140 (2.6 ± 1.2%), ECC+BFR160 (3.0 ± 0.5%), and ECC + BFR200 (0.2 ± 0.1%). Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, a downstream target of rapamycin (mTOR)-phosphorylation kinase, increased following ECC + BFR200 as well as ECC. In contrast, S6K1 phosphorylation was not altered by BFR alone. The present findings suggest that ECC combined with BFR, even at high exercise intensities, may enhance muscle protein synthesis without appreciable muscle fiber damage. PMID:26149281

  10. Physiological responses to interval endurance exercise at different levels of blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Rogério B; Rossiter, Harry B; Loch, Thiago; Martins, Jéssica C; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify a blood flow restriction (BFR) endurance exercise protocol that would both maximize cardiopulmonary and metabolic strain, and minimize the perception of effort. Twelve healthy males (23 ± 2 years, 75 ± 7 kg) performed five different exercise protocols in randomized order: HI, high-intensity exercise starting at 105% of the incremental peak power (P peak); I-BFR30, intermittent BFR at 30% P peak; C-BFR30, continuous BFR at 30% P peak; CON30, control exercise without BFR at 30% P peak; I-BFR0, intermittent BFR during unloaded exercise. Cardiopulmonary, gastrocnemius oxygenation (StO2), capillary lactate ([La]), and perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. V̇O2, ventilation (V̇ E), heart rate (HR), [La] and RPE were greater in HI than all other protocols. However, muscle StO2 was not different between HI (set1-57.8 ± 5.8; set2-58.1 ± 7.2%) and I-BRF30 (set1-59.4 ± 4.1; set2-60.5 ± 6.6%, p < 0.05). While physiologic responses were mostly similar between I-BFR30 and C-BFR30, [La] was greater in I-BFR30 (4.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.6 ± 1.1 mmol L(-1), p = 0.014) and RPE was less (5.6 ± 2.1 and 7.4 ± 2.6; p = 0.014). I-BFR30 showed similar reduced muscle StO2 compared with HI, and increased blood lactate compared to C-BFR30 exercise. Therefore, this study demonstrate that endurance cycling with intermittent BFR promotes muscle deoxygenation and metabolic strain, which may translate into increased endurance training adaptations while minimizing power output and RPE.

  11. Hemodynamic responses to simulated weightlessness of 24-h head-down bed rest and KAATSU blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiaki; Iida, Haruko; Kurano, Miwa; Takano, Haruhito; Morita, Toshihiro; Meguro, Kentaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Kawashima, Sino; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Shouichi; Ishii, Naokata; Abe, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    The KAATSU training is a unique method of muscle training with restricting venous blood flow, which might be applied to prevent muscle atrophy during space flight, but the effects of KAATSU in microgravity remain unknown. We investigated the hemodynamic responses to KAATSU during actually simulated weightlessness (6 degrees head-down tilt for 24 h, n = 8), and compared those to KAATSU in the seated position before bed rest. KAATSU was applied to the proximal ends of both the thighs. In the seated position before bed rest, sequential incrementing of KAATSU cuff pressure and altering the level of blood flow restriction resulted in a decrease in stroke volume (SV) with an increase in heart rate (HR). KAATSU (150-200 mmHg) decreased SV comparable to standing. Following 24-h bed rest, body mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were significantly reduced. Norepinephrine (NOR), vasopressin (ADH), and plasma renin activity (PRA) tend to be reduced. A decrease in SV and CO induced by KAATSU during the simulated weightlessness was larger than that in the seated position before bed rest, and one of eight subjects developed presyncope due to hypotension during 100 mmHg KAATSU. High-frequency power (HF(RR)) decreased during KAATSU and standing, while low-frequency/high-frequency power (LF(RR)/HF(RR)) increased significantly. NOR, ADH and PRA also increased during KAATSU. These results indicate that KAATSU blood flow restriction reproduces the effects of standing on HR, SV, NOR, ADH, PRA, etc., thus stimulating a gravity-like stress during simulated weightlessness. However, syncope due to lower extremity blood pooling and subsequent reduction of venous return may be induced during KAATSU in microgravity as reported in cases of lower-body negative pressure.

  12. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  13. The role of blood flow distribution in the regulation of cerebral oxygen availability in fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal; Malinger, Gustavo; Golan, Abraham; Barnea, Ofer

    2012-04-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) elicits hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms in the fetal circulation. These mechanisms are complex and their effect on the cerebral oxygen availability is not fully understood. To quantify the contribution of each compensatory mechanism to the fetal cerebral oxygen availability, a mathematical model of the fetal circulation was developed. The model was based on cardiac-output distribution in the fetal circulation. The compensatory mechanisms of FGR were simulated and their effects on cerebral oxygen availability were analyzed. The mathematical analysis included the effects of cerebral vasodilation, placental resistance to blood flow, degree of blood shunting by the ductus venosus and the effect of maternal-originated placental insufficiency. The model indicated a unimodal dependency between placental blood flow and cerebral oxygen availability. Optimal cerebral oxygen availability was achieved when the placental blood flow was mildly reduced compared to the normal flow. This optimal ratio was found to increase as the hypoxic state of FGR worsens. The model indicated that cerebral oxygen availability is increasingly dependent on the cardiac output distribution as the fetus gains weight. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of K+ ATP channels and adenosine in the regulation of coronary blood flow during exercise with normal and restricted coronary blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, D J; van Zon, N S; Ishibashi, Y; Bache, R J

    1996-01-01

    Regulation of coronary vasomotor tone during exercise is incompletely understood. We investigated the contributions of K+ ATP channels and adenosine to the coronary vasodilation that occurs during exercise in the normal heart and in the presence of a coronary artery stenosis. Dogs that were chronically instrumented with a Doppler flow probe, hydraulic occluder, and indwelling catheter on the left anterior descending coronary artery were exercised on a treadmill to produce heart rates of approximately 200 beats/min. By graded inflation of the occluder to produce a wide range of coronary stenosis severities, we determined the coronary pressure-flow relation. K+ atp channel blockade with intracoronary glibenclamide (10-50 microgram/kg per min) decreased coronary blood flow during exercise at coronary pressures within and below the autoregulatory range, indicating that coronary K+ ATP channel activation is critical for producing coronary vasodilation with either normal arterial inflow or when flow is restricted by a coronary artery stenosis. Adenosine receptor blockade with intravenous 8-phenyltheophylline (5 mg/kg) had no effect on coronary flow at pressures within the autoregulatory range but decreased flow at pressures < 55 mmHg. In contrast, in the presence of K+ ATP channel blockade, the addition of adenosine receptor blockade further decreased coronary flow even at coronary pressures in the autoregulatory range, indicating increased importance of the vasodilator influence of endogenous adenosine during exercise when K+ atp channels are blocked. Intracoronary adenosine (50 microgram/kg per min) increased coronary flow at perfusion pressures both within and below the autoregulatory range. In contrast, selective K+ ATP channel activation with intracoronary pinacidil (0.2-5.0 microgram/kg per min) increased flow at normal but not at lower coronary pressures (< 55 mmHg). This finding demonstrates that not all K+ ATP channels are activated during exercise at pressures

  15. Effect of prenatal betamethasone on fetal, uteroplacental, and maternal blood flow velocity in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Niroomanesh, Shirin; Shojaei, Kobra; Moghadam, Sahar F; Mohammadi, Noshin; Rahimi, Zahra; RezaeiKeyhanaei, Khadija

    2015-09-01

    To assess Doppler flow velocity in fetal, uteroplacental, and maternal arteries before and after betamethasone therapy among singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). A prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study was conducted at three university-affiliated hospitals in Tehran, Iran, between January 1 and November 30, 2013. The inclusion criteria were FGR, a gestational age of 24-34 weeks, no fetal anomalies, and no previous betamethasone therapy. Doppler blood flow was measured in uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries before treatment, and 24 hours and 5 days after completion of betamethasone therapy (two 12-mg doses at a 24-hour interval). Overall, 40 women were enrolled. Doppler blood flow through the uterine and umbilical arteries showed significant but transient changes across the three timepoints (P<0.001), whereas the middle cerebral artery showed no changes. Prenatal betamethasone led to transient improvements in blood flow in the uterine and umbilical arteries among pregnancies affected by FGR. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blunting of rapid onset vasodilatation and blood flow restriction in arterioles of exercising skeletal muscle with ageing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dwayne N; Moore, Alex W; Segal, Steven S

    2010-06-15

    Exercise capacity and skeletal muscle blood flow are diminished with ageing but little is known of underlying changes in microvascular haemodynamics. Further, it is not clear how the sympathetic nervous system affects the microcirculation of skeletal muscle with ageing or whether sex differences prevail in the regulation of arteriolar diameter in response to muscle contractions. In the gluteus maximus muscle of C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that ageing would impair 'rapid onset vasodilatation' (ROV) in distributing arterioles (second-order, 2A) of old (20-month) males (OM) and females (OF) relative to young (3-month) males (YM) and females (YF). Neither resting (approximately 17 microm) nor maximum (approximately 30 microm) 2A diameters differed between groups. In response to single tetanic contractions at 100 Hz (duration, 100-1000 ms), ROV responses were blunted by half in OM relative to OF, YM or YF. With no effect in YM, blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors with phentolamine (1 mum) restored ROV in OM. Topical noradrenaline (1 nM) blunted ROV in YM and YF to levels seen in OM and further suppressed ROV in OM (P < 0.05). To evaluate arteriolar blood flow, red blood cell velocity was measured in 2A of OM and YM; respective heart rates (353 +/- 22 vs. 378 +/- 15 beats min(1)) and carotid arterial blood pressures (76 +/- 3 vs. 76 +/- 1 mmHg) were not different. Blood flows at rest (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 nl s(1)) and during maximum dilatation (2.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.8 nl s(1)) with sodium nitroprusside (10 microM) were attenuated >60% (P < 0.05) in OM. Blood flow at peak ROV was blunted by 75-80% in OM vs. YM (P < 0.05). In response to 30 s of rhythmic contractions at 2, 4 and 8 Hz, progressive dilatations did not differ with age or sex. Nevertheless, resting and peak blood flows in YM were 2- to 3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than OM. We suggest that ageing blunts ROV and restricts blood flow to skeletal muscle of OM through subtle activation of alpha

  17. Blunting of rapid onset vasodilatation and blood flow restriction in arterioles of exercising skeletal muscle with ageing in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dwayne N; Moore, Alex W; Segal, Steven S

    2010-01-01

    Exercise capacity and skeletal muscle blood flow are diminished with ageing but little is known of underlying changes in microvascular haemodynamics. Further, it is not clear how the sympathetic nervous system affects the microcirculation of skeletal muscle with ageing or whether sex differences prevail in the regulation of arteriolar diameter in response to muscle contractions. In the gluteus maximus muscle of C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that ageing would impair ‘rapid onset vasodilatation’ (ROV) in distributing arterioles (second-order, 2A) of old (20-month) males (OM) and females (OF) relative to young (3-month) males (YM) and females (YF). Neither resting (∼17 μm) nor maximum (∼30 μm) 2A diameters differed between groups. In response to single tetanic contractions at 100 Hz (duration, 100–1000 ms), ROV responses were blunted by half in OM relative to OF, YM or YF. With no effect in YM, blockade of α-adrenoreceptors with phentolamine (1 μm) restored ROV in OM. Topical noradrenaline (1 nm) blunted ROV in YM and YF to levels seen in OM and further suppressed ROV in OM (P < 0.05). To evaluate arteriolar blood flow, red blood cell velocity was measured in 2A of OM and YM; respective heart rates (353 ± 22 vs. 378 ± 15 beats min−1) and carotid arterial blood pressures (76 ± 3 vs. 76 ± 1 mmHg) were not different. Blood flows at rest (0.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 nl s−1) and during maximum dilatation (2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 0.8 nl s−1) with sodium nitroprusside (10 μm) were attenuated >60% (P < 0.05) in OM. Blood flow at peak ROV was blunted by 75–80% in OM vs. YM (P < 0.05). In response to 30 s of rhythmic contractions at 2, 4 and 8 Hz, progressive dilatations did not differ with age or sex. Nevertheless, resting and peak blood flows in YM were 2- to 3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than OM. We suggest that ageing blunts ROV and restricts blood flow to skeletal muscle of OM through subtle activation of α-adrenoreceptors in microvascular

  18. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan Heath; Kumar, Krishna; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan; Millis, Richard Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf) were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P < 0.05) in the absence of a significant effect on the 1-RM load in the contralateral untrained legs (P > 0.1). Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05) and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09). Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction. PMID:28392959

  19. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction effects on heart rate, double product, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Costa e Silva, Gabriel V; Gil, Ana L S; Salles, Belmiro F; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on heart rate (HR), double product (DP), oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty-four men (21·79 ± 3·21 years) performed three experimental protocols in a random order (crossover): (i) high-intensity RE at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM (LI) and (iii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI+BFR). HR, blood pressure, SpO2 and RPE were assessed. The data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon test for RPE. The results indicated that all protocols significantly increased HR, both immediately postexercise and during the subsequent 60 min (P<0·05), and postexercise DP (P<0·05), but there were no differences between protocols. The protocols of LI and LI+BFR reduced postexercise SpO2 (P = 0·033, P = 0·007), and the LI+BFR protocol presented a perception of greater exertion in the lower limbs compared with HI (P = 0·022). We conclude that RE performed at low intensity combined with BFR seems to reduce the SpO2 after exercise and increase HR and DP while maintaining a perception of greater exertion on the lower limbs.

  20. The effects of upper body exercise across different levels of blood flow restriction on arterial occlusion pressure and perceptual responses.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Counts, Brittany R; Buckner, Samuel L; Grant Mouser, J; Dankel, Scott J; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies have investigated relative pressures that are applied during blood flow restriction exercise ranging from 40%-90% of resting arterial occlusion pressure; however, no studies have investigated relative pressures below 40% arterial occlusion pressure. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to different levels of pressures. Twenty-six resistance trained participants performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion exercise using 30% of their 1RM in combination with blood flow restriction inflated to one of six relative applied pressures (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 90% arterial occlusion pressure). Arterial occlusion pressure was measured before (pre) and immediately after the last set of exercise at the radial artery. RPE and discomfort were taken prior to (pre) and following each set of exercise. Data presented as mean (95% CI) except for perceptual responses represented as the median (25th, 75th percentile). Arterial occlusion pressure increased from pre to post (p<0.001) in all conditions but was augmented further with higher pressures [e.g. 0%: 36 (30-42) mmHg vs. 10%: 39 (34-44) mmHg vs. 90% 46 (41-52) mmHg]. For RPE and discomfort, there were significant differences across conditions for all sets of exercise (p<0.01) with the ratings of RPE [e.g. 0%: 14.5 (13, 17) vs. 10%: 13.5 (12, 17) vs. 90%: 17 (14.75, 19) during last set] and discomfort [e.g. 0%: 3.5 (1.5, 6.25) vs. 10%: 3 (1, 6) vs. 90%: 7 (4.5, 9) during last set] generally being greater at the higher restriction pressures. All of these differences at the higher restriction pressures occurred despite completing a lower total volume of exercise. Applying higher relative pressures results in the greatest cardiovascular response, higher perceptual ratings, and greater decrease in exercise volume compared to lower restriction pressures. Therefore, the perceptual responses from lower relative pressures may be more appealing and provide a safer and

  1. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  2. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of elastic band training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on thigh muscle size and vascular function in older women. Older women were divided into three groups: low-intensity elastic band BFR training (BFR-Tr, n = 10), middleto high-intensity elastic band training (MH-Tr, n = 10), and no training (Ctrl, n = 10) groups. BFR-Tr and MH-Tr groups performed squat and knee extension exercises using elastic band, 2 days/week for 12 weeks. During BFR-Tr exercise session, subjects wore pressure cuffs around the most proximal region of both thighs. The following measurements were taken before (pre) and 3-5 days after (post) the final training session: MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at mid-thigh, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extension, central systolic blood pressure (c-SBP), central-augmentation index (c-AIx), cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Quadriceps muscle CSA (6.9%) and knee extension MVIC (13.7%) were increased (p < 0.05) in the BFR-Tr group, but not in the MH-Tr and the Ctrl groups. Regarding c-SBP, c-AIx, CAVI and ABI, there were no changes between pre- and post- results among the three groups. Elastic band BFR training increases thigh muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not decrease vascular function in older women. PMID:27244884

  3. The significance of visualising coronary blood flow in early onset severe growth restricted fetuses with reverse flow in the ductus venosus.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Capponi, Alessandra; Pietrolucci, Maria Elena; Boccia, Claudio; Arduini, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the incidence and significance of coronary blood flow visualisation in early onset severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetuses and to assess its relationship with the presence of reverse flow in ductus venosus (DV). The examination of coronary artery was performed at a gestational age <26 weeks in 19 IUGR fetuses from mothers without medical complications and characterised by the presence of reverse flow in DV. Visualisation or non-visualisation of coronary circulation were compared with fetal and neonatal outcome. Coronary flow was seen in 7/19 (36.8%) of the IUGR fetuses and these fetuses showed a higher incidence of fetal death (71.4%vs. 16.6%, p = 0.044), delivery or fetal death at an earlier gestational age (23.71 vs. 26.57 weeks, p = 0.011) and a lower birthweight (310 vs. 586 g, p = 0.011). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that visualisation or non-visualisation of coronary flow in such fetuses provides an independent contribution in the prediction of the time interval between Doppler study and delivery or fetal death (chi square = 15.36, p < 0.001). Visualisation of coronary flow in IUGR fetuses with reverse flow in the DV identifies a subgroup of fetuses with a poorer fetal and neonatal outcome.

  4. Efficacy of Blood Flow Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training in Women with Risk Factors for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Williams, Glenn N.; Davis, Maria; Wallace, Robert B.; Mikesky, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether concurrent blood flow restriction (BFR) during low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength and volume in women with risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial Setting: Exercise training clinical research laboratory Participants: Women over age 45 years with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Participants were randomized to either low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) alone (control) or with concurrent BFR and completed 4 weeks of 3 times per week leg-press resistance training. Those randomized to BFR wore a cuff that progressively restricted femoral blood flow over the weeks of training. Inter-group differences in outcome measures were compared using regression methods, while adjusting for BMI. Main Outcome Measures: Isotonic bilateral leg press strength, isokinetic knee extensor strength, and quadriceps volume by MRI were assessed before and after participation. Secondary measures included lower limb muscle power (leg press and stair climb). Knee pain was assessed to determine tolerance. Results: Forty women completed the program out of 45 who consented. There were no significant inter-group differences in baseline characteristics except that BMI was lower in the BFR group (p=.0223). Isotonic 1RM improved significantly more in the BFR group (28.3±4.8 kg) than in the control group (15.6±4.5 kg) (p=.0385). Isokinetic knee extensor strength scaled to body mass increased significantly more in the BFR group (0.07±0.03 Nm/kg) than in the control group (-0.05±0.03 Nm/kg) (p=.0048). Changes in quadriceps volume, leg press power, and knee-related pain did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions: Addition of BFR to a 30% 1RM resistance training program was effective in increasing leg press and knee extensor strength in women at risk for knee OA, in comparison with the same program without BFR

  5. Can low-load blood-flow restriction training elicit muscle hypertrophy with modest inflammation and cellular stress, but minimal muscle damage?

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Giselle L; May, Anthony K

    2017-09-26

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is characterised by the application of a pneumatic cuff to the working limb during resistance or aerobic exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Intensity Resistance Exercise Training with Blood Flow Restriction: Insight into Cardiovascular Function, and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yi Sub; Harveson, Andrew; Weavil, Joshua C; Seo, Kook E.

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated functional exercise capacity in elderly and diseased populations is a common problem, and stems primarily from physical inactivity. Decreased function and exercise capacity can be restored by maintaining muscular strength and mass, which are key factors in an independent and healthy life. Resistance exercise has been used to prevent muscle loss and improve muscular strength and mass. However, the intensities necessary for traditional resistance training to increase muscular strength and mass may be contraindicated for some at risk populations, such as diseased populations and the elderly. Therefore, an alternative exercise modality is required. Recently, blood flow restriction (BFR) with low intensity resistance exercise (LIRE) has been used for such special populations to improve their function and exercise capacity. Although BFR+LIRE has been intensively studied for a decade, a comprehensive review detailing the effects of BFR+LIRE on both skeletal muscle and vascular function is not available. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss previous studies documenting the effects of BFR+LIRE on hormonal and transcriptional factors in muscle hypertrophy and vascular function, including changes in hemodynamics, and endothelial function. PMID:25954122

  7. Acute and long-term effects of blood flow restricted training on heat shock proteins and endogenous antioxidant systems.

    PubMed

    Cumming, K T; Ellefsen, S; Rønnestad, B R; Ugelstad, I; Raastad, T

    2016-10-10

    Blood flow restricted exercise (BFRE) with low loads has been demonstrated to induce considerable stress to exercising muscles. Muscle cells have developed a series of defensive systems against exercise-induced stress. However, little is known about acute and long-term effects of BFRE training on these systems. Nine previously untrained females trained low-load BFRE and heavy load strength training (HLS) on separate legs and on separate days to investigate acute and long-term effects on heat shock proteins (HSP) and endogenous antioxidant systems in skeletal muscles. BFRE and HLS increased muscle strength similarly by 12 ± 7% and 12 ± 6%, respectively, after 12 weeks of training. Acutely after the first BFRE and HLS exercise session, αB-crystallin and HSP27 content increased in cytoskeletal structures, accompanied by increased expression of several HSP genes. After 12 weeks of training, this acute HSP response was absent. Basal levels of αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP70, mnSOD, or GPx1 remained unchanged after 12 weeks of training, but HSP27 levels increased in the cytoskeleton. Marked translocation of HSP to cytoskeletal structures at the commencement of training indicates that these structures are highly stressed from BFRE and HLS. However, as the muscle gets used to this type of exercise, this response is abolished.

  8. Effects of detraining after blood flow-restricted low-intensity concentric or eccentric training on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 6 weeks of detraining on muscle size and strength in young men who had previously participated in 6 weeks (3 days/week) of 30 % of concentric one-repetition maximal (1-RM) dumbbell curl training [one arm: concentric blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise (CON-BFR); the other arm: eccentric BFR exercise (ECC-BFR)]. MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at 10 cm above the elbow joint increased from pre to post (p < 0.01), and the muscle CSA following detraining remained greater than pre (p < 0.01) but was similar to that observed at post. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased from pre to post (p < 0.05), and the MVC following detraining remained greater than pre (p < 0.05) but was similar to that observed at post. The ECC-BFR did not produce any changes across time. Increased muscle strength following 6 weeks of CON-BFR was well preserved at 6 weeks of detraining, which may be primarily related to muscle hypertrophy.

  9. Acute Effects of Resistance Exercise With Continuous and Intermittent Blood Flow Restriction on Hemodynamic Measurements and Perceived Exertion.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Jefferson S; Salerno, Verônica P; Gonçalves, Michel M; Piazera, Bruna K L; Rodrigues-Rodrigues, Thais; Cirilo-Sousa, Maria S

    2016-11-11

    This study compared the acute effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions for the upper limb with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction (BFR) and high-intensity RE with no BFR on lactate, heart rate, double product (DP; heart rate times systolic blood pressure), and perceived exertion (RPE). Ten recreationally trained men (1-5 years strength training; age mean = 19 ± 0.82 years) performed three experimental protocols in random order: (a) low-intensity RE at 20% one-repetition maximum (1RM) with intermittent BFR (LI + IBFR), (b) low-intensity RE at 20% 1RM with continuous BFR (LI + CBFR), and (c) high-intensity RE at 80% 1RM. The three RE protocols increased lactate and DP at the end of the session (p < .05) and increased heart rate at the end of each exercise (p < .05). However, greater local and general RPE was observed in the high-intensity protocol compared with LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR in the lat pull-down, triceps curl, and biceps curl exercises (p < .05). A greater percentage change in DP and lactate was observed for continuous BFR compared with intermittent BFR; however, RPE was lower for intermittent BFR. In conclusion, intermittent BFR appears to be an excellent option for physical training because it did not differ significantly from continuous BFR in any variable and promoted a lower percentage change in DP and RPE.

  10. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of blood flow restricted low-intensity concentric or eccentric training on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the acute and chronic effects of low-intensity concentric or eccentric resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and strength. Ten young men performed 30% of concentric one repetition maximal dumbbell curl exercise (four sets, total 75 reps) 3 days/week for 6 weeks. One arm was randomly chosen for concentric BFR (CON-BFR) exercise only and the other arm performed eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) exercise only at the same exercise load. During the exercise session, iEMG for biceps brachii muscles increased progressively during CON-BFR, which was greater (p<0.05) than that of the ECC-BFR. Immediately after the exercise, muscle thickness (MTH) of the elbow flexors acutely increased (p<0.01) with both CON-BFR and ECC-BFR, but was greater with CON-BFR (11.7%) (p<0.01) than ECC-BFR (3.9%) at 10-cm above the elbow joint. Following 6-weeks of training, MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at 10-cm position and mid-upper arm (12.0% and 10.6%, respectively) as well as muscle volume (12.5%) of the elbow flexors were increased (p<0.01) with CON-BFR. Increases in muscle CSA and volume were lower in ECC-BFR (5.1%, 0.8% and 2.9%, respectively) than in the CON-BFR and only muscle CSA at 10-cm position increased significantly (p<0.05) after the training. Maximal voluntary isometric strength of elbow flexors was increased (p<0.05) in CON-BFR (8.6%), but not in ECC (3.8%). These results suggest that CON-BFR training leads to pronounced acute changes in muscle size, an index of muscle cell swelling, the response to which may be an important factor for promoting muscle hypertrophy with BFR resistance training.

  12. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2017-04-27

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Does a resistance exercise session with continuous or intermittent blood flow restriction promote muscle damage and increase oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Jefferson S; Salerno, Verônica P; Gonçalves, Michel M; Batista, Gilmário R; Cirilo-Sousa, Maria S

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction (BFR) on the creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and uric acid (UA) levels in military men. The study included 10 recreationally trained men aged 19 ± 0.82 years who underwent the following experimental protocols in random order on separate days (72-96 h): 4 LLRE sessions at a 20% 1RM (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) with continuous BFR (LLRE + CBFR); 4 LLRE sessions at 20% 1RM with intermittent BFR (LLRE + IBFR) and 4 high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) sessions at 80% 1RM. The CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured before exercise (BE), 24 h post-exercise and 48 h post-exercise, and the PC, TBARS and UA (markers of oxidative stress) levels were measured BE and immediately after each exercise session. There was a significant increase in CK in the HIRE 24 post-exercise samples compared with the LLRE + CBFR and LLRE + IBFR (P = 0.035, P = 0.036, respectively), as well as between HIRE 48 post-exercise and LLRE + CBFR (P = 0.049). Additionally, there was a significant increase in CK in the LLRE + CBFR samples BE and immediately after each exercise (Δ = 21.9%) and in the HIRE samples BE and immediately after each exercise, BE and 24 post-exercise, and BE and 48 post-exercise (Δ values of 35%, 177.6%, and 177.6%, respectively). However, there were no significant changes in LDH, PC, TBARS, and UA between the protocols (P > 0.05). Therefore, a physical exercise session with continuous or intermittent BFR did not promote muscle damage; moreover, neither protocol seemed to affect the oxidative stress markers.

  14. The effect of eccentric exercise with blood flow restriction on neuromuscular activation, microvascular oxygenation, and the repeated bout effect.

    PubMed

    Lauver, Jakob D; Cayot, Trent E; Rotarius, Timothy; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2017-05-01

    To examine the effect of low-intensity eccentric contractions with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on microvascular oxygenation, neuromuscular activation, and the repeated bout effect (RBE). Participants were randomly assigned to either low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LI-BFR), or a control (CON) group. Participants in LI and LI-BFR performed a preconditioning bout of low-intensity eccentric exercise prior to about of maximal eccentric exercise. Participants reported 24, 48, 72, and 96 h later to assess muscle damage and function. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure neuromuscular activation and microvascular deoxygenation (deoxy-[Hb + Mb]) and [total hemoglobin] ([THC]) during the preconditioning bout, respectively. During set-2, LI-BFR resulted in greater activation of the VM-RMS (47.7 ± 11.5% MVIC) compared to LI (67.0 ± 20.0% MVIC), as well as during set-3 (p < 0.05). LI-BFR resulted in a greater change in deoxy-[Hb + Mb] compared to LI during set-2 (LI-BFR 13.1 ± 5.2 µM, LI 6.7 ± 7.9 µM), set-3 (LI-BFR 14.6 ± 6 µM, LI 6.9 ± 7.4 µM), and set-4 (p < 0.05). [THC] was higher during LI-BFR compared to LI (p < 0.05). All groups showed a decrease in MVIC torque immediately after maximal exercise (LI 74.2 ± 14.1%, LI-BFR 75 ± 5.1%, CON 53 ± 18.6%). At 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post maximal eccentric exercise, LI and LI-BFR force deficit was not different from baseline. This study suggests that the neuromuscular and deoxygenation (i.e., metabolic stress) responses were considerably different between LI and LI-BFR groups; however, these differences did not lead to improvements in the RBE inferred by performing LI and LI-BFR.

  15. Electrical stimulation and blood flow restriction increase wrist extensor cross-sectional area and flow meditated dilatation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Timmons, Mark K; Dolbow, David R; Bengel, Justin; Fugate-Laus, Kendall C; Michener, Lori A; Gater, David R

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise on wrist extensors cross-sectional area (CSA), torque and hand functions compared NMES only in individuals with incomplete tetraplegia. The acute effect of an acute bout of NMES with BFR on flow mediated dilation (FMD) was compared with BFR only. Nine men completed 6 weeks twice weekly of bilateral NMES training of the wrist extensor muscles. The right forearm received NMES + BFR (30 % above the resting systolic blood pressure), while the left forearm received NMES only. The CSA of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles was measured on ultrasound images. Torque was measured isometrically and hand function with grasp and release test. Another eight men with SCI received NMES+BFR to the right forearm, while the left forearm received BFR only. Immediately, the FMD of the brachial artery was measured. Following training, the ECRL CSA was 17 % greater in the NMES+BFR forearm (mean difference = 0.6 cm(2), p = 0.003) compared with the NMES only. The NMES+BFR had a 15 % increase in ECRL CSA (mean increase = 0.58 cm(2), p = 0.048). FMD increased (p = 0.05) in the exercise arm (12 ± 3 %) compared with the control arm (6.5 ± 6 %). NMES training with BFR is a strategy that can increase skeletal muscle size. NMES with and without BFR can improve wrist strength and hand function. The acute effects of NMES+BFR may suggest that an increase in FMD may partially contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  16. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  17. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (<10 min) before and after exercise 8 fl oz of chocolate milk (150 kcal, 2.5g total fat, 22g total carbohydrate, 8g protein) was consumed to optimize acute exercise responses in favor of muscle anabolism. ULLS analog compliance was assessed from leg skin temperature recordings and plantar accelerometry. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) for knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups were determined from analysis of magnetic resonance images using ImageJ software. 1RM strength for leg press and calf raise was assessed on the Agaton exercise system. Muscular endurance during leg press and calf raise was evaluated from the maximal number of repetitions performed to volitional fatigue using 40% of pre-ULLS 1RM. RESULTS: Steps detected by plantar acceleometry declined by 98.9% during ULLS relative to an

  18. Low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction improves vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kamiya, Kentaro; Kato, Michitaka; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Kamekawa, Daisuke; Akiyama, Ayako; Kamada, Yumi; Tanaka, Shinya; Masuda, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR resistance training) on vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation. Forty healthy elderly volunteers aged 71 ± 4 years were divided into two training groups. Twenty subjects performed BFR resistance training (BFR group), and the remaining 20 performed ordinary resistance training without BFR. Resistance training was performed at 20 % of each estimated one-repetition maximum for 4 weeks. We measured lactate (Lac), norepinephrine (NE), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and growth hormone (GH) before and after the initial resistance training. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure in the foot (Foot-tcPO2) were assessed before and after the 4-week resistance training period. Lac, NE, VEGF and GH increased significantly from 8.2 ± 3.6 mg/dL, 619.5 ± 243.7 pg/mL, 43.3 ± 15.9 pg/mL and 0.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL to 49.2 ± 16.1 mg/dL, 960.2 ± 373.7 pg/mL, 61.6 ± 19.5 pg/mL and 3.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL, respectively, in the BFR group (each P < 0.01). RHI and Foot-tcPO2 increased significantly from 1.8 ± 0.2 and 62.4 ± 5.3 mmHg to 2.1 ± 0.3 and 68.9 ± 5.8 mmHg, respectively, in the BFR group (each P < 0.01). VWF decreased significantly from 175.7 ± 20.3 to 156.3 ± 38.1 % in the BFR group (P < 0.05). BFR resistance training improved vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people.

  19. Effects of high-intensity and blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training on carotid arterial compliance: role of blood pressure during training sessions.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ogasawara, Riki; Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Naito, Hisashi; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIT) and low-intensity blood flow-restricted (LI-BFR) resistance training on carotid arterial compliance. Nineteen young men were randomly divided into HIT (n = 9) or LI-BFR (n = 10) groups. The HIT and LI-BFR groups performed 75 and 30 %, respectively, of one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press exercise, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. During the training sessions, the LI-BFR group wore elastic cuffs around the most proximal region of both arms. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), 1-RM strength, and carotid arterial compliance were measured before and 3 days after the final training session. Acute changes in systolic arterial pressure (SAP), plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and noradrenalin concentrations were also measured during and after a bout of training session. The training led to significant increases (P < 0.01) in bench press 1-RM and arm and chest muscle CSA in the two training groups. Carotid arterial compliance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the HIT group, but not in the LI-BFR group. There was a significant correlation (r = -0.533, P < 0.05) between the change in carotid arterial compliance and the acute change in SAP during training sessions; however, ET-1 and NOx did not correlate with carotid arterial compliance. Our results suggest that muscle CSA and strength increased following 6 weeks of both HIT and LI-BFR training. However, carotid arterial compliance decreased in only the HIT group, and the changes were correlated with SAP elevations during exercise sessions.

  20. Effects of low-intensity bench press training with restricted arm muscle blood flow on chest muscle hypertrophy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fujita, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    Single-joint resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) results in significant increases in arm or leg muscle size and single-joint strength. However, the effect of multijoint BFR training on both blood flow restricted limb and non-restricted trunk muscles remain poorly understood. To examine the impact of BFR bench press training on hypertrophic response to non-restricted (chest) and restricted (upper-arm) muscles and multi-joint strength, 10 young men were randomly divided into either BFR training (BFR-T) or non-BFR training (CON-T) groups. They performed 30% of one repetition maximal (1-RM) bench press exercise (four sets, total 75 reps) twice daily, 6 days week(-1) for 2 weeks. During the exercise session, subjects in the BFR-T group placed elastic cuffs proximally on both arms, with incremental increases in external compression starting at 100 mmHg and ending at 160 mmHg. Before and after the training, triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle thickness (MTH), bench press 1-RM and serum anabolic hormones were measured. Two weeks of training led to a significant increase (P<0.05) in 1-RM bench press strength in BFR-T (6%) but not in CON-T (-2%). Triceps and pectoralis major MTH increased 8% and 16% (P<0.01), respectively, in BFR-T, but not in CON-T (-1% and 2%, respectively). There were no changes in baseline concentrations of anabolic hormones in either group. These results suggest that BFR bench press training leads to significant increases in muscle size for upper arm and chest muscles and 1-RM strength.

  1. Effectiveness of blood flow restricted exercise compared with standard exercise in patients with recurrent low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shinichi; Ludin, Arimi Fitri Mat; Clift, Rachel; Nakazawa, Masato; Law, Timothy D; Rush, Laura J; Manini, Todd M; Thomas, James S; Russ, David W; Clark, Brian C

    2016-02-12

    Low back pain is a highly prevalent condition in the United States and has a staggeringly negative impact on society in terms of expenses and disability. It has previously been suggested that rehabilitation strategies for persons with recurrent low back pain should be directed to the medial back muscles as these muscles provide functional support of the lumbar region. However, many individuals with low back pain cannot safely and effectively induce trunk muscle adaptation using traditional high-load resistance exercise, and no viable low-load protocols to induce trunk extensor muscle adaptation exist. Herein, we present the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial that will investigate the "cross-transfer" of effects of a novel exercise modality, blood flow restricted exercise, on cross-sectional area (primary outcome), strength and endurance (secondary outcomes) of trunk extensor muscles, as well as the pain, disability, and rate of recurrence of low back pain (tertiary outcomes). This is a single-blinded, single-site, randomized controlled trial. A minimum of 32 (and up to 40) subjects aged 18 to 50 years with recurrent low back pain and poor trunk extensor muscle endurance will be recruited, enrolled and randomized. After completion of baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive a 10-week resistance exercise training program with blood flow restriction (BFR exercise group) or without blood flow restriction (control exercise group). Repeat assessments will be taken immediately post intervention and at 12 weeks after the completion of the exercise program. Furthermore, once every 4 weeks during a 36-week follow-up period, participants will be asked to rate their perceived disability and back pain over the past 14 days. This study will examine the potential for blood flow restricted exercise applied to appendicular muscles to result in a "cross-transfer" of therapeutic effect to the lumbar musculature in individuals with

  2. Blood Flow in the Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secomb, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    The microcirculation is an extensive network of microvessels that distributes blood flow throughout living tissues. Reynolds numbers are much less than 1, and the equations of Stokes flow apply. Blood is a suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to microvessel diameters. Highly deformable red blood cells, which transport oxygen, have a volume concentration (hematocrit) of 40–45% in humans. In the narrowest capillaries, these cells move in single file with a surrounding lubricating layer of plasma. In larger vessels, the red blood cells migrate toward the centerline, reducing the resistance to blood flow. Vessel walls are coated with a layer of macromolecules that restricts flow. At diverging bifurcations, hematocrit is not evenly distributed in the downstream vessels. Other particles are driven toward the walls by interactions with red blood cells. These physiologically important phenomena are discussed here from a fluid mechanical perspective.

  3. Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Aagaard, Per; Bech, Rune Dueholm; Nygaard, Tobias; Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Wernbom, Mathias; Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction has been shown to elicit substantial increases in muscle mass and muscle strength; however, the effect on myogenic stem cells (MSCs) and myonuclei number remains unexplored. Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 years) performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20% 1RM) to concentric failure during blood flow restriction (BFR) of the proximal thigh (100 mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9 ± 3.0 years) trained without BFR (control, CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) was examined pre- and post-training, while muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (Pre), after 8 days intervention (Mid8) and 3 (Post3) and 10 days (Post10) post training to examine changes in myofibre area (MFA), MSC and myonuclei number. MVC increased by 7.1% (Post5) and 10.6% (Post12) (P < 0.001) with BFR training, while type I and II MFA increased by 38% (Mid8), 35–37% (Post3) and 31–32% (Post10) (P < 0.001). MSCs per myofibre increased with BFR training from 0.10 ± 0.01 (Pre) to 0.38 ± 0.02 (Mid8), 0.36 ± 0.04 (Post3) and 0.25 ± 0.02 (Post10) (P < 0.001). Likewise, myonuclei per myofibre increased from 2.49 ± 0.07 (Pre) to 3.30 ± 0.22 (Mid8), 3.20 ± 0.16 (Post3) and 3.11 ± 0.11 (Post10), (P < 0.01). Although MFA increased in CON at Mid8, it returned to baseline at Post3. No changes in MSC or myonuclei number were observed in CON. This study is the first to show that short-term low-load resistance exercise performed with partial blood flow restriction leads to marked proliferation of myogenic stem cells and resulting myonuclei addition in human skeletal muscle, which is accompanied by substantial myofibre hypertrophy. PMID:22802591

  4. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Stian; Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2015-10-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  6. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A.; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E.; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T.; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. PMID:26202071

  7. Computing Blood Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.

    1990-01-01

    Methods developed for aerospace applied to mechanics of biofluids. Report argues use of advanced computational fluid dynamics to analyze flows of biofluids - especially blood. Ability to simulate numerically and visualize complicated, time-varying three-dimensional flows contributes to understanding of phenomena in heart and blood vessels, offering potential for development of treatments for abnormal flow conditions.

  8. Computing Blood Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.

    1990-01-01

    Methods developed for aerospace applied to mechanics of biofluids. Report argues use of advanced computational fluid dynamics to analyze flows of biofluids - especially blood. Ability to simulate numerically and visualize complicated, time-varying three-dimensional flows contributes to understanding of phenomena in heart and blood vessels, offering potential for development of treatments for abnormal flow conditions.

  9. Acute response of peripheral CCr5 chemoreceptor and NK cells in individuals submitted to a single session of low-intensity strength exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Colato, Alana Schraiber; Galvão, Simone Lunelli; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Ribeiro, Jerri Luiz; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt; Peres, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the peripheral expression of natural killers and CCR5 in a session of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion and in high-intensity training. Young males were randomized into session groups of a high-intensity strength training (HI) and a session group of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion (LI-BFR). The exercise session consisted in knee extension and bicep curl in 80% 1RM (HI) and 30% 1RM (LI-BFR) with equalized volumes. Blood collection was made before, immediately after and 24 h after each training session. Immunophenotyping was carried out through CD195+ (CCR5) e CD3-CD16+CD56+ (NK) in peripheral blood and analysed by flow cytometry and presented in frequency (%). Peripheral frequency of NK cells showed no significant difference in LI-BFR group in time effect, while a gradual reduction of NK cells was identified in HI group in before-24 h postexercise and after-24 h postexercise comparison. However, significant differences have been found in relative change of NK cells immediately after exercise between sessions. In addition, HI and LI-BFR groups showed a significant reduction in the cells expressed CCR5 during 24 h postsession compared to the postsession, but CCR5 also differed when comparing before-24 h after session in the HI group. No differences were observed amongst the groups. LIO induced CCR5 response similar to the HI session, while the NK cells remained in similar frequency during the studied moments in LI-BFR, but not in HI group, suggesting that local hypoxia created by the blood flow restriction was able to prevent a change in the frequency of peripheral cells and a possible immunosuppression.

  10. Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Aagaard, Per; Bech, Rune Dueholm; Nygaard, Tobias; Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Wernbom, Mathias; Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2012-09-01

    Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction has been shown to elicit substantial increases in muscle mass and muscle strength; however, the effect on myogenic stem cells (MSCs) and myonuclei number remains unexplored. Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 years)performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20% 1RM) to concentric failure during bloodflow restriction (BFR) of the proximal thigh (100 mmHg), while eight work-matched controls(21.9 ± 3.0 years) trained without BFR (control, CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) was examined pre- and post-training, while muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (Pre), after 8 days intervention(Mid8) and 3 (Post3) and 10 days (Post10) post training to examine changes in myofibre area (MFA), MSC and myonuclei number. MVC increased by 7.1% (Post5) and 10.6% (Post12)(P <0.001) with BFR training, while type I and II MFA increased by 38% (Mid8), 35 – 37%(Post3) and 31 – 32% (Post10) (P <0.001). MSCs per myofibre increased with BFR training from 0.10 ± 0.01 (Pre) to 0.38 ± 0.02 (Mid8), 0.36 ± 0.04 (Post3) and 0.25 ± 0.02 (Post10) (P <0.001). Likewise, myonuclei per myofibre increased from 2.49 ± 0.07 (Pre) to 3.30 ± 0.22(Mid8), 3.20 ± 0.16 (Post3) and 3.11 ± 0.11 (Post10), (P<0.01). Although MFA increased in CON at Mid8, it returned to baseline at Post3. No changes in MSC or myonuclei number were observed in CON. This study is the first to show that short-term low-load resistance exercise performed with partial blood flow restriction leads to marked proliferation of myogenic stem cells and resulting myonuclei addition in human skeletal muscle, which is accompanied by substantial myofibre hypertrophy.

  11. Cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic recovery after a single session of aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marina Lívia Venturini; Sardeli, Amanda Veiga; Souza, Giovana Vergínia De; Bonganha, Valéria; Santos, Lucas Do Carmo; Castro, Alex; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina

    2016-12-28

    This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR. Sympathetic-vagal balance increased the values for HL during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude when compared with LL and LL-BFR. Post-exercise haemodynamic showed reduced values of double product at 30 min of recovery compared to rest in LL-BFR, while HL showed higher values compared to rest, LL-BFR and LL. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed for LL-BFR (30 min) compared to rest. Autonomic and haemodynamic responses indicate lower cardiovascular stress after LL-BFR compared to HL, being this method, besides the functional adaptations, a potential choice to attenuate the cardiovascular stress after exercise in older adults.

  12. Exercise training with blood flow restriction has little effect on muscular strength and does not change IGF-1 in fit military warfighters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andrew E; Palombo, Laura J; Niederberger, Brenda; Turcotte, Lorraine P; Kelly, Karen R

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic exercise with blood flow restriction (aBFR) has been proposed as an adjunctive modality in numerous populations, potentially via an enhanced growth factor response. However, the effects of aBFR on highly trained warfighters have yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if adjunctive aBFR as part of a regular physical training regimen would increase markers of aerobic fitness and muscle strength in elite warfighters. In addition, we sought to determine whether the changes in blood lactate concentration induced by aBFR would be associated with alterations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Active-duty US Naval Special Warfare Operators (n=18, age=36.8 ± 2.2 years, weight=89.1 ± 1.2 kg, height=181.5 ± 1.4 cm) from Naval Amphibious Base Coronado were recruited to participate in 20 days of adjunctive aBFR training. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), and 1-repetition max (1-RM) bench press and squat were assessed pre- and post-aBFR training. Blood lactate and plasma IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were assessed pre-, 2 min post-, and 30 min post-aBFR on days 1, 9, and 20 of aBFR training. Following aBFR training there were no changes in VO2 peak or VT, but there was an increase in the 1-RM for the bench press and the squat (5.0 and 3.9%, respectively, P<0.05). Blood lactate concentration at the 2-min post-exercise time point was 4.5-7.2-fold higher than pre-exercise levels on all days (P<0.001). At the 30-min post-exercise time point, blood lactate was still 1.6-2.6-fold higher than pre-exercise levels (P<0.001), but had decreased by 49-56% from the 2-min post-exercise time point (P<0.001). Plasma IGF-1 concentrations did not change over the course of the study. On day 9, plasma IGFBP-3 concentration was 4-22% lower than on day 1 (P<0.01) and 22% lower on day 9 than on day 20 at the 30-min post-exercise time point (P<0.001). Our data suggest that aBFR training does not lead to practical

  13. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  14. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  15. Bilateral muscle strength symmetry and performance are improved following walk training with restricted blood flow in an elite paralympic sprint runner: Case study.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Schubert, Karla Rochana; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Pereira, Kayo Leonardo; Caputo, Fabrizio; de Oliveira, Mariana Fernandes Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Investigate the influence of 4 weeks of walk training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle strength, metabolic responses, 100-m and 400-m performances in an athlete with cerebral palsy. An elite Paralympic sprinter (20 years, 176 cm, 64.8 kg) who presented with moderate hemiplegic cerebral palsy (right side impaired) completed four visits before and after 4 weeks of the BFR training: 1) anthropometric measurements, familiarization of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and an incremental test; 2) MVC measurements; 3) 400-m performance, and 4) 100-m performance. The walk training with BFR consisted of four bouts of 5 min at 40% of maximal aerobic speed with 1 min of passive rest with complete reperfusion. All performance times were lower with training (100-m: 1%; 400-m: 10%), accompanied by adaptations in aerobic variables (V˙O2max: 6%; OBLA: 24%) and running economy (9-10%). Lactic acid energy metabolism was reduced (25-27%), even in the presence of a higher lactate efflux from the previously active muscles after training. MVC (right leg: 19%; left leg: 9%) increased in both legs unevenly, decreasing the muscle strength asymmetry between limbs. These results indicate that cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations can be simultaneously induced following BFR training in a paralympic sprinter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of low-intensity concentric and eccentric exercise combined with blood flow restriction on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity blood-flow restriction (BFR) resistance training significantly increases strength and muscle size, but some studies report it produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in the lower body after exercise to failure. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a pre-set number of repetitions of upper body concentric and eccentric exercise when combined with BFR on changes in EIMD. Methods: Ten young men had arms randomly assigned to either concentric BFR (CON-BFR) or eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) dumbbell curl exercise (30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), 1 set of 30 repetitions followed by 3 sets of 15 repetitions). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC), muscle thickness (MTH), circumference, range of motion (ROM), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, and daily for 4 days post-exercise. Results: MVC decreased by 36% for CON-BFR and 12% for ECC-BFR immediately after exercise but was not changed 1–4 days post-exercise (p > 0.05). Only CON-BFR had significant changes in MTH and circumference immediately after exercise (p < 0.05). Muscle soreness was observed in the ECC-BFR arm at 1 and 2 days after exercise. Conclusions: Low-intensity ECC-BFR produces significant muscle soreness at 24 h but neither ECC-BFR nor CON-BFR exercise produces significant changes in multiple indices of EIMD. PMID:24265891

  17. Effects of low-load resistance training combined with blood flow restriction or hypoxia on muscle function and performance in netball athletes.

    PubMed

    Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Taylor, Robert; Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of blood flow restriction or normobaric hypoxic exposure combined with low-load resistant exercise (LRE), on muscular strength and endurance. A randomised controlled trial. Well-trained netball players (n=30) took part in a 5 weeks training of knee flexor and extensor muscles in which LRE (20% of one repetition maximum) was combined with (1) an occlusion pressure of approximately 230mmHg around the upper thigh (KT, n=10), (2) hypoxic air to generate blood oxyhaemoglobin levels of approximately 80% (HT, n=10) or (3) with no additional stimulus (CT, n=10). The training was of the same intensity and amount in all groups. One to five days before and after training, participants performed a series of strength and endurance tests of the lower limbs (3-s maximal voluntary contraction [MVC3], area under 30-s force curve [MVC30], number of repetitions at 20% 1RM [Reps201RM]). In addition, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps and hamstrings were measured. Relative to CT, KT and HT increased MVC3 (11.0±11.9% and 15.0±13.1%), MVC30 (10.2±9.0% and 18.3±17.4%) and Reps201RM (28.9±23.7% and 23.3±24.0%, mean±90% confidence interval) after training. CSA increased by 6.6±4.5%, 6.1±5.1% and 2.9±2.7% in the KT, HT and CT groups respectively. LRE in conjunction with KT or HT can provide substantial improvements in muscle strength and endurance and may be useful alternatives to traditional training practices. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Blood Flow and/or Ventilation Restriction on Radiofrequency Coagulation Size in the Lung: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Anai, Hiroshi; Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Seong, Chang Kyu; Baker, Phillip; Correa, Luiz Otavio; Corless, Christopher L.; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the restriction of blood flow and/or ventilation affects the radiofrequency (RF) ablation coagulation size in lung parenchyma. Thirty-one RF ablations were done in 16 normal lungs of 8 living swine with 2-cm LeVeen needles. Eight RF ablations were performed as a control (group G1), eight with balloon occlusion of the ipsilateral mainstem bronchus (G2), eight with occlusion of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery (G3), and seven with occlusion of both the ipsilateral bronchus and pulmonary artery (G4). Coagulation diameters and volumes of each ablation zone were compared on computed tomography (CT) and gross specimen examinations. Twenty-six coagulation zones were suitable for evaluation: eight in G1, five in G2, seven in G3, and six in G4 groups. In G1, the mean coagulation diameter was 21.5 {+-} 3.5 mm on CT and 19.5 {+-} 1.78 mm on gross specimen examination. In G2, the mean diameters were 26.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 23.0 {+-} 2.7 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively. In G3, the mean diameters were 29.4 {+-} 2.2 mm and 27.4 {+-} 2.9 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively, and in G4, they were 32.6 {+-} 3.33 mm and 28.8 {+-} 2.6 mm, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 3.39 {+-} l.52 cm{sup 3} on CT and 3.01 {+-} 0.94 cm{sup 3} on gross examinations in G1, 6.56 {+-} 2.47 cm{sup 3} and 5.22 {+-} 0.85 cm{sup 3} in G2, 10.93 {+-} 2.17 cm{sup 3} and 9.97 {+-} 2.91 cm{sup 3} in G3, and 13.81 {+-} 3.03 cm{sup 3} and 11.06 {+-} 3.27 cm{sup 3} in G4, respectively. The mean coagulation diameters on gross examination and mean coagulation volumes on CT and gross examination with G3 and G4 were significantly larger than those in G1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively) or in G2 (p < 0.05, p < 0.005, p < 0.005, respectively). Pulmonary collapse occurred in one lung in G2 and pulmonary artery thrombus in two lungs of G3 and two lungs of G4. The coagulation size of RF ablation of the

  19. Interaction between left ventricular twist mechanics and arterial haemodynamics during localised, non-metabolic hyperaemia with and without blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    van Mil, Anke C C M; Pearson, James; Drane, Aimee L; Cockcroft, John R; McDonnell, Barry J; Stöhr, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Left ventricular (LV) twist is reduced when afterload is increased, but the meaning of this specific heart muscle response and its impact on cardiac output are not well understood. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that LV twist responds even when arterial haemodynamics are altered only locally, and without apparent change in metabolic (i.e. heat-induced) demand. The concurrent decline in cardiac output and LV twist during partial arterial occlusion despite the increased peripheral demand caused by heat stress suggests that LV twist may be involved in the protective sensing of heart muscle stress that can override the provision of the required cardiac output. Whether left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) respond to localised, peripheral, non-metabolic changes in arterial haemodynamics within an individual's normal afterload range is presently unknown. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that LV twist mechanics may override the provision of cardiac output, but this hypothesis has not been examined purposefully. Therefore, we acutely altered local peripheral arterial haemodynamics in 11 healthy humans (women/men n = 3/8; age 26 ± 5 years) by bilateral arm heating (BAH). Ultrasonography was used to examine arterial haemodynamics, LV twist mechanics and the twist-to-shortening ratio (TSR). To determine the arterial function-dependent contribution of LV twist mechanics to cardiac output, partial blood flow restriction to the arms was applied during BAH (BAHBFR ). Bilateral arm heating increased arm skin temperatures [change (Δ) +6.4 ± 0.9°C, P < 0.0001] but not core temperature (Δ -0.0 ± 0.1°C, P > 0.05), concomitant to increases in brachial artery blood flow (Δ 212 ± 77 ml, P < 0.0001), cardiac output (Δ 495 ± 487 l min(-1) , P < 0.05), LV twist (Δ 3.0 ± 3.5 deg, P < 0.05) and TSR (Δ 3.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.05) but

  20. Some potential blood flow experiments for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cokelet, G. R.; Meiselman, H. J.; Goldsmith, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Blood is a colloidal suspension of cells, predominantly erythrocytes, (red cells) in an aqueous solution called plasma. Because the red cells are more dense than the plasma, and because they tend to aggregate, erythrocyte sedimentation can be significant when the shear stresses in flowing blood are small. This behavior, coupled with equipment restrictions, has prevented certain definitive fluid mechanical studies from being performed with blood in ground-based experiments. Among such experiments, which could be satisfactorily performed in a microgravity environment, are the following: (1) studies of blood flow in small tubes, to obtain pressure-flow rate relationships, to determine if increased red cell aggregation can be an aid to blood circulation, and to determine vessel entrance lengths, and (2) studies of blood flow through vessel junctions (bifurcations), to obtain information on cell distribution in downstream vessels of (arterial) bifurcations, and to test flow models of stratified convergent blood flows downstream from (venous) bifurcations.

  1. Effects of Low-Intensity Cycle Training with Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Thigh Muscle Volume and VO2MAX in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Ozaki, Hayao; Ogasawara, Riki; Sugaya, Masato; Kudo, Maiko; Kurano, Miwa; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishii, Naokata

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported. We examined the effects of low-intensity cycle exercise training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). A group of 19 young men (mean age ± SD: 23.0 ± 1.7 years) were allocated randomly into either a BFR-training group (n=9, BFR-training) or a non-BFR control training group (n=10, CON-training), both of which trained 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Training intensity and duration were 40% of VO2max and 15 min for the BFR-training group and 40% of VO2max and 45 min for the CON-training group. MRI-measured thigh and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 3.4-5.1% (P < 0.01) and isometric knee extension strength tended to increase by 7.7% (p < 0.10) in the BFR-training group. There was no change in muscle size (~0.6%) and strength (~1.4%) in the CON-training group. Significant improvements in VO2max (6.4%) and exercise time until exhaustion (15.4%) were observed in the BFR-training group (p < 0.05) but not in the CON-training group (-0.1 and 3. 9%, respectively). The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men. Key pointsConcurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported.In the present study, low-intensity (40% of VO2max) cycle training with BFR can elicit concurrent improvement in muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity.

  2. Activation of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle following blood flow restriction exercise is inhibited by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Gundermann, David M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Reidy, Paul T.; Borack, Michael S.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Volpi, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of blood flow to a contracting muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise (BFR exercise) stimulates mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle within 3 h postexercise. However, there is a lack of mechanistic data to provide a direct link between mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle following BFR exercise. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mTORC1 signaling is necessary for stimulating muscle protein synthesis after BFR exercise. A secondary aim was to describe the 24-h time course response in muscle protein synthesis and breakdown following BFR exercise. Sixteen healthy young men were randomized to one of two groups. Both the control (CON) and rapamycin (RAP) groups completed BFR exercise; however, RAP was administered 16 mg of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin 1 h prior to BFR exercise. BFR exercise consisted of four sets of leg extension exercise at 20% of 1 RM. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before exercise and at 3, 6, and 24 h after BFR exercise. Mixed-muscle protein fractional synthetic rate increased by 42% at 3 h postexercise and 69% at 24 h postexercise in CON, whereas this increase was inhibited in the RAP group. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448) and S6K1 (Thr389) was also increased in CON but inhibited in RAP. Mixed-muscle protein breakdown was not significantly different across time or groups. We conclude that activation of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle following BFR exercise is inhibited in the presence of rapamycin. PMID:24691032

  3. Acute low-intensity cycling with blood-flow restriction has no effect on metabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle compared to traditional exercise.

    PubMed

    Smiles, William J; Conceição, Miguel S; Telles, Guilherme D; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara P T; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R; Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system sensitive to hypoxia and exercise-induced perturbations to cellular bioenergetics. We determined the effects of low-intensity endurance-based exercise performed with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on cell signaling adaptive responses regulating autophagy and substrate metabolism in human skeletal muscle. In a randomized cross-over design, nine young, healthy but physically inactive males completed three experimental trials separated by 1 week of recovery consisting of either a resistance exercise bout (REX: 4 × 10 leg press repetitions, 70% 1-RM), endurance exercise (END: 30 min cycling, 70% VO2peak), or low-intensity cycling with BFR (15 min, 40% VO2peak). A resting muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis 2 weeks prior to the first exercise trial and 3 h after each exercise bout. END increased ULK1(Ser757) phosphorylation above rest and BFR (~37 to 51%, P < 0.05). Following REX, there were significant elevations compared to rest (~348%) and BFR (~973%) for p38γ MAPK(Thr180/Tyr182) phosphorylation (P < 0.05). Parkin content was lower following BFR cycling compared to REX (~20%, P < 0.05). There were no exercise-induced changes in select markers of autophagy following BFR. Genes implicated in substrate metabolism (HK2 and PDK4) were increased above rest (~143 to 338%) and BFR cycling (~212 to 517%) with END (P < 0.001). A single bout of low-intensity cycling with BFR is insufficient to induce intracellular "stress" responses (e.g., high rates of substrate turnover and local hypoxia) necessary to activate skeletal muscle autophagy signaling.

  4. First-trimester umbilical vein blood flow in pregnancies with low serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels: an early predictor of fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Pietrolucci, M E; Capece, A; Arduini, D

    2010-10-01

    To investigate umbilical vein blood flow (UVBF) during the first trimester in pregnancies with low serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels and to relate umbilical vein (UV) diameter, time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMXV) and UVBF values to the subsequent development of fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). UVBF assessment was performed at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation in 102 singleton pregnancies with PAPP-A concentrations of < 0.3 multiples of the median. UV diameter, UV-TAMXV and UVBF were calculated and analyzed in relation to pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy outcomes were: 51 pregnancies with birth weight ≥ 10(th) centile (Group A), 30 pregnancies with birth weight < 10(th) centile with normal Doppler in the umbilical artery throughout gestation (Group B) and 21 pregnancies with birth weight < 10(th) centile and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler later in gestation (Group C). No differences were found in PAPP-A levels between groups. Group C fetuses exhibited significantly lower values of UV-TAMXV (z-score - 1.99 SDs, t = 8.527, P ≤ 0.0001) and UVBF (z-score - 0.97 SDs, t = 7.420, P ≤ 0.0001) in comparison with normal reference ranges, while no differences were found in Groups A or B. Decreased UV-TAMXV and UVBF at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation identify fetuses at risk of developing IUGR among pregnancies with low levels of PAPP-A. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON.

  6. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: ∼17%, p = 0.067) and quadriceps CSA (HRT: 7.9%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: 6.6%, p < 0.001); however, HRT seems to induce greater strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  7. Relationship between limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy following high-intensity resistance training and blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ogasawara, Riki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We examined the relationship between training-induced limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy in high-intensity resistance training (HIT) or blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training (LI-BFR) programmes. Thirty young men were divided into three groups: HIT (n = 10), LI-BFR (n = 10) and non-training control (CON, n = 10). The HIT and LI-BFR groups performed 75% and 30%, respectively, of one-repetition maximal (1-RM) bench press exercise, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. During the training sessions, the LI-BFR group wore elastic cuffs around the most proximal region of both arms. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and 1-RM bench press strength were measured before and 3 days after the final training session. Total training volumes (lifting weight × number of repetitions) for all of the sessions were similar between the two training groups. The training led to a significant increase (P < 0·05) in bench press 1-RM in the two training groups, but not in the CON group. Triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle CSA increased 8·8% and 15·8% (P < 0·01), respectively, in the HIT group and 4·9% (P < 0·05) and 8·3% (P < 0·01), respectively, in the LI-BFR group, but not in the CON group (-1·1% and 0·0%, respectively). There was significant correlation (r = 0·70, P < 0·05) between increases in triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle CSA in the HIT group; however, the correlation was lower and non-significant in the LI-BFR group (r = 0·54). Our results suggest that limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy occurs simultaneously during HIT but not during LI-BFR, possibly owing to individual differences in activation of the arm and chest muscles during the training sessions. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Blood flow and microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P < 0.001) and 22% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P < 0.001) and 6.5% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (Vwave/M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max/M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  10. Modelling pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S

    2008-11-30

    Computational model analysis has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity.

  11. Passive restriction of blood flow and counter-current heat exchange via lingual retia in the tongue of a neonatal gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G; Kienle, Sarah S

    2015-04-01

    Retia mirabilia play broad roles in cetacean physiology, including thermoregulation during feeding and pressure regulations during diving. Vascular bundles of lingual retia are described within the base of the tongue of a neonatal female gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Each rete consists of a central artery surrounded by four to six smaller veins. The retia and constituent vessels decrease in diameter as they extend anteriorly within the hyoglossus muscle from a position anterior to the basihyal cartilage toward the apex of the tongue. The position of the retia embedded in the hyoglossus and the anterior constriction of the vessels differs from reports of similar vascular bundles that were previously identified in gray whales. The retia likely serve as a counter-current heat exchange system to control body temperature during feeding. Cold blood flowing toward the body center within the periarterial veins would accept heat from warm blood in the central artery flowing toward the anterior end of the tongue. Although thermoregulatory systems have been identified within the mouths of a few mysticete species, the distribution of such vascular structures likely is more widespread among baleen whales than has previously been described.

  12. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  13. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  14. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  15. Erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cokelet, G.R.; Meiselman, H.J.; Brooks, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph includes the proceedings of a conference on erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow. The topics discussed include: the bilayer and shell model of the erythrocyte membrane; protein-protein interactions in red cell membranes; mechano-chemical study of red cell membrane structure in situ; viscoelastic solid behavior of red cell membrane; measures of blood rheology and erythrocyte mechanics; mechanisms of erythrocyte aggregation; dynamics of red blood cell deformation and aggregation, and in vivo flow; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - theoretical analysis; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - experimental studies; behavior or abnormal erythrocytes in capillaries; reduced erythrocyte deformability and vascular pathology; and microvascular transit of normal, immature, and altered red blood cells in spleen versus skeletal muscle. Summary remarks on in vitro erythrocyte characteristics and in vivo erythrocyte behavior are also indcluded. (RJC)

  16. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536. ...

  17. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

    PubMed

    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Low birth weight in response to salt restriction during pregnancy is not due to alterations in uterine-placental blood flow or the placental and peripheral renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Sandra Márcia; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Patriarca, Giuliana; Coelho, Michella Soares; Dolnikoff, Miriam Sterman; Heimann, Joel Claudio

    2008-09-03

    A number of studies conducted in humans and in animals have observed that events occurring early in life are associated with the development of diseases in adulthood. Salt overload and restriction during pregnancy and lactation are responsible for functional (hemodynamic and hormonal) and structural alterations in adult offspring. Our group observed that lower birth weight and insulin resistance in adulthood is associated with salt restriction during pregnancy. On the other hand, perinatal salt overload is associated with higher blood pressure and higher renal angiotensin II content in adult offspring. Therefore, we hypothesised that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function is altered by changes in sodium intake during pregnancy. Such changes may influence fetoplacental blood flow and thereby fetal nutrient supply, with effects on growth in utero and, consequently, on birth weight. Female Wistar rats were fed low-salt (LS), normal-salt (NS), or high-salt (HS) diet, starting before conception and continuing until day 19 of pregnancy. Blood pressure, heart rate, fetuses and dams' body weight, placentae weight and litter size were measured on day 19 of pregnancy. Cardiac output, uterine and placental blood flow were also determined on day 19. Expressions of renin-angiotensin system components and of the TNF-alpha gene were evaluated in the placentae. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, as well as plasma and placental levels of angiotensins I, II, and 1-7 were measured. Body weight and kidney mass were greater in HS than in NS and LS dams. Food intake did not differ among the maternal groups. Placental weight was lower in LS dams than in NS and HS dams. Fetal weight was lower in the LS group than in the NS and HS groups. The PRA was greater in LS dams than in NS and HS dams, although ACE activity (serum, cardiac, renal, and placental) was unaffected by the level of sodium intake. Placental levels of

  19. Effect of prolonged hypokinesia on tissue blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levites, Z. P.; Fedotova, V. F.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the blood flow in the tissues of rabbits was studied. Motor activity of animals was restricted during 90 days and blood flow recorded through resorption rate of NaI-131. Perfusion of tissues under the influence of hypokinesia was found to be reduced.

  20. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  1. Multifractality of cerebral blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.; Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz

    2003-02-01

    Scale invariance, the property relating time series across multiple scales, has provided a new perspective of physiological phenomena and their underlying control systems. The traditional “signal plus noise” paradigm of the engineer was first replaced with a model in which biological time series have a fractal structure in time (Fractal Physiology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994). This new paradigm was subsequently shown to be overly restrictive when certain physiological signals were found to be characterized by more than one scaling parameter and therefore to belong to a class of more complex processes known as multifractals (Fractals, Plenum Press, New York, 1988). Here we demonstrate that in addition to heart rate (Nature 399 (1999) 461) and human gait (Phys. Rev. E, submitted for publication), the nonlinear control system for cerebral blood flow (CBF) (Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication; Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3492) is multifractal. We also find that this multifractality is greatly reduced for subjects with “serious” migraine and we present a simple model for the underlying control process to describe this effect.

  2. Brain Function and Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassen, Niels A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of radioactive isotopes to graphically represent changes in the amount of blood flowing in areas of the human cerebral cortex, reflecting changes in the activity of those areas. Numerous illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

  3. Brain Function and Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassen, Niels A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of radioactive isotopes to graphically represent changes in the amount of blood flowing in areas of the human cerebral cortex, reflecting changes in the activity of those areas. Numerous illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neetu; Vacek, Thomas P; Fleming, John T; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2011-01-25

    Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B(12), and folate) were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B(12) levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit) compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09). The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.

  5. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Shrouf, Roger D.

    2003-06-01

    A Restrictive Flow Orifice (RFO) can be used to enhance the safe design of a pressure system in several ways. Pressure systems frequently incorporate a regulator and relief valve to protect the downstream equipment from accidental overpressure caused by regulator failure. Analysis frequently shows that in cases of high-flow regulator failure, the downstream pressure may rise significantly above the set pressure of the relief valve. This is due to limited flow capacity of the relief valve. A different regulator or relief valve may need to be selected. A more economical solution to this problem is to use an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. An RFO can also be used to limit the uncontrolled release of system fluid (gas or liquid) upon component or line failure. As an example, potential asphyxiation hazards resultant from the release of large volumes of inert gas from a 'house' nitrogen system can be controlled by the use of an RFO. This report describes a versatile new Sandia-designed RFO available from the Swagelok Company and specifies the gas flow characteristics of this device. Two sizes, 0.010 and 0.020 inch diameter RFOs are available. These sizes will allow enhanced safety for many common applications. This new RFO design are now commercially available and provide advantages over existing RFOs: a high pressure rating (6600 psig); flow through the RFO is equal for either forward or reverse directions; they minimize the potential for leakage by incorporating the highest quality threaded connections; and can enhance the safety of pressure systems.

  6. Regulation of intestinal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Matheson, P J; Wilson, M A; Garrison, R N

    2000-09-01

    The gastrointestinal system anatomically is positioned to perform two distinct functions: to digest and absorb ingested nutrients and to sustain barrier function to prevent transepithelial migration of bacteria and antigens. Alterations in these basic functions contribute to a variety of clinical scenarios. These primary functions intrinsically require splanchnic blood flow at both the macrovascular and microvascular levels of perfusion. Therefore, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate intestinal vascular perfusion in the normal state and during pathophysiological conditions would be beneficial. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding regarding the regulatory mechanisms of intestinal blood flow in fasted and fed conditions and during pathological stress.

  7. Regulation of pulpal blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of blood flow of the dental pulp was investigated in dogs and rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Pulpal blood flow was altered by variations of local and systemic hemodynamics. Macrocirculatory blood flow (ml/min/100 g) in the dental pulp was measured with both the /sup 133/Xe washout and the 15-microns radioisotope-labeled microsphere injection methods on the canine teeth of dogs, to provide a comparison of the two methods in the same tooth. Microcirculatory studies were conducted in the rat incisor tooth with microscopic determination of the vascular pattern, RBC velocity, and intravascular volumetric flow distribution. Pulpal resistance vessels have alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Activation of alpha-receptors by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine (NE) caused both a reduction in macrocirculatory Qp in dogs and decreases in arteriolar and venular diameters and intravascular volumetric flow (Qi) in rats. These responses were blocked by the alpha-antagonist PBZ. Activation of beta-receptors by intra-arterial injection of isoproterenal (ISO) caused a paradoxical reduction of Qp in dogs. In rats, ISO caused a transient increase in arteriolar Qi followed by a flow reduction; arteriolar dilation was accompanied by venular constriction. These macrocirculatory and microcirculatory responses to ISO were blocked by the alpha-antagonist propranolol.

  8. Finger blood flow in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, E. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Finger blood flow was estimated, by strain-gauge plethysmography, before and during a 1 hr immersion in ice water, on twenty-five men throughout a year at Wilkes, Antarctica. A total of 121 satisfactory immersions were made. 2. Blood flow before and during immersion decreased significantly in the colder months of the year, and the increase caused by cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) became less as the year progressed. The time of onset, blood flow at onset, and frequency of the cycles of CIVD showed no significant relation to the coldness of the weather (as measured by mean monthly wind chill) or the time in months. Comparisons of blood flow before and after five field trips (average duration 42 days), on which cold exposure was more severe than at Wilkes station, gave similar results. 3. The results suggest that vasoconstrictor tone increased. This interpretation agrees with previous work on general acclimatization in Antarctica, but contrasts with work elsewhere on local acclimatization of the hands. PMID:5684034

  9. Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Dick, Gregory M; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D

    2017-03-16

    The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation. The purpose of this series of Comprehensive Physiology is to highlight current knowledge regarding the physiologic regulation of coronary blood flow, with emphasis on functional anatomy and the interplay between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial oxygen delivery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:321-382, 2017.

  10. Comparison of low-intensity blood flow-restricted training-induced muscular hypertrophy in eumenorrheic women in the follicular phase and luteal phase and age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Mikako; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Abe, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle hypertrophic response in women during both the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles following short-term, low-intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Eight eumenorrheic women and five men, all previously untrained, performed unilateral low-intensity (30% of 1 repetition maximum) dumbbell curl training with BFR once a day for 6 days. The opposite arm served as an untrained control. This 6-day training programme was conducted during both menstrual cycle phases: the early FP and the mid LP. MRI-measured biceps muscle volume (MV) and isometric elbow flexion strength were measured in both arms before and 2 days after the final training bout. Significantly (P<0.05) greater muscle hypertrophy was observed in the LP (5·7%) than in the FP (3·7%). The absolute and relative changes in serum hormone concentrations between the two phases did not correlate (P>0.05) with the percentage change in MV between the LP and FP. There was no change in MV in the control arm for both cycle phases. Following training, isometric strength increased (P<0.01) in the LP, but not in the FP (P = 0.17). Relative strength (strength per unit MV) was similar pre- and post-training in both phases. The percentage changes in MV and strength were similar between the women (average of LP and FP) and men. Our results indicate that muscle hypertrophy and strength gain are higher in the LP than in the FP following 6 days of BFR training, although the sex difference in the training response is non-existent. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  12. Pleasant Events, Activity Restriction, and Blood Pressure in Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A.; Ceglowski, Jenni; Roepke, Susan K.; von Känel, Roland; Losada, Andres; Mills, Paul J.; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A combination of high engagement in pleasurable activities and low perceived activity restriction is potentially protective for a number of health and quality of life outcomes. This study tests the newly proposed Pleasant Events and Activity Restriction (PEAR) model to explain level of blood pressure (BP) in a sample of elderly dementia caregivers. Methods This cross-sectional study included 66 caregivers, ≥ 55 years of age, providing in-home care to a relative with dementia. Planned comparisons were made to assess group differences in BP between caregivers reporting high engagement in pleasant events plus low perceived activity restriction (HPLR; N = 22) to those with low pleasure plus high restriction (LPHR; N = 23) or those with either high pleasure plus high restriction or low pleasure plus low restriction (HPHR/LPLR; N = 21). Results After adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, use of anti-hypertensive medication, physical activity, and number of health problems, HPLR participants (86.78 mm Hg) had significantly lower mean arterial pressure compared to LPHR participants (94.70 mm Hg) (p = .01, Cohen’s d=0.89) and HPHR/LPLR participants (94.84 mm Hg) (p = .023, d=0.91). Similar results were found in post-hoc comparisons of both systolic and diastolic BP. Conclusions This study extends support for the PEAR model to physical health outcomes. Differences in BP between the HPLR group and other groups were of large magnitude and thus clinically meaningful. The findings may inform intervention studies aimed at investigating whether increasing pleasant events and lowering perceived activity restriction may lower BP. PMID:22888824

  13. Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.

    1983-12-01

    The disappearance rate of /sup 133/Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for /sup 133/Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002).

  14. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  15. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall. PMID:18188702

  16. Uterine artery blood flow, fetal hypoxia and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Browne, Vaughn A; Julian, Colleen G; Toledo-Jaldin, Lillian; Cioffi-Ragan, Darleen; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-03-05

    Evolutionary trade-offs required for bipedalism and brain expansion influence the pregnancy rise in uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and, in turn, reproductive success. We consider the importance of UtA blood flow by reviewing its determinants and presenting data from 191 normotensive (normal, n = 125) or hypertensive (preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH), n = 29) Andean residents of very high (4100-4300 m) or low altitude (400 m, n = 37). Prior studies show that UtA blood flow is reduced in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but whether the IUGR is due to resultant fetal hypoxia is unclear. We found higher UtA blood flow and Doppler indices of fetal hypoxia in normotensive women at high versus low altitude but similar fetal growth. UtA blood flow was markedly lower in early-onset PE versus normal high-altitude women, and their fetuses more hypoxic as indicated by lower fetal heart rate, Doppler indices and greater IUGR. We concluded that, despite greater fetal hypoxia, fetal growth was well defended by higher UtA blood flows in normal Andeans at high altitude but when compounded by lower UtA blood flow in early-onset PE, exaggerated fetal hypoxia caused the fetus to respond by decreasing cardiac output and redistributing blood flow to help maintain brain development at the expense of growth elsewhere. We speculate that UtA blood flow is not only an important supply line but also a trigger for stimulating the metabolic and other processes regulating feto-placental metabolism and growth. Studies using the natural laboratory of high altitude are valuable for identifying the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in human reproductive success. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Uterine artery blood flow, fetal hypoxia and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Vaughn A.; Julian, Colleen G.; Toledo-Jaldin, Lillian; Cioffi-Ragan, Darleen; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary trade-offs required for bipedalism and brain expansion influence the pregnancy rise in uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and, in turn, reproductive success. We consider the importance of UtA blood flow by reviewing its determinants and presenting data from 191 normotensive (normal, n = 125) or hypertensive (preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH), n = 29) Andean residents of very high (4100–4300 m) or low altitude (400 m, n = 37). Prior studies show that UtA blood flow is reduced in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but whether the IUGR is due to resultant fetal hypoxia is unclear. We found higher UtA blood flow and Doppler indices of fetal hypoxia in normotensive women at high versus low altitude but similar fetal growth. UtA blood flow was markedly lower in early-onset PE versus normal high-altitude women, and their fetuses more hypoxic as indicated by lower fetal heart rate, Doppler indices and greater IUGR. We concluded that, despite greater fetal hypoxia, fetal growth was well defended by higher UtA blood flows in normal Andeans at high altitude but when compounded by lower UtA blood flow in early-onset PE, exaggerated fetal hypoxia caused the fetus to respond by decreasing cardiac output and redistributing blood flow to help maintain brain development at the expense of growth elsewhere. We speculate that UtA blood flow is not only an important supply line but also a trigger for stimulating the metabolic and other processes regulating feto-placental metabolism and growth. Studies using the natural laboratory of high altitude are valuable for identifying the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in human reproductive success. PMID:25602072

  18. Fetal carotid blood flow during videofetoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fauza, D O; Fishman, S J

    1998-12-01

    Intracranial bleeding has been reported as one of the complications of both open and minimally invasive fetal surgery and putatively attributed to intraoperative fluctuations of carotid blood flow. The aim of this study was to look at fetal carotid blood flow and its relationship with umbilical blood flow, blood pressure, oxygen delivery, and acid-base status in the fetus at various intraamniotic pressures with both liquid and gas media during fetoscopic surgery. Six 115- to 130-day-gestation ewes underwent continuous invasive systemic blood pressure monitoring in the descending aorta. A hysterotomy was performed. A 6-mm ultrasonic blood flow probe was placed around the common umbilical artery at its origin from the fetal aorta. This was followed by placement of a double-lumen, 4F catheter in the fetal descending aorta through a femoral artery. A 4-mm ultrasonic blood flow probe was then placed around the fetal left common carotid artery. A pressure-monitoring, multiperforated catheter was placed inside the amniotic cavity. The fetus was repositioned inside the uterus, which was then closed. The abdominal wall was closed loosely. No further manipulation was performed for 1 hour. Intraamniotic pressure was raised from 0 to 30 mm Hg at 5-mm Hg intervals by infusing either warmed saline or medical air. Common umbilical artery and left carotid artery blood flows, blood pressure, blood gases, bicarbonate, sodium, and hematocrit were recorded in all fetuses at each 5-mm Hg interval. Maternal systemic blood pressure, O2 saturation, and temperature were kept constant. Carotid blood flow remained stable within the intra-amniotic pressure range studied (0 to 30 mm Hg), despite the significant drop in common umbilical artery blood flow uniformly observed above 20 mm Hg when saline was infused and above 15 mm Hg when air was infused. There was fetal hypoxemia and hypercarbia concomitant with decreased common umbilical artery blood flow (however, without fetal acidosis, because

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  20. Local cooling reduces regional bone blood flow.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, Arne J; Vogt, Stephan; Stöckl, Klaus; Tischer, Thomas; Jost, Philipp J; Thein, Eckart; Imhoff, Andreas B; Anetzberger, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Local cooling is very common after bone and joint surgery. Therefore the knowledge of bone blood flow during local cooling is of substantial interest. Previous studies revealed that hypothermia leads to vasoconstriction followed by decreased blood flow levels. The aim of this study was to characterize if local cooling is capable of inducing reduced blood flow in bone tissue using a stepwise-reduced temperature protocol in experimental rabbits. To examine bone blood flow we utilized the fluorescent microsphere (FM) method. In New Zealand white rabbits one randomly chosen hind limb was cooled stepwise from 32 to 2°C, whereas the contra lateral hind limb served as control. Injection of microspheres was performed after stabilization of bone and muscle temperature at each temperature level. Bones were removed, dissected and fluorescence intensity was determined to calculate blood flow values. We found that blood flow of all cooled regions decreased relative to the applied external temperature. At maximum cooling blood flow was almost completely disrupted, indicating local cooling as powerful regulatory mechanism for regional bone blood flow (RBBF). Postoperative cooling therefore may lead to strongly decreased bone blood flow values. As a result external cooling has capacity to both diminish bone healing and reduce bleeding complications.

  1. Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement in Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, D.; Papadimitriou, M.; Kulatilake, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    A 5-megacycle Doppler flow meter, calibrated in-vitro, was found to give a linear response to blood flow in the ranges commonly encountered in haemodialysis. With this, blood flow through artificial kidneys could be measured simply and with a clinically acceptable error. The method is safe, as blood lines do not have to be punctured or disconnected and hence there is no risk of introducing infection. Besides its value as a research tool the flow meter is useful in evaluating new artificial kidneys. Suitably modified it could form the basis of an arterial flow alarm system. PMID:5416812

  2. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154.1315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  3. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S.; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J.; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J.; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain–containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate–specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow. PMID:22622036

  4. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  5. Vascular structure determines pulmonary blood flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlastala, M. P.; Glenny, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.

  6. Vascular structure determines pulmonary blood flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlastala, M. P.; Glenny, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.

  7. Increased hippocampal blood volume and normal blood flow in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Skinner, Jack; Gore, John; Heckers, Stephan

    2015-06-30

    Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. Left and right hippocampal measurements were combined for absolute measures of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT). We found significantly increased hippocampal CBV, but normal CBF and MTT, in schizophrenia. The uncoupling of CBV and CBF could be due to several factors, including antipsychotic medication, loss of cerebral perfusion pressure, or angiogenesis. Further studies need to incorporate several complementary imaging modalities to better characterize hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  8. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.

  9. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future. PMID:27124642

  10. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  11. Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. H.; Rowan, J. O.; Harper, A. M.; Jennett, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow during incremental increases of intracranial pressure produced by infusion of fluid into the cisterna magna were studied in anaesthetized baboons. Cerebral blood flow remained constant at intracranial pressure levels up to approximately 50 mm Hg. At intracranial pressure levels between 50-96 mm Hg a marked increase in cerebral blood flow occurred, associated with the development of systemic hypertension and changes in cerebrovascular resistance. Further increases of intracranial pressure led to a progressive fall in cerebral blood flow. Prior section of the cervical cord prevented both the increase in cerebral blood flow and the systemic hypertension. Alteration of cerebral perfusion pressure by bleeding during the hyperaemia in a further group of animals suggested that autoregulation was at least partially preserved during this phase. After maximum hyperaemia had occurred, however, autoregulation appeared to be lost. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:4624687

  12. Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.

    1985-03-01

    The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of /sup 133/xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant in NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for /sup 133/Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method (/sup 133/Xe and (/sup 131/I)antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin.

  13. A randomised comparison of the effects of low-dose spinal or general anaesthesia on umbilical cord blood gases during caesarean delivery of growth-restricted foetuses with impaired Doppler flow.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Sharma, Anchal; Kaur, Jaswinder; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Hypotension following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery may decrease uteroplacental perfusion and produce foetal acidosis. The optimal anaesthetic technique for mothers with foetal growth restriction and impaired Doppler flow is unclear. To compare the effects of low-dose spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia on neonatal outcome and maternal haemodynamics. Prospective, randomised clinical trial. Tertiary care hospital. Forty pregnant women with foetal growth restriction and impaired Doppler flow scheduled for elective caesarean delivery. The women were allocated randomly to receive a low-dose spinal anaesthetic (8-mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl 20 μg) or standard general anaesthesia for elective caesarean delivery. SBP was maintained between 80 and 100% of baseline using bolus doses of phenylephrine. The total duration of hypotension, dose of phenylephrine used and any incidence of hypotension, nausea or vomiting were recorded. The primary outcome variable was arterial and venous umbilical cord base deficit. Neonatal outcome and maternal haemodynamics were analysed as secondary endpoints. The mean umbilical artery pH was significantly lower in the low-dose spinal anaesthesia group than in the general anaesthesia group (7.23 ± 0.06 vs. 7.27 ± 0.04, P = 0.01). Cord base deficit was similar in the two groups. Higher partial pressures of oxygen occurred in the general anaesthesia group (20.9 ± 6.5 kPa) than in the low-dose spinal anaesthesia group (13.6 ± 6.1 kPa, P = 0.001). No difference was observed between groups in 1 and 5-min Apgar scores. There appeared to be a greater need for immediate resuscitation of neonates in the general anaesthesia group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.51). Low-dose spinal anaesthesia was associated with hypotension of short duration (0.7 ± 1.1 min). In this study, there was no difference in umbilical cord base deficit between the groups. Larger studies would be

  14. Renal blood flow in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Langenberg, Christoph; Bellomo, Rinaldo; May, Clive; Wan, Li; Egi, Moritoki; Morgera, Stanislao

    2005-01-01

    Introduction To assess changes in renal blood flow (RBF) in human and experimental sepsis, and to identify determinants of RBF. Method Using specific search terms we systematically interrogated two electronic reference libraries to identify experimental and human studies of sepsis and septic acute renal failure in which RBF was measured. In the retrieved studies, we assessed the influence of various factors on RBF during sepsis using statistical methods. Results We found no human studies in which RBF was measured with suitably accurate direct methods. Where it was measured in humans with sepsis, however, RBF was increased compared with normal. Of the 159 animal studies identified, 99 reported decreased RBF and 60 reported unchanged or increased RBF. The size of animal, technique of measurement, duration of measurement, method of induction of sepsis, and fluid administration had no effect on RBF. In contrast, on univariate analysis, state of consciousness of animals (P = 0.005), recovery after surgery (P < 0.001), haemodynamic pattern (hypodynamic or hyperdynamic state; P < 0.001) and cardiac output (P < 0.001) influenced RBF. However, multivariate analysis showed that only cardiac output remained an independent determinant of RBF (P < 0.001). Conclusion The impact of sepsis on RBF in humans is unknown. In experimental sepsis, RBF was reported to be decreased in two-thirds of studies (62 %) and unchanged or increased in one-third (38%). On univariate analysis, several factors not directly related to sepsis appear to influence RBF. However, multivariate analysis suggests that cardiac output has a dominant effect on RBF during sepsis, such that, in the presence of a decreased cardiac output, RBF is typically decreased, whereas in the presence of a preserved or increased cardiac output RBF is typically maintained or increased. PMID:16137349

  15. Blood hyperviscosity with reduced skin blood flow in scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, M. A.; Peek, R.; Penny, R.

    1977-01-01

    The vascular complications of scleroderma have previously been attributed to the progressive obliteration of small vessels. Our study was carried out to determine whether abnormalities of blood viscosity occur in this disease, thereby contributing to the ischaemic process. Blood viscosity was measured in 20 patients using a rotational viscometer. At a high rate of shear, blood hyperviscosity was found in 35% of the patients and at a low rate of shear, in 70%. In addition there was a significant increase in the plasma viscosity which implicates changes in plasma proteins (fibrinogen, immunoglobulins) as causing the hyperviscosity. Measurement of the hand blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography showed reduced flow at 32°, 27°, and 20°C. A unique finding was a delayed recovery of the blood flow after cooling. These observations suggest that the increased resistance to blood flow in skin affected by scleroderma may be caused by an interaction between the occlusive vascular lesion and blood hyperviscosity. In addition, blood flow patterns and hyperviscosity could help distinguish scleroderma from primary Raynaud's disease. PMID:596950

  16. Performance of selected flow-restricting infusion devices.

    PubMed

    Capes, D F; Asiimwe, D

    1998-02-15

    The flow rate accuracy and flow continuity of the Homepump, Infusor, Intermate, Paragon, Sidekick, and Springfusor 10 flow-restricting infusion devices were studied. Three of each device were tested in a temperature-controlled cabinet at the manufacturer-specified operating temperature and at 20 and 30 degrees C. The flow rates used were 100 ml/hr and the rate that would provide a 24-hour delivery of fluid, except in the case of the Springfusor 10, which was tested at the maximum and minimum flow rates. Flow rate was measured gravimetrically at 30-second intervals. The endopoint of infusion was defined as the start of the terminal-phase decline. The effect of refrigerated storage was studied by using the Intermate as an example of the elastomeric devices tested. All devices exhibited a variable flow profile during infusion except for the Paragon, which had a near-constant flow throughout. The average error in flow rate was within the manufacturer's specifications when the devices were used under the manufacturer-specified operating conditions for all devices except for the Sidekick. The definition of the endopoint made little difference in the flow rate results for the Infusor and Springfusor 10 but significantly affected the flow rate results for the other devices, for which there was a substantial terminal phase with a prolonged period of reduced flow rate. The mean flow rate, error, and coefficient of variation for the Intermate devices stored under refrigeration were significantly different from those for the devices not refrigerated before use. When operated as recommended by the manufacturer, five of six devices had a flow rate error within the manufacturer's specifications; the results were affected by endpoint definition.

  17. Renal blood flow in man with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    London, G M; Safar, M E; Marchais, S

    1986-01-01

    Abnormalities in renal blood flow in man with sustained essential hypertension are reviewed with emphasis on four points: renal blood flow is decreased not only per unit square meter but also as a fraction of cardiac output, a result which is not observed in other organs, the relationship between cardiac output and renal blood flow is reset, so that restriction of arteriolar renal vessels is dominantly preglomerular in origin, the renal abnormalities may be reversed by alpha-blockade, suggesting an important contribution of the autonomic nervous system, and, finally, the normal sodium balance in steady-state conditions is achieved through adaptive mechanisms involving the venous system and resulting in decreased venous compliance and increased postglomerular and venous hydrostatic pressures.

  18. Radioisotopic flow scanning for portal blood flow and portal hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hesdorffer, C.S.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Danilewitz, M.D.; Esser, J.D.; Tobias, M.

    1987-08-01

    The use of a simple, noninvasive, isotope scanning technique for the determination of relative portal blood flow and detection of portal hypertension is described. Using this technique the presence of portal hypertension was demonstrated in seven of nine patients known to have elevated portal venous pressure. By contrast, esophageal varices were demonstrated in only five of these patients, illustrating the potential value of the method. Furthermore, this technique has been adapted to the study of portal blood flow in patients with myeloproliferative disorders with splenomegaly but without disturbances in hepatic architecture. Results demonstrate that the high relative splenic flow resulting from the presence of splenomegaly may in turn be associated with elevated relative portal blood flow and portal hypertension. The theoretic reasons for the development of flow-related portal hypertension and its relationship to splenic blood flow are discussed.

  19. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  20. A Computational Model of the Fetal Circulation to Quantify Blood Redistribution in Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A.; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijens, Bart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  1. Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine.

  2. Carbon dioxide and liver blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dutton, R; Levitzky, M; Berkman, R

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to determine blood flow to the liver during hypercapnia and combined hypercapnia-hypoxia with the portal vein and hepatic artery intact except for placement of an electromagnetic flow probe around these vessels. Twenty mongrel dogs weighing 30-45 kg were anesthetized with pentobarbital and flow probes and occluders were surgically implanted. Ten of these dogs were subjected to hypercapnia alone. During inspiration of 6% CO2 in room air, portal vein flow increased from 588 +/- 73 ml/min to 731 +/- 113 ml/min (p less than .05), while hepatic artery flow did not change significantly from its control mean of 221 +/- 38 ml/min. In the remaining dogs, inhalation of 6% O2 resulted in a reduction of portal blood flow within 30 min from 527 +/- 55 ml/min to 381 +/- 41 ml/min (p less than .01). Again, mean hepatic artery flow did not increase significantly above its control of 273 +/- 43 ml/min. Subsequent inhalation of 6% CO2 plus 6% O2 (combined hypercapniahypoxia) for 30 min in these same animals resulted in a significant increase of portal vein blood flow from 514 +/- 46 ml/min to 716 +/- 116 ml/min (p less than .05). Thus, hypercapnia alone increases total liver blood flow, primarily by an increase in portal vein flow. Hypoxia results in a decrease in portal vein flow. The superimposition of hypercapnia on hypoxia restores blood flow to a level close to that found with hypercapnia alone. Hypercapnia in the range of 63 +/- 4 mmHg PCO2 overwhelms the tendency toward a reduction of portal vein blood flow induced by an arterial PO2 of 42 +/- 5 mmHg in the presence of mild hypocapnia (PCO2 : 30.2 +/- 1 mmHg).

  3. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  4. Flow in Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Stroud, Jenn S.

    2000-11-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions occur in arteries where there are major changes in flow structure, e.g. bifurcations and junctions. The reduction of vessel lumen alters the flow, including the mechanical forces on the walls. We have examined the flow in carotid artery bifurcations with realistic plaque contours. The unsteady, incompressible, Navier-Stokes equations are solved in finite-volume form. Steady and pulsatile flows have been analyzed for laminar and turbulent flows, using for the latter a low-Reynolds number k- ɛ model and a k-ω model. Non-Newtonian viscosity is also considered using a power-law model. In general the very irregular contours of the vessels lead to recirculating regions, strong spatial variations of wall shear stresses, and in some cases, vortex shedding. Even steady inlet flow exhibits fluctuating, unsteady behavior. Neither turbulence models captures all the physics of the flow. The flow, in fact, appears to be transitional and not fully turbulent. For unsteady flow, there are also strong temporal variations of normal and shear stresses, which together with the strong spatial variations, has important implications for the onset and progression of atherosclerotic disease.

  5. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  6. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  7. Personality and regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R J; Weinman, M L; Barr, D L

    1984-05-01

    The extraversion-introversion dimension of personality is believed to have an inverse relationship with cortical arousal. Brain capillary perfusion is a well established index of brain function and arousal. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in 51 right-handed females whose personality structure was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). Significant inverse correlations were found between the brain blood flow and the extraversion-introversion score of EPI.

  8. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H. )

    1990-06-01

    The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%).

  9. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  10. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  11. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...

  16. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    PubMed

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice.

  17. Anionic biopolymers as blood flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Siegel, G; Walter, A; Kauschmann, A; Malmsten, M; Buddecke, E

    1996-01-01

    The finding of flow-dependent vasodilation rests on the basic observation that with an increase in blood flow the vessels become wider, with a decrease the vascular smooth muscle cells contract. Proteoheparan sulphate could be the sensor macromolecule at the endothelial cell membrane-blood interface, that reacts on the shear stress generated by the flowing blood, and that informs and regulates the vascular smooth muscle cells via a signal transduction chain. This anionic biopolyelectrolyte possesses viscoelastic and specific ion binding properties which allow a change of its configuration in dependence on shear stress and electrostatic charge density. The blood flow sensor undergoes a conformational transition from a random coil to an extended filamentous state with increasing flow, whereby Na+ ions from the blood are bound. Owing to the intramolecular elastic recoil forces of proteoheparan sulphate the slowing of a flow rate causes an entropic coiling, the expulsion of Na+ ions and thus an interruption of the signal chain. Under physiological conditions, the conformation and Na+ binding proved to be extremely Ca(2+)-sensitive while K+ and Mg2+ ions play a minor role for the susceptibility of the sensor. Via counterion migration of the bound Na+ ions along the sensor glycosaminoglycan side chains and following Na+ passage through an unspecific ion channel in the endothelial cell membrane, the signal transduction chain leads to a membrane depolarization with Ca2+ influx into the cells. This stimulates the EDRF/NO production and release from the endothelial cells. The consequence is vasodilation.

  18. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  19. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  20. A restricted nonlinear-dynamics model for turbulent channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Jiménez, Javier; Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.; Nikolaidis, Marios A.; Constantinou, Navid C.

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of the formation of very-large scale structure in turbulent plane Poiseuille flow is studied by restricting the nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations to interactions between the streamwise-averaged flow and perturbations. Using comparisons with DNS, we show that this restricted nonlinear dynamics (RNL) supports essentially realistic turbulence at Reτ = 900 , despite the naturally occurring severe reduction in the set of streamwise wavenumbers supporting the turbulence. Using statistical diagnostics we verify that there are similar self-sustaining processes (SSP) underlying turbulence in the RNL and in the NS dynamics, separate manifestations of which operate in the buffer and outer layers. In the buffer layer, the SSP supports the familiar roll-streak mechanism of wall-bounded turbulence, while the outer-layer streaks in the RNL are probably the streamwise elongated structures referred to as VLSI. It is argued that the formation of the roll-streak structure is a universal mechanism that can be fruitfully studied in the minimal dynamics of RNL. Funded by Multiflow project of the ERC, Navid Constantinou acknowledges the support of the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation. Brian Farrell was supported by NSF AGS-1246929.

  1. Integration and Modulation of Intercellular Signaling Underlying Blood Flow Control

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular resistance networks control tissue blood flow in concert with regulating arterial perfusion pressure. In response to increased metabolic demand, vasodilation arising in arteriolar networks ascends to encompass proximal feed arteries. By reducing resistance upstream, ascending vasodilation (AVD) increases blood flow into the microcirculation. Once initiated [e.g., through local activation of K+ channels in endothelial cells (ECs)], hyperpolarization is conducted through gap junctions along the endothelium. Via EC projections through the internal elastic lamina, hyperpolarization spreads into the surrounding smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) to promote their relaxation. Intercellular signaling through electrical signal transmission (i.e., cell-to-cell conduction) can thereby coordinate vasodilation along and among the branches of microvascular resistance networks. Perivascular sympathetic nerve fibers course through the adventitia and release norepinephrine to stimulate SMCs via α-adrenoreceptors to produce contraction. In turn, SMCs can signal ECs through MEGJs to activate K+ channels and attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction. Activation of K+ channels along the endothelium will dissipate electrical signal transmission and inhibit AVD, thereby restricting blood flow into the microcirculation while maintaining peripheral resistance and perfusion pressure. This review explores the origins and nature of intercellular signaling governing blood flow control in skeletal muscle with respect to the interplay between AVD and sympathetic innervation. Whereas these interactions are integral to physical daily activity and athletic performance, resolving the interplay between respective signaling events provides insight into how selective interventions can improve tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery during vascular disease. PMID:26368324

  2. Blood flow in abdominal aortic aneurysms: pulsatile flow hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Finol, E A; Amon, C H

    2001-10-01

    Numerical predictions of blood flow patterns and hemodynamic stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are performed in a two-aneurysm, axisymmetric, rigid wall model using the spectral element method. Physiologically realistic aortic blood flow is simulated under pulsatile conditions for the range of time-averaged Reynolds numbers 50< or =Re(m)< or =300, corresponding to a range of peak Reynolds numbers 262.5< or =Re(peak) < or = 1575. The vortex dynamics induced by pulsatile flow in AAAs is characterized by a sequence of five different flow phases in one period of the flow cycle. Hemodynamic disturbance is evaluated for a modified set of indicator functions, which include wall pressure (p(w)), wall shear stress (tau(w)), and Wall Shear Stress Gradient (WSSG). At peak flow, the highest shear stress and WSSG levels are obtained downstream of both aneurysms, in a pattern similar to that of steady flow. Maximum values of wall shear stresses and wall shear stress gradients obtained at peak flow are evaluated as a function of the time-average Reynolds number resulting in a fourth order polynomial correlation. A comparison between predictions for steady and pulsatile flow is presented, illustrating the importance of considering time-dependent flow for the evaluation of hemodynamic indicators.

  3. GLP-2 and mesenteric blood flow.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lasse Bremholm

    2013-05-01

    The 33 amino acid peptide hormone GLP-2 is produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, the density of which is highest in the ileum and the colon, in response to the presence of nutrients in the lumen. The biological effect of GLP-2 is mediated by activation of a G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor. GLP-2 receptors are expressed in the brainstem, lungs, stomach, small intestine and colon, but not in the heart. It has been shown in several animal studies that GLP-2 infusion increases intestinal blood flow and that this increase is confined to the small intestine. The aim of the three studies, on which the thesis is based, was to investigate basic physiological effects of GLP-2, in healthy volunteers and in SBS patients, with focus on the effects on mesenteric blood flow, blood flow at other vascular sites and effects on cardiac parameters. These parameters have been evaluated after both meal stimulation and GLP-2 administration. The studies showed the following results: Blood flow: In all three studies, blood flow changes in the SMA after GLP-2 administration were similar regarding changes over time and degree of change. Blood flow changes were similar to changes seen after a standard meal. Only RI changes were registered in all three studies, but the TAMV changes in study 2 and 3 had similar characteristics. Cardiovascular parameters: In all three studies no significant changes in blood pressure were registered in relation to GLP-2 administration. In study two and three, where cardiac parameters also were registered by impedance cardiography, increases in CO and SV were seen. Plasma GLP-2: There were, as expected, supraphysiological GLP-2 plasma levels after SC administration. All three studies have shown rapid changes in mesenteric blood flow after administration GLP-2. The changes have been the same both in regards to time to maximum changes (increase) and relatively close in regards to maximum extent of change. The changes in the SBS patients were less than in

  4. Estimation of Blood Flow With Radioactive Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Holloway, G. Allen

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of tracer dilution in the circulation, and of tracer uptake by and washout from an organ, may be described using expressions that are general and are not dependent on specific models such as exponentials. The expressions have been applied to the measurement of cardiac output using impulse and constant rate injection techniques. Further expressions have been given for estimating organ blood flow from inflow/outflow concentration-time curves, washout curves, and from the distribution of deposited tracer. Some problems with respect to the use of deposition techniques as they are ordinarily applied to the estimation of regional blood flow must be considered, particularly where there are capillary beds in series or where there is countercurrent diffusional shunting of diffusible tracers between inflow and outflow. This review deals with these various aspects of tracer theory as they relate to the measurement of blood flow. PMID:775641

  5. Luteal blood flow and luteal function

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Akihisa; Tamura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Ken; Asada, Hiromi; Taketani, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Aki; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Shimamura, Katsunori; Morioka, Hitoshi; Sugino, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood flow in the corpus luteum (CL) is associated with luteal function. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether luteal function can be improved by increasing CL blood flow in women with luteal phase defect (LFD). Methods Blood flow impedance in the CL was measured by transvaginal color-pulsed-Doppler-ultrasonography and was expressed as a resistance index (RI). The patients with both LFD [serum progesterone (P) concentrations < 10 ng/ml during mid-luteal phase] and high CL-RI (≥ 0.51) were given vitamin-E (600 mg/day, n = 18), L-arginine (6 g/day, n = 14) as a potential nitric oxide donor, melatonin (3 mg/day, n = 13) as an antioxidant, or HCG (2,000 IU/day, n = 10) during the subsequent menstrual cycle. Results In the control group (n = 11), who received no medication to increase CL blood flow, only one patient (9%) improved in CL-RI and 2 patients (18%) improved in serum P. Vitamin-E improved CL-RI in 15 patients (83%) and improved serum P in 12 patients (67%). L-arginine improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and improved serum P in 10 patients (71%). HCG improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and improved serum P in 9 patients (90%). Melatonin had no significant effect. Conclusion Vitamin-E or L-arginine treatment improved luteal function by decreasing CL blood flow impedance. CL blood flow is a critical factor for luteal function. PMID:19144154

  6. The Role of Neuronal Signaling in Controlling Cerebral Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Carrie T.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    Well-regulated blood flow within the brain is vital to normal function. The brain's requirement for sufficient blood flow is ensured by a tight link between neural activity and blood flow. The link between regional synaptic activity and regional cerebral blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, is the basis for several modern imaging techniques…

  7. The Role of Neuronal Signaling in Controlling Cerebral Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Carrie T.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    Well-regulated blood flow within the brain is vital to normal function. The brain's requirement for sufficient blood flow is ensured by a tight link between neural activity and blood flow. The link between regional synaptic activity and regional cerebral blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, is the basis for several modern imaging techniques…

  8. Assessing intraoperative blood flow in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Sasaguri, Shiro; Sato, Takayuki

    2011-11-01

    Off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting and new surgical apparatus and techniques have decreased the mortality rate associated with this procedure to approximately 1.5%. If we could detect problems in the constructed coronary anastomoses by an alternative imaging system to coronary angiography during surgery, decisions to revise the surgical procedure could be made without hesitation. Meanwhile, the intraoperative direct evaluation of intestinal blood flow during abdominal aortic aneurysmal surgery is required to prevent ischemic colitis, which is a devastating complication. Indocyanine green (ICG) has recently improved ophthalmic angiography and the navigation systems of oncological surgery. The fluorescence illumination of ICG with a near-infrared light is captured on camera. In coronary arterial surgery, the ICG imaging system is also becoming increasingly useful. A new ICG imaging system, the HyperEye Medical System (HEMS), provides a clear view of the blood flow and ischemic area with color visualization. Furthermore, its combination with a quantitative blood flow assessment tool such as transit time flow measurement could improve the accuracy of intraoperative examination. In this review, we evaluate the current strategies of assessing blood flow intraoperatively with an ICG imaging system in cardiovascular surgery.

  9. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Transcutaneous measurement of volume blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, R. E.; Mcleod, F. D.; Miller, C. W.; Histand, M. B.; Wells, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Blood flow velocity measurements, using Doppler velocimeter, are described. The ability to measure blood velocity using ultrasound is derived from the Doppler effect; the change in frequency which occurs when sound is reflected or transmitted from a moving target. When ultrasound of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through a moving blood stream, the blood cells act as point scatterers of ultrasonic energy. If this scattered ultrasonic energy is detected, it is found to be shifted in frequency according to the velocity of the blood cells, nu, the frequency of the incident sound, f sub o, the speed of sound in the medium, c, and the angle between the sound beam and the velocity vector, o. The relation describing this effect is known as the Doppler equation. Delta f = 2 f sub o x nu x cos alpha/c. The theoretical and experimental methods are evaluated.

  11. Using flow feature to extract pulsatile blood flow from 4D flow MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ye; Yu, Whitney; Chen, Xi; Lin, Chen; Kralik, Stephen F.; Hutchins, Gary D.

    2017-02-01

    4D flow MRI images make it possible to measure pulsatile blood flow inside deforming vessel, which is critical in accurate blood flow visualization, simulation, and evaluation. Such data has great potential to overcome problems in existing work, which usually does not reflect the dynamic nature of elastic vessels and blood flows in cardiac cycles. However, the 4D flow MRI data is often low-resolution and with strong noise. Due to these challenges, few efforts have been successfully conducted to extract dynamic blood flow fields and deforming artery over cardiac cycles, especially for small artery like carotid. In this paper, a robust flow feature, particularly the mean flow intensity is used to segment blood flow regions inside vessels from 4D flow MRI images in whole cardiac cycle. To estimate this flow feature more accurately, adaptive weights are added to the raw velocity vectors based on the noise strength of MRI imaging. Then, based on this feature, target arteries are tracked in at different time steps in a cardiac cycle. This method is applied to the clinical 4D flow MRI data in neck area. Dynamic vessel walls and blood flows are effectively generated in a cardiac cycle in the relatively small carotid arteries. Good image segmentation results on 2D slices are presented, together with the visualization of 3D arteries and blood flows. Evaluation of the method was performed by clinical doctors and by checking flow volume rates in the vertebral and carotid arteries.

  12. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  13. Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. H.; Rowan, J. O.; Harper, A. M.; Jennett, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow with increasing intracranial pressure were studied in anaesthetized baboons during expansion of a subdural balloon in one of two different sites. With an infratentorial balloon, cerebral blood flow bore no clear relation to intracranial pressure, but was linearly related to cerebral perfusion pressure. Apart from an initial change in some animals, cerebrovascular resistance remained constant with increasing intracranial pressure, and autoregulation appeared to be lost from the outset. With a supratentorial balloon, cerebral blood flow remained constant as intracranial pressure was increased to levels around 60 mm Hg, corresponding to a cerebral perfusion pressure range of approximately 100 to 40 mmHg. Cerebrovascular resistance fell progressively, and autoregulation appeared to be effective during this phase. At higher intracranial pressure levels (lower cerebral perfusion pressure levels), autoregulation was lost and cerebral blood flow became directly dependent on cerebral perfusion pressure. The importance of the cause of the increase in intracranial pressure on the response of the cerebral circulation and the relevance of these findings to the clinical situation are discussed. PMID:4196632

  14. Effects of aortic irregularities on blood flow.

    PubMed

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Anatomic aortic anomalies are seen in many medical conditions and are known to cause disturbances in blood flow. Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder occurring only in females where cardiovascular anomalies, particularly of the aorta, are frequently encountered. In this study, numerical simulations are applied to investigate the flow characteristics in four TS patient- related aortic arches (a normal geometry, dilatation, coarctation and elongation of the transverse aorta). The Quemada viscosity model was applied to account for the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. The blood is treated as a mixture consisting of water and red blood cells (RBC) where the RBCs are modeled as a convected scalar. The results show clear geometry effects where the flow structures and RBC distribution are significantly different between the aortas. Transitional flow is observed as a jet is formed due to a constriction in the descending aorta for the coarctation case. RBC dilution is found to vary between the aortas, influencing the WSS. Moreover, the local variations in RBC volume fraction may induce large viscosity variations, stressing the importance of accounting for the non-Newtonian effects.

  15. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  16. Acetabular blood flow during total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    ElMaraghy, Amr W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effect of reaming and insertion of the acetabular component with and without cement on periacetabular blood flow during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design A clinical experimental study. Setting A tertiary referral and teaching hospital in Toronto. Patients Sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 30 to 78 years and suffering from arthritis. Intervention Elective primary THA with a cemented (8 patients) and noncemented (8 patients) acetabular component. All procedures were done by a single surgeon who used a posterior approach. Main outcome measure Acetabular bone blood-flow measurements made with a laser Doppler flowmeter before reaming, after reaming and after insertion of the acetabular prosthesis. Results Acetabular blood flow after prosthesis insertion was decreased by 52% in the noncemented group (p < 0.001) and 59% in the cemented group (p < 0.001) compared with baseline (prereaming) values. Conclusion The significance of these changes in periacetabular bone blood flow during THA may relate to the extent of bony ingrowth, periprosthetic remodelling and ultimately the incidence of implant failure because of aseptic loosening. PMID:10851413

  17. Blood flow dynamics in the snake spectacle.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Kevin; Sivak, Jacob G

    2013-11-15

    The eyes of snakes are shielded beneath a layer of transparent integument referred to as the 'reptilian spectacle'. Well adapted to vision by virtue of its optical transparency, it nevertheless retains one characteristic of the integument that would otherwise prove detrimental to vision: its vascularity. Given the potential consequence of spectacle blood vessels on visual clarity, one might expect adaptations to have evolved that mitigate their negative impact. Earlier research demonstrated an adaptation to their spatial layout in only one species to reduce the vessels' density in the region serving the foveal and binocular visual fields. Here, we present a study of spectacle blood flow dynamics and provide evidence of a mechanism to mitigate the spectacle blood vessels' deleterious effect on vision by regulation of blood flow through them. It was found that when snakes are at rest and undisturbed, spectacle vessels undergo cycles of dilation and constriction, such that the majority of the time the vessels are fully constricted, effectively removing them from the visual field. When snakes are presented with a visual threat, spectacle vessels constrict and remain constricted for longer periods than occur during the resting cycles, thus guaranteeing the best possible visual capabilities in times of need. Finally, during the snakes' renewal phase when they are generating a new stratum corneum, the resting cycle is abolished, spectacle vessels remain dilated and blood flow remains strong and continuous. The significance of these findings in terms of the visual capabilities and physiology of snakes is discussed.

  18. A spectral boundary integral method for flowing blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Olson, Luke N.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2010-05-01

    A spectral boundary integral method for simulating large numbers of blood cells flowing in complex geometries is developed and demonstrated. The blood cells are modeled as finite-deformation elastic membranes containing a higher viscosity fluid than the surrounding plasma, but the solver itself is independent of the particular constitutive model employed for the cell membranes. The surface integrals developed for solving the viscous flow, and thereby the motion of the massless membrane, are evaluated using an O(NlogN) particle-mesh Ewald (PME) approach. The cell shapes, which can become highly distorted under physiologic conditions, are discretized with spherical harmonics. The resolution of these global basis functions is, of course, excellent, but more importantly they facilitate an approximate de-aliasing procedure that stabilizes the simulations without adding any numerical dissipation or further restricting the permissible numerical time step. Complex geometry no-slip boundaries are included using a constraint method that is coupled into an implicit system that is solved as part of the time advancement routine. The implementation is verified against solutions for axisymmetric flows reported in the literature, and its accuracy is demonstrated by comparison against exact solutions for relaxing surface deformations. It is also used to simulate flow of blood cells at 30% volume fraction in tubes between 4.9 and 16.9 μm in diameter. For these, it is shown to reproduce the well-known non-monotonic dependence of the effective viscosity on the tube diameter.

  19. Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.

  20. Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. H.; Rowan, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Intracranial pressure was raised by expansion of a supratentorial subdural ballon in anaesthetized baboons. Pressures were measured at several sites, both supratentorial and infratentorial, and cerebral blood flow was measured in each cerebral hemisphere separately. Pressures recorded from the right and left lateral ventricles corresponded closely throughout. Highly significant correlations were also obtained between the pressures in the right and left subdural spaces and the mean intraventricular pressure. There was, thus, no evidence of intracompartmental pressure gradients within the supratentorial space. Pressure gradients did, however, develop between the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments in the majority of experiments, although the level of supratentorial pressure at which this occurred, varied. Despite the presence of a large mass lesion over the right cerebral hemisphere, no significant differences developed between levels of cerebral blood flow in the two hemispheres, although flow in the right hemisphere remained consistently slightly lower than that in the left after the ballon was inserted. PMID:4836754

  1. Changes in chorioretinal blood flow velocity and cerebral blood flow after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Enaida, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shinji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Nakao, Shintaro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the changes in chorioretinal blood flow velocity and cerebral blood after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nine patients with moderate to severe internal carotid artery stenosis underwent CEA. Chorioretinal blood flow velocity was measured by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), while cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), on the affected side both before and after CEA. LSFG was evaluated in five areas to determine mean blur rate, while CBF was calculated from regional CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) region of each patient. Five cases showed an increase (mean 3.49 %, range -29.82 to 35.59 %) of average chorioretinal blood flow velocity using LSFG after CEA. A particularly averaged increase in chorioretinal blood flow was observed in the macular area compared with other areas. Similarly, there was an increase in CBF at rest (mean 11.46 %, range -14.51 to 74.14 %) observed using SPECT after surgery. Improvement of CVR was confirmed in four cases. All general and visual symptoms disappeared after CEA. Severe adverse effects, including hyperperfusion syndrome, were not observed in any cases. LSFG may be useful for the analysis of chorioretinal blood flow changes after CEA.

  2. Measuring sickle cell morphology during blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kviatkovsky, Inna; Zeidan, Adel; Yeheskely-Hayon, Daniella; Shabad, Eveline L; Dann, Eldad J; Yelin, Dvir

    2017-03-01

    During a sickle cell crisis in sickle cell anemia patients, deoxygenated red blood cells may change their mechanical properties and block small blood vessels, causing pain, local tissue damage, and possibly organ failure. Measuring the structural and morphological changes in sickle cells is important for understanding the factors contributing to vessel blockage and for developing an effective treatment. In this work, we image blood cells from sickle cell anemia patients using spectrally encoded flow cytometry, and analyze the interference patterns between reflections from the cell membranes. Using a numerical simulation for calculating the interference pattern obtained from a model of a red blood cell, we propose an analytical expression for the three-dimensional shape of characteristic sickle cells and compare our results to a previously suggested model. Our imaging approach offers new means for analyzing the morphology of sickle cells, and could be useful for studying their unique physiological and biomechanical properties.

  3. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  4. Measurement of Liver Blood Flow: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Stansby, G. P.; Hobbs, K. E. F.; Hawkes, D. J.; Colchester, A. C. F.

    1991-01-01

    The study of hepatic haemodynamics is of importance in understanding both hepatic physiology and disease processes as well as assessing the effects of portosystemic shunting and liver transplantation. The liver has the most complicated circulation of any organ and many physiological and pathological processes can affect it1,2. This review surveys the methods available for assessing liver blood flow, examines the different parameters being measured and outlines problems of applicability and interpretation for each technique. The classification of these techniques is to some extent arbitrary and several so called “different” methods may share certain common principles. The methods reviewed have been classified into two groups (Table 1): those primarily reflecting flow through discrete vessels or to the whole organ and those used to assess local microcirculatory blood flow. All techniques have their advantages and disadvantages and in some situations a combination may provide the most information. In addition, because of the many factors affecting liver blood flow and sinusoidal perfusion, readings in a single subject may vary depending on positioning, recent food intake, anxiety, anaesthesia and drug therapy. This must be borne in mind if different studies are to be meaningfully compared. PMID:1931785

  5. OXIDATIVE STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO SEX DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADULT GROWTH RESTRICTED OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Norma B.; Hennington, Bettye Sue; Williamson, Danielle T.; Hill, Melanie L.; Betson, Nicole E.E.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.; Royals, Thomas P.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth-restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted relative to male control. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring, and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male, but not female growth-restricted offspring. PMID:22585945

  6. Blood Flow in the Stenotic Carotid Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy

    2005-11-01

    The carotid artery is prone to atherosclerotic disease and the growth of plaque in the vessel, leading often to severe occlusion or plaque rupture, resulting in emboli and thrombus, and, possibly, stroke. Modeling the flow in stenotic blood vessels can elucidate the influence of the flow on plaque growth and stability. Numerical simulations are carried out to model the complex flows in anatomically realistic, patient-specific geometries constructed from magnetic resonance images. The 3-D unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a finite-volume formulation, using an iterative pressure-correction algorithm. The flow field computed is highly three-dimensional, with high-speed jets and strong recirculating secondary flows. Sharp spatial and temporal variations of the velocities and shear stresses are observed. The results are in a good agreement with the available experimental and clinical data. The influence of non-Newtonian blood behavior and arterial wall compliance are considered. Transitional and turbulent regimes have been looked at using LES. This work supports the conjecture that numerical simulations can provide a diagnostic tool for assessing plaque stability.

  7. Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes.

  8. Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  9. Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  10. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  11. Blood flow dynamics in heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.

  12. Blood flow dynamics in heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.

  13. Gender Differences in Ocular Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

  14. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  15. Correlation of flow probe determinations of common carotid artery blood flow and internal carotid artery blood flow with microsphere determinations of cerebral blood flow in piglets.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Raju, T; John, E; Fornell, L; Shankararao, R

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether blood flow determined by a flow probe situated on one common carotid artery provided an accurate estimation of unilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) in piglets. In eight anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets, blood flow determined by an ultrasonic flow probe placed on the right common carotid artery was correlated with CBF determined by microspheres under two experimental conditions: 1) before ligation of the right external carotid artery with both the right external and internal carotid circulations intact [common carotid artery blood flow (CCABF) condition], and 2) after ligation of the right external carotid artery (ipsilateral to the flow probe) with all residual right-sided carotid artery blood flow directed through the right internal carotid artery [internal carotid artery blood flow (ICABF) condition]. The left carotid artery was not manipulated in any way in either protocol. Independent correlations of unilateral CCABF and ICABF with microsphere-determined unilateral CBF were highly significant over a 5-fold range of CBF induced by hypercarbia or hypoxia (r = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively; both p < 0.001). The slope of the correlation of unilateral CCABF versus unilateral CBF was 1.68 +/- 0.19 (SEM), suggesting that CCABF overestimated CBF by 68%. The slope of the correlation of unilateral ICABF versus unilateral CBF did not differ significantly from unity (1.06 +/- 0.15), and the y intercept did not differ significantly from zero [-1.3 +/- 5.2 (SEM) mL]. Consequently, unilateral ICABF determined by flow probe accurately reflected unilateral CBF determined by microspheres under these conditions. Flow probe assessments of CCABF and ICABF in piglets may provide information about dynamic aspects of vascular control in the cerebral circulation that has heretofore been unavailable.

  16. Microconfined flow behavior of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Lanotte, Luca; D'Apolito, Rosa; Cassinese, Antonio; Guido, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) perform essential functions in human body, such as gas exchange between blood and tissues, thanks to their ability to deform and flow in the microvascular network. The high RBC deformability is mainly due to the viscoelastic properties of the cell membrane. Since an impaired RBC deformability could be found in some diseases, such as malaria, sickle cell anemia, diabetes and hereditary disorders, there is the need to provide further insight into measurement of RBC deformability in a physiologically relevant flow field. Here, RBCs deformability has been studied in terms of the minimum apparent plasma-layer thickness by using high-speed video microscopy of RBCs flowing in cylindrical glass capillaries. An in vitro systematic microfluidic investigation of RBCs in micro-confined conditions has been performed, resulting in the determination of the RBCs time recovery constant, RBC volume and surface area and RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and surface viscosity. It has been noticed that the deformability of RBCs induces cells aggregation during flow in microcapillaries, allowing the formation of clusters of cells. Overall, our results provide a novel technique to estimate RBC deformability and also RBCs collective behavior, which can be used for the analysis of pathological RBCs, for which reliable quantitative methods are still lacking.

  17. Unsteady Flow in Stenotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Devi Williamson, Shobha; Berger, Stanley A.; Saloner, David

    2003-11-01

    Recent studies show that many heart attacks and strokes occur from sudden rupture of partially occluding atherosclerotic plaque rather than total vessel occlusion. Our goal is to understand how the mechanical forces induced by blood flow on specific plaque deposits makes them vulnerable to rupture. Models of severely stenotic carotid bifurcations are created from MR images and grids generated for the flow domains. The three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in finite-volume form are solved numerically using physiological boundary conditions. During systole a high velocity jet forms at the stenotic throat in one of the branches, and a long recirculation zone is observed downstream of the plaque. During diastole the flow is more stagnant. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady with chaotic streamlines. Whereas flow in healthy arteries is laminar, irregular geometries and sharp changes in vessel diameter of a severely stenotic artery significantly disrupt the flow, with consequences for shear and normal wall stresses at the wall, and important implications for plaque stability. Supported by NIH Grant HL61823

  18. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  19. Lagrangian Coherent Structures in Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadden, Shawn

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of fluid transport is particularly compelling in understanding the function of cardiovascular processes. Transport of chemicals, cells, and compounds in the vascular system is influenced by local flow structures in large vessels. Local flow features can also induce cell-signaling pathways and biologic response critical to maintaining health or disease progression. Complex vessel geometry, the pulsatile pumping of blood, and low Reynolds number turbulence leads to complex flow features in large vessels. However, we are gaining the ability to study transport in large vessels with unprecedented detail, which is in part allowing us to broaden the ``shear-centric'' view of hemodynamics. In this talk we will describe the application of computational fluid mechanics and the computation of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study transport in various cardiovascular applications. We will discuss some of the challenges of this work and some results of computing LCS in several regions of the vascular system. In collaboration with Charles Taylor, Stanford University.

  20. Spatial fluctuation of regional myocardial blood flows.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Ebata, J; Tsujioka, K; Ogasawara, Y; Kajiya, F

    1997-12-01

    Digital radiography (100 pixels/mm2) combined with the technique of 3H-labeled desmethylimipramine deposition was employed to visualize regional blood flow distributions in rabbit left ventricular myocardium. A fluctuated pattern of myocardial flow and its dependence on arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was evaluated with the coefficient of variation (CV) computed at each step of coarse-graining; flow images were revisualized by increasing pixel area (PA) step by step from 0.01 to 1 mm2. The CV values decreased with hypoxia at all resolution levels, suggesting that there is a vascular regulatory mechanism for making myocardial perfusion uniform in response to decreased PaO2. In both perfusion states, CV decreased with increasing PA. The relationship between CV and PA fitted the noninteger power law function, implying an apparent fractality of CV.

  1. Foetal placental blood flow in the lamb

    PubMed Central

    Faber, J. Job; Green, Thomas J.

    1972-01-01

    1. Fifteen sheep foetuses of 1·5-5·2 kg body weight were prepared with indwelling arterial and venous catheters for experimentation one to six days later. 2. Unanaesthetized foetuses were found to have mean arterial and central venous blood pressures of 40 ± 1·5 (S.E. of mean) and 2·0 ± 0·3 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively, compared to intra-uterine pressure. Intra-uterine pressure was 16 ± 0·8 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg with respect to atmospheric pressure at mid-uterine level. 3. Mean placental blood flow of the foetuses was 199 ± 20 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg body wt.). Mean cardiac output in eleven of the foetuses was 658 ± 102 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg). 4. Mean foetal and maternal colloid osmotic pressures were 17·5 ± 0·7 (S.E. of mean) and 20·5 ± 0·6 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively at 38° C. 5. Intravenous infusions into six ewes of 1·8 mole of mannitol and 0·4 mole of NaCl resulted in significant increases in foetal plasma osmolarity, sodium, potassium, and haemoglobin concentrations, without detectable transfer of mannitol to the foetal circulation. 6. In the sheep placenta there is osmotic and hydrostatic equilibration of water. As a consequence, there should be an interaction between foetal placental blood flow and foetal water exchange with the maternal circulation. It was concluded that this interaction tends to stabilize foetal placental blood flow. PMID:5039279

  2. Modified Numerical Simulation Model of Blood Flow in Bend

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X; Zhou, X; Hao, X; Sang, X

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect. PMID:27398727

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical.

  4. Regulation of coronary blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncker, Dirk J; Bache, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    Exercise is the most important physiological stimulus for increased myocardial oxygen demand. The requirement of exercising muscle for increased blood flow necessitates an increase in cardiac output that results in increases in the three main determinants of myocardial oxygen demand: heart rate, myocardial contractility, and ventricular work. The approximately sixfold increase in oxygen demands of the left ventricle during heavy exercise is met principally by augmenting coronary blood flow (~5-fold), as hemoglobin concentration and oxygen extraction (which is already 70-80% at rest) increase only modestly in most species. In contrast, in the right ventricle, oxygen extraction is lower at rest and increases substantially during exercise, similar to skeletal muscle, suggesting fundamental differences in blood flow regulation between these two cardiac chambers. The increase in heart rate also increases the relative time spent in systole, thereby increasing the net extravascular compressive forces acting on the microvasculature within the wall of the left ventricle, in particular in its subendocardial layers. Hence, appropriate adjustment of coronary vascular resistance is critical for the cardiac response to exercise. Coronary resistance vessel tone results from the culmination of myriad vasodilator and vasoconstrictors influences, including neurohormones and endothelial and myocardial factors. Unraveling of the integrative mechanisms controlling coronary vasodilation in response to exercise has been difficult, in part due to the redundancies in coronary vasomotor control and differences between animal species. Exercise training is associated with adaptations in the coronary microvasculature including increased arteriolar densities and/or diameters, which provide a morphometric basis for the observed increase in peak coronary blood flow rates in exercise-trained animals. In larger animals trained by treadmill exercise, the formation of new capillaries maintains

  5. [THE STATE OF HEPATIC AND SPLANCHNIC BLOOD FLOW IN VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPLICATED PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Goncharova, N M; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yavorska, T P

    2015-05-01

    Investigations were conducted in 37 patients, suffering complicated pancreatic pseudocysts. In accordance to data of ultrasound Doppler flowmetry for the blood flow along portal vein, a. hepatis communis, a. mesenterica superior in complicated pancreatic pseudocysts compensatory--adaptive reactions on level of hepatic--spanchnic blood flow are directed towards restriction of the blood inflow through the portal vein system. This is accompanied by the common peripheral vascular resistence raising in basin of a. mesenterica superior, which have depended upon the patients' state severity, caused by reduction of the volume blood flow in a certan vascular collector. The oxygen debt of the liver in these patients is compensated by the volume blood flow enhancement along a. hepatis communis.

  6. Restricted Flows of the KdV Hierarchy and r-MATRIX Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, P. P.; Rauch-Wojciechowski, S.; Tsiganov, A. V.

    We derive here the r-matrix formalism for the restricted flows of the Korteveg-de Vries and coupled KdV soliton hierarchies from their Lax representations. Variables of separation for the first restricted flows are found and the problem of quantization is discussed.

  7. Integrative regulation of human brain blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Christopher K; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Fisher, Joseph A; Ainslie, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we review mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF), with specific focus on humans. We revisit important concepts from the older literature and describe the interaction of various mechanisms of cerebrovascular control. We amalgamate this broad scope of information into a brief review, rather than detailing any one mechanism or area of research. The relationship between regulatory mechanisms is emphasized, but the following three broad categories of control are explicated: (1) the effect of blood gases and neuronal metabolism on CBF; (2) buffering of CBF with changes in blood pressure, termed cerebral autoregulation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system in CBF regulation. With respect to these control mechanisms, we provide evidence against several canonized paradigms of CBF control. Specifically, we corroborate the following four key theses: (1) that cerebral autoregulation does not maintain constant perfusion through a mean arterial pressure range of 60–150 mmHg; (2) that there is important stimulatory synergism and regulatory interdependence of arterial blood gases and blood pressure on CBF regulation; (3) that cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular sensitivity to changes in arterial blood gases are not modulated solely at the pial arterioles; and (4) that neurogenic control of the cerebral vasculature is an important player in autoregulatory function and, crucially, acts to buffer surges in perfusion pressure. Finally, we summarize the state of our knowledge with respect to these areas, outline important gaps in the literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24396059

  8. The Role of Blood Flow and Blood Flow Modifiers in Clinical Hyperthermia Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olch, Arthur Jacob

    A quantitative assessment of the effect of localized magnetic-loop hyperthermia on blood flow was performed on 12 patients (19 tumor studies) using the Xenon-133 clearance method. After it was discovered that blood flow in most of the tumors increased in response to needle injection, a physiologically based, one compartment model was developed that included both a hyperemic (transient) and a steady state component. In the tumors of six patients, increases in blood flow induced by heat were also observed. The same model was used to describe the measured clearance data for both types of hyperemic response. The ability of tumor vessels to respond dynamically to stress and the degree of response may be predictive of tumor heating efficiency and subsequent therapeutic response. Many tumors treated by hyperthermia, therefore, do not reach therapeutic temperatures (42(DEGREES)C). One explanation for this may be that some tumors react to thermal stress in a manner similar to normal tissues; i.e., they increase blood flow during hyperthermia in order to dissipate heat. Higher temperatures might be achieved in these heat-resistant tumors by administering vasoconstrictive agents in an effort to reduce blood flow. In the second part of this research study, the extent to which pharmacologic inhibition of local blood flow might allow higher temperatures to develop in normal muscles exposed to localized radiofrequency hyperthermia was determined. It was found that the local muscle temperature rise could be increased by at least 90% in dogs and rabbits with the use of a local vasoconstrictive drug.

  9. Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1975-01-01

    In the present experiment, exercise was used to vary internal temperature and ambient air heat control was used to vary skin temperature. Finger temperature was fixed at about 35.7 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at different skin sites. Finger blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. An equation in these quantities is given which accounts for the data garnered.

  10. Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1975-01-01

    In the present experiment, exercise was used to vary internal temperature and ambient air heat control was used to vary skin temperature. Finger temperature was fixed at about 35.7 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at different skin sites. Finger blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. An equation in these quantities is given which accounts for the data garnered.

  11. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  12. Disturbed flow promotes deposition of leucocytes from flowing whole blood in a model of a damaged vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Skilbeck, Christopher A; Walker, Peter G; David, Tim; Nash, Gerard B

    2004-08-01

    Departure from simple laminar flow in arteries may promote the local attachment of leucocytes either to intact endothelium or platelet thrombi. We perfused blood through a chamber with a backward facing step, to observe whether adhesion from whole blood to P-selectin was indeed localized to a region of recirculating flow, and whether platelets binding to collagen in such a region could capture leucocytes. Blood flowing over the step established a stable vortex, a reattachment point where forward and backward flow separated, and a simple laminar flow with wall shear rate c. 400/s further downstream. Fluorescently labelled leucocytes were observed to attach to P-selectin immediately upstream or downstream of the reattachment point, and to roll back towards the step or away from it, respectively. There was negligible adhesion further downstream. When a P-selectin-Fc chimaera was used to coat the chamber, stable attachment occurred, again preferentially in the disturbed flow region. Numerous platelets adhered to a collagen coating throughout the chamber, although there were local maxima either side of the reattachment point. The adherent platelets captured flowing leucocytes in these regions alone. Leucocytes may adhere from flowing blood in vessels with high shear rate if the flow is disturbed. While platelets can adhere over a wider range of shear rates, their ability to capture leucocytes may be restricted to regions of disturbed flow. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  13. Cerebral blood flow in humans following resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Cohan, S.L.; Mun, S.K.; Petite, J.; Correia, J.; Tavelra Da Silva, A.T.; Waldhorn, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and may indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage.

  14. Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, F.M.; Mayhan, W.G.; Williams, J.K.; Heistad, D.D. )

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-{mu}m microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-{mu}m microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 {plus minus} 26 (means {plus minus} SE) ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in dogs and 385 {plus minus} 73 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by {approx} 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum.

  15. Influence of aortic blood flow velocity on changes of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Holzer, A; Greher, M; Hetz, H; Standhardt, H; Donner, A; Heinzl, H; Zimpfer, M; Illievich, U M

    2001-04-01

    We studied the influence of systemic (aortic) blood flow velocity on changes of cerebral blood flow velocity under isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia. Forty patients (age: isoflurane 24-62 years; sevoflurane 24-61 years; ASA I-III) requiring general anaesthesia undergoing routine spinal surgery were randomly assigned to either group. Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery by transcranial Doppler sonography (depth: 50-60 mm). Systemic blood flow velocity was determined by transthoracic Doppler sonography at the aortic valve. Heart rate, arterial pressure, arterial oxygen saturation and body temperature were monitored. After standardized anaesthesia induction (propofol, remifentanil, vecuronium) sevoflurane or isoflurane were used as single agent anaesthetics. Cerebral blood flow velocity and systemic blood flow velocity were measured in the awake patient (baseline) and repeated 5 min after reaching a steady state of inspiratory and end-expiratory concentrations of 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 mean alveolar concentrations of either anaesthetic. To calculate the influence of systemic blood flow velocity on cerebral blood flow velocity, we defined the cerebral-systemic blood flow velocity index (CSvI). CSvI of 100% indicates a 1:1 relationship of changes of cerebral blood flow velocity and systemic blood flow velocity. Isoflurane and sevoflurane reduced both cerebral blood flow velocity and systemic blood flow velocity. The CSvI decreased significantly at all three concentrations vs. 100% (isoflurane/sevoflurane: 0.75 MAC: 85 +/- 25%/81 +/- 23%, 1.0 MAC: 79 +/- 19%/74 +/- 16%, 1.25 MAC: 71 +/- 16%/79 +/- 21%; [mean +/- SD] P = 0.0001). The reduction of the CSvI vs. 100% indicates a direct reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity caused by isoflurane/sevoflurane, independently of systemic blood flow velocity.

  16. Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. H.; Rowan, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Pressure changes within the venous outflow tract from the brain were studied in anaesthetized baboons. Segmental vascular resistance changes were also calculated and the results correlated with the changes in cerebral blood flow, measured by the 133Xenon clearance method. Three different methods were used to raise intracranial pressure: cisterna magna infusion, a supratentorial subdural balloon, and an infratentorial subdural balloon. A close correlation was found between the cortical vein pressure and intracranial pressure with all methods of raising intracranial pressure: the overall correlation coefficient was 0·98. In the majority of animals sagittal sinus pressure showed little change through a wide range of intracranial pressure. In three of the six animals in the cisterna magna infusion group, however, sagittal sinus pressure increased to levels approaching the intracranial pressure during the later stages of intracranial hypertension. Jugular venous pressure showed little change with increasing intracranial pressure. The relationship between cerebral prefusion pressure and cerebral blood flow differed according to the method of increasing intracranial pressure. This was due to differing patterns of change in prevenous vascular resistance as venous resistance increased progressively with increasing pressure in all three groups. The present results confirm, therefore, the validity of the current definition of cerebral perfusion pressure—that is, cerebral perfusion pressure is equal to mean arterial pressure minus mean intracranial pressure—by demonstrating that intracranial pressure does represent the effective cerebral venous outflow pressure. Images PMID:4209160

  17. Cerebral blood flow tomography with xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Lassen, N.A.

    1985-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured tomographically by inhalation of Xenon-/sup 133/. The calculation is based on taking a sequence of tomograms during the wash-in and wash-out phase of the tracer. Due to the dynamic nature of the process, a highly sensitive and fast moving single photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) is required. Two brain-dedicated SPECT systems designed for this purpose are mentioned, and the method is described with special reference to the limitations inherent in the soft energy of the 133Xe primary photons. CBF tomography can be used for a multitude of clinical and investigative purposes. This article discusses in particular its use for the selection of patients with carotid occlusion for extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery, for detection of severe arterial spasm after aneurysm bleeding, and for detection of low flow areas during severe migraine attacks. The use of other tracers for CBF tomography using SPECT is summarized with emphasis on the /sup 99m/Tc chelates that freely pass the intact blood-brain barrier. The highly sensitive brain-dedicated SPECT systems described are a prerequisite for achieving high resolution tomograms with such tracers.

  18. Blood-Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingxia; Cheng, Haiying; Shen, Qiang; Kim, Moon; Thule, Peter M; Olson, Darin E; Pardue, Machelle T; Duong, Timothy Q

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate quantitative basal blood flow, hypercapnia- and hyperoxia-induced blood-flow changes in the retinas of the Royal-College-of-Surgeons (RCS) rats with spontaneous retinal degeneration and to compare with those of normal rat retinas. Methods Experiments were performed on male RCS rats at post-natal day P90 (n=4), P220 (n=5) and age-matched controls at P90 (n=7) and P220 (n=6). Hyperoxic (100% O2) and hypercapnic (5% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2) challenges were used to modulate blood flow. Quantitative baseline blood flow, hypercapnia- and hyperoxia-induced blood-flow changes in the retinas were imaged using continuous arterial-spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging at 90×90×1500 μm. Results In the normal rat retinas, basal blood flow was 5.5ml/gram/min, significantly higher than those reported in the brain (∼1ml/gram/min). Hyperoxia decreased blood flow due to vasoconstriction and hypercapnia increased blood flow due to vasodilation in the normal retinas. In the RCS rat retinas, basal blood flow was diminished significantly (P<0.05). Interestingly, absolute hyperoxia- and hypercapnia-induced blood-flow changes in the RCS retinas were not statistically different from those in the normal retinas (P>0.05). However, percent changes in blood-flow were significantly larger than in normal retinas due to lower basal blood flow. Conclusion Retinal degeneration markedly reduces basal blood-flow but does not appear to impair vascular reactivity. These data also suggest caution when interpreting the relative stimulus-evoked functional MRI changes in diseased states where basal parameters are significantly perturbed. Quantitative blood-flow MRI may serve as a valuable tool to study the retina without depth limitation. PMID:18952917

  19. Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Kab; Cho, Byung Joo; Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Chan Yun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the normal reference range of pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) values in healthy Korean subjects and to find out the factors that may affect them. Methods A total of 280 eyes of 280 normal subjects were included in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, POBF, systemic blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured. The mean, standard deviation, range, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of POBF were calculated, and the influences of various parameters to POBF were determined by multiple regression analyses. Results The mean POBF value was 766.0±221.6 µl/min in men and 1021.1±249.5 µl/min in women. The 5th and 95th percentiles for POBF values were 486.0 µl/min and 1140.0 µl/min in men and 672.0 µl/min and 1458.0 µl/min in women. The POBF values were significantly influenced by gender, mean blood pressure, pulse rate, and axial length. Conclusions Even though the POBF values were influenced by gender, BP, and axial length, we could define the normal reference range of POBF in healthy Koreans. PMID:18323699

  20. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Busch, David R.; Mesquita, Rickson C.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Yodh, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We develop and validate a Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements. The new formulation enables blood flow monitoring from temporal intensity autocorrelation function data taken at single or multiple delay-times. Consequentially, the speed of the optical blood flow measurement can be substantially increased. The scheme facilitates blood flow monitoring of highly scattering tissues in geometries wherein light propagation is diffusive or non-diffusive, and it is particularly well-suited for utilization with pressure measurement paradigms that employ differential flow signals to reduce contributions of superficial tissues. PMID:25426330

  1. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow.

    PubMed

    Baker, Wesley B; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B; Busch, David R; Mesquita, Rickson C; Greenberg, Joel H; Yodh, A G

    2014-11-01

    We develop and validate a Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements. The new formulation enables blood flow monitoring from temporal intensity autocorrelation function data taken at single or multiple delay-times. Consequentially, the speed of the optical blood flow measurement can be substantially increased. The scheme facilitates blood flow monitoring of highly scattering tissues in geometries wherein light propagation is diffusive or non-diffusive, and it is particularly well-suited for utilization with pressure measurement paradigms that employ differential flow signals to reduce contributions of superficial tissues.

  2. Blood-flow magnetic resonance imaging of the retina.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingxia; Cheng, Haiying; Duong, Timothy Q

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a novel MRI application to image basal blood flow, physiologically induced blood-flow changes, and the effects of isoflurane concentration on blood flow in the retina. Continuous arterial-spin-labeling technique with a separate neck coil for spin labeling was used to image blood flow of the rat retina at 90 x 90 x 1500-microm resolution. The average blood flow of the whole retina was 6.3+/-1.0 ml/g/min under 1% isoflurane, consistent with the high blood flow in the retina reported using other techniques. Blood flow is relatively constant along the length of the retina, except it dipped slightly around the optic nerve head and dropped significantly at the distal edges where the retina terminates. Hyperoxia (100% O(2)) decreased blood flow 25+/-6% relative to baseline (air) due to vasoconstriction. Hypercapnia (5% CO(2)+21% O(2)) increased blood flow 16+/-6% due to vasodilation. Increasing isoflurane (a potent vasodilator) concentration to 1.5% increased blood flow to 9.3+/-2.7 ml/g/min. Blood-flow signals were confirmed to be genuine by repeating measurements after the animals were sacrificed in the MRI scanner. This study demonstrates a proof of concept that quantitative blood flow of the retina can be measured using MRI without depth limitation. Blood-flow MRI has the potential to provide unique insights into retinal physiology, serve as an early biomarker for some retinal diseases, and could complement optically based imaging techniques.

  3. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.

  4. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery.

  5. Tachykinin regulation of basal synovial blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Lockhart, J C; Karimian, S M

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of endogenously released tachykinins in the regulation of blood flow to the rat knee joint. Synovial perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging, which permitted spatial measurement of relative changes in perfusion from control (pre drug administration), expressed as the percentage change. Most experiments were performed on the exposed medial aspect of the knee joint capsule.Neither the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, FK888, nor the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR48968, significantly influenced synovial blood flow at doses of 10−12, 10−10 and 10−8 mol. However, topical co-administration of these agents produced significant dose-dependent reductions in basal synovial perfusion of 6.3±4.6, 12.0±3.4 and 19.9±2.6%, respectively; n=29. The non-selective tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonist, FK224, also produced significant (at 10−10 and 10−8 mol), but less potent, reductions in perfusion of 5.3±4.0, 8.4±2.2 and 5.9±2.8%, respectively; n=25.Topical administration of the α1-, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine elicited a 31.3±6.2% increase in blood flow which was substantially reduced to 10.4±3.8% by co-administration of the FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol; n=8–13), suggesting that normally there is sympathetic vasoconstrictor ‘tone' which is opposed by the vasodilator action of endogenous tachykinins.One week after surgical interruption of the nerve supply to the knee joint, co-administration of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol) now produced slight vasodilatation (6.7±4.6%; n=9) which did not differ significantly from vehicle treatment. Depletion of tachykinins from sensory nerve fibres by systemic capsaicin administration also resulted in abolition of the vasoconstrictor effect of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol), with these agents only producing a slight vasodilatation (2.5±5.3%; n=6).By use of a near infra

  6. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2017-01-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol + ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol + ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux•mmHg-1) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 v 1.1±0.19 CVC: p<0.001). During the dose-response, SkBF increased with increasing doses of menthol (main effect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol

  7. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  8. Quantitative Estimation of Tissue Blood Flow Rate.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Gillian M; Prise, Vivien E; Cunningham, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    The rate of blood flow through a tissue (F) is a critical parameter for assessing the functional efficiency of a blood vessel network following angiogenesis. This chapter aims to provide the principles behind the estimation of F, how F relates to other commonly used measures of tissue perfusion, and a practical approach for estimating F in laboratory animals, using small readily diffusible and metabolically inert radio-tracers. The methods described require relatively nonspecialized equipment. However, the analytical descriptions apply equally to complementary techniques involving more sophisticated noninvasive imaging.Two techniques are described for the quantitative estimation of F based on measuring the rate of tissue uptake following intravenous administration of radioactive iodo-antipyrine (or other suitable tracer). The Tissue Equilibration Technique is the classical approach and the Indicator Fractionation Technique, which is simpler to perform, is a practical alternative in many cases. The experimental procedures and analytical methods for both techniques are given, as well as guidelines for choosing the most appropriate method.

  9. Transborder Flow of Computerized Information: Controls and Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Erwin

    Of major concern to United States position and policy in the telecommunications and information areas is "transborder data flow," the transferring of computer stored data between nations. Many European nations, including France, Austria, and West Germany, have enacted laws regulating the flow of information leaving the country where it…

  10. Mapping blood flow directionality in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hong; Do, Won-Joon; Choi, Seung Hong; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2016-07-01

    Diffusion properties of tissue are often expressed on the basis of directional variance, i.e., diffusion tensor imaging. In comparison, common perfusion-weighted imaging such as arterial spin labeling yields perfusion in a scalar quantity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of mapping cerebral blood flow directionality using alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), a recently-developed arterial spin labeling technique with sensitivity to blood flow directions. ALADDIN was applied along 3 orthogonal directions to assess directional blood flow in a vector form and also along 6 equally-spaced directions to extract blood flow tensor matrix (P) based on a blood flow ellipsoid model. Tensor elements (eigenvalues, eigenvectors, etc) were calculated to investigate characteristics of the blood flow tensor, in comparison with time-of-flight MR angiogram. While the directions of the main eigenvectors were heterogeneous throughout the brain, regional clusters of blood flow directionality were reproducible across subjects. The technique could show heterogeneous blood flow directionality within and around brain tumor, which was different from that of the contralateral normal side. The proposed method is deemed to provide information of blood flow directionality, which has not been demonstrated before. The results warrant further studies to assess changes in the directionality map as a function of scan parameters, to understand the signal sources, to investigate the possibility of mapping local blood perfusion directionality, and to evaluate its usefulness for clinical diagnosis.

  11. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Pelligrino, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only increases to a minor degree—the so-called uncoupling of CBF and oxidative metabolism. Several studies have dealt with these issues, and theories have been forwarded regarding the underlying mechanisms. Some reports have speculated about the existence of a potentially deficient oxygen supply to the tissue most distant from the capillaries, whereas other studies point to a shift toward a higher degree of non-oxidative glucose consumption during activation. In this review, we argue that the key mechanism responsible for the regional CBF (rCBF) increase during functional activation is a tight coupling between rCBF and glucose metabolism. We assert that uncoupling of rCBF and oxidative metabolism is a consequence of a less pronounced increase in oxygen consumption. On the basis of earlier studies, we take into consideration the functional recruitment of capillaries and attempt to accommodate the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation. PMID:19738630

  12. Nonlinear interactions in renal blood flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Donald J; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Chon, Ki H; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a model of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the myogenic mechanism in afferent arterioles to understand how the two mechanisms are coupled. This paper presents the model. The tubular model predicts pressure, flow, and NaCl concentration as functions of time and tubular length in a compliant tubule that reabsorbs NaCl and water; boundary conditions are glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a nonlinear outflow resistance, and initial NaCl concentration. The glomerular model calculates GFR from a change in protein concentration using estimates of capillary hydrostatic pressure, tubular hydrostatic pressure, and plasma flow rate. The arteriolar model predicts fraction of open K channels, intracellular Ca concentration (Ca(i)), potential difference, rate of actin-myosin cross bridge formation, force of contraction, and length of elastic elements, and was solved for two arteriolar segments, identical except for the strength of TGF input, with a third, fixed resistance segment representing prearteriolar vessels. The two arteriolar segments are electrically coupled. The arteriolar, glomerular, and tubular models are linked; TGF modulates arteriolar circumference, which determines vascular resistance and glomerular capillary pressure. The model couples TGF input to voltage-gated Ca channels. It predicts autoregulation of GFR and renal blood flow, matches experimental measures of tubular pressure and macula densa NaCl concentration, and predicts TGF-induced oscillations and a faster smaller vasomotor oscillation. There are nonlinear interactions between TGF and the myogenic mechanism, which include the modulation of the frequency and amplitude of the myogenic oscillation by TGF. The prediction of modulation is confirmed in a companion study (28).

  13. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  14. Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina choroid in health disease

    PubMed Central

    Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

    2012-01-01

    We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation of mechanisms of blood flow regulation. The ability of the retinal vasculature to regulate its blood flow is contrasted with the far more restricted ability of the choroidal circulation to regulate its blood flow by virtue of the absence of glial cells, the markedly reduced pericyte ensheathment of the choroidal vasculature, and the lack of intermediate filaments in choroidal pericytes. We review the cellular and molecular components of the neurovascular unit in the retina and choroid, techniques for monitoring retinal and choroidal blood flow, responses of the retinal and choroidal circulation to light stimulation, the role of capillaries, astrocytes and pericytes in regulating blood flow, putative signaling mechanisms mediating neurovascular coupling in the retina, and changes that occur in the retinal and choroidal circulation during diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. We close by discussing issues that remain to be explored. PMID:22580107

  15. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kupchak, Brian R; Volk, Brittanie M; Kawiecki, Diana M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Seip, Richard L; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Statins positively impact plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inflammation and vascular endothelial function (VEF). Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) improve atherogenic dyslipidemia, and similar to statins, have been shown to favorably affect markers of inflammation and VEF. No studies have examined whether a CRD provides additional benefit beyond that achieved by habitual statin use. We hypothesized that a CRD (<50 g carbohydrate/d) for 6 weeks would improve lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity, reduce blood pressure, decrease cellular adhesion and inflammatory biomarkers, and augment VEF (flow-mediated dilation and forearm blood flow) in statin users. Participants (n = 21; 59.3 ± 9.3 y, 29.5 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)) decreased total caloric intake by approximately 415 kcal at 6 weeks (P < .001). Daily nutrient intakes at baseline (46/36/17% carb/fat/pro) and averaged across the intervention (11/58/28% carb/fat/pro) demonstrated dietary compliance, with carbohydrate intake at baseline nearly 5-fold greater than during the intervention (P < .001). Compared to baseline, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased after 3 and 6 weeks (P < .01). Peak forearm blood flow, but not flow-mediated dilation, increased at week 6 compared to baseline and week 3 (P ≤ .03). Serum triglyceride, insulin, soluble E-Selectin and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased (P < .01) from baseline at week 3, and this effect was maintained at week 6. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that individuals undergoing statin therapy experience additional improvements in metabolic and vascular health from a 6 weeks CRD as evidenced by increased insulin sensitivity and resistance vessel endothelial function, and decreased blood pressure, triglycerides, and adhesion molecules.

  16. Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Fluorescently Labeled Red Blood Cells1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Tess E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Blood flow is a useful indicator of the metabolic state of the retina. However, accurate measurement of retinal blood flow is difficult to achieve in practice. Most existing optical techniques used for measuring blood flow require complex assumptions and calculations. We describe here a simple and direct method for calculating absolute blood flow in vessels of all sizes in the rat retina. The method relies on ultrafast confocal line scans to track the passage of fluorescently labeled red blood cells (fRBCs). The accuracy of the blood flow measurements was verified by (1) comparing blood flow calculated independently using either flux or velocity combined with diameter measurements, (2) measuring total retinal blood flow in arterioles and venules, (3) measuring blood flow at vessel branch points, and (4) measuring changes in blood flow in response to hyperoxic and hypercapnic challenge. Confocal line scans oriented parallel and diagonal to vessels were used to compute fRBC velocity and to examine velocity profiles across the width of vessels. We demonstrate that these methods provide accurate measures of absolute blood flow and velocity in retinal vessels of all sizes. PMID:26082942

  17. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance: principles of blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Sheldon, P.; Norman, D.; Bank, W.; Newton, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with spin-echo techniques defines vascular structures with superb anatomic detail. Contrast agents are not necessary as there is intrinsic contrast between flowing blood and the vascular wall. The signal intensity from blood within the vessel lumen varies with the sequence of gradient and radiofrequency pulses used to generate the image as well as with the velocity of blood flow. Appropriate imaging techniques can optimize anatomic detail, distinguish slow from rapidly flowing blood, and serve to identify marked impairment or complete obstruction of flow in an artery or vein. Some examples of these principles in the intracranial circulation are illustrated.

  19. Laser Doppler anemometer signal processing for blood flow velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdova, M A; Fedosov, I V; Tuchin, V V

    2015-03-31

    A new method for analysing the signal in a laser Doppler anemometer based on the differential scheme is proposed, which provides the flow velocity measurement in strongly scattering liquids, particularly, blood. A laser Doppler anemometer intended for measuring the absolute blood flow velocity in animal and human near-surface arterioles and venules is developed. The laser Doppler anemometer signal structure is experimentally studied for measuring the flow velocity in optically inhomogeneous media, such as blood and suspensions of scattering particles. The results of measuring the whole and diluted blood flow velocity in channels with a rectangular cross section are presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Increase of blood flow in skin and spinal cord following activation of small diameter primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, M; Lewin, G; McMahon, S

    1990-02-12

    Activation of unmyelinated primary afferents produces vasodilatation and plasma extravasation in the skin. Here, using the laser Doppler technique to measure changes in blood flow and the Evans blue technique for quantification of plasma extravasation, we have asked whether the stimulation of C-fibre precipitates the same phenomena in the spinal cord. Our results show that there is an increase of blood flow, but no extravasation in the ipsilateral lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord following supramaximal electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The blood flow increases were small and short-lived compared with those seen in skin, and could be completely explained by concomitant blood pressure changes. Hence, whilst the same substances are apparently released from the peripheral and central terminals of primary afferent fibres, their ability to produce vasodilatation and extravasation is absent or severely restricted in the spinal cord.

  1. A Discussion on the Regulation of Blood Flow and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christopher B; Collier, David J; Shah, Mussadiq; Saxena, Manish; Brier, Timothy J; Kapil, Vikas; Green, David; Lobo, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two kinds of regulation essential to the circulatory system: namely the regulation of blood flow and that of (systemic) arterial blood pressure. It is pointed out that blood flow requirements sub-serve the nutritional needs of the tissues, adequately catered for by keeping blood flow sufficient for the individual oxygen needs. Individual tissue oxygen requirements vary between tissue types, while highly specific for a given individual tissue. Hence, blood flows are distributed between multiple tissues, each with a specific optimum relationship between the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Previous work has illustrated that the individual tissue blood flows are adjusted proportionately, where there are variations in metabolic rate and where arterial oxygen content (CaO2) varies. While arterial blood pressure is essential for the provision of a sufficient pressure gradient to drive blood flow, it is applicable throughout the arterial system at any one time. Furthermore, It is regulated independently of the input resistance to individual tissues (local arterioles), since they are regulated locally, that being the means by which the highly specific adequate local requirement for DO2 is ensured. Since total blood flow is the summation of all the individually regulated tissue blood flows cardiac inflow (venous return) amounts to total tissue blood flow and as the heart puts out what it receives cardiac output is therefore determined at the tissues. Hence, regulation of arterial blood pressure is independent of the distributed independent regulation of individual tissues. It is proposed here that mechanical features of arterial blood pressure regulation will depend rather on the balance between blood volume and venous wall tension, determinants of venous pressure. The potential for this explanation is treated in some detail.

  2. Multiscale modeling of blood flow: from single cells to blood rheology.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Mesoscale simulations of blood flow, where the red blood cells are described as deformable closed shells with a membrane characterized by bending rigidity and stretching elasticity, have made much progress in recent years to predict the flow behavior of blood cells and other components in various flows. To numerically investigate blood flow and blood-related processes in complex geometries, a highly efficient simulation technique for the plasma and solutes is essential. In this review, we focus on the behavior of single and several cells in shear and microcapillary flows, the shear-thinning behavior of blood and its relation to the blood cell structure and interactions, margination of white blood cells and platelets, and modeling hematologic diseases and disorders. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with existing experimental results are made whenever possible, and generally very satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  3. [Determination of transmitral blood flow by pulsed echodoppler. Correlation with aortic blood flow in 30 patients].

    PubMed

    Tribouilloy, C; Slama, M A; Choquet, D; Delonca, J; Mertl, C; Dufosse, H; Lesbre, J P

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of mitral valve blood flow measured by pulsed Doppler echocardiography (PDE) with the sample volume positioned at the tips of the mitral leaflets. Thirty patients with a mean age of 38.4 years underwent calculation of transmitral blood flow: by Touche's method (A) in which the mitral orifice is assumed to be an ellipse with a constant long axis equal to the diameter of the mitral annulus and a variable short axis equal to the distance between the mitral leaflets measured on the M mode recording. The velocities are recorded by PDE with the sample volume at the tips of the mitral leaflets. The instantaneous cardiac output is equal to the surface multiplied by the instantaneous velocity. The integration of the instantaneous outputs throughout the whole of diastole by a computer programme provides the stroke volume; by a simplification of this method (B) which considers the short axis of the mitral ellipse to be constant and equal to the mean mitral valve leaflet separation measured from the M mode recording, and; by Hoit's method (C) which calculates mitral valve surface area from the M mode recording alone. The transmitral blood flow was calculated by these three methods and compared to the classical PDE aortic cardiac output measurement during the same examination, the accuracy of which has been previously demonstrated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Is there a "magic" hemoglobin number? Clinical decision support promoting restrictive blood transfusion practices.

    PubMed

    Goodnough, Lawrence Tim; Shah, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as one of the most frequently performed therapeutic procedures, with a significant percentage of transfusions identified to be inappropriate. Recent key clinical trials in adults have provided Level 1 evidence to support restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. However, some advocates have attempted to identify a "correct" Hb threshold for RBC transfusion; whereas others assert that management of anemia, including transfusion decisions, must take into account clinical patient variables, rather than simply one diagnostic laboratory test. The heterogeneity of guidelines for blood transfusion by a number of medical societies reflects this controversy. Clinical decision support (CDS) uses a Hb threshold number in a smart Best Practices Alert (BPA) upon physician order, to trigger a concurrent utilization self-review for whether blood transfusion therapy is appropriate. This review summarizes Level 1 evidence in seven key clinical trials in adults that support restrictive transfusion practices, along strategies made possible by CDS that have demonstrated value in improving blood utilization by promoting restrictive transfusion practices.

  5. Relationship Between Blood Flow and Performance Recovery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Borne, Rachel; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, François

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of different limb blood-flow levels on cycling-performance recovery, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate. Thirty-three high-intensity intermittent-trained athletes completed two 30-s Wingate anaerobic test sessions, 3 × 30-s (WAnT 1-3) and 1 × 30-s (WAnT 4), on a cycling ergometer. WAnT 1-3 and WAnT 4 were separated by a randomly assigned 24-min recovery intervention selected from among blood-flow restriction, passive rest, placebo stimulation, or neuromuscular electrical-stimulation-induced blood flow. Calf arterial inflow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at regular intervals throughout the recovery period. Performance was measured in terms of peak and mean power output during WAnT 1 and WAnT 4. After the recovery interventions, a large (r = .68 [90% CL .42; .83]) and very large (r = .72 (90% CL .49; .86]) positive correlation were observed between the change in calf arterial inflow and the change in mean and peak power output, respectively. Calf arterial inflow was significantly higher during the neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation recovery intervention than with the blood-flow-restriction, passive-rest, and placebo-stimulation interventions (P < .001). This corresponds to the only intervention that allowed performance recovery (P > .05). No recovery effect was linked to heart rate or blood lactate concentration levels. For the first time, these data support the existence of a positive correlation between an increase in blood flow and performance recovery between bouts of high-intensity exercise. As a practical consideration, this effect can be obtained by using neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced blood flow since this passive, simple strategy could be easily applied during short-term recovery.

  6. Prediction of Anomalous Blood Viscosity in Confined Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiébaud, Marine; Shen, Zaiyi; Harting, Jens; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-06-01

    Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood model under a confined linear shear flow reveal that confinement markedly modifies the properties of blood flow. A nontrivial spatiotemporal organization of blood elements is shown to trigger hitherto unrevealed flow properties regarding the viscosity η, namely ample oscillations of its normalized value [η]=(η-η0)/(η0ϕ) as a function of hematocrit ϕ (η0=solvent viscosity). A scaling law for the viscosity as a function of hematocrit and confinement is proposed. This finding can contribute to the conception of new strategies to efficiently detect blood disorders, via in vitro diagnosis based on confined blood rheology. It also constitutes a contribution for a fundamental understanding of rheology of confined complex fluids.

  7. Cerebellar blood flow in methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease).

    PubMed

    Itoh, K; Korogi, Y; Tomiguchi, S; Takahashi, M; Okajima, T; Sato, H

    2001-04-01

    We looked at regional cerebellar blood flow in patients with Minamata disease (MD) using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc-ECD). We carried out single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 15 patients with MD (eight men, seven women, aged 51-78 years, mean 70.5 years) and 11 control subjects (eight men, three women, aged 62-80 years, mean 72.5 years). Regional blood flow was measured in the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cerebral lobes. The degree of cerebellar atrophy was assessed on MRI. There were significant differences in regional blood flow in all parts of the cerebellum between patients and control, but no significant decrease was observed in the cerebrum. Blood flow was lower in the inferior cerebellum than in the other parts. Even in patients without cerebellar atrophy, flow was significantly decreased regional blood flow in the inferior part.

  8. Endogenous norepinephrine regulates blood flow to the intact rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, J B A; Kulenovic, E; Beck, D J; Harris, P D; Passmore, J C; Malkani, A L; Fleming, J T

    2002-03-01

    The goal of our study was to determine if endogenous norepinephrine (NE) has a role in the regulation of basal blood flow to intact bone. The experimental plan was to measure bone blood flow before and after pharmacological blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors. A significant increase in blood flow after receptor blockade would suggest that endogenous norepinephrine exerts a tonic constrictor effect on the vessels supplying blood to the bone. Mature, male rats were anesthetized with Inactin. Arterial blood pressure and left tibia blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry) were measured. A cannula was inserted into the right iliac artery and advanced to the aortic bifurcation to deliver drugs into the left hindlimb circulation, including the left tibia vasculature. Bolus injection of norepinephrine caused a dose-dependent decrease in bone blood flow (30-40%). Blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine attenuated by more than 50% the norepinephrine-induced decrease in bone blood flow. In separate rats that had not received exogenous norepinephrine, injection of phentolamine alone decreased bone vascular resistance by 34+/-3%. Similarly, phenoxybenzamine decreased resistance by 25+/-4%. These results are consistent with the conclusion that alpha-adrenergic receptors mediate a significant constriction of blood vessels which participate in the partial control of basal blood flow to the intact rat tibia.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Sickle Cell Blood Flow in the Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Carlson, Brian E.

    2001-11-01

    A numerical simulation of normal and sickle cell blood flow through the transverse arteriole-capillary microcirculation is carried out to model the dominant mechanisms involved in the onset of vascular stasis in sickle cell disease. The transverse arteriole-capillary network is described by Strahler's network branching method, and the oxygen and blood transport in the capillaries is modeled by a Krogh cylinder analysis utilizing Lighthill's lubrication theory, as developed by Berger and King. Poiseuille's law is used to represent blood flow in the arterioles. Applying this flow and transport model and utilizing volumetric flow continuity at each network bifurcation, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained, which is solved iteratively using a steepest descent algorithm coupled with a Newton solver. Ten different networks are generated and flow results are calculated for normal blood and sickle cell blood without and with precapillary oxygen loss. We find that total volumetric blood flow through the network is greater in the two sickle cell blood simulations than for normal blood owing to the anemia associated with sickle cell disease. The percentage of capillary blockage in the network increases dramatically with decreasing pressure drop across the network in the sickle cell cases while there is no blockage when normal blood flows through simulated networks. It is concluded that, in sickle cell disease, without any vasomotor dilation response to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood, capillary blockage will occur in the microvasculature even at average pressure drops across the transverse arteriole-capillary networks.

  10. Alterations in splanchnic blood flow following chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R; Ferguson, J L; Melchior, C L

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether or not tolerance develops to the effect of 3.0 g/kg ethanol on total and regional splanchnic blood flow in male Wistar rats. The animals were given the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 10 days; ethanol-fed animals were withdrawn 24 hr prior to experiments. Regional blood flow and cardiac output (CO) were measured by the reference microsphere technique after an intraperitoneal injection of 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. Acute ethanol administration produced early nonsustained increases in portal vein blood flow in animals fed ethanol for 10 days and withdrawn for 24 hr and in control animals. However, after chronic exposure to ethanol, the pattern of increase in blood flow in response to ethanol in the splanchnic organs was different between the ethanol-fed and control groups. Increases in portal vein flow in control groups were due to concomitant increases in small intestinal, colonic, and cecal blood flow while the increase in the ethanol-fed group was due to a rise in small intestinal and stomach blood flow. The increase in stomach blood flow that occurred in the animals treated chronically with ethanol may be viewed as a conditioned response to ethanol, since this was not found in the control group. These results, demonstrate that the pattern of increase in blood flow in the splanchnic organs produced by an acute dose of ethanol depends on the animal's previous exposure to ethanol.

  11. Noninvasive Visualization of Human Capillary Vessel Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masao

    2005-11-01

    Human blood flows are highly susceptible to physical and health conditions. Hence quantitative evaluation of Blood flow is a useful parameter in the physical check up of individuals. However, the most convenient method is taking a blood sample, which can only examine ex vivo Blood condition. We turn our attention to the observation of the capillary loops of blood vessels in the finger skin nail fold, in which blood flow can be easily visualized without using complicated specialized tools other than capillaroscopy. We modified both the spatial and temporal resolution in capillaroscopy. A deep-focus high magnification zoom lens and a high speed video camera of 1000 fps allowed us to observe the motion of red blood cells, white blood cells and plasmas. Quantitative analysis of blood flow allowed us to observe the motion of red blood cells in capillary vessels with a diameter of about 10 micro meters. We discuss the quantitative evaluation of blood flow velocity in artery capillary vessels. We also conducted shape analysis of the capillary vessel, by using the level set method. By analyzing the obtained level set function, quantitative evaluation of the capillary blood shape, such as characteristic diameters and curvatures, are carried out.

  12. Retinitis pigmentosa and ocular blood flow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Is the concept of integrative, preventive and personalised medicine applicable to the relationship between retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and ocular blood flow (OBF)? RP encompasses a group of hereditary diseases of the posterior segment of the eye characterised by degeneration, atrophy and finally loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, leading to progressive visual loss. Many different mutations affecting different genes can lead to the clinical picture of RP. Even though the disease has a clear genetic background, there are obviously other factors influencing the manifestation and progression of RP. In this review, we focus on the role of OBF. There is evidence that, in PR patients, OBF is more reduced than one would expect secondary to the retinal atrophy. The main cause of this additional component seems to be primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) syndrome. As PVD syndrome is partly treatable, a vascular evaluation of RP patients is meaningful. Based on the outcome, a targeted individualised, preventive or supportive treatment might be introduced in selected RP patients. PMID:23199279

  13. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  14. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.

    2016-01-01

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100–1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function. PMID:26905751

  15. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.

    2016-02-01

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100-1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  16. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Sarveswaran, K; Kurz, V; Dong, Z; Tanaka, T; Penny, S; Timp, G

    2016-02-24

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using "live cell lithography"(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision-no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100-1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  17. Substance abuse and cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R J; Wilson, W H

    1991-03-01

    This paper reviews acute and chronic effects of drugs of abuse on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism and their clinical significance. The most important source of information for the review is human research reports published in refereed journals. A few animal studies, book chapters, and abstracts that are especially relevant are also included. In humans, ethanol in small doses produces cerebral vasodilation; higher doses induce cerebral vasoconstriction. Chronic alcoholism is associated with reduced CBF and cerebral metabolism. Sedatives and antianxiety drugs lead to global reduction in CBF and cerebral metabolism. Caffeine, even in small doses, is a potent cerebral vasoconstrictor. Cerebral vasodilation is seen immediately after cigarette smoking, but chronic smokers show global reduction in CBF. Changes in CBF after marijuana smoking are variable; both increases and decreases are seen. Chronic marijuana smoking, however, seems to reduce CBF. Most inhalants and solvents are vasodilators; chronic abuse is accompanied by a decrease in CBF. A number of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine-phenylpropanolamine combinations, increase the risk for stroke. Reduction in CBF associated with chronic use of ethanol, nicotine, inhalants, and solvents is at least partially reversible upon abstinence. Topics for future research include regional brain function, which mediates drug-induced mood changes (euphoria); CBF concomitants of psychological and physiological characteristics that increase addiction potential; changes in CBF that accompany withdrawal syndromes; mechanisms responsible for drug-induced stroke; and effects of functional and organic complications on CBF.

  18. Effects of nitroglycerin on transmural myocardial blood flow in the unanesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    Bache, R J; Ball, R M; Cobb, F R; Rembert, J C; Greenfield, J C

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to determin the effect of nitroglycerin upon transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow in the awake dog during normal conditions and in the presence of ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation. Studies were performed in chronically prepared dogs with electromagnetic flowmeters and hydraulic occluders on the left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was estimated by using radionuclide-labeled microspheres, 7-10 mum in diameter, injected into the left atrium. During control conditions endocardial flow (0.86 plus or minus SEM 0.05 ml/min per g) slightly exceeded epicardial flow (0.72 plus or minus 0.03 ml/min per g, P smaller than 0.05), and this distribution of flow was not significantly altered by nitroglycerin. After a 5-s coronary artery occlusion, reactive hyperemia occurred with excess inflow of arterial blood effecting 360 plus or minus 15% repayment of the blood flow debt incurred during occlusion. When arterial inflow was limited to the preocclusion rate during coronary vasodilation after a 5-s total coronary artery occlusion, flow to the subepicardial myocardium was increased at the expense of underperfusion of the subendocardial myocardium, and the delayed reactive hyperemia was markedly augmented (mean blood flow debt repayment =775plus or minus 105%, P smaller than 0.01). Tese data suggested that subendocardial underperfusion during the interval of coronary vasodilation in the presence of a flow-limiting proximal coronary artery stenosis caused continuing subendocardial ischemia which resulted in augmentation of the reactive hyperemic response. In this experimental model both the redistribution of myocardial blood flow which occurred during an interval of restricted arterial inflow after a 5-s coronary artery occlusion and augmentation of the subsequent reactive hyperemic response were returned toward normal by nitroglycerin. This effect of nitroglycerin may have resulted, at least in part, from its

  19. A dual active-restrictive approach to incorporating environmental flow targets into existing reservoir operation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Environmental flow schemes may be implemented through active or restrictive strategies. The former may be applied via reservoir releases, and the latter can be executed by reducing water demands. We present a dual active-restrictive approach to devising the optimal reservoir operation rules that aim to secure off-stream water supplies while maximizing environmental benefits. For the active part, a multicomponent environmental flow target (including the minimum and monthly flows) is incorporated in the operation rules. For the restrictive counterpart, we use a novel demands partitioning and prioritizing (DPP) approach to reallocating the demands of various sectors. The DPP approach partitions the existing off-stream demand and newly incorporated environmental demand and reassembles the two as the first- and second-priority demands. Water is reallocated to each demand according to the ratios derived from the prioritized demands. The proposed approach is coupled with a multicriteria optimization framework to seek the optimal operation rules for the existing Feitsui Reservoir system (Taiwan) under various scenarios. The best overall performance is achieved by an optimal dual strategy whose operational parameters are all determined by optimization. The optimal environmental flow target may well be a top-priority constant base flow rather than the variable quantities. The active strategy would outperform the restrictive one. For the former, a top-priority base flow target is essential; for the latter, the off-stream demand can become vanishingly small in compensation for the eliminated base flow target, thus promoting the monthly flow target as nearly the top-priority demand. For either the active or restrictive strategy, a prioritized environmental flow demand would provide a path toward the optimal overall performance. A significantly improved overall performance over the existing operation rules is unlikely if the active and restrictive parameters are both favorable

  20. Tissue Blood Flow During Remifentanil Infusion With Carbon Dioxide Loading.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (ETCO2) during remifentanil (Remi) infusion on oral tissue blood flow in rabbits. Eight male tracheotomized Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. The infusion rate of Remi was 0.4 μg/kg/min. Carbon dioxide was added to the inspired gas to change the inspired CO2 tension to prevent changes in the ventilating condition. Observed variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF). The CCBF, TBF, BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while MBF was decreased, under hypercapnia, and vice versa. The BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while the MBF value was decreased, under hypercapnia during Remi infusion, and vice versa. The BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF values, but not the CCBF and TBF values, changed along with ETCO2 changes during Remi infusion.

  1. Exploration of 4D MRI blood flow using stylistic visualization.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Breeuwer, Marcel; Clough, Rachel E; Gröller, M Eduard; ter Haar Romenij, Bart; Vilanova, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the dynamics of blood-flow considerably improves the understanding of the complex cardiovascular system and its pathologies. Advances in MRI technology enable acquisition of 4D blood-flow data, providing quantitative blood-flow velocities over time. The currently typical slice-by-slice analysis requires a full mental reconstruction of the unsteady blood-flow field, which is a tedious and highly challenging task, even for skilled physicians. We endeavor to alleviate this task by means of comprehensive visualization and interaction techniques. In this paper we present a framework for pre-clinical cardiovascular research, providing tools to both interactively explore the 4D blood-flow data and depict the essential blood-flow characteristics. The framework encompasses a variety of visualization styles, comprising illustrative techniques as well as improved methods from the established field of flow visualization. Each of the incorporated styles, including exploded planar reformats, flow-direction highlights, and arrow-trails, locally captures the blood-flow dynamics and may be initiated by an interactively probed vessel cross-section. Additionally, we present the results of an evaluation with domain experts, measuring the value of each of the visualization styles and related rendering parameters.

  2. Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 μM, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

  3. Myocardial blood flow during induced aortic hypertension in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Thai, B.N.; Levesque, M.J.; Nerem, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    Myocardial blood flow was measured in anesthetized dogs during control conditions and under conditions where the aortic pressure was increased due to aortic constriction or during infusion. Blood flow was measured using the radioactive microsphere technique. Radioactive microspheres (15 m Ce-141, Sr-85, and Sc-46) were injected under control, aortic constriction and arterenol infusion in four dogs and under control conditions in two others. All microsphere injections were performed under stabilized conditions. It was found that coronary blood flow rose by 80% during aortic constriction and by 158% during arterenol infusion (P < 0.05). This increase in blood flow was not uniform throughout the heart, and higher increases were observed in the middle and apex regions of the left ventricle. Furthermore, under hypertension the increase in blood flow in LAD (left anterior descending) perfused territories was slightly higher than that in CFX (left circumflex) perfused territories.

  4. Blood flow controls bone vascular function and osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Schiller, Maria; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Bixel, M. Gabriele; Milia, Carlo; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Limbourg, Anne; Medvinsky, Alexander; Santoro, Massimo M.; Limbourg, Florian P.; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    While blood vessels play important roles in bone homeostasis and repair, fundamental aspects of vascular function in the skeletal system remain poorly understood. Here we show that the long bone vasculature generates a peculiar flow pattern, which is important for proper angiogenesis. Intravital imaging reveals that vessel growth in murine long bone involves the extension and anastomotic fusion of endothelial buds. Impaired blood flow leads to defective angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and downregulation of Notch signalling in endothelial cells. In aged mice, skeletal blood flow and endothelial Notch activity are also reduced leading to decreased angiogenesis and osteogenesis, which is reverted by genetic reactivation of Notch. Blood flow and angiogenesis in aged mice are also enhanced on administration of bisphosphonate, a class of drugs frequently used for the treatment of osteoporosis. We propose that blood flow and endothelial Notch signalling are key factors controlling ageing processes in the skeletal system. PMID:27922003

  5. Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, W. R.; Beaver, W. L.; Meindl, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made of (1) blood flow redistribution during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), (2) the profile of blood flow across the mitral annulus of the heart (both perpendicular and parallel to the commissures), (3) testing and evaluation of a number of pulsed Doppler systems, (4) acute calibration of perivascular Doppler transducers, (5) redesign of the mitral flow transducers to improve reliability and ease of construction, and (6) a frequency offset generator designed for use in distinguishing forward and reverse components of blood flow by producing frequencies above and below the offset frequency. Finally methodology was developed and initial results were obtained from a computer analysis of time-varying Doppler spectra.

  6. [How much blood flow is required by the myocardium?].

    PubMed

    Deussen, A; Flesche, C W; Loncar, R

    1999-07-01

    The myocardium of the left ventricle exhibits spatial heterogeneity of blood flow under physiological conditions. This study was designed to investigate, whether oxygen supply is jeopardized in low flow areas (blood flow < 50% of mean) under physiological conditions and whether areas of high flow (> 150% of mean) exhibit perfusion in excess of demand ("luxury perfusion"). The study was performed in anesthetized and ventilated beagle dogs. Local blood flow was reduced by mechanically narrowing of the r. circumflexus of the left coronary artery; myocardial blood flow was measured by the tracer-microsphere technique, free concentrations cellular adenosine by the SAH-technique, regional metabolism of substrates by the desoxyglucose-technique. Low flow areas exhibited normal oxygenation of the myocardium, while in high flow areas no luxury perfusion could be demonstrated. Myocardial blood flow and metabolism demonstrate significant spatial heterogeneity. There appears to be no absolute threshold of blood flow, where regional myocardial ischemia develops. Probably biochemical evidence of myocardial ischemia is determined by a local ratio of oxygen supply and demand.

  7. Fluid dynamics aspects of miniaturized axial-flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Kang, Can; Huang, Qifeng; Li, Yunxiao

    2014-01-01

    Rotary blood pump (RBP) is a kind of crucial ventricular assist device (VAD) and its advantages have been evidenced and acknowledged in recent years. Among the factors that influence the operation performance and the durability of various rotary blood pumps, medium property and the flow features in pump's flow passages are conceivably significant. The major concern in this paper is the fluid dynamics aspects of such a kind of miniaturized pump. More specifically, the structural features of axial-flow blood pump and corresponding flow features are analyzed in detail. The narrow flow passage between blade tips and pump casing and the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) zone may exert a negative effect on the shear stress distribution in the blood flow. Numerical techniques are briefly introduced in view of their contribution to facilitating the optimal design of blood pump and the visualization of shear stress distribution and multiphase flow analysis. Additionally, with the development of flow measurement techniques, the high-resolution, effective and non-intrusive flow measurement techniques catering to the measurement of the flows inside rotary blood pumps are highly anticipated.

  8. Micro-PIV measurements of blood flow in extraembryonic blood vessels of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Ji, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2007-10-01

    The hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow are important in the diagnosis of circulatory diseases, since such diseases are related to wall shear stress of cardiovascular vessels. In chicken embryos at early stages of development, it is possible to directly visualize blood flow inside blood vessels. We therefore employed a micro-PIV technique to assess blood flow in extraembryonic venous and arterial blood vessels of chicken embryos, using red blood cells (RBCs) as tracers and obtaining flow images of RBCs using a high-speed CMOS camera. The mean velocity field showed non-Newtonian flow characteristics. The blood flow in two venous vessels merged smoothly into the Y-shaped downstream vein without any flow separation or secondary flow. Vorticity was high in the inner regions, where the radius of curvature varied greatly. A periodic variation of temporally resolved velocity signals, due to beating of the heart, was observed in arterial blood vessels. The pulsating frequency was obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis using the measured velocity data. The measurement technique used here was useful in analyzing the hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo blood flow in chicken embryos.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P L; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different levels of sleep into consideration, show that light sleep (stage II) is characterized by global levels of CBF and CMR only slightly reduced by 3-10% below the level associated with wakefulness, whereas CBF and CMR during deep sleep (stage III-IV) is dramatically reduced by 25-44%. Furthermore, recent data indicate that global levels of CBF and CMR are about the same during REM sleep as in wakefulness. On the regional level, deep sleep seems to be associated with a uniform decrease in regional CBF and CMR. Investigations concerning regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep are few but data from recent investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep.

  11. Postischemic cerebral blood flow and neuroeffector mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, R; Moskowitz, M A; Tasdemiroglu, E; Wei, E P; Kontos, H A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of neuroeffector mechanisms in the regulation of postischemic cerebral blood flow was investigated by microsphere determination in 8 cats after chronic unilateral vascular deafferentation by trigeminal ganglionectomy. The animals were subjected to 90 min of reperfusion following 10 min of global ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion and systemic hypotension. Cortical hyperemia 30 min after reperfusion was attenuated by up to 48% in cortical gray matter ipsilateral to the side of trigeminal ganglionectomy (p less than 0.01). Axon reflex mechanisms involving the release of neuropeptides from peripheral sensory nerve fibers, such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neurokinin A (NKA), mediate this response. SP and NKA cause vasodilation by endothelium-dependent mechanisms (endothelium-dependent relaxing factor), whereas CGRP relaxes vascular smooth muscle by direct receptor interactions. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine the extent to which endothelium-dependent mechanisms mediate the hyperemia following global cerebral ischemia. In 7 intact cats, the postischemic response of pial arterioles to the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-7) M), an endothelial-dependent vasodilator, was measured using a closed cranial window technique. Although ACh increased pial arteriolar caliber by 17% under resting conditions, the same dose elicited a vasoconstrictor response (87% of pre-ACh diameter 30 min after reperfusion) for the first 60 min of reperfusion after 10 min of ischemia. ACh-induced vasodilation was restored by 75 min (105%), but was less than control even at 120 min (109 vs. 117%; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Brain metabolism and blood flow during aging.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, B

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of cerebral metabolism have suggested that although cerebral blood flow is reduced during rest in the healthy aged brain, there is little or no decline in resting glucose consumption. Intercorrelations between resting regional cerebral rates for glucose (rCMRglc), as determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, were shown to provide a measure of the functional associativity of brain regions. Partial correlation coefficients, controlling for whole brain glucose metabolism, were used in the analysis. Dividing the brain into 59 regions, we found, for 40 healthy males (21-83 years in age) in a state of reduced sensory input, that the strongest correlations generally were between bilaterally symmetric brain regions, and that there were many statistically significant correlations (P less than 0.01) among frontal and parietal lobe regions and also among temporal and occipital lobe areas, but few significant correlations between these two domains. The correlation analysis then was applied to two groups (15 healthy males each) of young (20-32 years old) and elderly (64-83 years old) subjects in the same resting state. Compared with the young group, we found that the elderly subjects have fewer statistically significant (P less than 0.01) correlations, with the most noteworthy reductions being between parietal and frontal lobe regions, and among parietal lobe areas. These findings indicated that cerebral functional interactions were reduced in the healthy elderly. The same analysis, applied to 21 mainly mildly-to-moderately impaired presumed Alzheimer subjects (and 21 age-matched controls), revealed fewer significant correlations between homologous brain regions which correspond to metabolic asymmetries linked to neuropsychological deficiencies.

  13. Conditions of microvessel occlusion for blood coagulation in flow.

    PubMed

    Bouchnita, A; Galochkina, T; Kurbatova, P; Nony, P; Volpert, V

    2017-09-01

    Vessel occlusion is a perturbation of blood flow inside a blood vessel because of the fibrin clot formation. As a result, blood circulation in the vessel can be slowed down or even stopped. This can provoke the risk of cardiovascular events. In order to explore this phenomenon, we used a previously developed mathematical model of blood clotting to describe the concentrations of blood factors with a reaction-diffusion system of equations. The Navier-Stokes equations were used to model blood flow, and we treated the clot as a porous medium. We identify the conditions of partial or complete occlusion in a small vessel depending on various physical and physiological parameters. In particular, we were interested in the conditions on blood flow and diameter of the wounded area. The existence of a critical flow velocity separating the regimes of partial and complete occlusion was demonstrated through the mathematical investigation of a simplified model of thrombin wave propagation in Poiseuille flow. We observed different regimes of vessel occlusion depending on the model parameters both for the numerical simulations and in the theoretical study. Then, we compared the rate of clot growth in flow obtained in the simulations with experimental data. Both of them showed the existence of different regimes of clot growth depending on the velocity of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Angiostrongylosis-related restrictive pneumopathy assessed by arterial blood gas analysis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Csöndes, Judit; Majoros, Gábor; Lajos, Zoltán; Psáder, Roland; Vajdovich, Péter; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary angiostrongylosis was diagnosed by the Baermann method and larval identification from faecal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in a five-month- old male mongrel dog with dyspnoea and cough. Arterial blood gas analysis indicated arterial hypoxaemia and restrictive pneumopathy. In addition to the palliative treatment, fenbendazole was administered (50 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 14 days. The respiratory signs subsided within a short time clinically, but serial arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated an ongoing ventilation disorder. Repeated haematology, thoracic radiography, bronchoscopy and blood gas analysis were performed to follow the course of the disease. The most severe eosinophilia was detected after the beginning of the anthelmintic therapy, and the arterial pO2 level was permanently low. Arterial blood gas analysis provided the most adequate information about the course of the pneumopathy and it greatly facilitated the patient's medical management.

  15. Dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddala, Jeevan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen

    The dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in perturbed shear flow remains ill-defined. Microfluidics is a promising technology for improving the understanding of blood flow under complex conditions of shear; as found in stent implants and in tortuous blood vessels. We model the fluid dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network with dimensions mimicking venules. Interaction of blood cells was modeled using multiagent framework, where cells of different diameters were treated as spheres. This model served as the basis for predicting transition regions, collision pathways, re-circulation zones and residence times of cells dependent on their diameters and device architecture. Based on these insights from the model, we were able to predict the clot formation configurations at various locations in the device. These predictions were supported by the experiments using whole blood. To facilitate platelet aggregation, the devices were coated with fibrillar collagen and tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the microfluidic device for 9 min at a physiologically relevant venous shear rate of 600 s-1. Using fluorescent microscopy, we observed flow transitions near the channel intersections and at the areas of blood flow obstruction, which promoted larger thrombus formation. This study of integrating model predictions with experimental design, aids in defining the dynamics of blood flow in microvasculature and in development of novel biomedical devices.

  16. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-10-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance.

  17. Continuous regional blood flow measurement during environmental heating in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kregel, K.C.; Wall, P.T.; Gisolfi, C.V.

    1986-03-05

    With prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures, shifting regional blood flows reflect the dominance of cardiovascular over thermoregulatory requirements. Hypotension and decreased cardiac output contribute to the circulatory failure noted in heat stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in regional blood flows during prolonged exposure (50-70 min) to 45/sup 0/C heat. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-450 g) were implanted with pulsed Doppler flow probes on the superior mesenteric, caudal, and left iliac arteries. Measurements included blood flows in kHz Doppler shift, colonic (T/sub c/) and tail-skin temperatures, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). As T/sub c/ rose from 37/sup 0/ to 42/sup 0/C, iliac flow remained relatively constant, caudal flow rose to peak values of 257-600%, and mesenteric flow declined 60-88% relative to baseline. The rise in caudal blood flow occurred within the first 5 min of exposure whereas the decline in mesenteric flow was progressive; MABP rose to peak levels of 180 mm Hg. Heart rate rose to 500-630 bpm. At T/sub c/ above 42/sup 0/C, mesenteric flow increased in several animals (36-75%) and MABP began to fall. The authors hypothesize that the hypotension observed with prolonged heat exposure in the rat is in part attributed to the inability of the animal to sustain splanchnic vasoconstriction.

  18. The initiation of blood flow and flow induced events in early vascular development.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2011-12-01

    Within a day of gastrulation, the embryonic heart begins to beat and creates blood flow in the developing cardiovascular system. The onset of blood flow completely changes the environment in which the cardiovascular system is forming. Flow provides physiological feedback such that the developing network adapts to cue provided by the flow. Targeted inactivation of genes that alter early blood fluid dynamics induce secondary defects in the heart and vasculature and therefore proper blood flow is known to be essential for vascular development. Though hemodynamics, or blood fluid dynamics, are known to activate signaling pathways in the mature cardiovascular system in pathologies ranging from artherosclerosis to angiogenesis, the role in development has not been as intensively studied. The question arises how blood vessels in the embryos, which initially lack cells types such as smooth muscle cells, differ in their response to mechanical signals from blood flow as compared to the more mature cardiovascular system. Many genes known to be regulated by hemodynamics in the adult are important for developmental angiogenesis. Therefore the onset of blood flow is of primary importance to vascular development. This review will focus on how blood flow initiates and the effects of the mechanical signals created by blood flow on cardiovascular development.

  19. Noninvasive blood-flow meter using a curved cannula with zero compensation for an axial flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Ryo; Fukuda, Kyohei; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to monitor the condition of a patient using a left ventricular assist system (LVAS), blood flow should be measured. However, the reliable determination of blood-flow rate has not been established. The purpose of the present study is to develop a noninvasive blood-flow meter using a curved cannula with zero compensation for an axial flow blood pump. The flow meter uses the centrifugal force generated by the flow rate in the curved cannula. Two strain gauges served as sensors. The first gauges were attached to the curved area to measure static pressure and centrifugal force, and the second gauges were attached to straight area to measure static pressure. The flow rate was determined by the differences in output from the two gauges. The zero compensation was constructed based on the consideration that the flow rate could be estimated during the initial driving condition and the ventricular suction condition without using the flow meter. A mock circulation loop was constructed in order to evaluate the measurement performance of the developed flow meter with zero compensation. As a result, the zero compensation worked effectively for the initial calibration and the zero-drift of the measured flow rate. We confirmed that the developed flow meter using a curved cannula with zero compensation was able to accurately measure the flow rate continuously and noninvasively.

  20. Large scale simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Ji, Chunning; Williams, John

    2013-07-26

    Aggregation of highly deformable red blood cells (RBCs) significantly affects the blood flow in the human circulatory system. To investigate the effect of deformation and aggregation of RBCs in blood flow, a mathematical model has been established by coupling the interaction between the fluid and the deformable solids. The model includes a three-dimensional finite volume method solver for incompressible viscous flows, the combined finite-discrete element method for computing the deformation of the RBCs, a JKR model-Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (1964-1971) (Johnson et al., 1971) to take account of the adhesion forces between different RBCs and an iterative direct-forcing immersed boundary method to couple the fluid-solid interactions. The flow of 49,512 RBCs at 45% concentration under the influence of aggregating forces was examined, improving the existing knowledge on simulating flow and structural characteristics of blood at a large scale: previous studies on the particular issue were restricted to simulating the flow of 13,000 aggregative ellipsoidal particles at a 10% concentration. The results are in excellent agreement with experimental studies. More specifically, both the experimental and the simulation results show uniform RBC distributions under high shear rates (60-100/s) whereas large aggregation structures were observed under a lower shear rate of 10/s. The statistical analysis of the simulation data also shows that the shear rate has significant influence on both the flow velocity profiles and the frequency distribution of the RBC orientation angles.

  1. Carreau model for oscillatory blood flow in a tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakova, S.; Nikolova, E.; Radev, St.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis of the blood flow dynamics (hemodynamics) in tubes is crucial when investigating the rupture of different types of aneurysms. The blood viscosity nonlinear dependence on the flow shear rate creates complicated manifestations of the blood pulsations. Although a great number of studies exists, experimental and numerical, this phenomenon is still not very well understood. The aim of the present work is to propose a numerical model of the oscillatory blood flow in a tube on the basis of the Carreau model of the blood viscosity (nonlinear model with respect to the shear rate). The obtained results for the flow velocity and tangential stress on the tube wall are compared well with other authors' results.

  2. Cardiac cryosurgery: regional myocardial blood flow of ventricular cryolesions

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, W.L.; Ikeshita, M.; Lease, J.G.; Smith, P.K.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Cox, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Cryosurgery is one of three methods introduced recently for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Cryothermic exposure ablates arrhythmogenic ventricular myocardium, and produces a dense fibrous scar with a sharp border to histologically normal tissue. Myocardial blood flow in the region of the cryolesion, however, has not been quantitated. The purpose of this study was to measure regional blood flow within and around the cryolesion in an attempt to identify ischemic zones that might become arrhythmogenic. Left ventricular cryolesions were created in eleven adult dogs. Two weeks later, the animals underwent radioactive tracer microsphere injection for quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow. The fibrotic cryolesion demonstrated a significantly depressed blood flow (0.44 +/- 0.07 ml/min/g) compared to blood flow in control tissue (1.36 +/- 0.12 ml/min/g) (P less than 0.001). A 1-mm strip of myocardium immediately adjacent to the cryolesion, as well as other myocardium surrounding and subjacent to the cryolesion, did not show a significant decrease in regional blood flow. The border between the fibrotic cryolesion and the surrounding myocardium is, therefore, sharply defined not only in terms of histology but also in regards to regional blood flow. These data lend further support to the safe clinical use of cryothermia in the treatment of refractory ventricular tachycardia.

  3. Hyperbaric oxygenation decreases blood flows in normal and septic rats.

    PubMed

    Muhvich, K H; Piano, M R; Myers, R A; Ferguson, J L; Marzella, L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to characterize the effects of acute exposure to 100% oxygen at a pressure of 202.6 kPa on hemodynamics and organ blood flow in antibiotic-controlled bacterial sepsis. An abscess containing known numbers and strains of live Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis was established in the peritoneal cavity of rats. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Cardiac output, fractional blood flow distribution, and blood flow were calculated from data obtained using the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Myocardial and renal blood flows were decreased (20-30%) in both experimental groups during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure. Renal blood flow remained diminished for at least 20 min after rats were removed from the hyperbaric chamber. Adrenal gland perfusion in abscess-containing rats was reduced both during and after HBO exposure. Skeletal muscle blood flow (quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles) was reduced by one third in both experimental groups 20 min after acute exposure to HBO. The results of this study indicate that changes in organ perfusion induced by HBO are similar in abscess-containing and normal rats. We conclude that HBO does not alter the regulation of blood flow in antibiotic-controlled sepsis.

  4. Neuropeptide Y reduces ovarian blood flow in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, J.C.; Sejrsen, P. )

    1990-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers have previously been demonstrated to innervate the mammalian ovary. These nerve fibers innervate primarily the vasculature. In this study we have developed a method for in vivo measurement of the ovary blood flow rate by means of the {sup 133}Xe method. Using this technique we measured the ovary blood flow rate and investigated the dose-response relationship between close intraarterial-injected NPY and the ovary blood flow rate. A monoexponential washout curve for {sup 133}Xe was found for the whole washout process, ensuring that the blood flow rate at any time could be calculated from the curve. We found a mean blood flow rate in the nonpregnant rabbit ovary at 43.6 +/- 4.4 ml.(100 g)-1.min-1 (mean +/- SEM). Injection of NPY (20, 200, 2000 pM) in the aorta close to a. ovarica resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the ovarian blood flow rate with a maximum reduction to 40.7 +/- 6.3% (mean +/- SEM) of the control blood flow rate. These findings make it likely that receptors able to interact with NPY are present in the vasculature of the rabbit ovary.

  5. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-03-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the /sup 133/Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated.

  6. Mechanism of decreased blood flow to atelectatic lung.

    PubMed

    Benumof, J L

    1979-06-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of passive mechanical forces vs. hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction as mechanisms of blood flow reduction through atelectatic canine lung. Selective atelectasis of the left lower lobe caused the electromagnetically measured lobar blood flow to decrease 59% from control levels. Reexpansion and ventilation of the left lower lobe with 95% N2-5% CO2, which should terminate any passive mechanical contribution to the decreased test lobe blood flow, did not cause any significant increase in left lower lobe blood flow. Ventilation of the left lower lobe with 100% O2, which should terminate any hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction contribution to the decreased test lobe blood flow, increased blood flow back to levels not significantly different from control. Differences between degree of hypoxia, magnitude of transpulmonary pressure, and absolute pulmonary vascular pressure during left lower lobe atelectasis and ventilation with N2 were considered to be minor influences. I conclude that the mechanism of decreased blood flow to an atelectatic lobe is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  7. Chronic sleep restriction disrupts interendothelial junctions in the hippocampus and increases blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Alvarado, G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J; Gómez-González, B

    2017-10-01

    Chronic sleep loss in the rat increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue and FITC-dextrans in almost the whole brain and sleep recovery during short periods restores normal blood-brain barrier permeability. Sleep loss increases vesicle density in hippocampal endothelial cells and decreases tight junction protein expression. However, at the ultrastructural level the effect of chronic sleep loss on interendothelial junctions is unknown. In this study we characterised the ultrastructure of interendothelial junctions in the hippocampus, the expression of tight junction proteins, and quantified blood-brain barrier permeability to fluorescein-sodium after chronic sleep restriction. Male Wistar rats were sleep restricted using the modified multiple platform method during 10 days, with a daily schedule of 20-h sleep deprivation plus 4-h sleep recovery at their home-cages. At the 10th day hippocampal samples were obtained immediately at the end of the 20-h sleep deprivation period, and after 40 and 120 min of sleep recovery. Samples were processed for transmission electron microscopy and western blot. Chronic sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to fluorescein-sodium, and decreased interendothelial junction complexity by increasing the frequency of less mature end-to-end and simply overlap junctions, even after sleep recovery, as compared to intact controls. Chronic sleep loss also induced the formation of clefts between narrow zones of adjacent endothelial cell membranes in the hippocampus. The expression of claudin-5 and actin decreased after chronic sleep loss as compared to intact animals. Therefore, it seems that chronic sleep loss disrupts interendothelial junctions that leads to blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability in the hippocampus. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Effects of non Newtonian spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Maruf, Mahbub Alam; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    The spiral component of blood flow has both beneficial and detrimental effects in human circulatory system. A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of spiral blood flow through an axisymmetric three dimensional artery having 75% stenosis at the center. Blood is assumed as a Non-Newtonian fluid. Standard k-ω model is used for the simulation with the Reynolds number of 1000. A parabolic velocity profile with spiral flow is used as inlet boundary condition. The peak values of all velocity components are found just after stenosis. But total pressure gradually decreases at downstream. Spiral flow of blood has significant effects on tangential component of velocity. However, the effect is mild for radial and axial velocity components. The peak value of wall shear stress is at the stenosis zone and decreases rapidly in downstream. The effect of spiral flow is significant for turbulent kinetic energy. Detailed investigation and relevant pathological issues are delineated throughout the paper.

  9. Determinants of coronary blood flow in sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Cox, Georgina K; Brill, Richard W; Bonaro, Kaitlin A; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-02-01

    The coronary circulation first appeared in the chordate lineage in cartilaginous fishes where, as in birds and mammals but unlike most teleost fishes, it supplies arterial blood to the entire myocardium. Despite the pivotal position of elasmobranch fishes in the evolution of the coronary circulation, the determinants of coronary blood flow have never been investigated in this group. Elasmobranch fishes are of special interest because of the morphological arrangement of their cardiomyocytes. Unlike teleosts, the majority of the ventricular myocardium in elasmobranch fishes is distant to the venous blood returning to the heart (i.e., the luminal blood). Also, the majority of the myocardium is in close association with the coronary circulation. To determine the relative contribution of the coronary and luminal blood supplies to cardiovascular function in sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus, we measured coronary blood flow while manipulating cardiovascular status using acetylcholine and adrenaline. By exploring inter- and intra-individual variation in cardiovascular variables, we show that coronary blood flow is directly related to heart rate (R (2) = 0.6; P < 0.001), as it is in mammalian hearts. Since coronary blood flow is inversely related to coronary resistance both in vivo and in vitro, we suggest that in elasmobranch fishes, changes in heart rate mediate changes in coronary vascular resistance, which adjust coronary blood flow appropriately.

  10. Connexin 36 mediates blood cell flow in mouse pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kurt W.; Head, W. Steve

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-secreting β-cells are contained within islets of Langerhans, which are highly vascularized. Blood cell flow rates through islets are glucose-dependent, even though there are no changes in blood cell flow within in the surrounding exocrine pancreas. This suggests a specific mechanism of glucose-regulated blood flow in the islet. Pancreatic islets respond to elevated glucose with synchronous pulses of electrical activity and insulin secretion across all β-cells in the islet. Connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions between islet β-cells mediate this synchronization, which is lost in Cx36 knockout mice (Cx36−/−). This leads to glucose intolerance in these mice, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we sought to investigate whether the glucose-dependent changes in intraislet blood cell flow are also dependent on coordinated pulsatile electrical activity. We visualized and quantified blood cell flow using high-speed in vivo fluorescence imaging of labeled red blood cells and plasma. With the use of a live animal glucose clamp, blood cell flow was measured during either hypoglycemia (∼50 mg/dl) or hyperglycemia (∼300 mg/dl). In contrast to the large glucose-dependent islet blood velocity changes observed in wild-type mice, only minimal differences are observed in both Cx36+/− and Cx36−/− mice. This observation supports a novel model where intraislet blood cell flow is regulated by the coordinated electrical activity in the islet β-cells. Because Cx36 expression and function is reduced in type 2 diabetes, the resulting defect in intraislet blood cell flow regulation may also play a significant role in diabetic pathology. PMID:24326425

  11. Connexin 36 mediates blood cell flow in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Short, Kurt W; Head, W Steve; Piston, David W

    2014-02-01

    The insulin-secreting β-cells are contained within islets of Langerhans, which are highly vascularized. Blood cell flow rates through islets are glucose-dependent, even though there are no changes in blood cell flow within in the surrounding exocrine pancreas. This suggests a specific mechanism of glucose-regulated blood flow in the islet. Pancreatic islets respond to elevated glucose with synchronous pulses of electrical activity and insulin secretion across all β-cells in the islet. Connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions between islet β-cells mediate this synchronization, which is lost in Cx36 knockout mice (Cx36(-/-)). This leads to glucose intolerance in these mice, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we sought to investigate whether the glucose-dependent changes in intraislet blood cell flow are also dependent on coordinated pulsatile electrical activity. We visualized and quantified blood cell flow using high-speed in vivo fluorescence imaging of labeled red blood cells and plasma. With the use of a live animal glucose clamp, blood cell flow was measured during either hypoglycemia (∼50 mg/dl) or hyperglycemia (∼300 mg/dl). In contrast to the large glucose-dependent islet blood velocity changes observed in wild-type mice, only minimal differences are observed in both Cx36(+/-) and Cx36(-/-) mice. This observation supports a novel model where intraislet blood cell flow is regulated by the coordinated electrical activity in the islet β-cells. Because Cx36 expression and function is reduced in type 2 diabetes, the resulting defect in intraislet blood cell flow regulation may also play a significant role in diabetic pathology.

  12. Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the progress made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in humans, especially in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed to quantify the flow in these devices such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological characterization of blood. As a first step, computational technology developed for aerospace applications was extended to the analysis and development of a ventricular assist device (VAD), i.e., a blood pump. The blood flow in a VAD is practically incompressible and Newtonian, and thus an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure can be applied. A primitive variable formulation is used in conjunction with the overset grid approach to handle complex moving geometry. The primary purpose of developing the incompressible flow analysis capability was to quantify the flow in advanced turbopump for space propulsion system. The same procedure has been extended to the development of NASA-DeBakey VAD that is based on an axial blood pump. Due to massive computing requirements, high-end computing is necessary for simulating three-dimensional flow in these pumps. Computational, experimental, and clinical results are presented.

  13. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Busch, David R.; Mesquita, Rickson C.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law is among the most widely used approaches for analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance signals for measurements of tissue blood volume and oxygenation. Briefly, the modified Beer-Lambert paradigm is a scheme to derive changes in tissue optical properties based on continuous-wave (CW) diffuse optical intensity measurements. In its simplest form, the scheme relates differential changes in light transmission (in any geometry) to differential changes in tissue absorption. Here we extend this paradigm to the measurement of tissue blood flow by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). In the new approach, differential changes of the intensity temporal auto-correlation function at a single delay-time are related to differential changes in blood flow. The key theoretical results for measurement of blood flow changes in any tissue geometry are derived, and we demonstrate the new method to monitor cerebral blood flow in a pig under conditions wherein the semi-infinite geometry approximation is fairly good. Specifically, the drug dinitrophenol was injected in the pig to induce a gradual 200% increase in cerebral blood flow, as measured with MRI velocity flow mapping and by DCS. The modified Beer-Lambert law for flow accurately recovered these flow changes using only a single delay-time in the intensity auto-correlation function curve. The scheme offers increased DCS measurement speed of blood flow. Further, the same techniques using the modified Beer-Lambert law to filter out superficial tissue effects in NIRS measurements of deep tissues can be applied to the DCS modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow monitoring of deep tissues.

  14. Spontaneous oscillations of capillary blood flow in artificial microvascular networks.

    PubMed

    Forouzan, Omid; Yang, Xiaoxi; Sosa, Jose M; Burns, Jennie M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-09-01

    Previous computational studies have suggested that the capillary blood flow oscillations frequently observed in vivo can originate spontaneously from the non-linear rheological properties of blood, without any regulatory input. Testing this hypothesis definitively in experiments involving real microvasculature has been difficult because in vivo the blood flow in capillaries is always actively controlled by the host. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis experimentally and to investigate the relative contribution of different blood cells to the capillary blood flow dynamics under static boundary conditions and in complete isolation from the active regulatory mechanisms mediated by the blood vessels in vivo. To accomplish this objective, we passed whole blood and re-constituted blood samples (purified red blood cells suspended in buffer or in autologous plasma) through an artificial microvascular network (AMVN) comprising completely inert, microfabricated vessels with the architecture inspired by the real microvasculature. We found that the flow of blood in capillaries of the AMVN indeed oscillates with characteristic frequencies in the range of 0-0.6 Hz, which is in a very good agreement with previous computational studies and in vivo observations. We also found that the traffic of leukocytes through the network (typically neglected in computational modeling) plays an important role in generating the oscillations. This study represents the key piece of experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that spontaneous, self-sustained oscillations of capillary blood flow can be generated solely by the non-linear rheological properties of blood flowing through microvascular networks, and provides an insight into the mechanism of this fundamentally important microcirculatory phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pre- and postoperative ocular blood flow in transconjunctival orbital surgery].

    PubMed

    Grusha, Ia O; Kiseleva, T N; Danilov, S S; Markosian, A G

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the pre- and postoperative ocular blood flow in patients with post-traumatic orbital deformities who underwent transconjunctival orbital reconstruction. A total of 40 patients with post-traumatic deformities of the inferior and medial orbital walls were examined before and after transconjunctival "Alloplant" implantation to the orbit. Before the surgery, blood flow deficiency in a. ophthalmica and elevation in peripheral vascular resistance were found in all patients. Postoperatively, orbital hemodynamic parameters were restored and remained stable over the whole follow-up period. Post-traumatic disturbances of regional blood flow are revealed and postoperative changes of the relevant parameters are assessed.

  16. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-sion pressure as well as an overview of the newly developed imaging technologies used to investigate ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients.

  17. A Porous Media Model for Blood Flow within Reticulated Foam

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A porous media model is developed for non-Newtonian blood flow through reticulated foam at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10−8 to 10. This empirical model effectively divides the pressure gradient versus flow speed curve into three regimes, in which either the non-Newtonian viscous forces, the Newtonian viscous forces, or the inertial fluid forces are most prevalent. When compared to simulation data of blood flow through two reticulated foam geometries, the model adequately captures the pressure gradient within all three regimes, especially that within the Newtonian regime where blood transitions from a power-law to a constant viscosity fluid. PMID:24031095

  18. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  19. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One-Dimensional Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  20. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One–Dimensional Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant. PMID:25931614

  1. Regulation of Exercise Blood Flow: Role of Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Trinity, Joel D.; Broxterman, Ryan M.; Richardson, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    During exercise, oxygen and nutrient rich blood must be delivered to the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain through the complex and highly regulated integration of central and peripheral hemodynamic factors. Indeed, even minor alterations in blood flow to these organs have profound consequences on exercise capacity by modifying the development of fatigue. Therefore, the fine-tuning of blood flow is critical for optimal physical performance. At the level of the peripheral circulation, blood flow is regulated by a balance between the mechanisms responsible for vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Once thought of as toxic by-products of in vivo chemistry, free radicals are now recognized as important signaling molecules that exert potent vasoactive responses that are dependent upon the underlying balance between oxidation-reduction reactions or redox balance. Under normal healthy conditions with low levels of oxidative stress, free radicals promote vasodilation, which is attenuated with exogenous antioxidant administration. Conversely, with advancing age and disease where background oxidative stress is elevated, an exercise-induced increase in free radicals can further shift the redox balance to a pro-oxidant state, impairing vasodilation and attenuating blood flow. Under these conditions, exogenous antioxidants improve vasodilatory capacity and augment blood flow by restoring an “optimal” redox balance. Interestingly, while the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain all have unique functions during exercise, the mechanisms by which free radicals contribute to the regulation of blood flow is remarkably preserved across each of these varied target organs. PMID:26876648

  2. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Brad A.; O’Farrell, Fergus M.; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lauritzen, Martin; Attwell, David

    2014-01-01

    Brain blood flow increases, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and are the basis of BOLD functional imaging. It is controversial whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes. We demonstrate that neuronal activity and the neurotransmitter glutamate evoke the release of messengers that dilate capillaries by actively relaxing pericytes. Dilation is mediated by prostaglandin E2, but requires nitric oxide release to suppress vasoconstricting 20-HETE synthesis. In vivo, when sensory input increases blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood-brain barrier. Thus, pericytes are major regulators of cerebral blood flow and initiators of functional imaging signals. Prevention of pericyte constriction and death may reduce the long-lasting blood flow decrease which damages neurons after stroke. PMID:24670647

  3. Regulation of exercise blood flow: Role of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Trinity, Joel D; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-09-01

    During exercise, oxygen and nutrient rich blood must be delivered to the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain through the complex and highly regulated integration of central and peripheral hemodynamic factors. Indeed, even minor alterations in blood flow to these organs have profound consequences on exercise capacity by modifying the development of fatigue. Therefore, the fine-tuning of blood flow is critical for optimal physical performance. At the level of the peripheral circulation, blood flow is regulated by a balance between the mechanisms responsible for vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Once thought of as toxic by-products of in vivo chemistry, free radicals are now recognized as important signaling molecules that exert potent vasoactive responses that are dependent upon the underlying balance between oxidation-reduction reactions or redox balance. Under normal healthy conditions with low levels of oxidative stress, free radicals promote vasodilation, which is attenuated with exogenous antioxidant administration. Conversely, with advancing age and disease where background oxidative stress is elevated, an exercise-induced increase in free radicals can further shift the redox balance to a pro-oxidant state, impairing vasodilation and attenuating blood flow. Under these conditions, exogenous antioxidants improve vasodilatory capacity and augment blood flow by restoring an "optimal" redox balance. Interestingly, while the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain all have unique functions during exercise, the mechanisms by which free radicals contribute to the regulation of blood flow is remarkably preserved across each of these varied target organs.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Cellular Blood Flow through a Rigid Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasor, Daniel; Clausen, Jonathan; Aidun, Cyrus

    2009-11-01

    In blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs), the most numerous constituent of blood, influence continuum-level measures by altering the suspension at microscopic scales. The presence of RBCs alters the stress and diffusion individual cells experience, which can influence cardiovascular diseases by affecting other cells present in blood like platelets and white blood cells. Simulations of blood at a cellular level provide a tool that allows exploration of both the rheology and the stress and diffusion of individual suspended cells. In this work, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann/finite element method is used to simulate suspension flows characteristic of blood with deformable RBCs at realistic hematocrit values. We have shown the ability to simulate thousands deformable suspensions capturing non-Newtonian flow characteristics such as shear thinning, and the results agree well with experimental observations. Simulations through rigid arteries have been deformed with as many as 2500 RBCs. This work outlines results obtained for pressure-gradient driven blood flow through a rigid artery with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% hematocrit values. Results include the effect these deformable RBCs have on mean velocity, flow rate, radial variation of RBC concentration, and the effective viscosity for simulations at moderate to low cell capillary numbers, Ca <=0.08.

  5. Effect of plasma exchange on blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M M; Marshall, J

    1982-01-01

    The effects of plasma exchange using a low viscosity plasma substitute on blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow were investigated in eight subjects with normal cerebral vasculature. Plasma exchange resulted in significant reductions in plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, globulin and fibrinogen concentration without affecting packed cell volume. The reduction in whole blood viscosity was more pronounced at low shear rates suggesting an additional effect on red cell aggregation. Despite the fall in viscosity there was no significant change in cerebral blood flow. The results support the metabolic theory of autoregulation. Although changes in blood viscosity appear not to alter the level of cerebral blood flow under these circumstances, plasma exchange could still be of benefit in the management of acute cerebrovascular disease. PMID:6805689

  6. Relationship between beta-adrenoceptors and coronary blood flow heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Upsher, M.E.; Weiss, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the heterogeneous distribution of ..beta.. adrenoceptors contributes to the control of flow heterogeneity in the canine myocardium. ..beta.. adrenoceptor density and affinity were measured simultaneously with coronary blood flow in multiple sections of the left ventricle of 14 anesthetized open chest dogs. Radioactive microspheres were used for the measurement of blood flow. Receptor density (Bmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were measured using (/sup 125/I)- iodopindolol. The average control myocardial blood flow (MBF) was 86/+-/15 ml/min/100 g. Isoproterenol increased MBF by 82%, whereas propranolol reduced MBF by 13%. The mean value of Bmax was unaltered by either treatment. Under control conditions, a significant positive positive correlation was observed between Bmax and blood flow. In the isoproterenol treatment group, this correlation was enhanced. Beta adrenoceptor blockade led to a negative correlation. Kd showed no overall correlation with blood flow. Kd but not Bmax was significantly higher in the EPI than in the ENDO and in the base compared to the apex. There appears to be a direct linear relationship between the distribution of beta adrenoceptors and MBF distribution which is enhanced under conditions of high beta adrenergic activity. There is a correlation between beta adrenoceptor activity and blood flow distribution in the canine myocardium.

  7. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure.

  8. Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia.

  9. Pulse propagation by a capacitive mechanism drives embryonic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Anton, Halina; Harlepp, Sebastien; Ramspacher, Caroline; Wu, Dave; Monduc, Fabien; Bhat, Sandeep; Liebling, Michael; Paoletti, Camille; Charvin, Gilles; Freund, Jonathan B; Vermot, Julien

    2013-11-01

    Pulsatile flow is a universal feature of the blood circulatory system in vertebrates and can lead to diseases when abnormal. In the embryo, blood flow forces stimulate vessel remodeling and stem cell proliferation. At these early stages, when vessels lack muscle cells, the heart is valveless and the Reynolds number (Re) is low, few details are available regarding the mechanisms controlling pulses propagation in the developing vascular network. Making use of the recent advances in optical-tweezing flow probing approaches, fast imaging and elastic-network viscous flow modeling, we investigated the blood-flow mechanics in the zebrafish main artery and show how it modifies the heart pumping input to the network. The movement of blood cells in the embryonic artery suggests that elasticity of the network is an essential factor mediating the flow. Based on these observations, we propose a model for embryonic blood flow where arteries act like a capacitor in a way that reduces heart effort. These results demonstrate that biomechanics is key in controlling early flow propagation and argue that intravascular elasticity has a role in determining embryonic vascular function.

  10. Large-Eddy simulation of pulsatile blood flow.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manosh C; Mamun Molla, Md; Roditi, Giles

    2009-01-01

    Large-Eddy simulation (LES) is performed to study pulsatile blood flow through a 3D model of arterial stenosis. The model is chosen as a simple channel with a biological type stenosis formed on the top wall. A sinusoidal non-additive type pulsation is assumed at the inlet of the model to generate time dependent oscillating flow in the channel and the Reynolds number of 1200, based on the channel height and the bulk velocity, is chosen in the simulations. We investigate in detail the transition-to-turbulent phenomena of the non-additive pulsatile blood flow downstream of the stenosis. Results show that the high level of flow recirculation associated with complex patterns of transient blood flow have a significant contribution to the generation of the turbulent fluctuations found in the post-stenosis region. The importance of using LES in modelling pulsatile blood flow is also assessed in the paper through the prediction of its sub-grid scale contributions. In addition, some important results of the flow physics are achieved from the simulations, these are presented in the paper in terms of blood flow velocity, pressure distribution, vortices, shear stress, turbulent fluctuations and energy spectra, along with their importance to the relevant medical pathophysiology.

  11. Reduced myocardial blood flow in acute and chronic digitalization.

    PubMed

    Steiness, E; Bille-Brahe, N E; Hansen, J F; Lomholt, N; Ring-Larsen, H

    1978-07-01

    The myocardial blood flow was measured by the 133Xenon disappearance curve from the left ventricular wall following an injection of 133Xenon in the left coronary artery in 8 dogs without digoxin pretreatment and in 8 chronically digitalized dogs. The myocardial blood flow was significantly less (30%) in the digitalized dogs than in the dogs without pretreatment. In the digitalized dogs as well as in those without pretreatment an intravenous injection of digoxin resulted in a further significant decrease of the myocardial blood flow of about 20% and a significant increase of the coronary vascular resistance. The reduced myocardial blood flow both during acute and chronic digitalization is beleived to be of clinical importance.

  12. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-sion pressure as well as an overview of the newly developed imaging technologies used to investigate ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients. How to cite this article Mohindroo C, Ichhpujani P, Kumar S. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(3):104-112. PMID:27857490

  13. Measurement of limb blood flow by electrical impedance plethysmography.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, J. M.; Swain, I. D.; Shakespeare, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Limb blood flow has been measured in 72 individuals by the noninvasive technique of electrical impedance plethysmography. Venous occlusion was not used. Blood flow was measured in 230 limbs in which 195 limbs were either in normal individuals or the clinically normal limbs of patients (normal limbs). Thirty-five limbs were clinically abnormal. Measurements on limbs with clinical abnormalities showed that blood flow values often fell within the limits of the normal range. However 3 cases of known vascular injury and 2 cases studied after hand surgery under tourniquet showed lowered blood flow values by comparison with the unaffected limb. A simultaneously recorded range of cardiac output and stroke volume measurements gave similar results to those obtained in a previous, unconnected study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4004047

  14. Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162922.html Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain The more ... to speech may put people at risk for stuttering, a small study suggests. There are also signs ...

  15. Astrocyte Regulation of Blood Flow in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MacVicar, Brian A.; Newman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity results in increased blood flow in the brain, a response named functional hyperemia. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating this response. Neurotransmitters released from active neurons evoke Ca2+ increases in astrocytes, leading to the release of vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid from astrocyte endfeet onto blood vessels. Synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) dilate blood vessels, whereas 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) constricts vessels. The release of K+ from astrocyte endfeet may also contribute to vasodilation. Oxygen modulates astrocyte regulation of blood flow. Under normoxic conditions, astrocytic Ca2+ signaling results in vasodilation, whereas under hyperoxic conditions, vasoconstriction is favored. Astrocytes also contribute to the generation of vascular tone. Tonic release of both 20-HETE and ATP from astrocytes constricts vascular smooth muscle cells, generating vessel tone. Under pathological conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic retinopathy, disruption of normal astrocyte physiology can compromise the regulation of blood flow. PMID:25818565

  16. Probabilistic 4D blood flow tracking and uncertainty estimation.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ola; Hennemuth, Anja; Harloff, Andreas; Bock, Jelena; Markl, Michael; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2011-10-01

    Phase-Contrast (PC) MRI utilizes signal phase shifts resulting from moving spins to measure tissue motion and blood flow. Time-resolved 4D vector fields representing the motion or flow can be derived from the acquired PC MRI images. In cardiovascular PC MRI applications, visualization techniques such as vector glyphs, streamlines, and particle traces are commonly employed for depicting the blood flow. Whereas these techniques indeed provide useful diagnostic information, uncertainty due to noise in the PC-MRI measurements is ignored, which may lend the results a false sense of precision. In this work, the statistical properties of PC MRI flow measurements are investigated and a probabilistic flow tracking method based on sequential Monte Carlo sampling is devised to calculate flow uncertainty maps. The theoretical derivations are validated using simulated data and a number of real PC MRI data sets of the aorta and carotid arteries are used to demonstrate the flow uncertainty mapping technique.

  17. Assessment of coronary blood flow in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Ricciardi, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Coronary blood flow is tightly autoregulated but is subject to epicardial and microvascular obstruction, primarily owing to coronary atherosclerosis. Because coronary flow limitation underlies ischemic heart disease, an understanding of coronary physiology is paramount. Measurement of coronary blood flow, once relegated to the research laboratory is now easily performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In particular, the measurement of fractional flow reserve has been extensively studied and is an important adjunct to clinical decision making. Measurement of coronary flow informs clinicians of prognosis, guides revascularization therapy, and forms the basis of ongoing research in treatment of complex myocardial disease processes. Newer methods of assessing coronary flow measurements are undergoing validation for clinical use and should further enhance our ability to assess the importance of coronary flow in clinical disease.

  18. Discriminative imaging of maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta using ultrafast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Being able to map accurately placental blood flow in clinics could have major implications in the diagnosis and follow-up of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Moreover, the impact of such an imaging modality for a better diagnosis of placental dysfunction would require to solve the unsolved problem of discriminating the strongly intricated maternal and fetal vascular networks. However, no current imaging modality allows both to achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to tell these entangled flows apart. Although ultrasound imaging would be the clinical modality of choice for such a problem, conventional Doppler echography both lacks of sensibility to detect and map the placenta microvascularization and a concept to discriminate both entangled flows. In this work, we propose to use an ultrafast Doppler imaging approach both to map with an enhanced sensitivity the small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) and to assess the variation of the Doppler frequency simultaneously in all pixels of the image within a cardiac cycle. This approach is evaluated in vivo in the placenta of pregnant rabbits: By studying the local flow pulsatility pixel per pixel, it becomes possible to separate maternal and fetal blood in 2D from their pulsatile behavior. Significance Statement: The in vivo ability to image and discriminate maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta is an unsolved problem which could improve the diagnosis of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. To date, no imaging modality has both sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate these intimately entangled flows. We demonstrate that Ultrafast Doppler ultrasound method with a frame rate 100x faster than conventional imaging solves this issue. It permits the mapping of small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) in 2D with an enhanced sensitivity. By assessing pixel-per-pixel pulsatility within single cardiac cycles

  19. Salt-gland secretion and blood flow in the goose.

    PubMed

    Hanwell, A; Linzell, J L; Peaker, M

    1971-03-01

    1. Salt-gland blood flow in the domestic goose has been measured using a combination of Sapirstein's indicator fractionation technique for organ blood flow and Fegler's thermodilution method for cardiac output.2. Nasal salt secretion was induced by giving 0.5 M-NaCl or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. or by giving artificial sea water by stomach tube into the proventriculus.3. During secretion, salt-gland blood flow increased from 82.7 +/- 21.9 ml./100 g tissue. min to as high as 2179 ml./100 g. min (mean 1209 +/- 140).4. The rate of secretion in response to salt loading was very variable and was not correlated with the rate of blood flow.5. From the data obtained, it could be calculated that the median values for the percentage extraction of ions from the arterial plasma were Na 15%, K 35%, Cl 21% and water 5.8%.6. Atropine abolished secretion but not the increase in blood flow produced by salt loading.7. Unilateral complete denervation abolished secretion from and the increase in blood flow through the operated but not the control gland.8. Anaesthesia, induced by pentobarbitone sodium, almost completely blocked secretion and the increase in blood flow in the salt-gland in response to salt loading.9. In geese given 0.5 or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. a positive, significant correlation was found between the total amount of nasal secretion collected over 30 min and the concentrations of Na and Cl in the nasal fluid. However, when the time course of secretion was followed in any one bird, the rate of secretion was inversely related to the concentrations of Na and Cl.10. Harderian gland blood flow was not affected by salt loading.

  20. Enhancement of gastric mucosal blood flow with sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, M; Sorghi, M; Tittobello, A

    1994-01-01

    Twelve patients with dyspepsia whose gastric abnormalities ranged from diffuse reddening of the mucosa to multiple erosions were treated for 4 weeks with oral sulglycotide, a sulphated glycopeptide with known gastroprotective and ulcer-healing properties. Before and after treatment, gastric mucosal blood flow was assessed by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in mucosal perfusion was observed after sulglycotide treatment, suggesting that enhancement of mucosal blood flow may contribute to the therapeutic properties of the drug.

  1. Effect of tropicamide on ocular blood flow in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, D.; Michel, P.; Jaanus, S.D.

    1982-05-01

    Intracardiac injection of 15 microspheres labeled with /sup 85/Sr (strontium) and /sup 141/Ce (cerium) were used to determine ocular blood flow in seven rabbits before and 25 min after bilateral application of tropicamide to the cornea. By using two different isotopes distinguishable under gammaspectrometry, each animal served as its own control. After administration of two drops of 1% tropicamide, no significant difference in blood flow between treated and untreated eyes was observed.

  2. MRI of blood flow of the human retina.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qi; Zhang, Yi; Nateras, Oscar San Emeterio; van Osch, Matthias J P; Duong, Timothy Q

    2011-06-01

    This study reports a high-resolution MRI approach to image basal blood flow and hypercapnia-induced blood-flow changes in the unanesthetized human retina on a 3-T MRI scanner. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling technique with static tissue suppression was implemented to minimize movement artifacts and improve blood-flow sensitivity. Turbo spin-echo acquisition was used to achieve high spatial resolution free of susceptibility artifacts. The size, shape, and position of a custom-made receive radiofrequency coil were optimized for sensitivity in the posterior retina. Synchronized eye blink and respiration to the end of each data readout minimized eye movement and physiological fluctuation. Robust high-contrast blood-flow MRI of the unanesthetized human retina was obtained at 500 × 800 μm(2) in-plane resolution. Blood flow in the posterior retina was 93 ± 31 mL/(100 mL min) (mean ± standard deviation, N = 5). Hypercapnic inhalation (5% CO(2)) increased blood flow by 12 ± 4% relative to air (P < 0.01, N = 5). This study demonstrates the feasibility of blood-flow MRI of the retina of unanesthetized human. Because blood flow is tightly coupled to metabolic function under normal conditions and it is often perturbed in diseases, this approach could provide unique insights into retinal physiology and serve as an objective imaging biomarker for disease staging and testing of novel therapeutic strategies. This approach could open up new avenue of retinal research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  4. Development of blood flow velocimeter for ocular vessels.

    PubMed

    Levy, Y; Romano, A

    1988-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that blood flow in the retinal vessels varies in progressing diabetic retinopathy, coronary arteriole disease, hypertension and some other clinical situations. The changes of the flow in the blood vessels may serve as a monitor of the disease and as a follow up device for treatment success. Despite their importance direct blood flow velocity measurements are not easily obtainable. Recent advances in the development of a laser Doppler anemometry for the determination of in-vivo retinal blood velocity enables to obtain, with a noninvasive technique, information relevant to the flow of blood in the human retina. The described anemometry system is designed to be integrated, self-aligned and to operate with backscattered light. The influence of the important design parameters as well as focusing of the control volume on the retinal arteries is analyzed. Due to multiscattering of light from the blood cells present simultaneously in the control volume, the electronic signal obtained is very difficult to process and sophisticated signal processing routines are still being developed. At present measurements are used to obtain results with blood flowing in glass tubes of an inside diameter of 50 to 2000 microns. Preliminary experimental and theoretical simulations are currently being performed to validate the principle of the proposed data processing technique. Initial measurements have already produced relative high quality (and thus processable) signals, indicating good prospects for a practical ophthalmic system operation.

  5. APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF INTERACTING CONTINUA TO BLOOD FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Hund, Samuel J.; Antaki, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-scale investigations of the flow and deformation of blood and its formed elements have been studied for many years. Early in vitro investigations in the rotational viscometers or small glass tubes revealed important rheological properties such as the reduced blood apparent viscosity, Fahraeus effect and Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect [1], exhibiting the nonhomogeneous property of blood in microcirculation. We have applied Mixture Theory, also known as Theory of Interacting Continua, to study and model this property of blood [2, 3]. This approach holds great promise for predicting the trafficking of RBCs in micro-scale flows (such as the depletion layer near the wall), and other unique hemorheological phenomena relevant to blood trauma. The blood is assumed to be composed of an RBC component modeled as a nonlinear fluid, suspended in plasma, modeled as a linearly viscous fluid.

  6. Experimental comparison of mammalian and avian blood flow in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Kathryn; Liepmann, Dorian

    2015-11-01

    The non-Newtonian, shear rate dependent behavior of blood in microchannel fluid dynamics has been studied for nearly a century, with a significant focus on the characteristics of human blood. However, for over 200 years biologists have noted significant differences in red blood cell characteristics across vertebrate species, with particularly drastic differences in cell size and shape between mammals and non-mammalian classes. We present an experimental analysis of flow in long microchannels for several varieties of mammalian and avian blood, across a range of hematocrits, channel diameters, and flow rates. Correlation of shear rate and viscosity is compared to existing constitutive equations for human blood to further quantify the importance of red blood cell characteristics. Ongoing experimental results are made available in an online database for reference or collaboration. K.F. acknowledges funding from the ARCS Foundation and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship through NSF Grant DGE 1106400.

  7. Hepatic and intestinal blood flow following thermal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.A.; Tompkins, R.G.; Burke, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    Because cardiac output decreases after burn injuries, investigators have assumed, based upon dye clearance techniques, that hepatic and intestinal blood flow are also decreased following these injuries. Blood flow to the liver, stomach, small intestine, and kidney was determined by the uptake of 201thallium and 125I-labeled fatty acid (para-125I-phenyl-3-methyl pentanoic acid) in a 20% body surface area scald injury that also included plasma volume replacement resuscitation. Uptake of these radioisotopes was determined 15 minutes, 18 hours, and 72 hours after injury. The uptake of the 201thallium and 125I-labeled fatty acid by the gastrointestinal tissues was not statistically different at any of the time periods after comparison of the injured and control (sham-treated) animals. 201Thallium uptake by the kidney was significantly diminished 15 minutes after the burn injury (P less than 0.01). Based on these blood flow measurement techniques, the data suggest that the 20% body surface area scald injury did not alter blood flow to the liver or gastrointestinal tract within the initial 72 hours after the burn injury even though a decrease in renal blood flow was easily detected. These results suggest that the dysfunction of the gastrointestinal system or hepatic system observed after an acute burn injury is not simply the result of hypovolemic shock, which reduces both renal and mesenteric blood flow. These gastrointestinal and hepatic alterations may be related to a factor or factors other than intestinal ischemia.

  8. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  9. Stochastic modeling for magnetic resonance quantification of myocardial blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seethamraju, Ravi T.; Muehling, Olaf; Panse, Prasad M.; Wilke, Norbert M.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael

    2000-10-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow is useful for determining the functional severity of coronary artery lesions. With advances in MR imaging it has become possible to assess myocardial perfusion and blood flow in a non-invasive manner by rapid serial imaging following injection of contrast agent. To date most approaches reported in the literature relied mostly on deriving relative indices of myocardial perfusion directly from the measured signal intensity curves. The central volume principle on the other hand states that it is possible to derive absolute myocardial blood flow from the tissue impulse response. Because of the sensitivity involved in deconvolution due to noise in measured data, conventional methods are sub-optimal, hence, we propose to use stochastic time series modeling techniques like ARMA to obtain a robust impulse response estimate. It is shown that these methods when applied for the optical estimation of the transfer function give accurate estimates of myocardial blood flow. The most significant advantage of this approach, compared with compartmental tracer kinetic models, is the use of a minimum set of prior assumptions on data. The bottleneck in assessing myocardial blood flow, does not lie in the MRI acquisition, but rather in the effort or time for post processing. It is anticipated that the very limited requirements for user input and interaction will be of significant advantage for the clinical application of these methods. The proposed methods are validated by comparison with mean blood flow measurements obtained from radio-isotope labeled microspheres.

  10. Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow.

    PubMed

    Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; Selb, Juliette; Farzam, Parisa; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Carp, Stefan A

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow rely on the sensitivity of the temporal autocorrelation function of diffusively scattered light to red blood cell (RBC) mean square displacement (MSD). For RBCs flowing with convective velocity [Formula: see text], the autocorrelation is expected to decay exponentially with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the delay time. RBCs also experience shear-induced diffusion with a diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] and an MSD of [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, experimental data primarily reflect diffusive behavior. To provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of convective and diffusive movements, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering through tissue of varying vessel densities. We assumed laminar vessel flow profiles and accounted for shear-induced diffusion effects. In agreement with experimental data, we found that diffusive motion dominates the correlation decay for typical DCS measurement parameters. Furthermore, our model offers a quantitative relationship between the RBC diffusion coefficient and absolute tissue blood flow. We thus offer, for the first time, theoretical support for the empirically accepted ability of the DCS blood flow index ([Formula: see text]) to quantify tissue perfusion. We find [Formula: see text] to be linearly proportional to blood flow, but with a proportionality modulated by the hemoglobin concentration and the average blood vessel diameter.

  11. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. C.; Murphy, M.A.; Hoke, K. L.; Muths, Erin L.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Lemmon, Emily M.; Lemmon, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500–3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation – as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring – and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open.

  13. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Funk, W C; Murphy, M A; Hoke, K L; Muths, E; Amburgey, S M; Lemmon, E M; Lemmon, A R

    2016-02-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500-3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation - as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring - and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open.

  14. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation or regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  15. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging. They comprise radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation or regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  16. Measurement of directed blood flow by laser speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Evan R.; Thompson, Oliver B.; Andrews, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Recent success in reconciling laser Doppler and speckle measurements of dermal perfusion by the use of multi-exposure speckle has prompted an investigation of speckle effects arising from directed blood flow which might be expected in the small blood vessels of the eye. Unlike dermal scatter, the blood in retinal vessels is surrounded by few small and stationary scatterers able to assist the return of light energy by large-angle scatter. Returning light is expected to come from multiple small angle scatter from the large red blood cells which dominate the fluid. This work compares speckle measurements on highly scattering skin, with measurements on flow in a retinal phantom consisting of a glass capillary which is itself immersed in an index matching fluid to provide a flat air-phantom interface. Brownian motion dominated measurements when small easily levitated scatters were used, and flow was undetectable. With whole-blood, Brownian motion was small and directed flows in the expected region of tens of mm/s were detectable. The nominal flow speed relates to the known pump rate; within the capillary the flow will have a profile reducing toward the walls. The pulsatile effects on laser speckle contrast in the retina are discussed with preliminary multi-exposure measurements on retinal vessels using a fundus camera. Differences between the multiple exposure curves and power spectra of perfused tissue and ordered flow are discussed.

  17. Numerical investigation of blood flow. Part II: In capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Zamankhan, P.; Mousavi, S. M.; Kolari, P.

    2009-04-01

    In order to understand the normal and pathologic behavior of the human vascular system, detailed knowledge of blood flow and the response of blood vessels is required. In fact the ability to predict the flow hydrodynamics at any site in the vessels can lead to a better understanding of the behavior of blood flow. Simulation can play an important role in understanding the hemodynamic forces. The objective of the present attempt was to simulate the behavior of blood flow in microvessels using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical analysis is performed using a commercially available CFD package Fluent 6.2 which is based on the finite volume method. A continuum approach is proposed in which fluid structure interaction has been taken into account. Based on limitations imposed by computational resources, a more simplified model based on volume of fluid (VOF) approach is suggested to simulate movements of RBCs in capillaries and also to predict RBCs' deformation. Three-dimensional incompressible laminar flow fields are obtained by solving continuity and Navier-Stokes equations computationally. It was found that multiphase CFD simulations may give further insight into the dynamic characteristics of blood flow under complex flow conditions.

  18. Microvascular blood flow resistance: Role of red blood cell migration and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Katanov, Dinar; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular blood flow resistance has a strong impact on cardiovascular function and tissue perfusion. The flow resistance in microcirculation is governed by flow behavior of blood through a complex network of vessels, where the distribution of red blood cells across vessel cross-sections may be significantly distorted at vessel bifurcations and junctions. In this paper, the development of blood flow and its resistance starting from a dispersed configuration of red blood cells is investigated in simulations for different hematocrit levels, flow rates, vessel diameters, and aggregation interactions between red blood cells. Initially dispersed red blood cells migrate toward the vessel center leading to the formation of a cell-free layer near the wall and to a decrease of the flow resistance. The development of cell-free layer appears to be nearly universal when scaled with a characteristic shear rate of the flow. The universality allows an estimation of the length of a vessel required for full flow development, lc ≲ 25D, for vessel diameters in the range 10 μm < D < 100 μm. Thus, the potential effect of red blood cell dispersion at vessel bifurcations and junctions on the flow resistance may be significant in vessels which are shorter or comparable to the length lc. Aggregation interactions between red blood cells generally lead to a reduction of blood flow resistance. The simulations are performed using the same viscosity for both external and internal fluids and the RBC membrane viscosity is not considered; however, we discuss how the viscosity contrast may affect the results. Finally, we develop a simple theoretical model which is able to describe the converged cell-free-layer thickness at steady-state flow with respect to flow rate. The model is based on the balance between a lift force on red blood cells due to cell-wall hydrodynamic interactions and shear-induced effective pressure due to cell-cell interactions in flow. We expect that these results can

  19. A review of leakage flow in centrifugal blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Chan, Weng-Kong; Wong, Yew-Wah

    2006-05-01

    This article presents a new approach in determining the functional relationship between the leakage flow in a centrifugal blood pump and various parameters that affect it. While high leakage flow in a blood pump is essential for good washout and can help prevent thrombus formation, excessive leakage flow will result in higher fluid shear stress that may lead to hemolysis. Dimensional analysis is employed to provide a functional relationship between leakage flow rate and other important parameters governing the operation of a centrifugal blood pump. Results showed that pump performance with a smaller gap clearance is clearly superior compared to those of two other similar pumps with larger gap clearances. It was also observed that the nondimensional leakage flow rate varies almost linearly with dimensionless pump head. It also decreases with increasing volume flow rate. A smaller gap clearance will also increase the flow resistance and hence, decrease the nondimensional leakage flow rate. Increasing surface roughness, length of the gap clearance passage, or loss coefficient of the gap geometry will increase losses and hence, decrease the leakage flow rate. It is also interesting to note that for a given pump and gap clearance geometry, the nondimensional leakage flow rate is almost independent of the Reynolds number when specific speed is constant.

  20. Mechanisms of restriction of viral neuroinvasion at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jonathan J.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of highly specialized cells including brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, and neurons, which act in concert to restrict the entry of pathogens, immune cells, and soluble molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). If pathogens manage to cross the BBB and establish infection within the CNS, the BBB can open in a regulated manner to allow leukocyte transmigration into the CNS so that microbes, infected cells, and debris can be cleared. This review highlights how different inflammatory cytokines or signaling pathways disrupt or enhance BBB integrity in a way that regulates entry of neurotropic viruses into the CNS. PMID:26590675

  1. Three-phase CFD analytical modeling of blood flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Hassanein, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of blood cells in disturbed flow regions of arteries has significant relevance for understanding atherogenesis. However, their distribution with red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes is not so well studied and understood. Our three-phase computational fluid dynamics approach including plasma, RBCs, and leukocytes was used to numerically simulate the local hemodynamics in such a flow regime. This model has tracked the wall shear stress (WSS), phase distributions, and flow patterns for each phase in a concentrated suspension shear flow of blood. Unlike other computational approaches, this approach does not require dispersion coefficients as an input. The non-Newtonian viscosity model was applied to a wide physiological range of hematocrits, including low shear rates. The migration and segregation of blood cells in disturbed flow regions were computed, and the results compared favorably with available experimental data. The predicted higher leukocyte concentration was correlated with relatively low WSS near the stenosis having a high WSS. This behavior was attributed to flow-dependent interactions of the leukocytes with RBCs in pulsatile flow. This three-phase hemodynamic analysis may have application to vulnerable plaque formation in arteries with in vivo complex flow conditions.

  2. Research Advances: DRPS--Let The Blood Flow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    A team from the University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine has shown the potential for clinical use of the drag-reducing polymer (DRP) poly(N-vinylformamide), or PNVF. The high molecular weight PNVF is shown to reduce resistance to turbulent flow in a pipe and to enhance blood flow in animal models and it also…

  3. Research Advances: DRPS--Let The Blood Flow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    A team from the University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine has shown the potential for clinical use of the drag-reducing polymer (DRP) poly(N-vinylformamide), or PNVF. The high molecular weight PNVF is shown to reduce resistance to turbulent flow in a pipe and to enhance blood flow in animal models and it also…

  4. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  5. Extensional flow of blood analog solutions in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, P. C.; Pinho, F. T.; Oliveira, M. S. N.; Alves, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show the importance of extensional rheology, in addition to the shear rheology, in the choice of blood analog solutions intended to be used in vitro for mimicking the microcirculatory system. For this purpose, we compare the flow of a Newtonian fluid and two well-established viscoelastic blood analog polymer solutions through microfluidic channels containing both hyperbolic and abrupt contractions∕expansions. The hyperbolic shape was selected in order to impose a nearly constant strain rate at the centerline of the microchannels and achieve a quasihomogeneous and strong extensional flow often found in features of the human microcirculatory system such as stenoses. The two blood analog fluids used are aqueous solutions of a polyacrylamide (125 ppm w∕w) and of a xanthan gum (500 ppm w∕w), which were characterized rheologically in steady-shear flow using a rotational rheometer and in extension using a capillary breakup extensional rheometer (CaBER). Both blood analogs exhibit a shear-thinning behavior similar to that of whole human blood, but their relaxation times, obtained from CaBER experiments, are substantially different (by one order of magnitude). Visualizations of the flow patterns using streak photography, measurements of the velocity field using microparticle image velocimetry, and pressure-drop measurements were carried out experimentally for a wide range of flow rates. The experimental results were also compared with the numerical simulations of the flow of a Newtonian fluid and a generalized Newtonian fluid with shear-thinning behavior. Our results show that the flow patterns of the two blood analog solutions are considerably different, despite their similar shear rheology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the elastic properties of the fluid have a major impact on the flow characteristics, with the polyacrylamide solution exhibiting a much stronger elastic character. As such, these properties must be taken into account in the

  6. Undergraduate Contributions to Developing New Methods for Analyzing Blood Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Mary L.

    1998-11-01

    At Loyola, undergraduate research is strongly encouraged for students at every stage in college. Since 1988, I have supervised undergraduates with different majors, different physics backgrounds, different grade point averages, and different maturity levels. Their contributions to three experiments will be described. The first student measured the index of refraction of the walls of a tube used to study flows in curved, macroscopic ducts at Reynolds numbers matching arterial blood flow. A second student made preliminary measurements of flows in microfabricated venular bifurcations using confocal microscopy. A third group of students tested optical flow algorithms on digital images of flows in microscopic tubes with latex beads as tracers. This led to velocimetry studies of blood flows in vivo and in vitro.

  7. A multiple disk centrifugal pump as a blood flow device.

    PubMed

    Miller, G E; Etter, B D; Dorsi, J M

    1990-02-01

    A multiple disk, shear force, valveless centrifugal pump was studied to determine its suitability as a blood flow device. A pulsatile version of the Tesla viscous flow turbine was designed by modifying the original steady flow pump concept to produce physiological pressures and flows with the aid of controlling circuitry. Pressures and flows from this pump were compared to a Harvard Apparatus pulsatile piston pump. Both pumps were connected to an artificial circulatory system. Frequency and systolic duration were varied over a range of physiological conditions for both pumps. The results indicated that the Tesla pump, operating in a pulsatile mode, is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows similar to the Harvard pump and other pulsatile blood pumps.

  8. Ultrasonic Imaging of Hemodynamic Force in Carotid Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, N.; Homma, K.

    Hemodynamic forces including blood pressure and shear stress affect vulnerable plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and biochemical activation of endothelium such as NO production. In this study, a method for estimating and imaging shear stress and pressure gradient distributions in blood vessel as the hemodynamic force based on viscosity estimation is presented. Feasibility of this method was investigated by applying to human carotid blood flow. Estimated results of shear stress and pressure gradient distributions coincide with the ideal distributions obtained by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment.

  9. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1), adherens junction protein (E-cadherin), A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73), and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent inflammation and

  10. Numerical analysis of three dimensional flow around marine propellers in restricted water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakisa, M.; Maimun, A.; Ahmed, Y. M.; Behrouzi, F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine propeller blades have complicated geometries and as a consequence, the flow pattern around these propellers is very complex. The efficiency of the marine propeller is strongly dependent on propeller performance, thrust force and torque of propeller. In channels, canals, harbors and other types of restricted waters, flow inlet to the propellers is asymmetric and non-uniform, therefore hydrodynamic characteristics of the propeller is affected greatly by the presence of lateral restrictions of the navigation area, such as banks, quay walls and bottom. This research has approached the propeller hydrodynamic performance related to study on wake pattern behind of propeller affected by bank via numerical modeling using a finite volume code. Finally, the results of simulation the propeller's wake pattern and 3D flow around the propeller, with and without bank are compared. The influence of these parameter changings in the working propeller performance are carefully considered and analyzed.

  11. Cerebral blood flow measured by NMR indicator dilution in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, J.R.; Branch, C.A.; Helpern, J.A.; Smith, M.B.; Butt, S.M.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-02-01

    We developed techniques to assess the utility of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicator for cerebral blood flow studies in cats, using Freon-22 for the first candidate. A PIN-diode-switched NMR experiment allowed the acquisition of an arterial as well as a cerebral fluorine-19 signal proportional to concentration vs. time in a 1.89 T magnet. Mean +/- SD blood:brain partition coefficients for Freon-22 were estimated at 0.93 +/- 0.08 for gray matter and 0.77 +/- 0.12 for white matter. Using maximum-likelihood curve fitting, estimates of mean +/- SD resting cerebral blood flow were 50 +/- 19 ml/100 g-min for gray matter and 5.0 +/- 2.0 ml/100 g-min for white matter. Hypercapnia produced the expected increases in gray and white matter blood flow. The physiologic effects of Freon-22, including an increase in cerebral blood flow itself with administration of 40% by volume, may limit its use as an indicator. Nevertheless, the NMR techniques described demonstrate the feasibility of fluorine-19-labeled compounds as cerebral blood flow indicators and the promise for their use in humans.

  12. The effects of hypoxemia on myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Paridon, S M; Bricker, J T; Dreyer, W J; Reardon, M; Smith, E O; Porter, C B; Michael, L; Fisher, D J

    1989-03-01

    We evaluated the adequacy of regional and transmural blood flow during exercise and rapid pacing after 1 wk of hypoxemia. Seven mature mongrel dogs were made hypoxemic (mean O2 saturation = 72.4%) by anastomosis of left pulmonary artery to left atrial appendage. Catheters were placed in the left atrium, right atrium, pulmonary artery, and aorta. Atrial and ventricular pacing wires were placed. An aortic flow probe was placed to measure cardiac output. Ten nonshunted dogs, similarly instrumented, served as controls. Recovery time was approximately 1 wk. Cardiac output, mean aortic pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured at rest, with ventricular pacing, atrial pacing, and with treadmill exercise. Ventricular and atrial pace and exercise were at a heart rate of 200. Right ventricular free wall, left ventricular free wall, and septal blood flow were measured with radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Cardiac output, left atrial blood pressure, and aortic blood pressure were similar between the two groups of dogs in all testing states. Myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in the right and left ventricular free wall in the hypoxemic animals during resting and exercise testing states. Myocardial oxygen delivery was similar between the two groups of animals. Pacing resulted in an increase in myocardial blood flow in the control animals but not the hypoxemic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of Dietary Salt Restriction on Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E.; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wuxiang; Tzong, Keane; Zhao, Dong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the effects of dietary salt reduction on blood pressure (BP) in Chinese adults and the effects of China-specific cooking salt reduction strategies (salt substitute and salt-restriction spoon). METHODS PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies satisfying search criteria. Outcomes extracted from each included study were 24-hour urinary sodium (Na) excretion, salt (sodium chloride) intake, and BP level before and after dietary salt lowering. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and results were evaluated for evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity. Because most studies aggregated results for hypertensive and normotensive participants, estimates were made for hypertensives only and for hypertensives and normotensives combined. RESULTS Six salt-restriction experiment studies (3,153 participants), four cooking salt-restriction spoon studies (3,715 participants), and four cooking salt substitute studies (1,730 participants) were analyzed. In salt-restriction experiment studies, the pooled estimate of mean change in 24-hour urinary Na excretion in hypertensive participants was −163.0 mmol/day (95% confident interval (CI): −233.5 to −92.5 mmol/day), which was associated with a mean reduction of −8.9 mmHg (95%CI: −14.1 to −3.7 mmHg) in systolic BP. Each 1.00g dietary salt reduction in hypertensives was associated with a reduction of 0.94 mmHg in systolic BP (95%CI: 0.69 to 1.03 mmHg). These systolic BP reductions in hypertensives were 1.71 times greater compared with the mixed hypertensive and normotensive group. Salt-restriction spoon studies demonstrated a 1.46 g decrease on daily salt intake level. The effect of salt substitute use on systolic BP control was substantial among the hypertensives (−4.2, 95%CI: −7.0 to −1.3 mmHg), but the change did not reach statistical significance in hypertensives and normotensives combined (−2.31, 95%CI: −5.57 to 0.94 mmHg) CONCLUSIONS

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Effect of Dietary Salt Restriction on Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wuxiang; Tzong, Keane; Zhao, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of dietary salt reduction on blood pressure (BP) in Chinese adults and the effects of China-specific cooking salt-reduction strategies (the use of salt substitutes and salt-restriction spoons). The PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies satisfying the search criteria. Outcomes extracted from each included study were 24-h urinary sodium excretion, salt (sodium chloride) intake, and BP before and after dietary salt lowering. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and results were evaluated for evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity. Because most studies aggregated results for hypertensive and normotensive participants, estimates were made for hypertensive participants only and for hypertensive and normotensive participants combined. Six salt-restriction experiment studies (3,153 participants), 4 cooking salt-restriction spoon studies (3,715 participants), and 4 cooking salt-substitute studies (1,730 participants) were analyzed. In salt-restriction experiment studies, the pooled estimate of mean change in 24-h urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive participants was -163.0 mmol/day (95% confidence interval [CI]: -233.5 to -92.5 mmol/day), which was associated with a mean reduction of -8.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -14.1 to -3.7 mm Hg) in systolic BP. Each 1.00-g dietary salt reduction in hypertensive participants was associated with a reduction of 0.94 mm Hg in systolic BP (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.03 mm Hg). These systolic BP reductions in hypertensive participants were 1.71 times greater compared with the mixed hypertensive and normotensive group. Salt-restriction spoon studies demonstrated a 1.46-g decrease in daily salt intake level. The effect of salt-substitute use on systolic BP control was substantial among the hypertensive participants (-4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI: -7.0 to -1.3 mm Hg), but the change did not reach statistical significance in hypertensive and

  15. Margination of White Blood Cells in Microcapillary Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Margination of white blood cells (WBCs) towards vessel walls is an essential precondition for their efficient adhesion to the vascular endothelium. We perform numerical simulations with a two-dimensional blood flow model to investigate the dependence of WBC margination on hydrodynamic interactions of blood cells with the vessel walls, as well as on their collective behavior and deformability. We find WBC margination to be optimal in intermediate ranges of red blood cell (RBC) volume fractions and flow rates, while, beyond these ranges, it is substantially attenuated. RBC aggregation enhances WBC margination, while WBC deformability reduces it. These results are combined in state diagrams, which identify WBC margination for a wide range of flow and cell suspension conditions.

  16. Multiscale modeling of blood flow in cerebral malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2009-11-01

    The main characteristics of the malaria disease are progressing changes in red blood cell (RBC) mechanical properties and geometry, and its cytoadhesion to the vascular endothelium. Malaria-infected RBCs become considerably stiff compared to healthy ones, and may bind to the vascular endothelium of arterioles and venules. This leads to a significant reduction of blood flow, and eventual vessel obstruction. Due to a non-trivial malaria-infected RBC adhesive dynamics and obstruction formations the blood flow in cerebral malaria is extremely complex. Here, we employ multiscale modeling to couple nanometer scales at the binding level, micrometer scales at the cell level and millimeter scales at the arteriole level. Blood flow in cerebral malaria is modeled using a coarse-grained RBC model developed in our group. The RBC adhesion is simulated based on the stochastic bond formation/breakage model, which is validated against recent experiments.

  17. Blood Flow: Multi-scale Modeling and Visualization (July 2011)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms, along with techniques for multi-scale visualizations. This animation presents early results of two studies used in the development of a multi-scale visualization methodology. The fisrt illustrates a flow of healthy (red) and diseased (blue) blood cells with a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Each blood cell is represented by a mesh, small spheres show a sub-set of particles representing the blood plasma, while instantaneous streamlines and slices represent the ensemble average velocity. In the second we investigate the process of thrombus (blood clot) formation, which may be responsible for the rupture of aneurysms, by concentrating on the platelet blood cells, observing as they aggregate on the wall of an aneruysm. Simulation was performed on Kraken at the National Institute for Computational Sciences. Visualization was produced using resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage Recorder for Comparing Peripheral Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin J; Gregory, T Stan; Lastinger, Michael C; Murrow, Jonathan R; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-06-22

    Blood flow is a clinical metric for monitoring of cardiovascular diseases but current measurements methods are costly or uncomfortable for patients. It was shown that the interaction of the magnetic field (B 0) during MRI and blood flow in the body, through the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect, produce voltages (V MHD) observable through intra-MRI electrocardiography (ECG), which are correlated with regional blood flow. This study shows the reproducibility of V MHD outside the MRI and its application in a portable flow monitoring device. To recreate this interaction outside the MRI, a static neodymium magnet (0.4T) was placed in between two electrodes to induce the V MHD in a single lead ECG measurement. V MHD was extracted, and integrated over to obtain a stroke volume metric. A smartphone-enabled device utilizing this interaction was developed in order to create a more accessible method of obtaining blood flow measurements. The portable device displayed a <6% error compared to a commercial recorder, and was able to successfully record V MHD using the 0.4T magnet. Exercise stress testing showed a V MHD increase of 23% in healthy subjects, with an 81% increase in the athlete. The study demonstrates a new device utilizing MHD interactions with body circulation to obtain blood flow metrics.

  19. A modified restricted Euler equation for turbulent flows with mean velocity gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.; Speziale, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    The restricted Euler equation captures many important features of the behavior of the velocity gradient tensor observed in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of isotropic turbulence. However, in slightly more complex flows the agreement is not good, especially in regions of low dissipation. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the Reynolds-averaged restricted Euler equation violates the balance of mean momentum for virtually all homogeneous turbulent flows with only two major exceptions: isotropic and homogeneously-sheared turbulence. A new model equation which overcomes this shortcoming and is more widely applicable is suggested. This modele is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation with a restricted Euler type approximation made on the fluctuating velocity gradient field. Analytical solutions of the proposed modified restricted Euler equation appear to be difficult to obtain. Hence, a strategy for numerically calculating the velocity gradient tensor is developed. Preliminary calculations tend to indicate that the modified restricted Euler equation captures many important aspects of the behavior of the fluctuating velocity gradients in anisotropic homogeneous turbulence.

  20. An intelligent flow control system for long term fluid restriction in small animals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Fluid retention is one of the most common symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Although fluid restriction may be a therapeutic strategy, the degree of fluid restriction necessary for the best therapeutic outcome remains unknown partly due to the lack of proper experimental method to restrict water consumption in small animals. The traditional methods that allow animals to access water only in a limited time window or within pre-determined daily volume can be stressful because the animals may become thirsty during the time of water deprivation. To provide a less stressful water restriction paradigm, we designed a feedback-control system of drinking flow to modulate the drinking behavior of small animals. This system consisted of an infrared droplet sensor for monitoring the drinking flow and a computer controlled electric valve to regulate the water availability. A light signal which synchronized with the command for opening the valve was set to establish a conditioned reflex. An animal test indicated that rats were adaptable to a precisely programmed water supply. This system may warrant investigation into the consequences of fluid restriction in chronic experimental animal study.

  1. Regional myocardial blood flow in man during dipyridamole coronary vasodilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.G.; Groves, B.M.; Horwitz, L.D.; Chaudhuri, T.K.

    1985-06-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow before and after intravenous dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was measured during cardiac catheterization in 11 patients using the /sup 133/Xe washout technique. Significant increases in heart rate and decreases in systolic blood pressure were observed with dipyridamole infusion. However, double product and cardiac output did not differ before or after drug infusion. Regional myocardial blood flow increased from 67 to 117 ml/100 mg/min in myocardial segments supplied by nonobstructed coronary arteries. In stenotic coronary arteries, flow increased from 57 to 79 ml/100 mg/min with dipyridamole. We conclude that dipyridamole infusion results in flow differences which discriminate stenotic from nonstenotic coronary arteries.

  2. Effective pulmonary blood flow in normal children at rest.

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, J J; Warner, J O; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    Effective pulmonary blood flow was measured with a soluble inert gas uptake method (10% argon, 3.5% freon-22, 35% oxygen, balance nitrogen) in 98 apparently healthy children aged 5-14 years. None had any evidence of cardiorespiratory disease and all had normal values for absolute and dynamic lung volumes and transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Values of blood flow measured by a rebreathing method correlated reasonably closely with height, weight, body surface area, and lung volumes, and to a lesser extent with hand and foot size. The mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow index was 2.7 (0.31) 1 min-1 m-2. Small children found a single breath method of measuring flow more difficult to perform and the results were more variable. PMID:3238641

  3. Blood flow in capillaries of the human lung.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Clark, Alys; Tawhai, Merryn

    2013-10-01

    A novel model for the blood system is postulated focusing on the flow rate and pressure distribution inside the arterioles and venules of the pulmonary acinus. Based upon physiological data it is devoid of any ad hoc constants. The model comprises nine generations of arterioles, venules, and capillaries in the acinus, the gas exchange unit of the lung. Blood is assumed incompressible and Newtonian and the blood vessels are assumed inextensible. Unlike previous models of the blood system, the venules and arterioles open up to the capillary network in numerous locations along each generation. The large number of interconnected capillaries is perceived as a porous medium in which the flow is macroscopically unidirectional from arterioles to venules openings. In addition, the large number of capillaries extending from each arteriole and venule allows introduction of a continuum theory and formulation of a novel system of ordinary, nonlinear differential equations which governs the blood flow and pressure fields along the arterioles, venules, and capillaries. The solution of the differential equations is semianalytical and requires the inversion of three diagonal, 9 × 9 matrices only. The results for the total flow rate of blood through the acinus are within the ballpark of physiological observations despite the simplifying assumptions used in our model. The results also manifest that the contribution of the nonlinear convection term of the Navier-Stokes equations has little effect (less than 2%) on the total blood flow entering/leaving the acinus despite the fact that the Reynolds number is not much smaller than unity at the proximal generations. The model makes it possible to examine some pathological cases. Here, centri-acinar and distal emphysema were investigated yielding a reduction in inlet blood flow rate.

  4. Characterization of intestinal collateral blood flow in the developing piglet.

    PubMed

    Crissinger, K D; Granger, D N

    1988-10-01

    Interest in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis has prompted study of the intestinal circulation in developing animals. It is conceivable that poorly developed collateral channels may predispose the neonatal intestine to ischemic insults. We therefore characterized intestinal collateral blood flow in anesthetized and ventilated 1-day and 1-month-old piglets. Intestinal blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres (15 micron diameter) before and after either 1) total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or 2) occlusion of a distal (jejunoileal) branch of the SMA. After total SMA occlusion in 1-day and 1-month-old piglets, perfusion of the intestine via collaterals from the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries was not evident. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic (except rectal) blood flows fell to zero 30 min after ligation of the SMA. Ligation of a distal branch of the SMA in 1-month-old animals significantly reduced total wall (by 25%) and mucosal/submucosal (by 25%) blood flows in the occluded segment. Similar experiments in 1-day-old piglets produced significantly greater reduction in total (70%) and mucosa/submucosa (70%) blood flows. Muscle/serosa blood flows in both groups were not significantly different from control values. In conclusion, collateral perfusion of the intestine via the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries is insignificant during acute SMA occlusion in the developing piglet. Although there is significant collateral blood flow within the SMA vascular network, perfusion between adjacent gut segments is less effective in preventing intestinal ischemia after occlusion of a branch of the SMA in neonates than in 1-month-old piglets.

  5. Topical Menthol, Ice, Peripheral Blood Flow, and Perceived Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Robert; Ledford, Elizabeth R.; Jacks, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Injury management commonly includes decreasing arterial blood flow to the affected site in an attempt to reduce microvascular blood flow and edema and limit the induction of inflammation. Applied separately, ice and menthol gel decrease arterial blood flow, but the combined effects of ice and menthol gel on arterial blood flow are unknown. Objectives: To compare radial artery blood flow, arterial diameter, and perceived discomfort before and after the application of 1 of 4 treatment conditions. Design: Experimental crossover design. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants or Other Participants: Ten healthy men, 9 healthy women (mean age = 25.68 years, mean height = 1.73 m, mean weight = 76.73 kg). Intervention(s): Four treatment conditions were randomly applied for 20 minutes to the right forearm of participants on 4 different days separated by at least 24 hours: (1) 3.5 mL menthol gel, (2) 0.5 kg of crushed ice, (3) 3.5 mL of menthol gel and 0.5 kg of crushed ice, or (4) no treatment (control). Main Outcome Measure(s): Using high-resolution ultrasound, we measured right radial artery diameter (cm) and blood flow (mL/min) every 5 minutes for 20 minutes after the treatment was applied. Discomfort with the treatment was documented using a 1-to-10 intensity scale. Results: Radial artery blood flow decreased (P < .05) from baseline in the ice (−20% to −24%), menthol (−17% to −24%), and ice and menthol (−36% to −39%) treatments but not in the control (3% to 9%) at 5, 10, and 15 minutes. At 20 minutes after baseline, only the ice (−27%) and combined ice and menthol (−38%) treatments exhibited reductions in blood flow (P < .05). Discomfort was less with menthol than with the ice treatment at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after application (P < .05). Arterial diameter and heart rate did not change. Conclusions: The application of 3.5 mL of menthol was similar to the application of 0.5 kg of crushed ice in reducing peripheral blood flood. Combining

  6. Topical menthol, ice, peripheral blood flow, and perceived discomfort.

    PubMed

    Topp, Robert; Ledford, Elizabeth R; Jacks, Dean E

    2013-01-01

    Injury management commonly includes decreasing arterial blood flow to the affected site in an attempt to reduce microvascular blood flow and edema and limit the induction of inflammation. Applied separately, ice and menthol gel decrease arterial blood flow, but the combined effects of ice and menthol gel on arterial blood flow are unknown. To compare radial artery blood flow, arterial diameter, and perceived discomfort before and after the application of 1 of 4 treatment conditions. Experimental crossover design. Clinical laboratory. PARTICIPANTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy men, 9 healthy women (mean age = 25.68 years, mean height = 1.73 m, mean weight = 76.73 kg). Four treatment conditions were randomly applied for 20 minutes to the right forearm of participants on 4 different days separated by at least 24 hours: (1) 3.5 mL menthol gel, (2) 0.5 kg of crushed ice, (3) 3.5 mL of menthol gel and 0.5 kg of crushed ice, or (4) no treatment (control). Using high-resolution ultrasound, we measured right radial artery diameter (cm) and blood flow (mL/min) every 5 minutes for 20 minutes after the treatment was applied. Discomfort with the treatment was documented using a 1-to-10 intensity scale. Radial artery blood flow decreased (P < .05) from baseline in the ice (-20% to -24%), menthol (-17% to -24%), and ice and menthol (-36% to -39%) treatments but not in the control (3% to 9%) at 5, 10, and 15 minutes. At 20 minutes after baseline, only the ice (-27%) and combined ice and menthol (-38%) treatments exhibited reductions in blood flow (P < .05). Discomfort was less with menthol than with the ice treatment at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after application (P < .05). Arterial diameter and heart rate did not change. The application of 3.5 mL of menthol was similar to the application of 0.5 kg of crushed ice in reducing peripheral blood flood. Combining crushed ice with menthol appeared to have an additive effect on reducing blood flow.

  7. Effects of cyclic motion on coronary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mahmudul; Rubenstein, David A; Yin, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate the effect of cyclic motion (i.e., bending and stretching) on coronary blood flow. The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of a 50-mm section of the left anterior descending artery (normal or with a 60% stenosis) was constructed based on anatomical studies. To describe the bending motion of the blood vessel wall, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eularian methods were used. To simulate artery bending and blood pressure change induced stretching, the arterial wall was modeled as an anisotropic nonlinear elastic solid using the five-parameter Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model. Employing a laminar model, the flow field was solved using the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Blood was modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. A fluid-structure interaction approach was used to couple the fluid domain and the solid domain iteratively, allowing force and total mesh displacement to be transferred between the two domains. The results demonstrated that even though the bending motion of the coronary artery could significantly affect blood cell trajectory, it had little effect on flow parameters, i.e., blood flow velocity, blood shear stress, and wall shear stress. The shape of the stenosis (asymmetric or symmetric) hardly affected flow parameters either. However, wall normal stresses (axial, circumferential, and radial stress) can be greatly affected by the blood vessel wall motion. The axial wall stress was significantly higher than the circumferential and radial stresses, as well as wall shear stress. Therefore, investigation on effects of wall stress on blood vessel wall cellular functions may help us better understand the mechanism of mechanical stress induced cardiovascular disease.

  8. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  9. Dissipative particle dynamics modeling of blood flow in arterial bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Lykov, Kirill; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-11-01

    The motion of a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing in bifurcations is investigated using both low-dimensional RBC (LD-RBC) and multiscale RBC (MS-RBC) models based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The blood flow is first simulated in a symmetric geometry between the diverging and converging channels to satisfy the periodic flow assumption along the flow direction. The results show that the flowrate ratio of the daughter channels and the feed hematocrit level has considerable influence on blood-plasma separation. We also propose a new method to model the inflow and outflow boundaries for the blood flow simulations: the inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated by DPD fluid with periodic boundary conditions; the outflow in two adjacent regions near the outlet is controlled by adaptive forces to keep the flowrate and velocity gradient equal, while the particles leaving the microfluidic channel at the outlet at each time step are removed from the system. The simulation results of the developing flow match analytical solutions from continuum theory. Plasma skimming and the all-or-nothing phenomenon of RBCs in bifurcation have been investigated in the simulations. The simulation results are consistent with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions. This work is supported by the NIH Grant R01HL094270.

  10. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    PubMed Central

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance. PMID:28303921

  11. Hydrokinetic approach to large-scale cardiovascular blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchionna, Simone; Bernaschi, Massimo; Succi, Sauro; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Coskun, Ahmet U.; Feldman, Charles L.

    2010-03-01

    We present a computational method for commodity hardware-based clinical cardiovascular diagnosis based on accurate simulation of cardiovascular blood flow. Our approach leverages the flexibility of the Lattice Boltzmann method to implementation on high-performance, commodity hardware, such as Graphical Processing Units. We developed the procedure for the analysis of real-life cardiovascular blood flow case studies, namely, anatomic data acquisition, geometry and mesh generation, flow simulation and data analysis and visualization. We demonstrate the usefulness of our computational tool through a set of large-scale simulations of the flow patterns associated with the arterial tree of a patient which involves two hundred million computational cells. The simulations show evidence of a very rich and heterogeneous endothelial shear stress pattern (ESS), a quantity of recognized key relevance to the localization and progression of major cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and set the stage for future studies involving pulsatile flows.

  12. Visually evoked blood flow responses and interaction with dynamic cerebral autoregulation: correction for blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Gommer, Erik D; Bogaarts, Guy; Martens, Esther G H J; Mess, Werner H; Reulen, Jos P H

    2014-05-01

    Visually evoked flow responses recorded using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are often quantified using a dynamic model of neurovascular coupling. The evoked flow response is seen as the model's response to a visual step input stimulus. However, the continuously active process of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) compensating cerebral blood flow for blood pressure fluctuations may induce changes of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) as well. The effect of blood pressure variability on the flow response is evaluated by separately modeling the dCA-induced effects of beat-to-beat measured blood pressure related CBFV changes. Parameters of 71 subjects are estimated using an existing, well-known second order dynamic neurovascular coupling model proposed by Rosengarten et al., and a new model extending the existing model with a CBFV contributing component as the output of a dCA model driven by blood pressure as input. Both models were evaluated for mean and systolic CBFV responses. The model-to-data fit errors of mean and systolic blood pressure for the new model were significantly lower compared to the existing model: mean: 0.8%±0.6 vs. 2.4%±2.8, p<0.001; systolic: 1.5%±1.2 vs. 2.2%±2.6, p<0.001. The confidence bounds of all estimated neurovascular coupling model parameters were significantly (p<0.005) narrowed for the new model. In conclusion, blood pressure correction of visual evoked flow responses by including cerebral autoregulation in model fitting of averaged responses results in significantly lower fit errors and by that in more reliable model parameter estimation. Blood pressure correction is more effective when mean instead of systolic CBFV responses are used. Measurement and quantification of neurovascular coupling should include beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement.

  13. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Anand, R; Biedebach, M; Fernando, G

    1996-03-01

    Previous blood flow measurements in this laboratory have indicated increased nonrenal nonhepatic blood flow during behaviorally induced rest states, especially during the stylized mental technique of transcendental meditation (TM). We have hypothesized that increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) may account for most of the increased nonrenal nonhepatic blood flow during TM. In this report we describe increased frontal and occipital CBF in TM determined by the electrical impedance plethysmographic methodology known as rheoencephalography (REG), which allows noninvasive, nondisturbing, continuous CBF monitoring. We also report high correlation between increased CBF and decreased cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) during TM, suggesting that a contributing vascular mechanism to the increased CBF may be decreased CVR. Because only a small amount of stage 1 sleep was observed during TM and because stage 1 sleep has been reported to be accompanied by decreased CBF, we believe that sleep did not contribute to the CBF increase. The data of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that blood flow changes during TM comprise a patterned response subserving needs of increased cerebral activity.

  14. Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

  15. Effects of Aortic Irregularities on the Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark-Little, Iris; Prahl-Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular defects characterized by geometrical anomalies of the aorta and its effect on the blood flow are investigated. The flow characteristics change with the aorta geometry and the rheological properties of the blood. Flow characteristics such as wall shear stress often play an important role in the development of vascular disease. In the present study, blood is considered to be non-Newtonian and is modeled using the Quemada model, an empirical model that is valid for different red blood cell loading. Three patient-specific aortic geometries are studied using Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The three geometries represent malformations that are typical in patients populations having a genetic disorder called Turner syndrome. The results show a highly complex flow with regions of recirculation that are enhanced in two of the three aortas. Moreover, blood flow is diverted, due to the malformations, from the descending aorta to the three side branches of the arch. The geometry having an elongated transverse aorta has larger areas of strong oscillatory wall shear stress.

  16. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  17. Effect of carbohydrate on portal vein blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Rehrer, N J; Goes, E; DuGardeyn, C; Reynaert, H; DeMeirleir, K

    2005-04-01

    Effects of carbohydrate ingestion and exercise on portal vein blood flow were studied. Flow was measured by pulsed-electronic Doppler. Eight male subjects performed four tests after a standardised breakfast and 5 h fast. Beverages were CHO (10 % glucose, 30 mmol . l (-1) NaCl) and W (water, 30 mmol . l (-1) NaCl). Exercise experiments comprised a resting measurement, 10 min warm-up and 60 min 70 % VO(2)max cycling. Every 10 min subjects stopped cycling briefly (approximately 30 s) for measurements. Beverage was consumed after warm-up (500 ml) and at 20 and 40 min (250 ml). Similar tests were done at rest. Blood samples were taken concurrently with flow measurements for hormonal concentrations. Exercise decreased blood flow (repeated measures ANOVA, p < 0.0001) and carbohydrate ingestion increased flow (p = 0.015). At rest, flow was greater with CHO than with W at 20 (177 +/- 31; 101 +/- 25 %, resp.) (mean +/- SE), 30 (209 +/- 37; 120 +/- 20 %), 40 (188 +/- 32; 108 +/- 12 %), and 60 min (195 +/- 19; 112 +/- 12 %) (1-way ANOVA, Fisher's PLSD, p < 0.05). Flow was similar during exercise with CHO and W, with a tendency for CHO to maintain flow better, at 10 (124 +/- 27; 77 +/- 21 %), 20 (81 +/- 10; 60 +/- 13 %), 30 (106 +/- 26; 56 +/- 10 %), 40 (109 +/- 28; 54 +/- 8 %), 50 (85 +/- 17; 54 +/- 13 %), and 60 min (61 +/- 15; 47 +/- 7 %). A positive correlation between glucagon and flow and an inverse correlation between noradrenaline and flow were observed. Exercise reduces, and carbohydrate increases, portal vein flow. Changes in plasma concentrations suggest that noradrenaline and glucagon, respectively, may play a role in modulating flow.

  18. One dimensional blood flow in a planetocentric orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

    2012-05-01

    All life on earth is accustomed to the presence of gravity. When gravity is altered, biological processes can go awry. It is of great importance to ensure safety during a spaceflight. Long term exposure to microgravity can trigger detrimental physiological responses in the human body. Fluid redistribution coupled with fluid loss is one of the effects. In particular, in microgravity blood volume is shifted towards the thorax and head. Sympathetic nervous system-induced vasoconstriction is needed to maintain arterial pressure, while venoconstriction limits venous pooling of blood prevents further reductions in venous return of blood to the heart. In this paper, we modify an existing one dimensional blood flow model with the inclusion of the hydrostatic pressure gradient that further depends on the gravitational field modified by the oblateness and rotation of the Earth. We find that the velocity of the blood flow VB is inversely proportional to the blood specific volume d, also proportional to the oblateness harmonic coefficient J2, the angular velocity of the Earth ωE, and finally proportional to an arbitrary constant c. For c = -0.39073 and ξH = -0.5 mmHg, all orbits result to less blood flow velocities than that calculated on the surface of the Earth. From all considered orbits, elliptical polar orbit of eccentricity e = 0.2 exhibit the largest flow velocity VB = 1.031 m/s, followed by the orbits of inclination i = 45°and 0°. The Earth's oblateness and its rotation contribute a 0.7% difference to the blood flow velocity.

  19. Characterizing pulmonary blood flow distribution measured using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A Cortney; Prisk, G Kim; Levin, David L; Hopkins, Susan R; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-12-01

    The arterial spin labeling (ASL) method provides images in which, ideally, the signal intensity of each image voxel is proportional to the local perfusion. For studies of pulmonary perfusion, the relative dispersion (RD, standard deviation/mean) of the ASL signal across a lung section is used as a reliable measure of flow heterogeneity. However, the RD of the ASL signals within the lung may systematically differ from the true RD of perfusion because the ASL image also includes signals from larger vessels, which can reflect the blood volume rather than blood flow if the vessels are filled with tagged blood during the imaging time. Theoretical studies suggest that the pulmonary vasculature exhibits a lognormal distribution for blood flow and thus an appropriate measure of heterogeneity is the geometric standard deviation (GSD). To test whether the ASL signal exhibits a lognormal distribution for pulmonary blood flow, determine whether larger vessels play an important role in the distribution, and extract physiologically relevant measures of heterogeneity from the ASL signal, we quantified the ASL signal before and after an intervention (head-down tilt) in six subjects. The distribution of ASL signal was better characterized by a lognormal distribution than a normal distribution, reducing the mean squared error by 72% (p < 0.005). Head-down tilt significantly reduced the lognormal scale parameter (p = 0.01) but not the shape parameter or GSD. The RD increased post-tilt and remained significantly elevated (by 17%, p < 0.05). Test case results and mathematical simulations suggest that RD is more sensitive than the GSD to ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels, a probable explanation of the change in RD without a statistically significant change in GSD. This suggests that the GSD is a useful measure of pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity with the advantage of being less affected by the ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels.

  20. Effects of disturbed blood flow during exercise on endothelial function: a time course analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, F.M.; Vianna, L.C.; Fernandes, I.A.; Nóbrega, A.C.; Lima, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the time course of endothelial function after a single handgrip exercise session combined with blood flow restriction in healthy young men. Nine participants (28±5.8 years) completed a single session of bilateral dynamic handgrip exercise (20 min with 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction). To induce blood flow restriction, a cuff was placed 2 cm below the antecubital fossa in the experimental arm. This cuff was inflated to 80 mmHg before initiation of exercise and maintained through the duration of the protocol. The experimental arm and control arm were randomly selected for all subjects. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood flow velocity profiles were assessed using Doppler ultrasonography before initiation of the exercise, and at 15 and 60 min after its cessation. Blood flow velocity profiles were also assessed during exercise. There was a significant increase in FMD 15 min after exercise in the control arm compared with before exercise (64.09%±16.59%, P=0.001), but there was no change in the experimental arm (-12.48%±12.64%, P=0.252). FMD values at 15 min post-exercise were significantly higher for the control arm in comparison to the experimental arm (P=0.004). FMD returned to near baseline values at 60 min after exercise, with no significant difference between arms (P=0.424). A single handgrip exercise bout provoked an acute increase in FMD 15 min after exercise, returning to near baseline values at 60 min. This response was blunted by the addition of an inflated pneumatic cuff to the exercising arm. PMID:26909789

  1. Effects of disturbed blood flow during exercise on endothelial function: a time course analysis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, F M; Vianna, L C; Fernandes, I A; Nóbrega, A C; Lima, R M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the time course of endothelial function after a single handgrip exercise session combined with blood flow restriction in healthy young men. Nine participants (28 ± 5.8 years) completed a single session of bilateral dynamic handgrip exercise (20 min with 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction). To induce blood flow restriction, a cuff was placed 2 cm below the antecubital fossa in the experimental arm. This cuff was inflated to 80 mmHg before initiation of exercise and maintained through the duration of the protocol. The experimental arm and control arm were randomly selected for all subjects. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood flow velocity profiles were assessed using Doppler ultrasonography before initiation of the exercise, and at 15 and 60 min after its cessation. Blood flow velocity profiles were also assessed during exercise. There was a significant increase in FMD 15 min after exercise in the control arm compared with before exercise (64.09% ± 16.59%, P=0.001), but there was no change in the experimental arm (-12.48% ± 12.64%, P=0.252). FMD values at 15 min post-exercise were significantly higher for the control arm in comparison to the experimental arm (P=0.004). FMD returned to near baseline values at 60 min after exercise, with no significant difference between arms (P=0.424). A single handgrip exercise bout provoked an acute increase in FMD 15 min after exercise, returning to near baseline values at 60 min. This response was blunted by the addition of an inflated pneumatic cuff to the exercising arm.

  2. Pulmonary blood flow distribution after banding of pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Samánek, M; Fiser, B; Ruth, C; Tůma, S; Hucín, B

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotope lung scanning was used to investigate the distribution of pulmonary blood flow after banding of the pulmonary artery in children with a left-to-right shunt and pulmonary hypertension. An abnormal distribution of blood flow in the lung on the side of the operation approach was observed in all patients in the first three weeks following surgery. Abnormalities were still observed in 17 of 21 children 10 months to more than 8 years after the banding operation. There was no significant relation between the occurrence of these abnormalities and time after surgery. Diminished flow to the zones of the right lung was observed less frequently. The incidence of abnormalities in flow distribution was also high preoperatively. Respiratory complications in infants with large left-to-right shunts were considered to be responsible for most of the abnormal blood flow distributions observed. Radioactive lung scanning was found to be a valuable diagnostic method in the early and late postoperative period in infants and small children. It was more sensitive than the other techniques used in revealing deviation of blood flow from one lung in those cases with shifting of the applied band. Images PMID:1111558

  3. Nonuniform blood flow in the canine left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A E; Coggins, D L; Austin, R E; Muehrcke, D D; Aldea, G S; Goto, M; Doucette, J W; Hoffman, J I

    1990-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between coronary perfusion pressure and blood flow distribution in the left ventricle (LV), we measured myocardial blood flow in small regions using radioactive microspheres in six anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Mean coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was controlled with a femoral artery to left main coronary artery shunt which included a pressurized, servo-controlled blood reservoir. In each dog, we measured flow in 192 regions of the LV free wall (mean weight per region = 206 +/- 38 mg) at different perfusion pressures. At CPP = 80 mm Hg, blood flow to individual regions varied fourfold (0.30 to 1.18 ml/min/g; relative dispersion (RD) = 21.8 +/- 2.3%). At CPP = 50 mm Hg, flow varied over sevenfold (0.08 to 0.60 ml/min/g; RD = 42.8 +/- 10%; P less than 0.01 vs 80 mm Hg). This relationship between flow variability and CPP was present within individual LV layers as well between layers and is much higher than the error associated with the microsphere technique. We conclude that blood flow to small regions of the LV is markedly nonuniform. This heterogeneity becomes more profound at lower CPP. These findings suggest that (1) global measurements of coronary flow must be interpreted with caution, and (2) even in hearts with normal coronary arteries some regions of the LV are more susceptible to ischemia than others. In addition, these findings may help explain the patchy nature of myocardial damage that occurs following periods of low coronary pressure or inadequate myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  4. Modeling and Control of Airport Queueing Dynamics under Severe Flow Restrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Clarke, John-Paul; Deron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Based on field observations and interviews with controllers at BOS and EWR, we identify the closure of local departure fixes as the most severe class of airport departure restrictions. A set of simple queueing dynamics and traffic rules are developed to model departure traffic under such restrictions. The validity of the proposed model is tested via Monte Carlo simulation against 10 hours of actual operations data collected during a case-study at EWR on June 29,2000. In general, the model successfully reproduces the aggregate departure congestion. An analysis of the average error over 40 simulation runs indicates that flow-rate restrictions also significantly impact departure traffic; work is underway to capture these effects. Several applications and what-if scenarios are discussed for future evaluation using the calibrated model.

  5. Regulation of blood flow in the microcirculation: Role of conducted vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Bagher, Pooneh; Segal, Steven S.

    2010-01-01

    This review is concerned with understanding how vasodilation initiated from local sites in the tissue can spread to encompass multiple branches of the resistance vasculature. Within tissues, arteriolar networks control the distribution and magnitude of capillary perfusion. Vasodilation arising from the microcirculation can ‘ascend’ into feed arteries that control blood flow into arteriolar networks. Thus distal segments of the resistance network signal proximal segments to dilate and thereby increase total oxygen supply to parenchymal cells. August Krogh proposed that innervation of capillaries provided the mechanism for a spreading vasodilatory response. With greater understanding of the ultrastructural organization of resistance networks, an alternative explanation has emerged: Electrical signaling from cell to cell along the vessel wall through gap junctions. Hyperpolarization originates from ion channel activation at the site of stimulation with the endothelium serving as the predominant cellular pathway for signal conduction along the vessel wall. As hyperpolarization travels, it is transmitted into surrounding smooth muscle cells through myoendothelial coupling to promote relaxation. Conducted vasodilation encompasses greater distances than can be explained by passive decay and understanding such behavior is the focus of current research efforts. In the context of athletic performance, the ability of vasodilation to ascend into feed arteries is essential to achieving peak levels of muscle blood flow. Conducted vasodilation is tempered by sympathetic neuroeffector signaling when governing muscle blood flow at rest and during exercise. Impairment of conduction during aging and in diseased states can limit physical work capacity by restricting muscle blood flow. PMID:21199397

  6. Non-invasive evaluation of placental blood flow: lessons from animal models.

    PubMed

    Mourier, E; Tarrade, A; Duan, J; Richard, C; Bertholdt, C; Beaumont, M; Morel, O; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2017-03-01

    In human obstetrics, placental vascularisation impairment is frequent as well as linked to severe pathological events (preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction), and there is a need for reliable methods allowing non-invasive evaluation of placental blood flow. Uteroplacental vascularisation is complex, and animal models are essential for the technical development and safety assessment of these imaging tools for human clinical use; however, these techniques can also be applied in the veterinary context. This paper reviews how ultrasound-based imaging methods such as 2D and 3D Doppler can provide valuable insight for the exploration of placental blood flow both in humans and animals and how new approaches such as the use of ultrasound contrast agents or ultrafast Doppler may allow to discriminate between maternal (non-pulsatile) and foetal (pulsatile) blood flow in the placenta. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging could also be used to evaluate placental blood flow, as indicated by studies in animal models, but its safety in human pregnancy still requires to be confirmed. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Bone Blood Flow During Simulated Microgravity: Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    Blood flow to bone has been shown to affect bone mass and presumably bone strength. Preliminary data indicate that blood flow to the rat femur decreases after 14 days of simulated microgravity, using hindlimb suspension (HLS). If adult rats subjected to HLS are given dobutamine, a synthetic catecholamine which can cause peripheral vasodilation and increased blood flow, the loss of cortical bone area usually observed is prevented. Further, mechanisms exist at the molecular level to link changes in bone blood flow to changes in bone cell activity, particularly for vasoactive agents like nitric oxide (NO). The decreases in fluid shear stress created by fluid flow associated with the shifts of plasma volume during microgravity may result in alterations in expression of vasoactive agents such as NO, producing important functional effects on bone cells. The primary aim of this project is to characterize changes in 1) bone blood flow, 2) indices of bone mass, geometry, and strength, and 3) changes in gene expression for modulators of nitric oxide activity (e.g., nitric oxide synthase) and other candidate genes involved in signal transduction of mechanical loading after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of HLS in the adult rat. Using a rat of at least 5 months of age avoids inadvertently studying effects of simulated microgravity on growing, rather than adult, bone. Utilizing the results of these studies, we will then define how altered blood flow contributes to changes in bone with simulated microgravity by administering a vasodilatory agent (which increases blood flow to tissues) during hindlimb suspension. In all studies, responses in the unloaded hindlimb bones (tibial shaft, femoral neck) will be compared with those in the weightbearing humeral shaft and the non-weightbearing calvarium (skull) from the same animal. Bone volumetric mineral density and geometry will be quantified by peripheral quantitative CT; structural and material properties of the long bones will be

  8. Characteristics of pulsatile blood flow through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve installed in two different types of blood vessels: velocity and pressure of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Seok; Yoo, Song Min; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flow fields of blood flowing through the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. A numerical analysis was carried out with the fluid-structure interaction between the blood flow and the motion of leaflets in two different types of blood vessels (type A, with sinus blood vessel, and type B, without sinus blood vessel). When the leaflet was fully opened, a fluttering phenomenon was detected in association with the blood flow, and recirculation flows were observed in the sinus region of the blood vessel for type A. During the closing phase, regurgitation was formed between the ring and the edge of the each leaflet for both types. When the leaflet came into contact with the valve ring at the end of the closing phase, rebound of the leaflet occurred. In consideration of the entire domain, the pressure drop occurs mainly in the valve region. The present results showed tendencies similar to those obtained by previous experiments for blood flow and contribute to the development of the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses.

  9. Heart blood flow simulation: a perspective review.

    PubMed

    Doost, Siamak N; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Su, Boyang; Zhong, Liang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2016-08-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death today, incorporates a wide range of cardiovascular system malfunctions that affect heart functionality. It is believed that the hemodynamic loads exerted on the cardiovascular system, the left ventricle (LV) in particular, are the leading cause of CVD initiation and propagation. Moreover, it is believed that the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD at an early stage could reduce its high mortality and morbidity rate. Therefore, a set of robust clinical cardiovascular assessment tools has been introduced to compute the cardiovascular hemodynamics in order to provide useful insights to physicians to recognize indicators leading to CVD and also to aid the diagnosis of CVD. Recently, a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different medical imaging tools, image-based CFD (IB-CFD), has been widely employed for cardiovascular functional assessment by providing reliable hemodynamic parameters. Even though the capability of CFD to provide reliable flow dynamics in general fluid mechanics problems has been widely demonstrated for many years, up to now, the clinical implications of the IB-CFD patient-specific LVs have not been applicable due to its limitations and complications. In this paper, we review investigations conducted to numerically simulate patient-specific human LV over the past 15 years using IB-CFD methods. Firstly, we divide different studies according to the different LV types (physiological and different pathological conditions) that have been chosen to reconstruct the geometry, and then discuss their contributions, methodologies, limitations, and findings. In this regard, we have studied CFD simulations of intraventricular flows and related cardiology insights, for (i) Physiological patient-specific LV models, (ii) Pathological heart patient-specific models, including myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Finally, we

  10. A numerical study of blood flow using mixture theory

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Antaki, James F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the two dimensional flow of blood in a rectangular microfluidic channel. We use Mixture Theory to treat this problem as a two-component system: One component is the red blood cells (RBCs) modeled as a generalized Reiner–Rivlin type fluid, which considers the effects of volume fraction (hematocrit) and influence of shear rate upon viscosity. The other component, plasma, is assumed to behave as a linear viscous fluid. A CFD solver based on OpenFOAM® was developed and employed to simulate a specific problem, namely blood flow in a two dimensional micro-channel, is studied. Finally to better understand this two-component flow system and the effects of the different parameters, the equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed. PMID:24791016

  11. The effect of ice packs upon nasal mucosal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Porter, M; Marais, J; Tolley, N

    1991-01-01

    The effect on nasal mucosal blood flow of ice packs on the forehead and ice packs within the mouth was investigated in 16 healthy subjects. The laser Doppler flowmeter was used to record changes in blood flow to the inferior turbinate, as measured by change in the flux. Ice packs within the mouth produced a significant decrease in nasal mucosal blood flow (p less than 0.05). The average fall was 23% (SEM 5.9) compared with the control measurements. No significant change was recorded following the application of ice packs to the forehead. The results of this study question the scientific rationale behind the use of forehead ice packs in clinical practice.

  12. Intraoperative multi-exposure speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lisa M; Kazmi, Sm Shams; Olin, Katherine E; Waldron, James S; Fox, Douglas J; Dunn, Andrew K

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has high potential to be a valuable cerebral blood flow monitoring technique during neurosurgery. However, the quantitative accuracy and sensitivity of LSCI is limited, and highly dependent on the exposure time. An extension to LSCI called multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) overcomes these limitations, and was evaluated intraoperatively in patients undergoing brain tumor resection. This clinical study ( n = 8) recorded multiple exposure times from the same cortical tissue area spanning 0.5-20 ms, and evaluated images individually as single-exposure LSCI and jointly using the MESI model. This study demonstrated that the MESI estimates provided the broadest flow sensitivity for sampling the flow magnitude in the human brain, closely followed by the shorter exposure times. Conservation of flow analysis on vascular bifurcations was used to validate physiological accuracy, with highly conserved flow estimates (<10%) from both MESI and 1 ms LSCI ( n = 14 branches). The MESI model had high goodness-of-fit with proper image calibration and acquisition, and was used to monitor blood flow changes after tissue cautery. Results from this study demonstrate that intraoperative MESI can be performed with high quantitative accuracy and sensitivity for cerebral blood flow monitoring.

  13. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis. PMID:27319318

  14. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  15. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic (EMF) and radiomicrosphere (RMS)) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal.

  16. Diabetes augments in vivo microvascular blood flow dynamics after stroke.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Kelly A; Brown, Craig E

    2013-12-04

    Stroke usually affects people with underlying medical conditions. In particular, diabetics are significantly more likely to have a stroke and the prognosis for recovery is poor. Because diabetes is associated with degenerative changes in the vasculature of many organs, we sought to determine how hyperglycemia affects blood flow dynamics after an ischemic stroke. Longitudinal in vivo two-photon imaging was used to track microvessels before and after photothrombotic stroke in a diabetic mouse model. Chronic hyperglycemia exacerbated acute (3-7 d) ischemia-induced increases in blood flow velocity, vessel lumen diameter, and red blood cell flux in peri-infarct regions. These changes in blood flow dynamics were most evident in superficial blood vessels within 500 μm from the infarct, rather than deeper or more distant cortical regions. Long-term imaging of diabetic mice not subjected to stroke indicated that these acute stroke-related changes in vascular function could not be attributed to complications from hyperglycemia alone. Treating diabetic mice with insulin immediately after stroke resulted in less severe alterations in blood flow within the first 7 d of recovery, but had more variable results at later time points. Analysis of microvessel branching patterns revealed that stroke led to a pruning of microvessels in peri-infarct cortex, with very few instances of sprouting. These results indicate that chronic hyperglycemia significantly affects the vascular response to ischemic stroke and that insulin only partially mitigates these changes. The combination of these acute and chronic alterations in blood flow dynamics could underlie diabetes-related deficits in cortical plasticity and stroke recovery.

  17. Full dynamics of a red blood cell in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Dupire, Jules; Socol, Marius; Viallat, Annie

    2012-12-18

    At the cellular scale, blood fluidity and mass transport depend on the dynamics of red blood cells in blood flow, specifically on their deformation and orientation. These dynamics are governed by cellular rheological properties, such as internal viscosity and cytoskeleton elasticity. In diseases in which cell rheology is altered genetically or by parasitic invasion or by changes in the microenvironment, blood flow may be severely impaired. The nonlinear interplay between cell rheology and flow may generate complex dynamics, which remain largely unexplored experimentally. Under simple shear flow, only two motions, "tumbling" and "tank-treading," have been described experimentally and relate to cell mechanics. Here, we elucidate the full dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow by coupling two videomicroscopy approaches providing multidirectional pictures of cells, and we analyze the mechanical origin of the observed dynamics. We show that contrary to common belief, when red blood cells flip into the flow, their orientation is determined by the shear rate. We discuss the "rolling" motion, similar to a rolling wheel. This motion, which permits the cells to avoid energetically costly deformations, is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight a hysteresis cycle and two transient dynamics driven by the shear rate: an intermittent regime during the "tank-treading-to-flipping" transition and a Frisbee-like "spinning" regime during the "rolling-to-tank-treading" transition. Finally, we reveal that the biconcave red cell shape is highly stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of stress-free shape and elastic buckling.

  18. Kidney Function and Cerebral Blood Flow: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Sanaz; Vernooij, Meike W; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-03-01

    CKD is linked with various brain disorders. Whereas brain integrity is dependent on cerebral perfusion, the association between kidney function and cerebral blood flow has yet to be determined. This study was performed in the framework of the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 2645 participants with mean age of 56.6 years (45% men). We used eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio to assess kidney function and performed phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of basilar and carotid arteries to measure cerebral blood flow. Participants had an average (SD) eGFR of 86.3 (13.4) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and a median (interquartile range) albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 3.4 (2.2-6.1) mg/g. In age- and sex-adjusted models, a higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio was associated with lower cerebral blood flow level (difference in cerebral blood flow [milliliters per minute per 100 ml] per doubling of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, -0.31; 95% confidence interval, -0.58 to -0.03). The association was not present after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.10). Each 1 SD lower eGFR was associated with 0.42 ml/min per 100 ml lower cerebral blood flow (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.83) adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, in this population-based study, we observed that lower eGFR is independently associated with lower cerebral blood flow.

  19. Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Ultrastructure Following Acute Temporary Ischemia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    kidneys of dogs and cats , and suggest some element present in whole blood, but not present in filtered blood may serve to further damage ischemic...minutes of myocardial ischemia in the dog as Krug et al. (66) has reported in the cat . Finally, in this experiment the relationship of inhibited reflow...transient inhibition of flow. One has to wonder if their 6 cats with smaller areas of risk are more like the dogs in this study and may also have had

  20. Genetic structure of eelgrass Zostera marina meadows in an embayment with restricted water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Genetic structure of the seagrass Zostera marina in a coastal lagoon with restricted water flow, and with heterogeneous water residence times and oceanographic characteristics, was assessed using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Analyses of genetic differentiation (??) and Bayesian clustering suggested that the Z. marina population in San Quintin Bay (SQB) is genetically substructured, with at least 4 genetically different groups: (1) West Head, (2) Mouth, (3) East Arm, and (4) East Head. The greatest ?? value was observed between the most distant sites (?? = 0.095). The lowest values were found among sites closest to the mouth of the coastal lagoon (?? = 0.000 to 0.009). The maximum likelihood approach showed that the sites at the mouth have a mixed pattern of gene flow without a unidirectional pattern. In contrast, there was a clear pattern of asymmetrical gene flow from the mouth towards the West Head. These results suggested that the restriction of water flow at the heads, current pattern, and the distance between sites can reduce genetic flow and promote genetic differences within Z. marina meadows in small water embayments such as SQB. Though the population is genetically substructured and a 14 % decline in cover has been detected, this study did not show evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck. In contrast, mouth sites have experienced a recent expansion in their population size, and also perhaps a recent influx of rare alleles from genetically distinct immigrants. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Renal blood flow and oxygenation drive nephron progenitor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Christopher; Paredes, Jose; Halt, Kimmo; Schaefer, Caitlin; Wiersch, John; Zhang, Guangfeng; Potoka, Douglas; Vainio, Seppo; Gittes, George K; Bates, Carlton M; Sims-Lucas, Sunder

    2014-08-01

    During kidney development, the vasculature develops via both angiogenesis (branching from major vessels) and vasculogenesis (de novo vessel formation). The formation and perfusion of renal blood vessels are vastly understudied. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory role of renal blood flow and O2 concentration on nephron progenitor differentiation during ontogeny. To elucidate the presence of blood flow, ultrasound-guided intracardiac microinjection was performed, and FITC-tagged tomato lectin was perfused through the embryo. Kidneys were costained for the vasculature, ureteric epithelium, nephron progenitors, and nephron structures. We also analyzed nephron differentiation in normoxia compared with hypoxia. At embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), the major vascular branches were perfused; however, smaller-caliber peripheral vessels remained unperfused. By E15.5, peripheral vessels started to be perfused as well as glomeruli. While the interior kidney vessels were perfused, the peripheral vessels (nephrogenic zone) remained unperfused. Directly adjacent and internal to the nephrogenic zone, we found differentiated nephron structures surrounded and infiltrated by perfused vessels. Furthermore, we determined that at low O2 concentration, little nephron progenitor differentiation was observed; at higher O2 concentrations, more differentiation of the nephron progenitors was induced. The formation of the developing renal vessels occurs before the onset of blood flow. Furthermore, renal blood flow and oxygenation are critical for nephron progenitor differentiation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-04-10

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  3. Spectral models for 1D blood flow simulations.

    PubMed

    Tamburrelli, Vincenzopio; Ferranti, Francesco; Antonini, Giulio; Cristina, Saverio; Dhaene, Tom; Knockaert, Luc

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new theoretical formulation for the description of the blood flow in the circulatory system. Starting from a linearized version of the Navier-Stokes equations, the Green's function of the propagation problem is computed in a rational form. As a consequence, the input-output transfer function relating the upstream and downstream pressure and blood flow is written in a rational form as well, leading to a time-domain state-space model suitable for transient analysis. The proposed theoretical formulation has been validated by pertinent numerical results.

  4. Growth, nitrogen uptake and flow in maize plants affected by root growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangzheng; Niu, Junfang; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of a reduced maize root-system size on root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and flow within plants. Restriction of shoot-borne root growth caused a strong decrease in the absorption of root: shoot dry weight ratio and a reduction in shoot growth. On the other hand, compensatory growth and an increased N uptake rate in the remaining roots were observed. Despite the limited long-distance transport pathway in the mesocotyl with restriction of shoot-borne root growth, N cycling within these plants was higher than those in control plants, implying that xylem and phloem flow velocities via the mesocotyl were considerably higher than in plants with an intact root system. The removal of the seminal roots in addition to restricting shoot-borne root development did not affect whole plant growth and N uptake, except for the stronger compensatory growth of the primary roots. Our results suggest that an adequate N supply to maize plant is maintained by compensatory growth of the remaining roots, increased N uptake rate and flow velocities within the xylem and phloem via the mesocotyl, and reduction in the shoot growth rate.

  5. Numerical simulation of blood flow through a capillary using a non-linear viscoelastic model.

    PubMed

    Shariatkhah, Amin; Norouzi, Mahmood; Nobari, Mohammad Reza Heyrani

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a periodic developing blood flow in a capillary is simulated using a non-linear viscoelastic model for the first time. Here, the Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation, and based on the experimental data, the best value for the mobility factor and zero shear rate viscosity are derived. The numerical solution of the problem is obtained using the finite volume method. The algorithm of the solution is pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO). The simulation carried out using the Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and Newtonian models and the results indicate that the Giesekus model presents a more accurate solution for the stress and velocity fields than the Newtonian and Oldroyd-B models. The previous studies on this problem were restricted to the linear and quasi-linear viscoelastic models. It is shown that only non-linear viscoelastic models can accurately describe the experimental data of unsteady blood flow in capillaries.

  6. Blood flow and mass transfer regulation of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    Blood flow regulates coagulation and fibrin formation by controlling the transport, or mass transfer, of zymogens, co-factors, enzymes, and inhibitors to, from, and within a growing thrombus. The rate of mass transfer of these solutes relative to their consumption or production by coagulation reactions determines, in part, the rate of thrombin generation, fibrin deposition, and thrombi growth. Experimental studies on the influence of blood flow on specific coagulation reactions are reviewed here, along with a theoretical framework that predicts how flow influences surface-bound coagulation binding and enzymatic reactions. These flow-mediated transport mechanisms are also used to interpret the role of binding site densities and injury size on initiating coagulation and fibrin deposition. The importance of transport of coagulation proteins within the interstitial spaces of thrombi is shown to influence thrombi architecture, growth, and arrest. PMID:27133256

  7. Improved technique for blood flow velocity measurement using Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadares Oliveira, Eduardo J.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Costa, Eduardo T.

    2002-04-01

    The Doppler velocimeter developed allows to determine the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the velocity vector of the flow, and to calculate the precise blood flow in a vessel. Four piezoelectric transducers constitute the Doppler velocimeter. Three of these transducers are positioned to form an equilateral triangle (base of a pyramid). When these transducers move simultaneously, backward or forward from the initial position, the emitted ultrasonic beams focalize on a position (peak of the pyramid) closer or farther from the transducers faces, according to the depth of the vessel where we intend to measure de flow. The angle between the transducers allows adjusting the height of this pyramid and the position of the focus (where the three beams meet). A forth transducer is used to determine the diameter of the vessel and monitor the position of the Doppler velocimeter relative to the vessel. Simulation results showed that with this technique is possible to accomplish precise measurement of blood flow.

  8. Human placental lactogen decreases regional blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Mary, D A S G; Ribichini, F; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    2006-01-01

    In 22 pigs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in blood flow caused by infusion of human placental lactogen into the left renal, external iliac, and anterior descending coronary arteries were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In 17 pigs, infusion of human placental lactogen whilst keeping the heart rate and arterial pressure constant decreased coronary, renal and iliac flow. In 5 additional pigs, increasing the dose of human placental lactogen produced a dose-related decrease in regional blood flow. The mechanisms of the above response were studied in 15 of the 17 pigs by repeating the experiment of infusion. The human placental lactogen-induced decrease in regional blood flow was not affected by blockade of cholinergic receptors (5 pigs) or of alpha-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs), but it was abolished by blockade of beta2-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs). The present study showed that intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen primarily decreased coronary, renal and iliac blood flow. The mechanism of this response was shown to be due to the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect.

  9. Quantitative assessment of human fetal renal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R A; Tatum, K; Kelley, K

    1993-12-01

    Our purpose was to longitudinally quantify human fetal renal blood flow. Twenty-two normal fetuses underwent a color-pulsed Doppler evaluation of the renal artery. The Doppler waveforms were digitized to assess the velocity-time integral. The size of the vessel was determined during systole with color high-resolution two-dimensional ultrasonography. Renal blood flow was estimated by multiplying the time-velocity integral (i.e., area under the curve) by the area of the renal artery. The combined cardiac output was calculated by adding right and left inflow Doppler-derived volumes. Renal artery size, peak flow velocity, time-velocity integral, and renal blood flow significantly increased with advancing gestational age. The resistivity indexes, such as the systolic/diastolic ratio or the Pourcelot index of the fetal renal artery, did not significantly change with advancing gestational age. The pulsatility index, however, was correlated with gestational age. The percentage of the combined cardiac output to the fetal kidney remained constant throughout gestation. Color pulsed Doppler can be used to visualize small and deep vascular structures in the human fetus. Renal blood flow increased with advancing gestational age. This increase seems to be related to the increase in the combined cardiac output.

  10. Impaired endothelial function and blood flow in repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Brunnekreef, J; Brunnekreef, J J; Benda, N; Benda, N M M; Schreuder, T; Schreuder, T H A; Hopman, M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D; Thijssen, D H J

    2012-10-01

    Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is a disabling upper extremity overuse injury that may be associated with pathophysiological changes in the vasculature. In this study we investigated whether RSI is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired exercise-induced blood flow in the affected forearm. 10 patients with RSI (age, 40.2 ± 10.3; BMI, 23.8 ± 3.3) and 10 gender- and age-matched control subjects (age, 38.0 ± 12.4; BMI, 22.7 ± 3.4) participated in this study. Brachial artery blood flow was measured at rest and during 3-min periods of isometric handgrip exercise at 15%, 30% and 45% of the individual maximal voluntary contraction. Brachial artery endothelial function was assessed as the flow mediated dilation (FMD), by measuring brachial artery diameter and velocity before and after 5-min ischemic occlusion. We found a lower exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in patients with RSI than in controls (p=0.04). Brachial artery FMD was significantly lower in patients with RSI than in controls (p<0.01), whilst a lower FMD was also found in patient with unilateral RSI when comparing the affected arm with the non-affected arm (p=0.04). Our results suggest that patients with RSI have an attenuated exercise-induced blood flow and an impaired endothelial function in the affected arm. These findings importantly improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of RSI.

  11. Mass transfer to blood flowing through arterial stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifuddin; Chakravarty, Santabrata; Mandal, Prashanta Kumar; Andersson, Helge I.

    2009-03-01

    The present investigation deals with a mathematical model representing the mass transfer to blood streaming through the arteries under stenotic condition. The mass transport refers to the movement of atherogenic molecules, that is, blood-borne components, such as oxygen and low-density lipoproteins from flowing blood into the arterial walls or vice versa. The blood flowing through the artery is treated to be Newtonian and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having differently shaped stenoses in its lumen arising from various types of abnormal growth or plaque formation. The nonlinear unsteady pulsatile flow phenomenon unaffected by concentration-field of the macromolecules is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations together with the equation of continuity while that of mass transfer is controlled by the convection-diffusion equation. The governing equations of motion accompanied by appropriate choice of the boundary conditions are solved numerically by MAC(Marker and Cell) method and checked numerical stability with desired degree of accuracy. The quantitative analysis carried out finally includes the respective profiles of the flow-field and concentration along with their distributions over the entire arterial segment as well. The key factors like the wall shear stress and Sherwood number are also examined for further qualitative insight into the flow and mass transport phenomena through arterial stenosis. The present results show quite consistency with several existing results in the literature which substantiate sufficiently to validate the applicability of the model under consideration.

  12. Accurate Blood Flow Measurements: Are Artificial Tracers Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Poelma, Christian; Kloosterman, Astrid; Hierck, Beerend P.; Westerweel, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Imaging-based blood flow measurement techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, have become an important tool in cardiovascular research. They provide quantitative information about blood flow, which benefits applications ranging from developmental biology to tumor perfusion studies. Studies using these methods can be classified based on whether they use artificial tracers or red blood cells to visualize the fluid motion. We here present the first direct comparison in vivo of both methods. For high magnification cases, the experiments using red blood cells strongly underestimate the flow (up to 50% in the present case), as compared to the tracer results. For medium magnification cases, the results from both methods are indistinguishable as they give the same underestimation of the real velocities (approximately 33%, based on in vitro reference measurements). These results suggest that flow characteristics reported in literature cannot be compared without a careful evaluation of the imaging characteristics. A method to predict the expected flow averaging behavior for a particular facility is presented. PMID:23028878

  13. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s( - 1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow.

  14. Effect of warming and flow rate conditions of blood warmers on red blood cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P

    2016-11-01

    Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the transfer of rocket engine flow simulation technology to work involving the development of blood pumps. Details are offered regarding the design and requirements of mechanical heart assist devices, or VADs (ventricular assist device). There are various computational fluid dynamics issues involved in the visualization of flow in such devices, and these are highlighted and compared to those of rocket turbopumps.

  16. Red blood cells flows in rectilinear microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Anandan, P; Ortiz, D; Intaglietta, M; Cabrales, P J; Bucolo, M

    2015-01-01

    The red blood cells flow in a controlled environment as a microfluidic chip with a rectilinear geometry was investigated. The optical monitoring performed by an automatic Particle Image Velocimetry procedure has allowed a quantitative analysis on flow features. Various parameters such as velocity, shear rate, strain rate, vorticity, divergence were extracted. The comparisons of the results obtained from the different experiments was used for the overall understanding of the RBC movements in different conditions and the establishment of the analysis procedure.

  17. Vortex method for blood flow through heart valves

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, M.F.; Peskin, C.S.

    1980-04-01

    A combination vortex-grid method for solving the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier--Stokes equations in regions with complicated internal, elastic boundaries is presented. The authors believe the method to be applicable to the case of at least moderately high Reynolds number flow. The method is applied to the study of blood flow through the mammalian mitral valve. Previous work of Peskin is extended and the conjecture that the behavior of mammalian heart valves is independent of Reynolds number is supported.

  18. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (p<0.005). Low sodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP

  19. Ocular and orbital blood flow in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Steigerwalt, R D; Laurora, G; Incandela, L; Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G V; De Sanctis, M T

    2000-01-01

    To report the effect of cigarette smoking on the blood flow velocity of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) in patients who smoke at least 20 cigarettes a day. The color duplex scanner was used to measure the systolic and diastolic flow velocity of the OA, CRA, and PCA in 10 smokers and 11 nonsmokers. Both the systolic and diastolic flow velocity decreased in the OA, CRA, and PCA in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The systolic flow decreased by as much as 36% and the diastolic flow by as much as 52%. This decrease was significant for the flow velocity of the CRA and PCA but not for the OA. An increase in the resistance index was also found. The authors believe that the decrease in the flow velocity of these vessels may be due to an increase in the vascular resistance of the vessels of the retina and optic nerve head in smokers. This may be important in patients with eye disease in whom altered blood flow already contributes to the ocular or orbital pathology.

  20. Mechanisms of restriction of viral neuroinvasion at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of highly specialized cells including brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, and neurons, which act in concert to restrict the entry of pathogens, immune cells, and soluble molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). If pathogens manage to cross the BBB and establish infection within the CNS, the BBB can open in a regulated manner to allow leukocyte transmigration into the CNS so that microbes, infected cells, and debris can be cleared. This review highlights how different inflammatory cytokines or signaling pathways disrupt or enhance BBB integrity in a way that regulates entry of neurotropic viruses into the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Esophageal blood flow in the cat. Normal distribution and effects of acid perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hollwarth, M.E.; Smith, M.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    The radioactive microsphere technique was used to estimate blood flow to different regions of the esophagus and to adjacent regions of the stomach before and after perfusion of the esophagus with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) for 5 min. Under resting conditions total blood flow, as well as blood flow to the mucosal-submucosal layer and the muscular layer, to both sphincters was significantly higher than to the esophageal body. Blood flow to the adjacent regions of the stomach was significantly higher than esophageal blood flow. Acid perfusion resulted in a large increase in total blood flow in both sphincters and the lower esophageal body. Gastric blood flow was not altered by acid perfusion. The esophageal hyperemia resulted primarily from an increase in blood flow to the muscular layer; mucosal-submucosal blood flow was increased only in the lower esophageal sphincter. The present study indicates that short periods (5 min) of gastroesophageal reflux may increase esophageal blood flow.

  2. The influence of maternal Lewis, Secretor and ABO(H) blood groups on fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Clark, P; Greer, I A

    2011-12-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with thrombosis of the placenta and an increased risk of subsequent vascular disease in the mother and fetus. The products of interactions between ABO(H), Lewis and Secretor genes are also associated with thrombosis and vascular disease risk. A prospective case-control study of mothers with a severe FGR pregnancy (cases, n = 128; controls, n = 288) was performed to determine whether FGR is associated with particular maternal blood groups. No association with ABO(H) status was observed, but FGR was more common in maternal secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.69) and consequently in those mothers expressing Le(b) on their red cells (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.83), with a reduced risk in non-secretors and those expressing Le(a). Given the association between blood groups and both activated protein C resistance (APCR) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, post hoc pilot studies on first-trimester APCR and VWF antigen levels and blood group genotypes were performed. No relationship with Lewis or Secretor was observed. Despite this, lower first-trimester VWF levels were observed in pregnancies subsequently complicated by FGR.  This is the first study reporting a relationship between maternal Secretor/Lewis status and FGR. A link between blood groups and FGR is plausible, as both are associated with cardiovascular disease. We observed no relationship between Lewis/Secretor status and VWF or APCR, but this should be confirmed in a larger study. Thus, the mechanism whereby Secretor and/or Lewis influences FGR is unknown. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Defining the restriction point in normal asynchronous human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianwu; Liu, Liang; Li, Xiaolan; Tao, Deding; Hu, Junbo; Qin, Jichao

    2013-10-01

    Although the restriction point (R-point) was proposed in animal cells several decades ago, its existence in normal cells is still controversial, because, in most studies, long-term cultured cell lines rather than primary normal cells were used. Furthermore, cell synchronization was generally applied, resulting in growth imbalance between DNA synthesis and protein expression in cells. Finally, R-point was originally proposed as a unique arrest point that may be in G0 phase; however, generally believed R-point locates within G1 phase. Thus, up to now, there is no solid experimental evidence that supports the existence of R-point in asynchronous primary normal cells. In this study, we used freshly purified peripheral human blood lymphocytes, as asynchronous primary normal cells, to confirm the existence of restriction point in G1 not G0 phase. Our findings may help uncover the mystery of the deregulation of cell cycle progression in malignant tumors. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Maternal nutrient restriction alters renal development and blood pressure regulation of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Kathryn A; Olson, David M; Symonds, Michael E

    2006-02-01

    Studies have shown that the risk of hypertension in adulthood can be affected by the in utero environment. It is established that hypertension is linked to compromised kidney function and that factors affecting organogenesis can increase the risk of later disease. Prostaglandins (PG) and growth factors are known to play an important role in regulating kidney function and renal organogenesis. The extent, however, to which global energy restriction (where all nutrients are reduced) of the mother can programme later blood pressure control or renal PG and growth factor status is unknown. A study is described that aimed to examine the long-term effects of maternal nutrient restriction (NR) and elucidate their relationship with compromised kidney development. First, it was necessary to establish animal models. A sheep model of 50% NR during specific stages of gestation was used to investigate fetal renal development, whilst a rat model of 50% NR throughout pregnancy was used to investigate postnatal kidney development and adult functioning. Molecular analysis has shown that expression of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis is affected by NR in the fetal sheep kidneys, and that changes are dependent on the timing of NR and whether the fetus is a singleton or a twin. Analysis of the kidneys from the rat model has shown nutritional differences in the expression of PG receptors and the enzymes responsible for PG synthesis and degradation that persist into adulthood. In conclusion, NR does affect the GH-IGF and PG axes, and these changes may be important in the nutritional programming of renal functioning and adult blood pressure control.

  5. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  6. Acute effects of force and vibration on finger blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Welsh, A J L; Vedova, A Della; Griffin, M J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of contact force at the finger on acute changes in finger circulation during exposure to vibration. Methods Each of 10 subjects attended 11 sessions in which they experienced five successive experimental 5‐minute periods: (i) no force and no vibration; (ii) force and no vibration; (iii) force and vibration; (iv) force and no vibration; (v) no force and no vibration. During periods (ii) to (iv), the intermediate phalanx of the right middle finger applied one of two forces (2 N or 5 N) on a platform that vibrated during period (iii) at one of two frequencies: 31.5 Hz (at 4 or 16 ms−2 r.m.s.) or 125 Hz (at 16 or 64 ms−2 r.m.s.). Finger blood flow was measured in the exposed right middle finger, the unexposed right little finger, and the unexposed left middle fingers throughout the 25 minutes of each session. Results The application of force alone caused a reduction in finger blood flow in the exposed finger, but not other fingers. There were additional reductions in finger blood flow caused by vibration, with greater reductions at the higher vibration magnitudes at both frequencies but no difference between the two frequencies when using unweighted acceleration. The vibration caused a similar vasoconstriction in vibrated and non‐vibrated fingers. Conclusions Modest levels of force applied by a finger can have a large effect on the finger blood flow, possibly due to the constriction of local blood vessels. The acute vascular effects of vibration cause additional reductions in finger blood flow that are not limited to the finger experiencing force and vibration. In all fingers (exposed and not exposed to vibration), the greater the magnitude of vibration, the greater the reduction in finger blood flow. In all fingers (exposed and not exposed to vibration), when the vibration was frequency weighted according to current standards, 125 Hz vibration caused greater reductions in finger blood flow than 31.5

  7. Regulation of human retinal blood flow by endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Polak, Kaija; Luksch, Alexandra; Frank, Barbara; Jandrasits, Kerstin; Polska, Elzbieta; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies that endothelin is a major regulator of retinal blood flow. We set out to characterize the role of the endothelin-system in the blood flow control of the human retina. Two studies in healthy subjects were performed. The study design was randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, balanced, two-way crossover in protocol A and three way-way crossover in protocol B. In protocol A 18 healthy male subjects received intravenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) in a dose of 2.5 ng kg (-1)min(-1) for 30 min or placebo on two different study days and retinal vessel diameters were measured. In protocol B 12 healthy male subjects received ET-1 in stepwise increasing doses of 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 ng kg (-1)min(-1) (each infusion step over 20 min) in co-infusion with the specific ET(A)-receptor antagonist BQ123 (60 microg min (-1)) or placebo or BQ123 alone investigating retinal vessel diameters, retinal blood velocity and retinal blood flow. Measurements of retinal vessel size were done with the Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. Measurements of blood velocities were done with bi-directional laser Doppler velocimetry. From these measurements retinal blood flow was calculated. In protocol A exogenous ET-1 tended to decrease retinal arterial diameter, but this effect was not significant versus placebo. No effect on retinal venous diameter was seen. In protocol B retinal venous blood velocity and retinal blood flow was significantly reduced after administration of exogenous ET-1. These effects were significantly blunted when BQ-123 was co-administered. By contrast, BQ-123 alone had no effect on retinal hemodynamic parameters. Concluding, BQ123 antagonizes the effects of exogenously administered ET-1 on retinal blood flow in healthy subjects. In addition, the results of the present study are compatible with the hypothesis that ET-1 exerts its vasoconstrictor effects in the retina mainly on the microvessels.

  8. Computational Biorheology of Human Blood Flow in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George Em; Suresh, Subra

    2014-01-01

    Hematologic disorders arising from infectious diseases, hereditary factors and environmental influences can lead to, and can be influenced by, significant changes in the shape, mechanical and physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), and the biorheology of blood flow. Hence, modeling of hematologic disorders should take into account the multiphase nature of blood flow, especially in arterioles and capillaries. We present here an overview of a general computational framework based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) which has broad applicability in cell biophysics with implications for diagnostics, therapeutics and drug efficacy assessments for a wide variety of human diseases. This computational approach, validated by independent experimental results, is capable of modeling the biorheology of whole blood and its individual components during blood flow so as to investigate cell mechanistic processes in health and disease. DPD is a Lagrangian method that can be derived from systematic coarse-graining of molecular dynamics but can scale efficiently up to arterioles and can also be used to model RBCs down to the spectrin level. We start from experimental measurements of a single RBC to extract the relevant biophysical parameters, using single-cell measurements involving such methods as optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration, and cell-population experiments involving microfluidic devices. We then use these validated RBC models to predict the biorheological behavior of whole blood in healthy or pathological states, and compare the simulations with experimental results involving apparent viscosity and other relevant parameters. While the approach discussed here is sufficiently general to address a broad spectrum of hematologic disorders including certain types of cancer, this paper specifically deals with results obtained using this computational framework for blood flow in malaria and sickle cell anemia. PMID:24419829

  9. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  10. Epilepsy, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R

    1992-01-01

    Penfield's observations in the 1930s provided the first systematic evidence of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with focal seizures. Further studies in humans and animals confirmed increases in cerebral blood flow and metabolism during generalised seizures, but the interictal, ictal, and postictal changes in focal epilepsy have begun to be elucidated in the last decade with the advent of in vivo imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, in the case of animal studies, of autoradiography. Most studies have been of temporal lobe epilepsy. Interictally, the characteristic finding has been reduced blood flow and/or metabolism in the affected temporal lobe, or more extensively in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The few studies to date of ictal or postictal changes have been of rCBF using SPECT. They show hyperperfusion of the whole temporal lobe ictally, hyperperfusion of the hippocampus, combined with hypoperfusion of lateral structures in the immediate postictal period. Later in the postictal period, hypoperfusion alone is seen. Studies of focal seizures in animals have shown hyperperfusion and hypermetabolism at the site of the focus often with widespread depression of both parameters in the ipsilateral neocortex. Limited studies of coupling between blood flow and metabolism in humans have suggested that flow during seizures is adequate for metabolic demand, although some animal studies have suggested localised areas of uncoupling. The results of modern in vivo imaging of ictal and postictal changes in blood flow and metabolism have correlated well with Penfield's observations, and these changes are now being used to help localise epileptic foci, allowing wider use of the surgical treatment he pioneered.

  11. [Measurement of cerebral blood flow by thermal diffusion using a flow probe with a Peltier stack].

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S; Kikuchi, H; Hashimoto, K; Minamikawa, J; Watanabe, Y

    1987-05-01

    In order to evaluate the blood flow by means of thermal diffusion, relationship between blood flow and parameters induced by thermal diffusion was investigated. Flow probe employed for measurement by thermal diffusion incorporated a Peltier stack which contained a small semiconductor and two L-shaped gold plates. These two plates were attached to both sides of the semiconductor by one side of each gold plate and the other side was surfaced with a tissue to be measured. Temperature gradient is created with current applied to the Peltier stack between two plates, one cooled and the other heated, and it is affected only by tissue blood flow. Two kinds of parameters of thermal diffusion were subjected to compare to blood flow. One was temperature gradient when the constant current was applied to the Peltier stack. The other was a current required to maintain a definite temperature gradient which was determined before hand. From the theoretical principle in thermodynamics, the correlations between blood flow and each of thermal diffusion parameters were defined by the following equations: (Formula: see text) where F is blood flow, delta V is voltage converted from temperature gradient, and Ci and Cv are constants. Each of phi v and phi i indicates the characteristics of each probe. Experimental study was carried out to confirm the above relationship using cortex of experimental animals. Under the general anesthesia, a cat was placed in prone position. After the craniotomy, dura mater was opened and a small flow probe, 10 mm in diameter, 5 mm in height and 5 g in weight, was placed on the cortex and blood <