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Sample records for blood lead exposure

  1. Blood pressure and industrial lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, R; Gill, J S; Beevers, D G

    1993-03-15

    The association between environmental lead exposure and raised blood pressure remains controversial. This association was examined in a cross-sectional study in 1981 on 809 male workers who were occupationally exposed to lead in a factory manufacturing car lead accumulator batteries in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Lead exposure was assessed by blood lead levels, blood zinc protoporphyrin levels, and years of industrial exposure to lead. The geometric mean blood lead level was 31.6 micrograms/dl with minimum and maximum values of 0 microgram/dl and 98 micrograms/dl, respectively. Unadjusted systolic blood pressure rose with increasing blood lead levels (analysis of variance, F = 3.3, p < 0.05) from 127 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) 123.5-130.5) in men with blood lead levels less than 21 micrograms/dl to 133 mmHg (95% CI 128.7-137.3) in men with levels exceeding 50 micrograms/dl. Following adjustment for the confounding effects of age, body mass index, and alcohol consumption, however, the effect of blood lead on systolic pressure was diminished (analysis of variance, F = 1.3, not significant) to 129 mmHg and 132 mmHg in the respective categories. There was no association between diastolic blood pressure and blood lead. Zinc protoporphyrin levels and years of industrial lead exposure did not raise adjusted systolic or diastolic pressure. In conclusion, subject to the limitations inherent in a cross-sectional survey, the findings are consistent with a weak effect of industrial lead exposure on systolic blood pressure, within the range of exposures observed in this study.

  2. Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M

    1987-01-01

    Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706

  3. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  4. Relationship between prenatal lead exposure and infant blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Klein, David M; Barnes, Jim; Smith, L J; Villanacci, John F

    2012-10-01

    Recent literature has shown that analyzing newborn dried blood spots (DBS) may be effective in assessing some prenatal environmental exposures, such as exposure to lead. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to lead (as measured by newborn DBS results) and blood lead levels (BLLs) in infants 6 months of age or younger, using public health registry data for infants born in Texas from July 2002 through July 2006. The Texas Child Lead Registry (TCLR) was used to identify infants with documented elevated BLLs of 10 μg/dL or higher as well as infants with documented low BLLs. BLLs for these children were compared to their corresponding newborn DBS results using Pearson correlation coefficients and exact logistic regression models. Overall, a significant but weak positive correlation was found between infant BLLs and corresponding newborn DBS lead levels (r = 0.48). However, the odds of an infant with an elevated newborn DBS lead level having an elevated BLL at 6 months of age or younger were much greater than for an infant with a low newborn DBS lead level of <5 μg/dL (adjusted odds ratio 27.95, 95% CI: 5.52-277.28). Although an association was observed between newborn DBS lead levels and BLLs in infants tested between 0 to 6 months of age, our findings suggest that prenatal exposure may not be the only significant source of lead exposure for infants ≤6 months of age.

  5. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, P; Carmignani, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 micrograms/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity by acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular beta-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. The cAMP-dependent availability of Ca2+ for contractile mechanisms of the cardiovascular muscle cells was affected by lead. PMID:3060351

  6. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  7. Prenatal lead exposure and childhood blood pressure and kidney function.

    PubMed

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Moore, Sophie E; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kippler, Maria; Vahter, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to lead, a common environmental pollutant, is known to cause cardiovascular and nephrotoxic effects in adults. Potential effects of early-life lead exposure on these functions are, however, less well characterized. To assess blood pressure and kidney function in preschool-aged children in relation to prenatal lead exposure. This prospective study in rural Bangladesh measured children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure in triplicate at the follow-up at 4.5±0.11 years. Their kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated based on serum cystatin C concentrations, and by kidney volume, measured by sonography. Exposure to lead was assessed by concentrations in the mothers' blood (erythrocyte fraction; Ery-Pb) in gestational weeks (GW) 14 and 30, the effects of which were evaluated separately in multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. We found no associations between maternal exposure to lead [n~1500 for GW14 and 700 for GW30] and children's blood pressure or eGFR. However, we found an inverse association between late gestation lead and kidney volume, although the sample size was limited (n=117), but not with early gestation lead (n=573). An increase of 85µg/kg in Ery-Pb (median concentration at GW30) was associated with a 6.0cm(3)/m(2) decrease in kidney volume (=0.4SD; p=0.041). After stratifying on gender, there seemed to be a somewhat stronger association in girls. Prenatal lead exposure may cause long-lasting effects on the kidney. This warrants follow-up studies in older children, as well as additional studies in other populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Association between Prenatal Lead Exposure and Blood Pressure in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aimin; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Park, Sung Kyun; Cantonwine, David; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Robert O.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure in adults is associated with hypertension. Altered prenatal nutrition is associated with subsequent risks of adult hypertension, but little is known about whether prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as lead, may also confer such risks. Objectives: We investigated the relationship of prenatal lead exposure and blood pressure (BP) in 7- to 15-year-old boys and girls. Methods: We evaluated 457 mother–child pairs, originally recruited for an environmental birth cohort study between 1994 and 2003 in Mexico City, at a follow-up visit in 2008–2010. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed by measurement of maternal tibia and patella lead using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence and cord blood lead using atomic absorption spectrometry. BP was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer with appropriate-size cuffs. Results: Adjusting for relevant covariates, maternal tibia lead was significantly associated with increases in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in girls but not in boys (p-interaction with sex = 0.025 and 0.007 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Among girls, an interquartile range increase in tibia lead (13 μg/g) was associated with 2.11-mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 3.52] and 1.60-mmHg (95% CI: 0.28, 2.91) increases in SBP and DBP, respectively. Neither patella nor cord lead was associated with child BP. Conclusions: Maternal tibia lead, which reflects cumulative environmental lead exposure and a source of exposure to the fetus, is a predisposing factor to higher BP in girls but not boys. Sex-specific adaptive responses to lead toxicity during early-life development may explain these differences. PMID:21947582

  9. [Association between low blood lead exposure and nervous system symptoms].

    PubMed

    Dou, Qianru; Wang, Yan; Cai, Chang; Li, Jimeng; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-05-01

    To explore the association between low blood lead exposure and nervous system symptoms among the workers exposed to oil paint. Through cluster sampling, workers with occupational oil paint exposure in 2 factories were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey, biochemical detection and health examination. χ2 test and unconditional logistic regression analysis were performed for the determinants analysis. A total of 525 oil paint workers completed the survey, in whom, 55 (10.5%) were blood lead positive, the mean of blood lead concentration was (0.0884±0.0539) mg/L, 278 (52.95%) had nervous system like symptoms and 69 (13.14%) had peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that working age (OR=1.827), drinking (OR=1.607), health status (OR=3.862), blood lead (OR=1.983) were risk factors for nervous system like symptoms. Working age (OR=2.282), and drinking (OR=2.704) were risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Low blood lead exposure might be associated with nervous system like symptoms.

  10. Peripheral blood findings associated with asymptomatic lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.M.; Tennant, F.S. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    This study was done to determine whether erythroid alterations can be found on a peripheral blood smear from an asymptomatic person exposure to excess atmospheric lead. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic adults who lived within five miles of a major Los Angeles, California freeway for five consecutive years were studied. Erythroid cytologic alterations-including-anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, polychromasia and basophilic stippling were statistically associated with increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. These findings indicate that erythroid alterations may be found on a peripheral blood smear prior to the development of clinical symptoms of lead intoxication.

  11. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  12. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  13. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  14. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics.

  15. Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Camila M; Fornes, Raymond; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Tena Alavez, Gilberto; Eguía-Líz Cedillo, Raúl; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2007-11-01

    To investigate whether infant iron status, modified by umbilical cord clamping time and infant feeding mode, affected infant blood lead concentration at 6 months of age. Participants were a subset of women and their infants randomized to receive early (10 seconds) or delayed (2 minutes) umbilical cord clamping and were monitored to 6 months postpartum in Mexico City. Iron and lead status was analyzed in maternal, placental, and 6-month infant blood samples. Baseline maternal lead exposure data and infant feeding data at 2, 4, and 6 months were collected. In the total sample, maternal blood lead concentration, infant ferritin, and breast-feeding practices predicted infant blood lead concentration. Among infants with higher placental blood lead concentration and breast-fed infants not receiving any iron-fortified formula or milk at 6 months, early clamping increased infant blood lead concentration, an effect mediated in part via decreased infant iron status. Early cord clamping, by decreasing infant iron status, contributes to higher blood lead concentrations at 6 months of age among infants at high risk.

  16. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  17. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  18. Comparison of blood and tissue lead concentrations from cattle with known lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Hillebrandt, Joseph; Erb, Hollis N; Thompson, Belinda; Johns, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    Blood lead (Pb) is used to diagnose Pb poisoning and exposure in cattle, but there are limited data comparing circulating Pb with concentrations in beef from the same cattle. This study determines whether there is a correlation between blood Pb and tissue Pb concentrations in accidentally exposed cattle. Pb analyses were carried out on ante-mortem blood and post-mortem tissues (including, if available, brain, liver, skeletal muscle, bone, gastrointestinal contents and kidney, and also foetal tissues from one cow) collected from 13 cattle known to have accidental Pb exposure and from three control cows with no known exposure. Variables from cattle were analysed statistically using a Shapiro-Wilk normality test and non-parametric descriptive and association statistics. Blood Pb from exposed cattle rank-correlated with liver, bone and kidney Pb concentrations, but not with the Pb concentrations of brain, skeletal muscle or gastrointestinal contents. The lowest blood Pb concentration associated with a detectable skeletal muscle Pb concentration (> 0.1 mg kg(-)(1) dry matter) was 4.57 μg dl(-1). Based on these findings, we recommend that cattle with blood Pb > 2.5 μg dl(-1) be withheld from slaughter and that liver, bone and kidney from all cattle with known Pb exposure be withheld from the human food chain.

  19. Prevalence of elevated blood leads and exposure to lead in construction trades in Iowa and Illinois.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S J; Seem, R; Fourtes, L J; Sprince, N L; Johnson, J; Walkner, L; Clarke, W; Whitten, P

    1999-08-01

    Despite lowering of the permissible exposure level for lead in construction from 200 to 50 microg/m3 in 1993, excessive lead exposure continues to be a problem. Relatively little data are available from the Midwestern U.S. on the environmental lead concentrations generated during various construction activities and the potential for worker exposure. This study characterized the prevalence of blood lead concentrations in high-risk construction trades in Iowa/Illinois, and identified risk factors for occupational exposure to lead in these construction workers. A sample of 459 workers was selected from the total population of all union members from trade groups of painters, plumbers/pipefitters, ironworkers, laborers, and electricians. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire obtaining information on demographics, symptoms, occupational history, work practices, personal protective equipment, and training. Venous blood samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for blood lead (using atomic absorption spectroscopy) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of construction workers ranged from 0.1 to 50 microg/dL. Geometric mean blood lead concentrations by trade group were: laborers (7.6 microg/dL, n = 80); painters (5.9 microg/dL, n = 83); ironworkers (5.2 microg/dL, n = 87); plumbers (4.4 microg/dL, n = 82); electricians (2.4 microg/dL, n = 91). Blood lead levels for painters and laborers were significantly higher than other trade groups, and levels for electricians were significantly lower (p < 0. 01). Participants reported working primarily on commercial and industrial projects including new construction, renovation, and demolition. There were significant differences between the types of projects performed by different trade groups with laborers performing more highway/bridge renovation (p < 0.01), and plumbers reporting more residential remodeling (p = 0.05), repair of water lines containing lead (p

  20. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  1. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  2. Air lead exposures and blood lead levels within a large automobile manufacturing workforce, 1980-1985.

    PubMed

    Kononen, D W; Kintner, H J; Bivol, K R

    1989-01-01

    Recent (1980-1985) trends in air lead (PbA) exposures and blood lead (PbB) levels experienced by approximately 10,000 workers employed in various stages of the automobile manufacturing process (i.e., auto assembly, lead-acid battery manufacture, foundry work, and "other" manufacturing-related operations) are described. Between 1980-1985, the mean PbB levels of assembly, battery, foundry, and "other" workers decreased by 28, 24, 3, and 27%, respectively, to 16.6, 23.6, 15.9, and 11.8 micrograms Pb/dl. Workers in the following job categories experienced the highest annual mean PbB levels: paste machine operators (battery plants), solder-grinders (assembly plants), and crane operators (foundries). During the same period, median 8-h Time Weighted Average PbA exposures (micrograms Pb/m3) in assembly plants, battery plants, and foundries decreased by 10, 12, and 20%, respectively, to 8.1, 13.6, and 10.9 micrograms/m3.

  3. Low-level exposure to lead, blood pressure, and hypertension in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Angela; Sallsten, Gerd; Borné, Yan; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Fagerberg, Björn; Engström, Gunnar; Barregard, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure is a possible causative factor for increased blood pressure and hypertension, but large studies at low-level exposure are scarce, and results inconsistent. We aimed to examine the effects of environmental exposure to lead in a large population-based sample. We assessed associations between blood lead and systolic/diastolic blood pressure and hypertension in 4452 individuals (46-67 years) living in Malmö, Sweden, in 1991-1994. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 10min supine rest. Hypertension was defined as high systolic (≥140mmHg) or diastolic (≥90mmHg) blood pressure and/or current use of antihypertensive medication. Blood lead was calculated from lead in erythrocytes and haematocrit. Multivariable associations between blood lead and blood pressure or hypertension were assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two-thirds of the cohort was re-examined 16 years later. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 141/87mmHg, 16% used antihypertensive medication, 63% had hypertension, and mean blood lead was 28µg/L. Blood lead in the fourth quartile was associated with significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (point estimates: 1-2mmHg) and increased prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) versus the other quartiles after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, and education. Associations were also significant with blood lead as a continuous variable. Blood lead at baseline, having a half-life of about one month, was not associated with antihypertensive treatment at the 16-year follow-up. Low-level lead exposure increases blood pressure and may increase the risk of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Personal exposure, behavior, and work site conditions as determinants of blood lead among bridge painters.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Virji, M Abbas; McClean, Michael D; Weinberg, Janice; Woskie, Susan; Pepper, Lewis D

    2010-02-01

    Bridge painters are exposed to lead during several job tasks performed during the workday, such as sanding, scraping, and blasting. After the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard was passed in 1993 to control lead exposures among construction workers including bridge painters, this study was conducted among 84 bridge painters in the New England area to determine the significant predictors of blood lead levels. Lead was measured in personal air and hand wipe samples that were collected during the 2-week study period and in blood samples that were collected at the beginning and at the end of the study period. The personal air and hand wipe data as well as personal behaviors (i.e., smoking, washing, wearing a respirator) and work site conditions were analyzed as potential determinants of blood lead levels using linear mixed effects models. Our results show that the mean air lead levels over the 2-week period were the most predictive exposure measure of blood lead levels. Other individual-level significant predictors of blood lead levels included months worked on bridge painting crews, education, and personal hygiene index. Of the site-level variables investigated, having a containment facility on site was a significant predictor of blood lead levels. Our results also indicate that hand wipe lead levels were significantly associated with higher blood lead levels at the end of the study period compared with the beginning of the study period. Similarly, smoking on site and respirator fit testing were significantly associated with higher blood lead levels at the end of the study period. This study shows that several individual-level and site-level factors are associated with blood lead levels among bridge painters, including lead exposure through inhalation and possible hand-to-mouth contact, personal behaviors such as smoking on site, respirator fit testing, and work site conditions such as the use of better containment facilities. Accordingly

  5. Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2014-01-01

    Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227 μg/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55 μg/l); plasma 78% (0.57 μg/l; GSD: 1.84 μg/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7 μg/l; GSD: 2.48 μg/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7 μg/l; GSD: 8.6 μg/l), 15% for plasma (0.09 μg/l; GSD: 0.04 μg/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8 μg/l; GSD: 6.7 μg/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure.

  6. Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

  7. The relationship between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in a pregnant population.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Salas Pacheco, José Manuel; Estrada Martínez, Sergio; Esquivel Rodríguez, Eloísa; Castellanos Juárez, Francisco X; Sandoval Carrillo, Ada; Lechuga Quiñones, Angélica María; Vázquez Alanís, Fernando; García Vargas, Gonzalo; Méndez Hernández, Edna Madai; Duarte Sustaita, Jaime

    2016-12-07

    Pregnant women exposed to lead are at risk of suffering reproductive damages, such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, premature delivery and low birth weight. Despite that the workplace offers the greatest potential for lead exposure, there is relatively little information about occupational exposure to lead during pregnancy. This study aims to assess the association between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of 299 pregnant women. Blood lead was measured in 31 women who worked in jobs where lead is used (exposed group) and 268 who did not work in those places (control group). Chi-square test was applied to compare exposed and control groups with regard to blood lead levels. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Multivariable regression analysis was applied to determine significant predictors of blood lead concentrations in the exposed group. Exposed women had higher blood lead levels than those in the control group (4.00 ± 4.08 μg/dL vs 2.65 ± 1.75 μg/dL, p = 0.002). Furthermore, women in the exposed group had 3.82 times higher probability of having blood lead levels ≥ 5 μg/dL than those in the control group. Wearing of special workwear, changing clothes after work, living near a painting store, printing office, junkyard or rubbish dump, and washing the workwear together with other clothes resulted as significant predictors of elevated blood lead levels in the exposed group. Pregnant working women may be at risk of lead poisoning because of occupational and environmental exposure. The risk increases if they do not improve the use of protective equipment and their personal hygiene.

  8. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  10. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  11. Tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy increases maternal blood lead levels affecting neonate birth weight.

    PubMed

    Chelchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Jablonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Joanna; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Bulska, Ewa; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of lead exposure from cigarette smoke on fetal growth, blood lead concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 150 healthy pregnant women. Mean lead concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly higher in the smoking group compared with the nonsmoking group in each trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed the highest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day for serum lead concentration (β = 0.238; p < 0.05), while in whole blood, it was duration of smoking before conception (β = 0.297; p < 0.001). Birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was significantly lower (mean ± SEM, 3,192 ± 50.8 and 3,569 ± 49.6 g, respectively; p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with lead levels in plasma (r = -0.38; p < 0.001) and in whole blood (r = -0.27; p < 0.001). Therefore, it is suggested that smoking during pregnancy increases lead concentrations in maternal blood. Fetal exposure to low doses of lead in utero may be a serious risk factor causing lower birth weight.

  12. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood levels in children of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Carreon, T.; Lopez, L.

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants` households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 {mu}g/dl with a mean of 9.9 {mu}g/dl (SD 5.8 {mu}/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 {mu}g/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used or prepare children`s food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children`s hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. [Effects of lead exposure on 18 elements in blood and excretions in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Duo-jian; Wu, Jing; Liu, Ya-qiong; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jing-yu

    2014-04-18

    To investigate the effects of lead exposure on lead and other metal elements contents in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into control group and several experiment groups of different doses. The rats were exposed to lead acetate through intragastric administration every other day for 5 times. The whole blood, urine and feces of all the rats were collected. The concentrations of lead and 18 metal elements in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). No significant difference among the groups was found for body weight and organ-body ratios of the rats after lead exposure (P>0.05). With the increase of exposure dose, lead content in blood, total lead in urine and feces tended to increase, while the total lead in urine no longer increased in the high dose group. Significant differences among the groups (P<0.05) were observed for the sodium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, antimony, thallium and bismuth contents in the whole blood, the potassium, iron and antimony contents in the urine, and the calcium, iron, zinc, copper, thallium, bismuth and rare earth elements contents in the feces. The effect of lead on the metabolism of divalent metal ions, namely calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and strontium ion, may be due to the competition of lead with the ions for common delivery carrier. Lead exposure induces the excretion of light rare earth elements and toxic elements (thallium and bismuth), and changes the antimony, sodium and potassium contents in rats. But there is no effect of lead on molybdenum and cadmium in rats.

  14. Second-hand smoke exposure and blood lead levels in U.S. children.

    PubMed

    Mannino, David M; Albalak, Rachel; Grosse, Scott; Repace, James

    2003-11-01

    Lead is a component of tobacco and tobacco smoke, and smokers have higher blood lead levels than do nonsmokers. We examined the relation between second-hand smoke exposure and blood lead levels in a nationally representative sample of 5592 U.S. children, age 4-16 years, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Linear and logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for known covariates. Geometric mean blood lead levels were 1.5 mug/dL, 1.9 mug/dL, and 2.6 mug/dL for children with low, intermediate, and high cotinine levels, respectively. The adjusted linear regression model showed that geometric mean blood lead levels were 38% higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25-52%) in children with high cotinine levels compared with children who had low cotinine levels. The logistic regression models showed that children with high cotinine levels were more likely to have blood lead levels >/=10 mug/dL than were children with low cotinine levels (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4; CI = 1.9-10.5). Second-hand smoke could be associated with increased blood lead levels in U.S. children aged 4-16 years.

  15. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised.

  16. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  17. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  18. Chronic Lead Exposure Increases Blood Pressure and Myocardial Contractility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fioresi, Mirian; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Furieri, Lorena Barros; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Vescovi, Marcos Vinícius A.; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular effects of lead exposure, emphasising its direct action on myocardial contractility. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into two groups: control (Ct) and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb) in the drinking water. Blood pressure (BP) was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were anaesthetised and haemodynamic parameters and contractility of the left ventricular papillary muscles were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigations. Statistical analyses were considered to be significant at p<0.05. The lead concentrations in the blood reached approximately 13 µg/dL, while the bone was the site of the highest deposition of this metal. BP in the Pb-treated group was higher from the first week of lead exposure and remained at the same level over the next four weeks. Haemodynamic evaluations revealed increases in systolic (Ct: 96±3.79 vs. Pb: 116±1.37 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (Ct: 60±2.93 vs. Pb: 70±3.38 mmHg), left ventricular systolic pressure (Ct: 104±5.85 vs. Pb: 120±2.51 mmHg) and heart rate (Ct: 307±10 vs. Pb: 348±16 bpm). Lead treatment did not alter the force and time derivatives of the force of left ventricular papillary muscles that were contracting isometrically. However, our results are suggestive of changes in the kinetics of calcium (Ca++) in cardiomyocytes increased transarcolemmal Ca++ influx, low Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and high extrusion by the sarcolemma. Altogether, these results show that despite the increased Ca++ influx that was induced by lead exposure, the myocytes had regulatory mechanisms that prevented increases in force, as evidenced in vivo by the increased systolic ventricular pressure. PMID:24841481

  19. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Environmental lead exposure is associated with visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability in the US adults.

    PubMed

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Delongchamp, Robert; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Youcheng; Abouelenien, Saly; Fischbach, Lori; Jadhav, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    The association between environmental lead exposure and blood pressure variability, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lead exposure is associated with blood pressure variability. American participants 17 years of age or older from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were included in the analysis. Participants' blood lead concentrations expressed as micrograms per deciliter were determined. The standard deviations of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure were calculated to determine blood pressure variability. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking and socioeconomic status were employed. The participants' mean age and mean blood lead concentration were 42.72 years and 3.44 mcg/dl, respectively. Systolic blood pressure variability was significantly associated with environmental lead exposure after adjusting for the effect of the confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted means of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and the β coefficient of lead exposure were 3.44, 3.33 mcg/dl, β coefficient = 0.07, P < 0.01. This study documents a positive linear relationship between environmental lead exposure and systolic blood pressure variability. Screening adults with fluctuating blood pressure for lead exposure could be warranted.

  1. Lead exposure in starter battery production: investigation of the correlation between air lead and blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kentner, M; Fischer, T

    1994-01-01

    The threshold limit value (TLV) for lead (in Germany, the MAK value) is based on a certain blood lead concentration (in Germany BAT value = biological tolerance value for working materials) that is not to be exceeded; thereby a statistically significant association between air lead (PbA) and blood lead (PbB) is assumed. On the basis of a 10-year period of (1982-1991) biological and ambient monitoring of 134 battery factory staff and their workplaces, a PbA/PbB correlation with the regression equation PbB = 62.183 + 21.242 x Log 10 (PbA) (n = 1089, r = 0.274, P < 0.001) was calculated. These results are in line with those of several other investigations. The shape of the regression curve and the wide scattering of values led to the assumption that PbA values above the MAK value (0.1 mg/m3) do not necessarily result in increased PbB values. Similarly, PbA values lower than the MAK value do not guarantee PbB levels below the BAT value in every case. These observations are influenced by numerous confounders and intervening variables. It is concluded that lowering MAK values as a consequence of lowering BAT values is not mandatory.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  3. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  4. Exposure sources and reasons for testing among women with low blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Motao; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2011-08-01

    Previous research has focused on highly elevated blood lead (PbB). This study examined reasons for testing and potential sources of exposure among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l (15 μg/dl). A questionnaire was mailed to 18- to 49-year-old women in upstate New York, USA, who were PbB tested in 2007. The most common testing reason was pregnancy among 125 women who returned the questionnaire. Among women tested for PbB during pregnancy, doctors ordered approximately 80% of tests regardless of lead level. Few women with PbBs less than 0.24 μmol/l (5 μg/dl) reported a potential source of lead exposure. However, among women with PbBs of 0.24-0.71 μmol/L (5-14.9 μg/dl), 29.2% had a job and 21.2% had a hobby with potential lead exposure. There are systematic differences in reasons for testing and exposure sources among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l and these differences have implications for screening.

  5. Monitoring of zinc protoporphyrin levels in blood following occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wildt, K.; Berlin, M.; Isberg, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The value of measurements of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) in the surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lead has been studied. From a group of referents, consisting of 1,088 men and 511 women, it has been established that the normal mean ZPP is in the region of 25 micrograms/100 ml, and only rarely do values exceed 45 micrograms/100 ml. The higher ZPP values are frequently associated with low blood hemoglobin concentrations and appear to be manifestations of an iron-deficiency anemia. Women have higher ZPP values than men; smoking has no influence. Measurements of ZPP and blood lead concentration (PbB) have been made every other month for 2.5 years on a group of around 200 men and 40 women exposed to lead in a storage battery factory. The mean ZPP of the group throughout the period was 70.9 micrograms/100 ml blood, and a linear relation between log ZPP and PbB in the PbB range of 10-80 micrograms/100 ml has been established. ZPP thresholds in the control of excessive occupational lead exposure, and the economic advantage of ZPP measurements over PbB, are discussed.

  6. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  7. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  8. Lead exposure in children: levels in blood, prevalence of intoxication and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Domínguez, C

    1998-09-01

    Lead is a highly toxic metal, the main source of which is contamination from combustion of unleaded petrol. The aims of this work were to detect the degree of lead exposure in a large sample of children; determine the relationship between blood lead levels (BPb) and age, sex, habitat and season of the year; and correlate BPb with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) values. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Blood from routine extractions drawn at our centre was used. BPb and ZPP were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and haematofluorimetry, respectively. We analysed 1158 blood samples from children. BPb (mean +/- SEM): 0.22 +/- 0.04 mumol l-1. Correlation BPb-age: BPb = 0.19 + 0.086 x age (months), r = 0.129, P < 0.0001. BPb was greater in boys (0.23 +/- 0.007 versus 0.20 +/- 0.006 mumol l-1, P < 0.0002). No differences were observed between habitats (urban versus rural). BPb were higher in the warm months (0.24 +/- 0.013 versus 0.21 +/- 0.007 mumol l-1, P < 0.0001). Prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol l-1) was 4.2%. No differences in prevalence were found among the different groups. The correlation between BPb and ZPP showed r = 0.0969, P = 0.0024. Utility for screening: sensitivity of 53.7% and specificity of 59.3% (cut-off point of 60 mumol ZPP mol-1 haem). We can conclude that lead exposure in children in our sample was in the range reported in similar studies in other areas and countries, and below the toxic limit. None of the factors analysed significantly influenced lead intoxication prevalence. There was no good correlation between ZPP and BPb in our samples and the ZPP cut-off point used did not present good specificity and sensitivity values.

  9. Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Moturi, M Charles; Gottesfeld, P; Wafula, Godfrey A; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

  10. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  11. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  13. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  14. Blood pressure in relation to environmental lead exposure in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 μg/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 μg/dL). In multivariable analyses of all participants, blood lead doubling was associated with higher (P≤0.0007) systolic and diastolic pressure (+0.76 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.13 and +0.43 mm Hg; 0.18-0.68), but not with the odds of hypertension (0.95; 0.90-1.01; P=0.11). Associations with blood lead were nonsignificant (P≥0.09) for systolic pressure in women and for diastolic pressure in non-whites. Among men, systolic pressure increased with blood lead (P≤0.060) with effect sizes associated with blood lead doubling ranging from +0.65 mm Hg in whites to +1.61 mm Hg in blacks. For systolic pressure, interactions of ethnicity and sex with blood lead were all significant (P≤0.019). In conclusion, small and inconsistent effect sizes in the associations of blood pressure with blood lead likely exclude current environmental lead exposure as a major hypertension cause in the United States. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  16. Blood lead levels and δ-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 μg/dl, range 0.49-25.61 μg/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 μg/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 μg/dl). Because δ-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited δ-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 μg/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and δ-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species.

  17. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure and function of the rat isolated heart

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Badalzadeh; Ali, Norouzzadeh; Azhdar, Heydari; Alireza, Asgari; Ali, Khoshbaten

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to low levels of lead acetate can induce hypertension in both humans and experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension are not well understood, but its pathogenesis could be explained by the changes in heart rate and contractility. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the effects of exposure to 100 ppm of lead in drinking water (for periods of 4, 8, and 12 weeks) on blood pressure and some physiologic parameters (eg, electrocardiography [ECG], heart rate [HR], cardiac contractility, and coronary flow) of isolated beating rat heart was investigated using the Langendorff isolated heart apparatus. The isolated hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution (37°C; pH 7.4; gassed with 95% O2 + 5% CO2). All data were digitized by a software program for further analysis. Results: The blood pressure in the 8- and 12-week lead-exposed groups was significantly increased as compared to the control group. The ECG showed arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities only in the late phases of exposure (12 weeks). The HR and contractility were significantly higher in the 8- and 12-week lead-treated rats but not in the 4-week group. No significant changes were observed in coronary flow. Conclusion: These results indicate that: 1) low levels of lead exposure do not significantly affect the ECG in the early phase, 2) low levels of lead exposure causes ECG changes in the late phases of exposure, and 3) this level of lead exposure can increase HR and cardiac contractility but has no effect on coronary flow. PMID:21279169

  18. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  20. Blood lead levels and enzymatic biomarkers of environmental lead exposure in children in Cordoba, Argentina, after the ban of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Martínez, S A; Simonella, L; Hansen, C; Rivolta, S; Cancela, L M; Virgolini, M B

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant found in industrial activities, many of them already prohibited worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate current blood Pb (PbB) levels in children in Cordoba, Argentina, and to compare these with similar studies performed before Pb was banned in gasoline in 1996. We also sought to identify mechanistically relevant biomarkers by measuring δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. We finally aimed to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with Pb toxicity. Blood samples collected from 161 healthy children between September 2009 and February 2010 revealed mean PbB levels of 2.58 ± 0.30 µg/dl. Enzymatic δ-ALAD, CAT, and SOD activities showed no significant variations when plotted against PbB levels. Finally, children living in the suburbs have higher PbB levels than their city counterparts, while low socioeconomic status increased δ-ALAD inhibition compared with that of middle-income children. Overall, these results evidenced a substantial reduction in exposure to Pb in this pediatric population over a decade after Pb was restricted in gasoline and reveal the importance of pursuing novel biomarkers of toxicity along with the sociodemographic profile to complement Pb diagnosis.

  1. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  2. Biochemical effects of lead exposure on battery manufacture workers with reference to blood pressure, calcium metabolism and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Nilima N; Suryakar, Adinath N; Patil, Arun J; Hundekari, Indira A; Devarnavadagi, Basavaraj B

    2013-01-01

    Lead is one of the most widely scattered toxic metals in the environment and used by mankind for over 9,000 years. Lead in the environment may be derived from natural or anthropogenic sources. In humans, lead can cause a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of lead exposure on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D and examine the overall effect of all these parameters on the bone mineral density of battery manufacture workers. For this study ninety battery manufacture workers were selected and divided in three groups depending upon duration of lead exposure. Group I-workers with duration of lead exposure 1-5 years, Group II-workers with duration of lead exposure 6-10 years and Group III-workers with duration of lead exposure more than 10 years. Each group consisted of thirty workers. Thirty age matched healthy control subjects were taken for comparison. Demographic, occupational and clinical data were collected by using questionnaire and interview. The venous blood samples were collected from the study groups and normal healthy control group. At the time of blood collection random urine samples were collected in amber coloured bottles. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using standard assay procedures. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent student't' test for parametric variables. Values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). P values of 0.05 or less were considered to be statistically significant. The blood lead levels and urinary lead levels of all workers were significantly increased (P < 0.001) in proportion to the duration of lead exposure as compared to controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly raised (P < 0.001) in all three study groups of battery manufacture workers as compared to controls. Serum

  3. 470 Relationship of Blood Lead Levels with Total Ige in Teenagers with Environmental Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Velazquez, Rocío; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Calderon Aranda, Emma S.; Gonzalez, Manuel Rosales; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora; Cebrian, Mariano Enrique; Rosado, Jorge Luis; Stoltzfus, Rebeca; García Vargas, Gonzalo Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents that suggest gender differences in the relationship of lead in blood with serum total IgE. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a population of teenagers attending 9 schools in Torreon, Coahuila, the relationship of lead in blood with total IgE and their dependence on gender. Methods We included 230 teenagers (105 females, 125 males) between 11 and 14 years of age, from a cohort of children evaluated for its history of lead exposure since 2000. Clinical diagnosis was performed to detect allergies; skin tests were applied for 47 common allergens in the region. IgE levels were quantified in serum by chemiluminescence and the blood lead levels by spectrophotometry AAS. Results The average blood lead levels in allergic group were of 4.86 ± 2.9 μg/dL and in the non-allergic group 5.1 ± 2.7 μg/dL. There were not gender differences between allergic group versus non allergic group, however, among the types of allergic diseases, a higher percentage of males had rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma, compared with the females. The blood lead level in males was significantly higher (5.61 ± 3.3 mg/dL) compared with females (4.22 ± 2.1 mg/dL) and the regression analysis between blood lead levels with total IgE was significant in males and not in females. Conclusions Gender differences observed appear to be explained by blood lead levels, however, we should consider the contribution of other variables in the model.

  4. Blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupational short-term exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P; Birkner, Ewa; Chwalba, Artur; Hudziec, Edyta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-08-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a short-term exposure to lead on the blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 37 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44days. Their blood lead level raised from 10.7±7.67μg/dl at baseline to the level of 49.1±14.1μg/dl at the end of the study. The level of hemoglobin and values of MCH and MCHC were decreased due to a short-term exposure to lead by 2%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The counts of WBC, LYM, and MXD increased significantly by 5%, 7%, and 35%. Similarly, the count of PLT increased by 7%, while PDW, MPV, and P-LCR decreased by 6%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. The levels of IL-7, G-CSF, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, SCF, and PECAM-1, decreased significantly by 30%, 33%, 8%, 30%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. A short-term occupational exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level and increased counts of WBC and PLT. Changes in counts and proportions of different types of leukocytes and decreased values of PLT indices, such as PDW, MPV, and P-LCR, due to the subacute lead-exposure may be associated with lead-induced decreased levels of cytokines related to hematopoiesis, including SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  6. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  7. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  8. INVERSE ASSOCIATION OF INTELLECTUAL FUNCTION WITH VERY LOW BLOOD LEAD BUT NOT WITH MANGANESE EXPOSURE IN ITALIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44 – 10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00 – 24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ = 102, performance IQ = 109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall’s tau rank correlation = 0.074, p =0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels. PMID:22925625

  9. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb.

  10. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.

  11. Food Exposures to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Kolbye, Albert C.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Fiorino, John A.; Corneliussen, Paul C.; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1974-01-01

    Exposures to lead have emanated from various sources, including food, throughout human history. Occupational and environmental exposures (especially pica) appear to account for much of the identified human disease, however, food-borne exposures deserve further investigation. Lead residues in food can result from: biological uptake from soils into plants consumed by food animals or man, usage of lead arsenate pesticides, inadvertent addition during food processing, and by leaching them improperly glazed pottery used as food storage or dining utensils. Estimates of total dietary exposure should reflect frequency distribution data on lead levels in specific food commodities in relation to the quantities actually ingested by various sample populations to distinguish degrees of risk associated with particular dietary habits. Earlier estimates of average total dietary intake of lead by adults have been reported to range from above 500 μg/day downward with more recent estimates suggesting averages of 200 μg/day or lower. The strengths and weaknesses of these data are discussed along with analytical and sampling considerations. FDA programs related to food surveillance, epidemiology, and toxicological investigation are briefly described. PMID:4406646

  12. Reducing lead exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The near elimination of lead-related childhood fatalities and encephalopathy by the 1970s and the sharp decline in mean blood lead levels nationwide documented between 1976 and 1980 are two milestones in the fight against lead poisoning. In the case of the latter, we know the antecedents, such as controls on the sale, use, and lead content of lead paint, improved chelation therapy, and increased awareness and case finding; however, the antecedents' relative contributions are not known due to a lack of evaluation. Similarly, the effect of a variety of social-welfare programs has not been evaluated. Since the 1970s, our perception of the problem of lead toxicity and consequently its control has changed. First steps have been made toward attaining one primary preventive objective, controlling the multiple sources of new inputs of lead to the biosphere that contribute to asymptomatic lead toxicity. The lead content of widely used commodities has been reduced (canned foods and gasoline) or virtually eliminated (paint). The benefits of passive measures used to attain reductions in lead exposure have been documented to a greater extent than those of active programs. The best example of a successful primary and passive preventive measure is the availability of lead-free gasoline since 1974, which largely accounts for decreases in ambient air lead concentrations nationwide and the recent shift to lower values in the distribution curve of children's blood lead levels. The latter provides a margin of safety for children before known toxic levels are reached. The contribution of reductions in dietary lead to changes in blood lead levels has not been well documented. Studies also show the benefits of the use of lead-free paint in new housing. Compared to children living in older homes with deteriorating lead paint, those living in lead-free homes are at low risk for lead toxicity.

  13. Lead exposure in a firing range.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Cook, M; Hughes, J; Lee, S A

    1987-01-01

    We report lead exposure in four employees of a privately owned shooting range, one of whom had neurological toxicity due to lead. Increasing time worked at the range was associated with elevation of blood lead. This incident emphasizes the risk of airborne lead exposure to employees of firing ranges. PMID:3618861

  14. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    PubMed Central

    Zolaly, Mohammed Adnan; Hanafi, Manal Ibrahim; Shawky, Nashaat; el-Harbi, Khalid; Mohamadin, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood), which often culminates in death. Objective To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents’ education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer. Results The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 μg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 μg/dL). A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 μg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 μg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 μg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 μg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 μg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 μg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR]) that affect BLLs (≥10 μg/dL) indicated that using cosmetics (OR = 18.5, confidence interval [CI] = 14.4–19.8), putting colored toys in mouth (OR = 15.7, CI = 3.6–16.2), eating canned food (OR = 9.8, CI = 7.0–10.1), and using newspaper during food preparation (OR = 7.6, CI = 6.3–8.2) are risk factors. There were significant correlations between BLLs and family habits (r = 0.225, P = 0.000), personal habits (r = 0.321, P = 0.000), eating habits (r = 0.128, P = 0.002) and school building characteristics (r = 0.469, P = 0.000). There was a significant correlation between BLLs and anemia in age group 6 < 12 years (P = 0.000) and age group 12

  15. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  16. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  17. Exposure of U.S. Children to Residential Dust Lead, 1999–2004: II. The Contribution of Lead-Contaminated Dust to Children’s Blood Lead Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Sherry L.; Gaitens, Joanna M.; Jacobs, David E.; Strauss, Warren; Nagaraja, Jyothi; Pivetz, Tim; Wilson, Jonathan W.; Ashley, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collected health, housing, and environmental data in a single integrated national survey for the first time in the United States in 1999–2004. Objectives We aimed to determine how floor dust lead (PbD) loadings and other housing factors influence childhood blood lead (PbB) levels and lead poisoning. Methods We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), including 2,155 children 12–60 months of age with PbB and PbD measurements. We used linear and logistic regression models to predict log-transformed PbB and the odds that PbB was ≥ 5 and ≥ 10 μg/dL at a range of floor PbD. Results The population-weighted geometric mean (GM) PbB was 2.0 μg/dL (geometric standard error = 1.0). Age of child, race/ethnicity, serum cotinine concentration, poverty-to-income ratio, country of birth, year of building construction, floor PbD by floor surface and condition, windowsill PbD, presence of deteriorated paint, home-apartment type, smoking in the home, and recent renovation were significant predictors in either the linear model [the proportion of variability in the dependent variable accounted for by the model (R2) = 40%] or logistic model for 10 μg/dL (R2 = 5%). At floor PbD = 12 μg/ft2, the models predict that 4.6% of children living in homes constructed before 1978 have PbB ≥ 10 μg/dL, 27% have PbB ≥ 5 μg/dL, and the GM PbB is 3.9 μg/dL. Conclusions Lowering the floor PbD standard below the current standard of 40 μg/ft2 would protect more children from elevated PbB. PMID:19337524

  18. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead exposure among pregnant women in western French Guiana: the role of manioc consumption.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Diane; Restrepo, Marion; Louison, Anne; Boukhari, Rachida; Ardillon, Vanessa; Carles, Gabriel; Lambert, Véronique; Jolivet, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding lead (Pb) poisoning in French Guiana first arose in 2011 following the discovery of excessively high levels of the metal amongst children in a small neighborhood without any apparent source of Pb. Since 2012, blood lead level (BLL) measurement has been proposed for all pregnant women in western French Guiana. The aim of this study was to determine BLL in pregnant women in this region and identify factors associated with elevated BLL. An observational study of a consecutive sample of women who delivered in the maternity ward of the hospital was conducted. Risk factors were investigated using a questionnaire administered postdelivery by midwives (N = 531). Approximately 25 and 5% of women displayed BLL of ≥50 μg/L and ≥100 µg/L, respectively. The geometric mean was 32.6 μg/L. Factors that were significantly associated with an elevated BLL after modeling (multivariate linear regression) included place of residence along the Maroni river, low level of education, daily consumption of manioc derivatives, weekly and daily consumption or personal preparation of manioc flour during pregnancy, and weekly consumption of wild game. This study provides insight into the regional and social disparities in BLL in French Guiana and potential sources of exposure. Evidence indicates that foods that are primarily produced and consumed in the Guiana Shield significantly affect BLL levels. Taken together with existing data, our results demonstrate that specific actions in terms of prevention, screening, and care are required to be adapted and put into place in order to reduce exposure.

  20. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  1. Relation of pediatric blood lead levels to lead in gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of a large data set of pediatric blood lead levels collected in New York City (1970-1976) shows a highly significant association between geometric mean blood lead levels and the amount of lead present in gasoline sold during the same period. This association was observed for all age and ethnic groups studied, and it suggests that possible exposure pathways other than ambient air should be considered. Even without detailed knowledge of the exact exposure pathways, sufficient information now exists for policy analysis and decisions relevant to controls and standards related to lead in gasoline and its effect on subsets of the population. PMID:7389685

  2. Time To Pregnancy and occupational lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, M; Bisanti, L; Apostoli, P; Kiss, P; Dale, A; Roeleveld, N; Lindbohm, M; Sallmen, M; Vanhoorne, M; Bonde, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure is known to be harmful to the male reproductive system, including impairment of fertility. However, it is unclear whether currently existing low levels of exposure have this effect. Aims: To study retrospectively current workers in lead using industries (battery manufacture, smelting, etc), and in non-lead using control industries, in four European countries, with Time To Pregnancy as the outcome variable, as part of the EU funded Asclepios Project. Methods: Exposure assessment was mainly by blood lead values, which were available from the late 1970s, supplemented by imputed values where necessary. Three exposure models were studied: (1) short term (recent) exposure; (2) total duration of work in a lead using industry; and (3) cumulative exposure. A Cox proportional hazards model with discrete ties was used for the statistical analysis, with covariates for both partners. Results: A total of 1104 subjects took part, of whom 638 were occupationally exposed to lead at the relevant time. Blood lead levels were mainly less than 50 µg/dl. No consistent association of Time To Pregnancy with lead exposure was found in any of the exposure models, although reduced fertility was observed in one category each in models (2) and (3). Conclusions: This basically negative result is unlikely to be due to the misclassification of key variables, to insufficient statistical power, or to bias, for example, response bias. If any impairment of male reproductive function exists at the levels of occupational lead exposure now current, it does not appear to reduce biological fertility. PMID:14504363

  3. Time To Pregnancy and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Joffe, M; Bisanti, L; Apostoli, P; Kiss, P; Dale, A; Roeleveld, N; Lindbohm, M-L; Sallmén, M; Vanhoorne, M; Bonde, J P

    2003-10-01

    Lead exposure is known to be harmful to the male reproductive system, including impairment of fertility. However, it is unclear whether currently existing low levels of exposure have this effect. To study retrospectively current workers in lead using industries (battery manufacture, smelting, etc), and in non-lead using control industries, in four European countries, with Time To Pregnancy as the outcome variable, as part of the EU funded Asclepios Project. Exposure assessment was mainly by blood lead values, which were available from the late 1970s, supplemented by imputed values where necessary. Three exposure models were studied: (1) short term (recent) exposure; (2) total duration of work in a lead using industry; and (3) cumulative exposure. A Cox proportional hazards model with discrete ties was used for the statistical analysis, with covariates for both partners. A total of 1104 subjects took part, of whom 638 were occupationally exposed to lead at the relevant time. Blood lead levels were mainly less than 50 microg/dl. No consistent association of Time To Pregnancy with lead exposure was found in any of the exposure models, although reduced fertility was observed in one category each in models (2) and (3). This basically negative result is unlikely to be due to the misclassification of key variables, to insufficient statistical power, or to bias, for example, response bias. If any impairment of male reproductive function exists at the levels of occupational lead exposure now current, it does not appear to reduce biological fertility.

  4. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and the relationship among living area, the blood parameter levels, and the lung function levels, a total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (exposed area), and Haojiang and Xiashan (reference areas) were recruited and required to undergo blood tests and lung function tests during the study period. Preschool children living in e-waste exposed areas were found to have a 1.37 μg/dL increase in blood Pb, 1.18 μg/L increase in blood Cd, and a 41.00 × 10(9)/L increase in platelet counts, while having a 2.82 g/L decrease in hemoglobin, 92 mL decrease in FVC and 86 mL decrease in FEV1. Each unit of hemoglobin (1 g/L) decline was associated with 5 mL decrease in FVC and 4 mL decrease in FEV1. We conclude that children living in e-waste exposed area have higher levels of blood Pb, Cd and platelets, and lower levels of hemoglobin and lung function. Hemoglobin can be a good predictor for lung function levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  6. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  7. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ≥5 μg/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  9. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  10. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  11. Exposure of early pediatric trainees to blood and marrow transplantation leads to higher recruitment to the field.

    PubMed

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-09-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in the United States as 10,000 per year. Although the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by the year 2015, there are several barriers to meeting this goal, including the need to recruit more health care personnel, including BMT physicians. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we examined why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter the field and why others did not. We conducted a Web-based survey among pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to identify the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. Out of 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin), 94 self-identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians, and 53 as PHO trainees. The PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than two-thirds of PHO providers reported providing BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in training was significantly higher among BMT providers compared with PHO providers (51% versus 18% in medical school [P < .0001]; 70% versus 50% during residency [P < .005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ between the 2 groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) by 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers than PHO providers reported current involvement in the education of medical students and residents (76% versus 98%; P < .0001). Of the 53 trainees who responded, 64% reported not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% identified inadequate exposure to BMT before PHO fellowship as the reason behind this decision. Only 26% reported receiving exposure to the BMT field while in medical school, and 43% reported exposure during residency. The 2 most

  12. Environmental lead exposure and the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, B.P.; Becker, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Lead and its components remain widely distributed in the environment and in some workplaces. Lead serves no useful physiological function, yet is potentially toxic to several organ systems. For many years human health effects have been recognized after heavy lead exposure. Recently more subtle human effects have been suggested invoking nervous system, reproductive and kidney function. Assessing lead body burden and dose-response relationships of this metal by blood lead determination, porphyrin assessments, chelation testing or bone lead studies may be difficult. Quantitative assessment of subtle changes in kidney function by routine BUN, creatinine, or urinalysis also poses problems. There is now mounting evidence that chronic low level environmental lead exposure may subtly effect kidney function. This paper first examines the history of lead and kidney function and then examines critically the evidence associating low-level environmental lead exposure and effects on renal function. 119 references.

  13. Neurodevelopmental outcomes among 2- to 3-year-old children in Bangladesh with elevated blood lead and exposure to arsenic and manganese in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Bellinger, David C; Valeri, Linda; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Golam, Mostofa; Kile, Molly L; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-03-12

    The people of Bangladesh are currently exposed to high concentrations of arsenic and manganese in drinking water, as well as elevated lead in many regions. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental exposure to these contaminants and neurodevelopmental outcomes among Bangladeshi children. We evaluated data from 524 children, members of an ongoing prospective birth cohort established to study the effects of prenatal and early childhood arsenic exposure in the Sirajdikhan and Pabna Districts of Bangladesh. Water was collected from the family's primary drinking source during the first trimester of pregnancy and at ages 1, 12 and 20-40 months. At age 20-40 months, blood lead was measured and neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using a translated, culturally-adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Median blood lead concentrations were higher in Sirajdikhan than Pabna (7.6 vs. blood lead was associated with decreased cognitive scores in Sirajdikhan (β = -0.17, SE = 0.09, p = 0.05), whereas increased water arsenic was associated with decreased cognitive scores in Pabna (β = -0.06, SE = 0.03, p = 0.05). Water manganese was associated with fine motor scores in an inverse-U relationship in Pabna. Where blood lead levels are high, lead is associated with decreased cognitive scores on the BSID-III, and effects of other metals are not detected. In the setting of lower lead levels, the adverse effects of arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment are observed.

  14. Exposure of Early Pediatric Trainees to Blood and Marrow Transplantation Leads to Higher Recruitment to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplants (BMT) in the United States is 10,000 per year. While the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by 2015, there are a number of barriers to meeting this need including recruiting additional health care personnel including BMT providers. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we sought to understand why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter BMT, and why others did not. We conducted a web-based survey amongst Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to determine the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. There were 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin); 94 identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians and 53 as PHO trainees. PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than 2/3 of PHO providers stated that they provide BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in their training was significantly higher amongst BMT providers than PHO providers (51% vs. 18% during medical school [p<0.0001] and 70% vs. 50% during residency [p < 0.005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ amongst groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) in 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers reported currently being involved in education of medical students and residents compared to PHO providers (98% vs. 76%, p<0.0001). Of 53 trainees, 64% reported that they were not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% stated that inadequate exposure to BMT prior to PHO fellowship was the reason. Only 26% reported BMT exposure in medical school and 43% during residency. The two most common reasons for the choice of a BMT career were the degree of intellectual and

  15. DNA methylation changes in whole blood is associated with exposure to the environmental contaminants, mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A, in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Courtney W; Bloom, Michael S; Robinson, Wendy P; Kim, Dongsul; Parsons, Patrick J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Taylor, Julia A; Steuerwald, Amy J; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2012-05-01

    Changes in DNA methylation may play an important role in the deleterious reproductive effects reported in association with exposure to environmental pollutants. In this pilot study, we identify candidate methylation changes associated with exposure to pollutants in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Blood and urine were collected from women on the day of oocyte retrieval. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead, and urine for cadmium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Unconjugated bisphenol A (BPA) was analyzed in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with Coularray detection. Participants were dichotomized as higher or lower exposure groups by median concentrations. Using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I, DNA methylation in whole blood from 43 women was assessed at 1505 CpG sites for association with exposure levels of each pollutant. Candidate CpG sites were identified using a Diff Score >|13| (P< 0.05) and an absolute difference >10% which were confirmed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Methylation of the GSTM1/5 promoter was increased for women with higher mercury exposure (P= 0.04); however, no correlation was observed (r= 0.17, P= 0.27). Reduced methylation was detected in the COL1A2 promoter in women with higher exposure to lead (P= 0.004), and an inverse correlation was observed (r = - 0.45, P= 0.03). Lower methylation of a promoter CpG site at the TSP50 gene was detected in women with higher BPA exposure (P= 0.005), and again an inverse correlation was identified (r = - 0.51, P= 0.001). Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). Further studies accommodating variations in these factors will be needed to confirm these

  16. Human biomonitoring issues related to lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N

    2013-10-01

    Lead as a toxic environmental metal has been an issue of concern for 30-40 years. Even though the exposures experienced by the general public have been significantly reduced, so have the acceptable blood lead concentrations assessed to safeguard health (specifically of children). The impact of these concurrent changes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the following: blood lead as the primary biomarker of exposure; pertinent toxicokinetic issues including modelling; legacy and newer sources of this toxic metal; improvements in lead quantification techniques and its characterization (chemical forms) in exposure media; and in vivo markers of lead sources. It is concluded that the progress in the quantification of lead and its characterization in exposure media have supported the efforts to identify statistical associations of lead in blood and tissues with adverse health outcomes, and have guided strategies to reduce human exposure (especially for children). To clarify the role of lead as a causative factor in disease, greater research efforts in biomarkers of effect and susceptibility seem timely.

  17. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  18. Blood parameters as biomarkers of cadmium and lead exposure and effects in wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) living along a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Bouguerra, Ghada; Scheifler, Renaud

    2015-11-01

    Small mammal populations living on contaminated sites are exposed to various chemicals. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), two well-known nonessential trace metals, accumulate in different organs and are known to cause multiple adverse effects. To develop nonlethal markers in ecotoxicology, the present work aimed to study the relationships between blood parameters (hematocrit, leukocyte levels and granulated erythrocyte levels) and Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in the liver and kidneys of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Individuals were trapped along a pollution gradient with high levels of Cd, Pb and zinc (Zn) contamination. The results indicated that hematological parameters were independent of individual characteristics (age and gender). Blood parameters varied along the pollution gradient, following a pattern similar to the accumulation of Cd in the organs of the wood mice. No relationship was found between the blood parameters studied and Pb concentrations in the organs or in the environment. The hematocrit and leukocyte number decreased with increasing concentrations of Cd in the kidneys and/or in the liver. Moreover, the hematocrit was lower in the animals that were above the thresholds (LOAELs) for Cd concentrations in the liver. These responses were interpreted as a warning of potential negative effects of Cd exposure on the oxygen transport capacity of the blood (e.g., anemia). The present results suggest that blood parameters, notably hematocrit, may offer a minimally invasive biomarker for the evaluation of Cd exposure in further ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetal lead exposure: antenatal factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Wolf, A.W.; Sokol, R.J.; Brittenham, G.M.; Erhard, P.

    1985-10-01

    It was hypothesized that maternal blood lead level at delivery and cord blood lead level of the neonate would be affected by maternal use of alcohol, history of alcohol abuse, and smoking. The possibility that iron status, as reflected in maternal serum ferritin, would be related to lead level was also explored. The maternal history of alcohol abuse was unrelated to lead level in 208 samples of maternal blood and 178 samples of cord blood. However, alcohol use during pregnancy was related in a dose-response fashion to maternal and to cord blood lead level. This effect was significant with and without control of maternal smoking. The effect of maternal smoking and serum thiocyanate on maternal and cord blood lead level were also highly significant with and without control of the maternal drinking variable. Serum ferritin was marginally related to lead level for white women and for black infants, but tests of the dichotomized maternal ferritin variable did not yield a significant linkage with maternal or cord blood lead level. The results further support recommendations that women abstain from alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in pregnancy.

  20. Lead Aprons Are a Lead Exposure Hazard.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin M; Shoag, Jamie M; Kahlon, Sukhraj S; Parsons, Patrick J; Bijur, Polly E; Taragin, Benjamin H; Markowitz, Morri

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether lead-containing shields have lead dust on the external surface. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this descriptive study of a convenience sample of 172 shields. Each shield was tested for external lead dust via a qualitative rapid on-site test and a laboratory-based quantitative dust wipe analysis, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The χ(2) test was used to test the association with age, type of shield, lead sheet thickness, storage method, and visual and radiographic appearance. Sixty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56%-70%) of the shields had detectable surface lead by FAAS and 50% (95% CI: 43%-57%) by the qualitative method. Lead dust by FAAS ranged from undetectable to 998 μg/ft(2). The quantitative detection of lead was significantly associated with the following: (1) visual appearance of the shield (1 = best, 3 = worst): 88% of shields that scored 3 had detectable dust lead; (2) type of shield: a greater proportion of the pediatric patient, full-body, and thyroid shields were positive than vests and skirts; (3) use of a hanger for storage: 27% of shields on a hanger were positive versus 67% not on hangers. Radiographic determination of shield intactness, thickness of interior lead sheets, and age of shield were unrelated to presence of surface dust lead. Sixty-three percent of shields had detectable surface lead that was associated with visual appearance, type of shield, and storage method. Lead-containing shields are a newly identified, potentially widespread source of lead exposure in the health industry. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological tests of lead absorption following a brief massive exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.K.

    1984-07-01

    A contractor's man suffered a brief, massive exposure to lead fume by contaminating and then smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. His blood lead concentration rose very rapidly to very high levels, but zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary lead, and urinary coproporphyrin did not. It is possible that only the blood lead concentration is of value in detecting brief massive exposure.

  2. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  3. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  4. Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

    1984-03-01

    In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

  5. Balance ability in 7- and 10-year-old children: associations with prenatal lead and cadmium exposure and with blood lead levels in childhood in a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2015-12-30

    Most studies reporting evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on the ability to balance have been conducted in high-exposure groups or have included adults. The effects of prenatal exposure have not been well studied, nor have the effects in children been directly studied. The aim of the study was to identify the associations of lead (in utero and in childhood) and cadmium (in utero) exposure with the ability to balance in children aged 7 and 10 years. Prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood lead (n=4285) and cadmium (n=4286) levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) during pregnancy. Child lead levels were measured in a subsample of 582 of ALSPAC children at age 30 months. Children completed a heel-to-toe walking test at 7 years. At 10 years, the children underwent clinical tests of static and dynamic balance. Statistical analysis using SPSS V.19 included logistic regression modelling, comparing categories of ≥ 5 vs <5 µg/dL for lead, and ≥ 1 vs <1 µg/L for cadmium. Balance at age 7 years was not associated with elevated in utero lead or cadmium exposure (adjusted OR for balance dysfunction: Pb 1.01 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01), n=1732; Cd 0.95 (0.77 to 1.20), n=1734), or with elevated child blood lead level at age 30 months (adjusted OR 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05), n=354). Similarly, neither measures of static nor dynamic balance at age 10 years were associated with in utero lead or cadmium exposure, or child lead level. These findings do not provide any evidence of an association of prenatal exposure to lead or cadmium, or lead levels in childhood, on balance ability in children. Confirmation in other cohorts is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. [Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites].

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Núñez-Monreal, Jorge E; García-Nieto, Edelmira; Carrizales, Leticia; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.

  7. Lead exposure induces changes in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine clusters in CpG islands in human embryonic stem cells and umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arko; Cingolani, Pablo; Senut, Marie-Claude; Land, Susan; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to neurotoxicants such as lead (Pb) may cause stable changes in the DNA methylation (5mC) profile of the fetal genome. However, few studies have examined its effect on the DNA de-methylation pathway, specifically the dynamic changes of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) profile. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the relationship between Pb exposure and 5mC and 5hmC modifications during early development. To study the changes in the 5hmC profile, we use a novel modification of the Infinium™ HumanMethylation450 assay (Illumina, Inc.), which we named HMeDIP-450K assay, in an in vitro human embryonic stem cell model of Pb exposure. We model Pb exposure-associated 5hmC changes as clusters of correlated, adjacent CpG sites, which are co-responding to Pb. We further extend our study to look at Pb-dependent changes in high density 5hmC regions in umbilical cord blood DNA from 48 mother-infant pairs from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort. For our study, we randomly selected umbilical cord blood from 24 male and 24 female children from the 1st and 4th quartiles of Pb levels. Our data show that Pb-associated changes in the 5hmC and 5mC profiles can be divided into sex-dependent and sex-independent categories. Interestingly, differential 5mC sites are better markers of Pb-associated sex-dependent changes compared to differential 5hmC sites. In this study we identified several 5hmC and 5mC genomic loci, which we believe might have some potential as early biomarkers of prenatal Pb exposure.

  8. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  9. Lead exposure and radiator repair work

    SciTech Connect

    Lussenhop, D.H.; Parker, D.L.; Barklind, A.; McJilton, C. )

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  10. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed Central

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level. PMID:2817174

  11. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  12. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  13. High lead exposure in two leaded bronze ingot foundry workers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoojun; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Shin-Ae; Kim, Nami; Kim, Sung-Min; Jeong, Seong-Wook; Kim, Se-Yeong; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Son, Byung-Chul; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about lead poisoning in South Korea has increased; however, occupational exposures occurring in small-scale businesses have not been thoroughly investigated. We report two cases of high lead exposure in a leaded bronze ingot foundry. Two employees, a 54-year-old primary operator and a 46-year-old assistant, at a small-scale metalworking company who had been employed for 18 years and 1 month, respectively, showed elevated blood lead levels (61.1 μg/dL and 51.7 μg/dL, respectively) at an occupational health checkup. Neither worker complained of abnormal symptoms nor signs related to lead poisoning. Health assessment follow-ups were conducted and biological exposure indices of lead were calculated every four weeks. After the initial follow-up assessment, both workers were relocated from the foundry process to the metalworking process. In addition, a localized exhaust system was installed after the second follow-up. Foundry workers in a small-scale businesses might be at high risk of lead exposure because these businesses might be vulnerable to poor industrial hygiene. Therefore, regular occupational health checkups are required.

  14. Monitoring wild bird populations for lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuhammer, A.M. )

    1989-07-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), an enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway is extremely sensitive to inhibition by lead (Pb). I evaluated the erythrocyte ALA-d activity ratio (the ratio between the fully restored enzyme activity and that measured without removing any inhibitory influence that might be present) as an indicator of Pb exposure in free-living birds. In the absence of elevated Pb exposure, birds, had comparable ALA-d activity ratios regardless of species, geographical location, or time of year sampled. The normal range of ratios for free-living species was similar to that for aviary-raised birds (1.0-1.3). Individuals with enzyme inhibition were readily identified. In blood collected from free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ALA-d activity ratios were better correlated with blood-Pb than were blood-protoporphyrin (PP) concentrations. At least 9.5% of mallards with blood-Pb>80 {mu}g/dL did not have elevated PP levels. Underestimation of Pb exposure did not occur using the ALA-d activity ratio method. The ALA-d activity ratio was as accurate as blood-Pb measurements for monitoring the relative degree of recent Pb exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and assays can be performed efficiently with minimal training.

  15. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. )

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  16. Racial differences in Urban children's environmental exposures to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Eberly, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether differences in environmental lead exposures explain the racial disparity in children's blood lead levels. METHODS: Environmental sources of lead were identified for a random sample of 172 urban children. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were significantly higher among Black children. Lead-contamination of dust was higher in Black children's homes, and the condition of floors and interior paint was generally poorer. White children were more likely to put soil in their mouths and to suck their fingers, whereas Black children were more likely to put their mouths on window sills and to use a bottle. Major contributors to blood lead were interior lead exposures for Black children and exterior lead exposures for White children. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in housing conditions and exposures to lead-contaminated house dust contribute strongly to the racial disparity in urban children's blood lead levels. PMID:8876521

  17. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These

  18. Disposition of lead (Pb) in saliva and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats following a single or repeated oral exposure to Pb-acetate.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, C; Lin, Y; Weitz, K K; Wu, H; Gies, R A; Moore, D A; Yantasee, W

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or approximately 1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and alpha-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anesthetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to Pb-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r(2)=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices, which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24h post-dosing and a decrease in alpha-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance

  19. [Lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; He, Liping; Huang, Xiao; He, Junshan

    2011-11-01

    To study the lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet, and to assess its health risks. Thirty five subjects were selected by random from a mining area and another 30 subjects were selected from a non-polluted area. The exposure of lead was estimated by the content of lead in drinking water and vegetables, and health risks was estimated by the levels of lead in blood and urine. The content of lead in drinking water and vegetables in the mining area was 20.6 microg/L and 1.61mg/kg (geometric mean) respectively, which were higher than that in the unpolluted area (6.0 microg/L and 0.56 mg/kg, geometric mean) (P < 0.01). The daily lead exposure of male and female inhabitants in the mining area from diet was 16.88 microg/kg and 16.09 microg/kg respectively, which was higher than that in the unpolluted area (P < 0.01), but the sex difference was not significant statistically (P > 0.05). Blood lead and urine lead of inhabitants in the mining-area were higher than those in the unpolluted area. The health risks for male and female inhabitants in the mining area were 4.73 and 4.51. The health risks of lead exposure caused by diet (drinking water and food) were relatively high in the mining area.

  20. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  1. Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    Dykeman, Ronald; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Smith, Tom; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtemoc Arturo; Piacitelli, Gregory M; Hu, Howard; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

    2002-03-01

    Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers (RRWs), 12 members of their family (4 children and 8 wives), and 36 working controls. RRWs were employed at 4 radiator repair shops in Mexico City and 27 shops in Cuernavaca and surrounding areas. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe samples. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed and detailed questionnaires were administered. Blood lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The mean (SD) values for blood lead of the RRWs, 35.5 (13.5) microg/dl, was significantly greater than the same values for the working controls, 13.6 (8.7) microg/dl; P < 001. After excluding a single outlier (247 microg/m(3)), air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99 microg/m(3) with a mean (SD) value of 19 (23) microg/m(3) (median = 7.9 microg/m(3)). In a final multivariate regression model of elevated blood lead levels, the strongest predictors were smoking (vs. non-smoking), the number of radiators repaired per day on average, and the use (vs. non-use) of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4 microg/dl, 1.95 microg/dl/radiator/day, and 16.4 microg/dl, respectively (all P <.05). Uniform use was probably a risk factor because they were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoir of contamination on which RRWs frequently wiped their hands. Lead exposure is a significant problem of radiator repair work, a small industry that is abundant in Mexico and other developing countries. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-01-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed. Images Figure 1. PMID:7523102

  3. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-04-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed.

  4. [Lead exposure among Kaohsiung traffic policemen].

    PubMed

    Chiang, H C; Chang, P Y

    1989-06-01

    In this recent century there has been increasing concern over the possible harmful effects of lead from automobile exhaust on human health. Traffic policemen are heavily exposed to automobile exhaust. In Kaohsiung city because of the increasing number of motor vehicles due to rapid urbanization and heavy traffic transportation from suburbs for export trade, traffic policemen have varied exposure experiences. The automobile exhaust of lead additive gasoline was found to be the major type of exposure for traffic policemen whose duties were in the city, while those who worked in the suburb areas were generally exposed to diesel oil exhaust gas. In this study 98 traffic policemen were studied with 118 students used as a control group. Subjects were evaluated for lead absorption and other metabolic effects. The average value of blood lead for traffic policemen (24.43 +/- 5.31 micrograms/dl) in the city of Kaohsiung was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than for the control group (20.14 +/- 5.07 micrograms/dl). According to other bioindicators it was also found that the mean values of carboxyhemoglobin, urine lead and urine coproporphyrin were significantly higher in the traffic policemen group. Linear regression between blood lead and the duration of employment was also found in this study (R = -0.2447, p less than 0.05). The most reasonable explanations for these findings are the effects of lead emission from motor vehicles and the employment shifting system that cause this effect.

  5. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Low Blood Lead Levels in Association With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Symptom Domain in Children: A Community-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyunjoo; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Yoo, Seung Jin; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Paik, Ki-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major indoor pollutant. We examined the possible association between exposure to both SHS and low levels of lead and attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domain in children. Methods: This case–control study was based on the results of a community survey using the ADHD rating scale conducted in 49 elementary schools. Both cases and control subjects were confirmed by a child psychiatrist. Each case was matched with one control subject according to gender, school, and grade in school. Using a multivariate conditional logistic regression model, we analyzed 214 case–control pairs of children who ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Urine and blood levels of cotinine and of lead were determined, and information pertaining to SHS exposure was obtained by means of a questionnaire. Results: Exposure to low levels of lead (geometric mean = 1.65 µg/dL) was related to ADHD, particularly inattention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–2.59), whereas SHS exposure was associated mainly with hyperactivity/impulsivity (OR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.55–9.56). In the pathway from blood lead to hyperactivity/impulsivity, children’s SHS exposure mediated and indirectly accounted for about 73% of this relationship. The combined exposure to lead and SHS synergistically increased the risk of ADHD, evident as both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusion: SHS, which is associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity in particular, combined with exposure to low blood levels of lead synergistically increased the risk of ADHD. Therefore, the exposure of children to both SHS and lead needs to be reduced. Implications: Although exposure to low levels of lead has been shown to be associated with ADHD, there is little evidence of symptom domain specificity. In our study, low blood lead levels were related to inattention. In addition, prenatal or postnatal exposure to SHS increased the risk of ADHD

  7. Effects of low level exposure to lead on neurophysiological functions among lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kovala, T; Matikainen, E; Mannelin, T; Erkkilä, J; Riihimäki, V; Hänninen, H; Aitio, A

    1997-07-01

    Assessment of neurophysiological functions in workers with low level exposure to lead and evaluation of the efficacy of bone lead measurements in the prediction of effects of lead. Exposure to lead of 60 workers from a lead battery battery factory was estimated from historical blood lead measurements and analysis of lead in the tibial and calcaneal bones with x ray fluorescence. Peripheral and central nervous system functions were assessed by measuring conduction velocities, sensory distal latencies, sensory amplitudes, and vibration thresholds as well as by quantitative measurement of the absolute and relative powers and mean frequencies of different electroencephalograph (EEG) channels. Sensory amplitudes, and to a smaller degree sensory or motor conduction velocities, showed a negative correlation with long term exposure to lead, most clearly with integrated blood lead concentration and exposure time. Vibration thresholds measured in the arm were related to recent exposure to lead, those measured in the leg to long term exposure. The alpha and beta activities of the EEG were more abundant in subjects with higher long term exposure to lead. Calcaneal lead content reflected short term exposure, tibial lead content reflected long term exposure. Blood lead history showed a closer relation with effects of lead than the tibial or calcaneal lead concentrations. Vibratory thresholds, quantitative EEG, and to a smaller extent the sensory amplitude, provide sensitive measures of effects of lead in occupationally exposed adults. Most accurate estimates of health risks induced by lead can be obtained from a good history of blood lead measurements. If such a history of blood lead concentrations is not available, analysis of bone lead may be used for the assessment of health risks.

  8. Blood lead and the symptoms of lead absorption

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M K; Walford, Joan; King, E

    1983-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eighty-one percent of all hourly paid men who had been employed for more than six months in a factory making lead acid batteries and plastics completed a modified Cornell medical index health questionnaire. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) were also measured. The questions were grouped into symptom categories as follows: all physical, all psychological, “potentially lead induced,” pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, skin, nervous system, genitourinary, and fatigue. For each symptom category the pooled percentages of men whose symptom scores were above the common median of the three blood lead groups 10-, 40-, and 60 and over μg/100 ml (0·48-, 1·93-, and 2·90 and over μmol/l) within age/smoking subgroups were calculated. In every symptom category the percentages in the two lower blood lead groups differed little, but the percentages were consistently higher in men with blood concentration of 60 μg/100 ml (2·90 μmol/l) and over. Differences between a combined 10-59 μg/100 ml (0·48-2·85 μmol/l) blood lead group and the 60 and over μg/100 ml (≥2·90 μmol/l) group were statistically significant at the 0·01 level for “potentially lead induced” symptoms and at the 0·05 level for skin and psychological symptoms. Broadly similar results were obtained with four log10 EPP groups 0·6-, 1·5-, 1·7-, and ≥2·0, but differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no obvious explanation as to why symptoms that are not found in classic lead poisoning should be increased almost as much as those that are. It was thought that these results could be biased due to the men's knowledge of the symptoms associated with lead exposure, but the possibility that they may be partly due to lead absorption cannot be excluded. PMID:6871117

  9. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  10. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  11. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children.

  12. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  13. Relating tooth and blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B. |

    1995-12-01

    Lead concentrations in shed teeth have found increasing utility in research studies of lead exposure and child development. Teeth are useful because they record lead levels and are easily collected. However, in considering internal doses of lead, most of what has been learned about human lead toxicity and kinetics has been expressed in terms of blood lead concentrations. For example, a computerized literature search found {open_quotes}blood lead{close_quotes} as a key word in 1,035 articles cited between January and October 1994. Only 9 articles were found for {open_quotes}tooth lead{close_quotes}. Because of the advantages of using teeth to assess lead exposure, the relation between teeth and blood lead levels deserves more attention. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  16. Lead exposure and neurobehavior development in later infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Bornschein, R.L.; Hammond, P.B.; Buncher, C.R.; Berger, O. ); Krafft, K.M. )

    1990-11-01

    A prospective methodology was used to assess the neurobehavioral effects of fetal and postnatal lead exposure during the first 2 years of life. Lead was measured in whole blood prenatally in mothers and at quarterly intervals in the infant. Prenatal blood lead levels were low (mean = 8.0 {mu}g/dL). However, approximately 25% of the study infants had at least one serial blood lead level of 25 {mu}g/dL or higher during the second year of life. Multiple regression and structural equation analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between prenatal and neonatal blood lead level and 3- and 6-month Bayley Mental and/or Psychomotor Development Index. However, by 2 years of age, no statistically significant effects of prenatal or postnatal lead exposure on neurobehavioral development could be detected. Data consistent with the hypothesis that a postnatal neurobehavioral growth catch-up occurred in infants exposed fetally to higher levels of lead are presented.

  17. Lead exposure and neurobehavioral development in later infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, K N; Succop, P A; Bornschein, R L; Krafft, K M; Berger, O; Hammond, P B; Buncher, C R

    1990-01-01

    A prospective methodology was used to assess the neurobehavioral effects of fetal and postnatal lead exposure during the first 2 years of life. Lead was measured in whole blood prenatally in mothers and at quarterly intervals in the infant. Prenatal blood lead levels were low (mean = 8.0 micrograms/dL). However, approximately 25% of the study infants had at least one serial blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL or higher during the second year of life. Multiple regression and structural equation analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between prenatal and neonatal blood lead level and 3- and 6-month Bayley Mental and/or Psychomotor Development Index. However, by 2 years of age, no statistically significant effects of prenatal or postnatal lead exposure on neurobehavioral development could be detected. Data consistent with the hypothesis that a postnatal neurobehavioral growth catch-up occurred in infants exposed fetally to higher levels of lead are presented. PMID:2088739

  18. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  19. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 μg/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

  20. Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Zeng, Yu; Dai, Fan-chun; Gu, Ping-qing

    2013-09-01

    Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Lead is one of the neurotoxicants that seems to be involved in the etiology of psychologies. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.The main body compartments that store lead are the blood, soft tissues, and bone; the half-life of lead in these tissues is measured in weeks for blood, months for soft tissues, and years for bone. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsons disease, and schizophrenia. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children and adults.

  1. Biomarkers of lead exposure and DNA methylation within retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robert O; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Rosalind J; Bollati, Valentina; Tarantini, Letizia; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-06-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation within white blood cells may result from cumulative exposure to environmental metals such as lead. Bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, may therefore better predict DNA methylation than does blood lead. In this study we compared associations between lead biomarkers and DNA methylation. We measured global methylation in participants of the Normative Aging Study (all men) who had archived DNA samples. We measured patella and tibia lead levels by K-X-Ray fluorescence and blood lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA samples from blood were used to determine global methylation averages within CpG islands of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) and Alu retrotransposons. A mixed-effects model using repeated measures of Alu or LINE-1 as the dependent variable and blood/bone lead (tibia or patella in separate models) as the primary exposure marker was fit to the data. Overall mean global methylation (+/- SD) was 26.3 +/- 1.0 as measured by Alu and 76.8 +/- 1.9 as measured by LINE-1. In the mixed-effects model, patella lead levels were inversely associated with LINE-1 (beta = -0.25; p < 0.01) but not Alu (beta = -0.03; p = 0.4). Tibia lead and blood lead did not predict global methylation for either Alu or LINE-1. Patella lead levels predicted reduced global DNA methylation within LINE-1 elements. The association between lead exposure and LINE-1 DNA methylation may have implications for the mechanisms of action of lead on health outcomes, and also suggests that changes in DNA methylation may represent a biomarker of past lead exposure.

  2. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (<10 µg/dL) have indicated associations of blood lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  3. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  4. Acid-based balance and blood gas changes in the fresh water field crab, Barytelphusa guerini, on exposure to organic and inorganic lead

    SciTech Connect

    Tulasi, S.J.; Rao, J.V.R.

    1988-02-01

    The acid-base status of crustacean haemolymph depends on various environmental and physiological factors. Acid base status of the haemolymph is known to be influenced by temperature, salinity, strenuous activity and moulting. The studies on the acid-base regulation of the fresh water crabs are meager. The acid-base changes in fishes during environmental stress conditions like acid stress and zinc toxicity had been reported. But the effect of environmental pollutants like the heavy metals on the acid-base regulation of the fresh water crabs have not been previously reported. The haemolymph of the fresh water crab was found to accumulate high amounts of lead on exposure to organic and inorganic lead. Hence the present investigation has been undertaken to study the haemolymph acid-base status on exposure to subtoxic levels of organic and inorganic lead.

  5. Home refinishing, lead paint, and infant blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, M; Leviton, A; Bellinger, D

    1985-01-01

    We measured the blood lead levels of 249 infants semi-annually from birth to two years of age; we sampled the home paint and recorded any recent home refinishing activity. Mean blood lead from birth to age 2 years did not vary systematically with age but did correlate significantly with the amount of lead in the indoor paint (p less than .01). Refinishing activity in homes with high lead paint was associated with elevations of blood lead averaging 69 per cent. PMID:3976969

  6. Specific relationship between blood lead and air lead in the crystal industry.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Francis; Vallayer, Cécile; Baruthio, François; Peltier, Arlette; Pale, Sylvie; Rouyer, Joël; Goutet, Pierre; Aubrège, Bernadette; Lecossois, Colette; Guillemin, Christine; Elcabache, Jean-Marie; Verelle, Brigitte; Fabriès, Jean-François

    2002-04-01

    The main objective of the study was to establish the consequences of exposure to crystal dust on blood lead level in workers employed in hand-finishing and grinding crystal pieces. The second objective was to research a relationship between ambient air lead and blood lead. A study conducted in eastern France on 131 subjects occupationally exposed to an aerosol containing crystal particles involved personal measurements of atmospheric exposure to lead, determination of blood lead and, by questionnaire, collection of personal data on exposure characteristics, state of health and level of hygiene of survey volunteers. Initial analysis showed that differences in exposure at the workplace corresponded to differences in blood lead in the operators. There was definitely a potential risk of overexposure to lead, but the existence of this risk was not confirmed by level of blood lead concentrations and, moreover, no clinical signs of lead poisoning in the employees exposed were revealed. The existence of a relationship between personal air (PbA) and blood lead (PbB) levels in grinders and polishers was demonstrated. This relationship, of the form log PbB=2.064+0.181 x log PbA, turns out to be different from those provided by previously published models, which were developed from studies conducted in lead-acid battery manufacturing plants and form the basis of national regulations. Thus, chronic exposure at 100 microg/m(3) of lead at a crystal-grinding workshop corresponds to a mean PbB level of 270 microg/l, whereas the recognized models estimate 350 to 500 microg/l. This study revealed a specific risk for these categories of exposed individuals. The origin of the descriptive model obtained for the lead exposure/ PbB level relationship raises, through the example of lead, the more general problem of the need to take into account differentiation of chemical substances containing the same element in biological monitoring.

  7. Developmental Effects of Lead Exposure in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesman, Johanna Rich; Hills, Amanda

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an overview of research on childhood lead exposure and poisoning, and the related social issues. The report first summarizes the history of lead poisoning and its prevalence in the United States, and discusses the basis for recent changes in guidelines for lead exposure by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The report then…

  8. Blood lead levels in NASCAR Nextel Cup teams.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory; McNair, C Scott; Matusiak, Matthew M; Madlem, Jyl

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study determines whether NASCAR racing teams demonstrate exposure to lead from exhaust by evaluation of blood lead levels (BLL). Participants were stratified by proximity to fuel exhaust or whether they worked on an engine. Each participant completed a self-reported survey recording demographics, lead exposure (occupational or in-home environment), and any physical symptoms of lead toxicity. Blood lead levels were then measured. BLL of 47 individuals ranged from 1-22 microg/dL with a median of 9.4 microg/dL. Nineteen of 47 (40.4%) had BLL > or = 10 microg/dL. Participants exposed to exhaust gas had the highest relative risks (RR) for elevated lead, followed by working on brakes and radiator repair. The RR of having an elevated BLL and self-reported adverse health outcomes or symptoms was increased. This study of NASCAR racing teams demonstrates lead exposure.

  9. Multimedia lead exposure and associated risk assessment in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, M.

    1998-12-31

    Motor vehicles consume the largest amount of leaded gasoline in Bangladesh. The number of vehicles and fuel consumption have increased significantly in recent years. These vehicles, which are believed to be the major sources of lead emissions in Dhaka, may cause an excessive level of lead exposure in children. The paper describes the results of a study conducted to determine risk associated with the multimedia lead exposure for children in Dhaka. Specifically, data related to lead content in air and soil in Dhaka were collected and used to estimate the blood lead levels in children. The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetics Model, developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was used. Bangladesh is yet to adopt any blood lead standards. The results of the study indicated that the model predicted geometric blood lead levels in children in Dhaka are significantly below the blood lead standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). It was also found that children in Dhaka are not expected to contain blood lead levels higher than the WHO recommended standard.

  10. Blood lead levels in radiator repair workers in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; McCammon, J B; Hoffman, R E; Baron, R C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory-based blood lead surveillance system in Colorado identified radiator repair workers as having the highest blood lead levels of all worker groups reported. A survey of 42 radiator repair shops in ten locales throughout Colorado was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of workers with elevated blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The survey was designed to test the sensitivity of the surveillance system and to assess working conditions and practices in the radiator repair industry in Colorado. Of 63 workers, 39 (62%) had blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The sensitivity of the surveillance system for detecting radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels was estimated at 11%. None of the radiator repair shops had adequate local exhaust ventilation. Work practice and engineering modifications are needed to reduce lead exposure in this industry.

  11. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  12. Lead Exposure Hazard Management Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    one of the most common and preventable pediatric health problems in the United States today. Children are particularly susceptible to lead’s toxic...that have large percentages of children without lead poisoning problems can suspend the universal screening PROGRAM by submitting a letter of request, to...be frequented/used by children under the age of seven. Air Force Policy prioritizes specific facilities as follows: child development centers, annexes

  13. Lead from calcium supplements contributes minimally to blood lead concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulson, B. L.; Mizon, K. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Korsch, M. J.; Taylor, A. J.

    2003-05-01

    We undertook a study using lead isotopes to determine the contribution of lead to blood from consumption of calcium supplements approximating the recommended daily intakes over a 6 month period. Subjects were subdivided into three groups. One treatment group (n=8) was administered a complex calcium supplement (carbonite/phosphate/citrate) and the other treatment group (n=7), calcium carbonate. The control group (n=6) received no supplementation. The lead isotopic compositions of the supplements were completely different from those of the blood of the subjects. Lead isotopic compositions for the complex supplement showed minimal change during treatment compared with pre-treatment. Lead isotopic compositions in blood for the calcium carbonate supplement showed increases of up to 0.5% in the ^{206}Pb/^{204}Pb ratio, and for all isotope ratios there was a statistically significant difference between bascline and treatment (p <0.005). Blood tead concentrations showed minimal changes.

  14. Biochemical diagnosis of occupational exposure to lead toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Somashekaraiah, B.V.; Venkaiah, B.; Prasad, A.R.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Lead has been shown to interfere with the biosynthesis of heme in a number of in vitro systems and in experimental animals as well as in human beings. Several steps of the heme biosynthetic chain are subject to the toxic effects of lead. ALA- dehydratase and Ferrochelatase, in particular, are two enzymes which are strongly inhibited by lead, leading to decreased heme synthesis, a constituent of hemoglobin. The inhibition of ALA dehydratase in the red blood cells by lead is generally recognized as the most sensitive index of the individuals exposure to this environmental chemical. Earlier reports show that the determination of blood lead content (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin levels and erythrocyte Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA.D) are widely used as biological indicators for lead toxicity. Hence, the aim of the present study was to screen for occupational exposure to lead in the workers of three different occupations and correlate their blood lead levels with erythrocyte ALA.D and total blood porphyrin content as biochemical indicators of lead exposure.

  15. Worker lead exposures during renovation of homes with lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Sussell, A.; Gittleman, J.; Singal, M.

    1998-11-01

    The authors evaluated lead exposures among full-time home renovators and part-time volunteers working primarily in pre-1960 homes with lead-based paint. Potentially hazardous lead exposures were measured during two tasks: exterior dry scraping and wet scraping. Maximum exposures were 120 and 63 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. Exposures during other tasks, including general repair, weatherization, exterior scraping/painting, window replacement, demolition, and plumbing, were low, as were all 13 full-shift personal exposures. Blood lead levels for full-time workers ranged up to 17.5 {micro}g/dl, with a GM of 5.2 {micro}g/dl; the GM for volunteers was 3.2 {micro}g/dl. All of the paint samples collected from work surfaces had detectable amounts of lead, with 65% of the work surfaces tested having an average lead concentration of >0.5%.

  16. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  17. Soil Lead and Children's Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA).

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T

    2017-04-12

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children's lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods: Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results: Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children's blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions: At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment.

  18. Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Howard W.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Powell, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children’s lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods: Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children’s blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results: Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children’s blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions: At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children’s blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment. PMID:28417939

  19. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  20. Contribution of lead in dust to children's blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, M J

    1983-01-01

    The importance of urban dust as a source of lead for young children is still disputed. Although blood-lead data from various population surveys usually show a peak concentration in early childhood, there is evidence that such a peak is small or absent altogether in children without much access to the general environment. An examination of those studies where groups of people in regions of low and high lead contamination have been compared shows that the child/adult blood-lead ratio is almost always enhanced in the more exposed groups. This implies a route of lead uptake which is important for children but less so for adults, and it is likely that this route is the dust-hand-mouth one. There are sufficient data to suggest a quantitative relationship between raised levels of blood lead and lead in dust. There is a strong case for a lead-in-dust standard but some will probably remain unpersuaded unless or until there are reliable data for blood lead and environmental lead involving matched groups of young people from urban and rural areas. PMID:6873030

  1. Electrophysiologic changes in workers with ''low'' blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bordo, B.; Massetto, N.; Musicco, M.; Filippini, G.; Boeri, R.

    1982-01-01

    In spite of numerous studies, the minimum level of lead exposure at which ''sub-clinical'' electrophysiologic abnormalities appear is still under discussion. Furthermore, it has not been clarified whether the electrophysiologic changes are directly related to Pb levels or to duration of exposure. This study was conducted on a group of 62 subjects occupationally exposed to lead with average blood lead levels below 50 microgram/100 ml and durations of exposure of less than 10 years. A reduction of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and sensory action potential amplitude of the median nerve was found in the subjects exposed to lead, as compared with a control group. Such abnormalities were already present in workers with the lowest blood lead levels, but were more severe in workers whose blood lead levels had exceeded 70 microgram/100 ml, even if this occurred only once in the last two years. The electrophysiologic changes did not correlate with duration of exposure but occurred very soon after initial exposure to lead.

  2. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Daniell, William E; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M; Havens, Deborah J; Karr, Catherine J; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A; Beaudet, Nancy J; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  3. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J.; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results. PMID:26587532

  4. Overview of radon, lead and asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, R. )

    1991-11-01

    Reducing the incidence of diseases caused by exposure to radon, lead and asbestos is a major public health challenge. Radon gas, which usually enters a home through the foundation, can cause lung cancer. Exposure to lead through paint, auto emissions and other sources can cause neurologic deficits, as well as anemia, abnormal vitamin D metabolism, nephropathy, hypertension and reproductive abnormalities. Asbestos, which is used in a vast number of products, is primarily associated with parenchymal asbestosis, pleural fibrosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer. The family physician can play a pivotal role in providing information about hazardous exposure, sources of exposure, epidemiology and disease prevention.29 references.

  5. Early childhood lead exposure and exceptionality designations for students.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Maxson, Pamela; Kim, Dohyeong

    2010-01-01

    The achievement gap continues to be an important educational issue, with disadvantaged groups exhibiting poorer school performance. Recently, literature has shown that even very low levels of early lead exposure affect cognitive and academic performance. As individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum are more likely to be exposed to lead, this exposure may be an important contributor to the achievement gap. In this paper, we explore whether early childhood blood lead levels are associated with membership in exceptionality designation groups. In addition, we examine the racial and socioeconomic composition of these exceptional groups. Data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked at the individual child level to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center. Designation into exceptionality groups was obtained from the end-of-grade (EOG) data. Both standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Bivariate analyses indicate that blood lead levels and reading EOG scores differ by exceptionality, as well as by race and enrollment in free/reduced lunch. Logistic regression confirmed the relationship between blood lead levels and likelihood of exceptionality. Contextual factors - enrollment in the free/reduced lunch program, race, and parental education - are also significant with regard to exceptionality. This study demonstrates that early childhood lead exposure significantly influences the likelihood of being designated exceptional. These results provide additional evidence that early childhood lead exposure is a significant explanator of the achievement gap.

  6. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  7. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  8. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because 1) they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, 2) lead adsorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult, and 3) the child's development is more vulnerable ...

  9. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because 1) they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, 2) lead adsorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult, and 3) the child's development is more vulnerable ...

  10. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  11. Reassessment of lead exposure in New Jersey using GIS technology.

    PubMed

    Guthe, W G; Tucker, R K; Murphy, E A; England, R; Stevenson, E; Luckhardt, J C

    1992-12-01

    In order to prevent children's exposure to lead, a variety of sources must be controlled. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) is using its Geographic Information System to identify areas within Newark, East Orange, and Irvington, New Jersey, where there may be greater environmental exposure to lead. Sensitive populations are identified through the U.S. Bureau of the Census information. Blood screening data provided by the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) provide reported patterns of elevated blood lead in the study area. Comparisons of these spatial patterns will assist the NJDEPE in its soil sampling activities and lead exposure research, will provide information for public education, and will provide valuable information on sections of the study area where further screening and public education may be needed.

  12. Measurement Challenges at Low Blood Lead Levels.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Kathleen L; Cheng, Po-Yung; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Makhmudov, Amir; Vance, Kathryn; Ward, Cynthia D; Jones, Robert L; Mortensen, Mary E

    2017-08-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) adopted its Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention recommendation to use a population-based reference value to identify children and environments associated with lead hazards. The current reference value of 5 μg/dL is calculated as the 97.5th percentile of the distribution of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children 1 to 5 years old from 2007 to 2010 NHANES data. We calculated and updated selected percentiles, including the 97.5th percentile, by using NHANES 2011 to 2014 blood lead data and examined demographic characteristics of children whose blood lead was ≥90th percentile value. The 97.5th percentile BLL of 3.48 µg/dL highlighted analytical laboratory and clinical interpretation challenges of blood lead measurements ≤5 μg/dL. Review of 5 years of results for target blood lead values <11 µg/dL for US clinical laboratories participating in the CDC's voluntary Lead and Multi-Element Proficiency quality assurance program showed 40% unable to quantify and reported a nondetectable result at a target blood lead value of 1.48 µg/dL, compared with 5.5% at a target BLL of 4.60 µg/dL. We describe actions taken at the CDC's Environmental Health Laboratory in the National Center for Environmental Health, which measures blood lead for NHANES, to improve analytical accuracy and precision and to reduce external lead contamination during blood collection and analysis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality.

  14. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure.

  15. Environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and variations in its susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Lee, Youngeun; Yang, Mihi

    2014-01-01

    Based on exposure frequency and intrinsic toxicity, lead (Pb) ranks one of the highest priority toxic materials. Continuous regulation of environmental Pb exposure has contributed to dramatically diminished exposure levels of Pb, for example, blood level of Pb. However, the safety level of Pb is not established, as low-level exposure to Pb still shows severe toxicity in high susceptible population and late onset of some diseases from early exposure. In the present study, we focused on food-borne Pb exposure and found broad variations in Pb exposure levels via food among countries. In addition, there are genetic or ethnical variations in Pb-targeted and protective genes. Moreover, various epigenetic alterations were induced by Pb poisoning. Therefore, we suggest a systemic approach including governmental (public) and individual prevention from Pb exposure with continuous biological monitoring and genetic or epigenetic consideration.

  16. Blood lead levels of Korean lead workers in 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to document the trend in blood lead levels in Korean lead workers from 2003 until 2011 and blood lead levels within each of the main industries. Methods Nine years (2003–2011) of blood lead level data measured during a special health examination of Korean lead workers and collected by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency were analyzed. Blood lead levels were determined by year, and a geometric mean (GM) was calculated for each industry division. Results The overall GM blood lead level for all years combined (n = 365,331) was 4.35 μg/dL. The GM blood lead level decreased from 5.89 μg/dL in 2003 to 3.53 μg/dL in 2011. The proportion of the results ≥30 μg/dL decreased from 4.3% in 2003 to 0.8% in 2011. In the “Manufacture of Electrical Equipment” division, the GM blood lead level was 7.80 μg/dL, which was the highest among the industry divisions. The GM blood lead levels were 7.35 μg/dL and 6.77 μg/dL in the “Manufacturers of Rubber and Plastic Products” and the “Manufacture of Basic Metal Products” division, respectively. Conclusions The blood lead levels in Korean lead workers decreased from 2003 to 2011 and were similar to those in the US and UK. Moreover, workers in industries conventionally considered to have a high risk of lead exposure also tended to have relatively high blood lead levels compared to those in other industries. PMID:25379187

  17. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified.

  18. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  19. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Katia de Freitas; Morata, Thais Catalani; Lopes, Andrea Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 μg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range: 2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-03-25

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River.

  1. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    SciTech Connect

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure.

  2. Window renovation and exposure to lead--an observational study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Howard; Gallagher, Frank; Sen, Dil

    2005-12-01

    Renovation of windows in old houses has recently established itself as an industry. A recognizable occupational lead exposure exists, which has not been studied previously. To compare lead exposure amongst window renovators with other groups of lead-exposed workers. Using blood lead results measured at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL), Sheffield, comparisons were made between three cohorts: window renovation workers, all male workers monitored by HSL during the period 1999-2001 and 63 male subjects involved in chemical paint-stripping of wood. Both the window renovation and the wood-stripping cohorts show significantly higher blood lead distributions than the 'all workers' cohort (P < 0.001). A similar pattern was also found for comparison of the prevalence of subjects above the UK suspension level of 60 microg/dl (2.89 microM) (window renovation, P < 0.001; wood-stripping, P < 0.0001). Blood lead results at or above the suspension level in wood-strippers were significantly higher compared to window renovators (P = 0.034). Window renovation is shown to present a potential for significant lead exposure, and suspension from work under The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002. Two groups of risk factors predominate: the well-documented potential for release of lead from old paint, and the peripatetic nature of the work.

  3. Cardiotoxicity and hypertension in rats after oral lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Lal, B; Murthy, R C; Anand, M; Chandra, S V; Kumar, R; Tripathi, O; Srimal, R C

    1991-01-01

    The rats were exposed to lead (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 per cent lead acetate through drinking water) for 90 days to study its effect on some physiological and morphological parameters of the cardiovascular system. Blood lead levels increased in a dose dependent manner but heart tissue showed rise at only two higher doses in exposed animals. The two higher doses of lead resulted in an increased arterial blood pressure and calcium influx in atrial trabeculae and papillary muscles. No marked pathological or histochemical changes were observed in heart tissue excepting congestion and slightly reduced activity of succinic dehydrogenase in the highest dosed group. It was concluded that lead exposure through drinking water may produce increased arterial blood pressure and minor changes in the myocardium. Whether these changes are mediated through the effect of lead on the calcium transport needs further investigation.

  4. Study and models of total lead exposures of battery workers.

    PubMed

    Chavalitnitikul, C; Levin, L; Chen, L C

    1984-12-01

    In an attempt to establish a more realistic and reliable model for relating environmental exposure measurements to the biological indices of exposure, a study was undertaken to quantify the total sources of lead exposure among lead storage battery workers. In addition to the usual personal and area lead air sampling, quantitative and repeatable measurements of removable lead from work surfaces and the workers' hands and faces were obtained daily for ten consecutive work days in the pasting and battery assembly departments. Mathematical correlations of blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels as the dependent variable with the lead exposure sources were derived and demonstrated most strongly as log-log relationships. Statistical analyses by computer programming indicated that the airborne, hand, facial and work surface levels have a high degree of inter-correlation with a very significant positive individual correlation with blood lead levels and a somewhat lower correlation with ZPP. The results suggest that contaminated personal and work surfaces may play a more significant role in toxic occupational and environmental exposures, generally, than had heretofore been demonstrated or suspected.

  5. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  6. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  7. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S.

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  8. The intersection of aggregate-level lead exposure and crime.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Emo, Brett; Vaughn, Michael G; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard; Lewis, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Childhood lead exposure has been associated with criminal behavior later in life. The current study aimed to analyze the association between elevated blood lead levels (n=59,645) and crime occurrence (n=90,433) across census tracts within St. Louis, Missouri. Longitudinal ecological study. Saint Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Violent, Non-violent, and total crime at the census tract level. Spatial statistical models were used to account for the spatial autocorrelation of the data. Greater lead exposure at the census-tract level was associated with increased violent, non-violent, and total crime. In addition, we examined whether non-additive effects existed in the data by testing for an interaction between lead exposure and concentrated disadvantage. Some evidence of a negative interaction emerged, however, it failed to reach traditional levels of statistical significance (supplementary models, however, revealed a similar negative interaction that was significant). More precise measurements of lead exposure in the aggregate, produced additional evidence that lead is a potent predictor of criminal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.

  10. Distribution of lead in human milk fractions: relationship with essential minerals and maternal blood lead.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; da Silveira, Carmem Lucia Porto; Miekeley, Norbert; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and distribution of lead, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper in major fractions (fat, casein, whey) of mature milk from 38 nursing adult women with low environmental lead exposure. The potential associations between milk lead and maternal blood lead and between milk and blood lead and essential mineral data (nutritional status, dietary intake, and milk concentration) were investigated. Maternal blood lead (geometric mean, 60 microg/L) was negatively associated, although modestly, with dietary calcium intake (r=-0.32, p=0.02). Lead in whole milk (geometric mean, 1.2 microg/L) was positively associated with calcium in whole milk (r=0.56, p=0.005). Distribution of lead in milk fractions was 63%, 28%, and 9%, in whey, fat, and casein, respectively. Milk distribution of essential minerals was 67-76%, 17-18%, and 7-17% in whey, fat, and casein, respectively. Lead in milk whey was positively associated with lead in maternal blood (r=0.49, p=0.02). However, milk lead was not affected by nutritional status, dietary intake, and milk composition of the essential minerals. The high percentage of lead in the milk whey fraction, as seen for the essential minerals, suggests that most lead in human milk is bioavailable to the infant.

  11. Lead exposure: Public and Occupational Health Hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulenic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J; Barbour, A G; Cox, D H; Folland, D S; Ligo, R N; Throckmorton, J

    1979-01-01

    Dose-response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects have been evaluated in 160 lead workers in two smelters and a chemicals plant. Blood lead levels ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 mumol/litre (16-280 microgram/dl). Clinical evidence of toxic exposure was found in 70 workers (44%), including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anaemia (Hgb less than 8.69 mumol/litre (Hb/4) or 14.0 gm/dl) in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (greater than or equal to 7.14 mmol/litre or 20 mg/dl) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. No toxicity was detected at blood lead levels below 1.93 mumol/litre (40 microgram/dl). However, 13% of workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 mumol/litre (40-79 microgram/dl) had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. Anaemia was found in 5% of workers with lead levels of 1.93-2.85 mumol/litre (40-59 microgram/dl), in 14% with levels of 2.90 to 3.81 mumol/litre (60-79 microgram/dl), and in 36% with levels greater than or equal to 3.86 mumol/litre (80 microgram/dl). Elevated blood urea nitrogen occurred in long-term lead workers. All but three workers with increased blood urea nitrogen had at least four years occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation; eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance, and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability. These data support the establishment of a permissible biological limit for blood lead at a level between 1.93 and 2.90 mumol/litre (40-60 microgram/dl). PMID:508643

  13. Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R

    2010-04-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning.

  14. Low level exposures to lead and neurobehavioral development: the Sydney lead study

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, G.H.; Bell, A.; McBride, W.; Carter, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Sydney lead study is a prospective five year study investigating the relationship between low level lead exposures and neurobehavioral development during the first five years of life. From an initial cohort of 318 children, 207 remained at the end of the fourth year. Average blood lead levels at 42 and 48 months were 10.6 ug/dL and 10.1 ug/dL respectively, with only a minority of the observations exceeding 15 ug/dL. The series of regression analyses reported in this paper support earlier findings from the study, that exposures to lead which give rise to the range of blood lead levels found in this cohort of children are not associated with cognitive or motor deficits in the preschool years.

  15. The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children`s blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, B.P.; Matte, T.D.; Rogers, J.

    1998-10-01

    In 1992, the US Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among US children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children`s blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children`s blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the US Department of Housing and urban Development`s current post-abatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child`s age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

  16. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David; Peterson, Karen; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-10-01

    Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously due to the redistribution of cumulative maternal bone lead stores. We studied the relationship between maternal breast milk lead and infant blood lead levels among 255 mother-infant pairs exclusively or partially breast-feeding through 1 month of age in Mexico City. A rigorous, well-validated technique was used to collect, prepare, and analyze the samples of breast milk to minimize the potential for environmental contamination and maximize the percent recovery of lead. Umbilical cord and maternal blood lead were measured at delivery; 1 month after delivery (+/- 5 days) maternal blood, bone, and breast milk and infant blood lead levels were obtained. Levels of lead at 1 month postpartum were, for breast milk, 0.3-8.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD, 1.5 +/- 1.2); maternal blood lead, 2.9-29.9 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 9.4 +/- 4.5); and infant blood lead, 1.0-23.1 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 5.5 +/- 3.0). Infant blood lead at 1 month postpartum was significantly correlated with umbilical cord (Spearman correlation coefficient rS = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and maternal (rS= 0.42, p < 0.0001) blood lead at delivery and with maternal blood (rS= 0.67, p < 0.0001), patella rS = 0.19, p = 0.004), and breast milk (rS = 0.32, p < 0.0001) lead at 1 month postpartum. Adjusting for cord blood lead, infant weight change, and reported breast-feeding status, a difference of approximately 2 microg/L (ppb; from the midpoint of the lowest quartile to the midpoint of the highest quartile) breast milk lead was associated with a 0.82 microg/dL increase in blood lead for breast-feeding infants at 1 month of age. Breast milk lead accounted for 12% of the variance of infant blood lead levels, whereas

  17. Cumulative blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test performance.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, H P; Ong, C N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1997-01-01

    The current scientific literature provides inadequate evidence to conclude whether or not cumulative exposure to or absorption of lead adversely affects performance in neurobehavioral tests in adults. One of reasons for this controversy is the lack of studies with good cumulative exposure to or dose of lead. The aims of this study are to compare the neurobehavioral test performances of a group of lead-exposed workers and a referent group, and to study the association of the neurobehavioral test performances with concurrent blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead levels. Fifty lead battery workers and 97 non-exposed (referent) workers from a vehicle maintenance workshop were evaluated on their neurobehavioral performance using the World Health Organization Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (WHO-NCTB). The geometric mean concurrent blood lead (ConPb) of the exposed and referent groups were 37.1 (range 13.2-64.6) microg/100 ml and 6.1 (range 2.4-12.4) microg/100 ml, respectively. Cumulative blood lead (CumPb) was defined as area under the curve for the number of years each worker was exposed to lead (three workers previous blood lead results were not available). ConPb and CumPb were used to study the association with the neurobehavioral test results. The exposed group had significantly poorer manual dexterity, perceptual-motor speed, and motor steadiness compared with the referents. The standardized partial regression coefficients were higher for CumPb than ConPb for most of the neurobehavioral test results. In the group >35 years old, there were significantly stronger associations between CumPb and Digit Symbol and Trail Making Part A results than for ConPb which are tests of perceptual and motor skills. CumPb was a better predictor than ConPb of the effects of lead on neurobehavioral performances.

  18. Effect of interventions on children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Hilts, S R; Bock, S E; Oke, T L; Yates, C L; Copes, R A

    1998-01-01

    Trail, Canada, has been the site of an active lead/zinc smelter for nearly a century. Since 1991, the Trail Community Lead Task Force has carried out blood lead screening, case management, education programs targeted at early childhood groups and the general community, community dust abatement, exposure pathways studies, and remedial trials. From 1989 through 1996, average blood lead levels of children tested for the first time declined at an average rate of 0.6 microg/dl/year, while blood lead levels in Canadian children not living near point sources appeared to be leveling off following the phase-out of leaded gasoline. Since there was no concurrent improvement in local environmental conditions during this time, it is possible that the continuing decline in Trail blood lead levels has been at least partly due to community-wide intervention programs. One year follow-up of children whose families received in-home educational visits, as well as assistance with home-based dust control measures, found that these specific interventions produced average blood lead changes of +0.5- -4.0 microg/dl, with statistically significant declines in 3 years out of 5. Education and dust control, particularly actions targeted toward higher risk children, appear to have served as effective and appropriate interim remedial measures while major source control measures have been implemented at the smelter site. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9435149

  19. The association between demolition activity and children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Rabito, F A; Iqbal, S; Shorter, C F; Osman, P; Philips, P E; Langlois, E; White, L E

    2007-03-01

    Urban renewal efforts are a priority for many American cities. As efforts to reconstitute urban centers increase, the demolition of old, deteriorated structures has accelerated. Recent studies have identified demolitions as a potential source of environmental lead exposure. We conducted a study examining the relationship between demolition activity and blood lead levels of children residing in neighborhoods where demolition activity occurred. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in St. Louis City, Missouri. The study period was January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. Data were obtained from the Missouri Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program's (CLPPP) lead surveillance system and St. Louis Demolition Permit Database. Children were considered exposed to a demolition if they had a blood lead test within 45 days of any demolition on a census block. Exposure was classified as both a dichotomous (yes/no) and a categorical (none/one/multiple) variable and was analyzed separately. Linear regression models were developed to determine effects of demolitions on blood lead levels. A total of 1196 children 6-72 months of age living in 395 census blocks were included. 314 (26.3%) were exposed and 882 (73.7%) were unexposed to a demolition. In an adjusted model, exposure to multiple demolitions was found to have significant effects on children blood lead levels (coefficient=0.281; 95% CI=0.069, 0.493; P-value=0.010). Age of the child, race, and age of housing where children's resided were also significant predictors. This study suggests that multiple demolitions within a census block may significantly increase children's blood lead levels. The findings may be useful to municipal planners in older cities where demolitions are being used as an urban renewal tool.

  20. The effect of lead exposure on tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin, total and differential white blood cells count, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E, histamine, and cytokines in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Farkhondeh, T; Boskabady, M H; Jalali, S; Bayrami, G

    2014-03-01

    The effect of exposure to inhaled lead acetate in guinea pigs was evaluated. The present study comprised of five groups of guinea pigs including control (C), sensitized to ovalbumin (OA; S) and three groups exposed to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 M inhaled lead (Pb; n = 6 for each group). Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and OA, total and differential white blood cells (WBCs) count in lung lavage, serum levels of cytokines (interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4)), histamines, and immunoglobulin E (IgE), and Pb concentration in lung were measured. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, OA, total and differential WBC types as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, histamine, and IgE were significantly increased but IFN-γ/IL-4 were significantly decreased in sensitized animals as well as those exposed to high Pb concentrations when compared with the control group (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In addition, there was not a significant difference in most measured values between animals exposed to high Pb concentration and group S. The Pb concentration in lung tissues of animals exposed to all three Pb concentrations was significantly higher than that of group C (p < 0.001 for all cases).These results showed that inhaled lead acetate exposure can induce lung inflammatory changes similar to sensitized animals. Therefore, exposure to environmental Pb pollution may cause asthma-like changes.

  1. Public health. Childhood lead exposure in Wisconsin in 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, J.; Anderson, H.; Peterson, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    It will take the cooperation of many people to address the issue of lead poisoning. The recent death has dramatized the problem of high dose exposures. But a larger challenge is posed by the fact that most preschool children in Wisconsin are not screened for lead and as a result many asymptomatic children without signs of pica behavior will experience subtle neurological damage as a result of low to moderate elevations of lead in blood. Because many of these cases occur in children without recognized pica behavior, doctors need to expand screening, especially during well child visits, to identify children with elevated blood lead levels. Additionally, the public health community and property owners need to evaluate and control sources of lead. Major efforts are needed to address the lead hazards which now impair hundreds of Wisconsin children each year.

  2. Phthalate esters used as plasticizers in packed red blood cell storage bags may lead to progressive toxin exposure and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rael, Leonard T; Bar-Or, Raphael; Ambruso, Daniel R; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta S; Craun, Michael L; Bar-Or, David

    2009-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE's) are plasticizers used to soften PVC-based medical devices. PE's are the most abundant man-made pollutants and increase the risk of developing an allergic respiratory disease or a malignancy. The leaching of PE's in donated packed red blood cells (PRBC) during storage was assessed. PRBC transfusion bags containing CPD/AS-1 (ADSOL) buffer were analyzed. Samples were collected on storage day 1 and day 42. Two PE's, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was measured by standard ELISA techniques. DEHP significantly increased from 34.3 microM (+/-20.0 SD) on day 1 to 433.2 microM (+/-131.2 SD) on day 42, a 12.6-fold increase. Similarly, MEHP significantly increased from 3.7 microM (+/-2.8 SD) on day 1 to 74.0 microM (+/-19.1 SD) on day 42, a 20.2-fold increase. Also, DEHP and MEHP increased the release of IL-8 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The transfusion of older units of PRBC could lead to an accumulation of PE's possibly resulting in inflammation and other effects. This accumulation could be exacerbated due to the decreased metabolism of PE's since trauma patients have a lower esterase activity, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing PE's. The effect of oxidative stress caused by PE's is discussed as a potential mechanism for increases in inflammation caused by older units of PRBC.

  3. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

  4. Lead in candy consumed and blood lead levels of children living in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Wright, Robert; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead exposure continues to pose a health risk in Mexico. Children are a vulnerable population for lead effects and Mexican candy has been found to be a source of exposure in children. There are no previous studies that estimates lead concentrations in candy that children living in Mexico City consume and its association with their blood lead level. To evaluate whether there is an association between reported recent consumption of candies identified to have lead, and blood lead levels among children in Mexico City. A subsample of 171 children ages 2-6 years old, from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort study was assessed between June 2006 and July 2007. The candy reported most frequently were analyzed for lead using ICP-MS. The total weekly intake of lead through the consumption of candy in the previous week was calculated. Capillary blood lead levels (BLL) were measured using LeadCare (anodic stripping voltammetry). Lead concentrations ≥0.1ppm, the FDA permitted level (range: 0.13-0.7ppm) were found in 6 samples out of 138 samples from 44 different brands of candy. Median BLL in children was 4.5µg/dl. After adjusting for child's sex, age, BMI, maternal education & occupation, milk consumption, sucking the candy wrapper, use of lead-glazed pottery, child exposure behavior, living near a lead exposure site and use of folk remedies, an increase of 1µg of lead ingested through candy per week was associated with 3% change (95% CI: 0.1%, 5.2%) in BLL. Although lead concentrations in candy were mostly below the FDA permitted level, high lead concentrations were detected in 4% of the candy samples and 12% of brands analyzed. Although candy intake was modestly associated with children's BLL, lead should not be found in consumer products, especially in candy that children can consume due to the well documented long-lasting effect of lead exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural alterations from lead exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; DeWolf, Sarah; Schutt, Alexius; Wright, Ashia; Steele, Latina

    2014-01-01

    Lead was used extensively as a gas additive and pesticide, in paints, batteries, lead shot, pipes, canning and toy manufacturing. Although uses of lead have been restricted, lead persists in our environment especially in older homes, and generally in soil and water. Although extensive studies have determined that fetal and childhood exposures to lead have been associated with childhood and adolescent memory impairments and learning disabilities, there are limited studies investigating early neural and morphological effects that may lead to these behavioral and learning abnormalities. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of lead exposure on the brain. We treat embryos with 0.2mM lead for 24, 48 and 72 h and analyze neural structures through live imagery and transgenic approaches. We find structural abnormalities in the hindbrain region as well as changes in branchiomotor neuron development and altered neural vasculature. Additionally, we find areas of increased apoptosis. We conclude that lead is developmentally neurotoxic to a specific region of the brain, the hindbrain and is toxic to branchiomotor neurons residing in rhombomeres 2 through 7 of the hindbrain and hindbrain central artery vasculature.

  6. Blood lead levels in the Kinshasa population: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Leaded gasoline and lead paints are still in use in the Democratic Republic of Congo but data on blood lead levels in the general population are not available. We evaluated the Pb impregnation in children and adults (0 - 70 years old) in Kinshasa. Methods Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption in a sample of 485 healthy people (268 men and 217 women) living in Kinshasa between May 2003 and June 2004. Results Geometric mean blood lead was 120 µg/L (95% CI: 115-125), with a higher concentration in men than in women (127 vs 114 µg/L, p = 0.01). Sixty-three percent of children aged less than 6 years old presented blood lead levels above the 100 µg threshold. In the adult population, occupations with a potential risk of exposure to gasoline (car mechanics or garage owners, taxi drivers, conveyors and gas pump attendants) were associated with an extra blood lead of about 65µg/L. Conclusion This study indicates a relatively important Pb impregnation of the Kinshasa population. It demonstrates the existence of a major public health issue requiring corrective actions and the implementation of an appropriate regulation.

  7. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in P8 (43.8%), the wetland with the highest density of spent lead pellets (>2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  8. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in P8 (43.8%), the wetland with the highest density of spent lead pellets (>2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  9. Environmental lead and childhood blood lead levels in US children: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Benson, Stacey M; Talbott, Evelyn O; Brink, LuAnn L; Wu, Candace; Sharma, Ravi K; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-04

    Although blood lead levels in the United States have fallen dramatically since 1980, there remain subgroups of children with high blood lead levels. We assessed the relationship between environmental lead sources and blood lead levels in children ages 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006. Modeled ambient air lead levels and industrial lead releases at the census-tract level were assigned to each child's residence with adjustment for confounding factors. Of 3,223 children, 272 (8.4%) had blood lead levels ≥ 5 ug/dL. Industrial releases (2,252 vs 1,696 lbs/mi(2)) and ambient air lead levels (2.28 vs 1.75 ng/m(3)) were greater in exposed versus unexposed children. For every 10,000 lb/mi(2) increase in inverse distance squared weighted exposure, there was a 1.13% increase (95% CI: 0.45%, 1.81%) in blood lead (p = .001).

  10. Correlates of bone and blood lead levels in carpenters.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Hu, H; Rotnitzky, A

    1994-08-01

    In the course of a health screening for construction carpenters, 127 subjects underwent blood lead testing, administration of detailed questionnaires, and in vivo measurement of bone lead levels with a 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument. The mean age of subjects was 48.5 (SD = 9.8) years. Blood lead levels were low, with a mean of 8.2 (SD = 4.0) micrograms/dl. Bone lead levels had means of 9.8 (SD = 9.3) micrograms/g bone mineral for the tibia and 14.0 (SD = 13.8) micrograms/g bone mineral for the patella (which consist primarily of cortical bone and trabecular bone, respectively). In multivariate regression models, age was the dominant predictor of both tibia and patella bone lead, with years since last worked and welding/brazing contributing an additional small amount of influence over tibia bone lead, and carpet laying, paint stripping, and regular exercise contributing an additional small amount of influence over patella bone lead. Demolition, carpet laying, and alcohol ingestion were significant predictors of blood lead. We conclude that age is the most important predictor of bone lead levels among workers with intermittent exposures to lead; in addition, K-XRF is useful in generating hypotheses on additional factors that may influence lead burden.

  11. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Yeoman, W B; Fletcher, A E; Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Semmence, A; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J

    1990-01-01

    Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure were examined. Blood lead concentration ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 mumol/l with a geometric mean concentrations of 0.58 mumol/l in men and 0.46 mumol/l in women (p less than 0.001). In women blood lead concentration increased with age (r = +0.27; p = 0.002). In the two sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day (men r = +0.17 and women r = +0.22; p less than or equal to 0.01), with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day (men r = +0.34 and women r = 0.23; p less than 0.01), and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (men r = +0.23 and women r = +0.14; for men p less than 0.01). Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In men serum creatinine concentration tended to rise by 0.6 mumol/l (95% confidence interval from -0.2 to +1.36 mumol/l) for each 25% increment in blood lead concentration. In men and women the correlations between blood lead concentration and systolic and diastolic blood did not approach statistical significance. In conclusion, in subjects not exposed to heavy metals at work gender, age, smoking, and alcohol intake are determinants of blood lead concentration. At a low level of exposure, lead accumulation may slightly impair renal function, whereas blood pressure does not seem to be importantly influenced. Alternatively, a slight impairment of renal function may give rise to an increase in blood lead concentration. PMID:1974456

  14. Maternal lead exposure and the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Jarrell, John F; Weisskopf, Marc G; Weuve, Jennifer; Téllez-Rojo, Maria Martha; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-07-01

    A reduction in the secondary sex ratio may be associated with exposure to environmental toxicants. Little data exists relating this outcome to lead exposure, a well-known reproductive toxicant. We studied 1980 women having singleton births from 1994 to 1995 and from 1997 to 2001 who participated in a cohort study of lead exposure and infant outcomes in Mexico City. Levels of lead were measured in maternal and cord blood using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and levels of lead in maternal patella and tibia bone (a reflection of cumulative exposure) were measured using noninvasive K-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Using logistic regression models, we evaluated the relations of these measures to secondary sex ratio in the offspring, adjusting for maternal age, parity and year of infants' birth. We found no consistent association between any of the lead measures and secondary sex ratio. Results were unchanged when we adjusted for infants' year of birth, maternal age and parity. Despite a large sample size and the use of sensitive biomarkers, we did not find evidence that maternal and fetal lead exposure is associated with a lower secondary sex ratio among newborns.

  15. Chronic lead exposure in children living in Miskolc Hungary, on the basis of teeth lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Selypes, A.; Banfalvi, S.; Bokros, F.

    1997-03-01

    The lead pollution of the environment is a global problem. The major part of lead pollution can derive from the traffic, from exhausted gases of vehicles. Adverse health effects of lead exposure in childhood are well documented. Blood lead (Pb) levels are indicis of absorption during the previous 21- 30 days, whereas measurements of Pb in bone and in teeth reflect cumulative lead exposure. On the basis of that knowledge, we wanted to determine the tooth lead levels of children living in Miskolc, Hungary. The city of Miskolc is situated on the North-East part of Hungary, and can be characterized by urban-industrial air pollution. The population of the city is about 200,000. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Corrine S.; Luebbert, Joanne; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Schamber, Jason L.; Rosenberg, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations.

  17. Potential Mechanism Leading to Impaired Thermoregulation Following Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity or its analogues impairs thermoregulation in humans evidenced by higher internal temperatures following the exposure during a thermal challenge. Although the mechanism leading to this response has not been clearly delineated, we identified that prolonged head-down tilt (HDT) markedly impairs thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, as demonstrated by an increased internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and by a reduced slope of the relationship between the elevation in skin blood flow relative to the elevation in internal temperature. Recently, Fortney et al. identified similar responses in two individuals following 115 days of microgravity exposure. One possible mechanism leading to altered cutaneous vasodilation during a thermal challenge following actual or simulated microgravity exposure may be associated with baroreflex-mediated attenuation in the elevation of skin blood flow. During a heat stress the elevation in skin blood flow is accomplished through a combination of increased cutaneous vascular conductance and cardiac output, both of which result in central venous pressure (CVP) decreasing 2-6 mmHg. Reductions in CVP of this magnitude in normothermia decrease muscle blood flow and skin blood flow presumably through unloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. It is unclear whether the reduction in CVP, and accompanying cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading, during passive heating buffers the elevation in skin blood flow. That is, would the elevation in skin blood flow be greater if CVP did not decrease, or decreased to a lesser extent during the heat stress? Conversely, if CVP decreased to a greater extend during a thermal challenge following a perturbation such as prolonged HDT, would the elevation in skin blood flow be attenuated during that thermal challenge? Given that prolonged HDT decreases plasma volume and central venous pressure, such a finding would provide a plausible hypothesis

  18. Potential Mechanism Leading to Impaired Thermoregulation Following Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity or its analogues impairs thermoregulation in humans evidenced by higher internal temperatures following the exposure during a thermal challenge. Although the mechanism leading to this response has not been clearly delineated, we identified that prolonged head-down tilt (HDT) markedly impairs thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, as demonstrated by an increased internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and by a reduced slope of the relationship between the elevation in skin blood flow relative to the elevation in internal temperature. Recently, Fortney et al. identified similar responses in two individuals following 115 days of microgravity exposure. One possible mechanism leading to altered cutaneous vasodilation during a thermal challenge following actual or simulated microgravity exposure may be associated with baroreflex-mediated attenuation in the elevation of skin blood flow. During a heat stress the elevation in skin blood flow is accomplished through a combination of increased cutaneous vascular conductance and cardiac output, both of which result in central venous pressure (CVP) decreasing 2-6 mmHg. Reductions in CVP of this magnitude in normothermia decrease muscle blood flow and skin blood flow presumably through unloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. It is unclear whether the reduction in CVP, and accompanying cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading, during passive heating buffers the elevation in skin blood flow. That is, would the elevation in skin blood flow be greater if CVP did not decrease, or decreased to a lesser extent during the heat stress? Conversely, if CVP decreased to a greater extend during a thermal challenge following a perturbation such as prolonged HDT, would the elevation in skin blood flow be attenuated during that thermal challenge? Given that prolonged HDT decreases plasma volume and central venous pressure, such a finding would provide a plausible hypothesis

  19. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  20. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  1. Neonatal lead exposure impairs development of rodent barrel field cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mary Ann; Johnston, Michael V.; Goldstein, Gary W.; Blue, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    Childhood exposure to low-level lead can permanently reduce intelligence, but the neurobiologic mechanism for this effect is unknown. We examined the impact of lead exposure on the development of cortical columns, using the rodent barrel field as a model. In all areas of mammalian neocortex, cortical columns constitute a fundamental structural unit subserving information processing. Barrel field cortex contains columnar processing units with distinct clusters of layer IV neurons that receive sensory input from individual whiskers. In this study, rat pups were exposed to 0, 0.2, 1, 1.5, or 2 g/liter lead acetate in their dam's drinking water from birth through postnatal day 10. This treatment, which coincides with the development of segregated columns in the barrel field, produced blood lead concentrations from 1 to 31 μg/dl. On postnatal day 10, the area of the barrel field and of individual barrels was measured. A dose-related reduction in barrel field area was observed (Pearson correlation = −0.740; P < 0.001); mean barrel field area in the highest exposure group was decreased 12% versus controls. Individual barrels in the physiologically more active caudoventral group were affected preferentially. Total cortical area measured in the same sections was not altered significantly by lead exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lead exposure may impair the development of columnar processing units in immature neocortex. We demonstrate that low levels of blood lead, in the range seen in many impoverished inner-city children, cause structural alterations in a neocortical somatosensory map. PMID:10805810

  2. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: <30 ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from <25 ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from <62.7 ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from <5.0 ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  3. Temporal fluctuation of the lead level in the cord blood of neonates in Taipei

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.H.; Wang, J.D. )

    1990-01-01

    From August 1985 to September 1987, 9,502 cord blood samples were obtained from the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. A total of 205 cord blood samples chosen randomly from newborns without parental exposure to lead were analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average blood lead level was .36 +/- .11 mumol/l (7.48 +/- 2.25 micrograms/dl). A similar analysis was performed on samples obtained from 160 newborns whose fathers had occupational lead exposure. In both groups, the average concentration of lead in cord blood in the summer was statistically greater than that in the winter. Air lead and total amount of lead in gasoline consumed in Taipei appeared to be associated with this seasonal fluctuation in the average lead level of cord blood. After considering alternative sources, we conclude that the seasonal fluctuation of cord blood lead is probably influenced by air lead produced from the combustion of gasoline.

  4. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Tran, Mary; Gracely, Edward; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2011-01-01

    Objective Lead exposure in children can lead to neuropsychological impairment. This study tested whether primary prevention interventions in the newborn period prevent elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). Methods The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study offered parental education, home evaluation, and lead remediation to the families of urban newborns. Households were randomized to a standard lead education group or maintenance education group. We conducted home visits at baseline, six months, and 12 months. To compare BLLs, we identified a matched comparison group. Results We enrolled and randomized 314 newborns in the intervention component; 110 completed the study. There were few significant differences between the randomized groups. In the combined intervention groups, positive results on visual inspection declined from baseline to 12 months (97.0% to 90.6%, p=0.007). At baseline, 36.9% of homes were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead dust standard, compared with 26.9% at 12 months (p=0.032), mainly due to a drop in windowsill dust levels. Both groups showed a significant increase in parental scores on a lead education test. Children in the intervention and matched control groups had similar geometric mean initial BLLs (2.6 vs. 2.7, p=0.477), but a significantly higher percentage of children in the intervention group had an initial blood lead screening compared with those in the matched group (88.9% vs. 84.4%, p=0.032). Conclusions A study of primary prevention of lead exposure showed a higher blood lead screening rate for the combined intervention groups and mean BLLs at one year of age not statistically different from the comparison group. Most homes had lead hazards. Lead education significantly increased knowledge. PMID:21563715

  5. Lead exposure and recovery rates of black ducks banded in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Bowers, E. Frank; Franson, J. Christian

    1992-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in Tennessee during 1986 to 1988 were tested for exposure to lead. Twelve percent of the birds had blood lead concentrations exceeding 0.2 ppm. Significant differences in the prevalence of lead exposure were found for adults (14.4%) and juveniles (8.2%). Exposed birds had higher blood lead concentrations at one study site, corresponding with a lower survival index.

  6. Behavioral effects of low level neonatal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastings, L; Cooper, G P; Bornschein, R L; Michaelson, I A

    1977-07-01

    Rats exposed to lead via maternal milk were tested at various stages of development on a number of behavioral tasks. Beginning at paturition, the dams were given either tap water, 0.02%, or 0.10% lead acetate in the drinking water. Pups from all three groups were weaned to normal chow and tap water at 21 days of age. The mean lead concentration of the dam's blood and of neonatal (20 days of age) brain and blood were all below 50 microgram/100 ml. No significant differences were found between the high lead-exposed group and controls in general as measured by wheel running over a 21 day period beginning at 30 days of age. However, there was a significant difference in wheel running behavior during the first three hr of testing. Both lead-exposed groups were found to display significantly less aggressive behavior as measured by the shock-elicited aggression test. Low level lead exposure had no discernable effect on the acquisition and subsequent reversal of a successive brightness discrimination task. Lead exposure under these conditions appears to affect some aspects of emotional behavior, while having little effect on general activity or cognitive function.

  7. Toddler temperament and prenatal exposure to lead and maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Svensson, Katherine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cantoral, Alejandra; Solano González, Maritsa; Torres-Calapiz, Mariana; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-06-16

    Temperament is a psychological construct that reflects both personality and an infant's reaction to social stimuli. It can be assessed early in life and is stable over time Temperament predicts many later life behaviors and illnesses, including impulsivity, emotional regulation and obesity. Early life exposure to neurotoxicants often results in developmental deficits in attention, social function, and IQ, but environmental predictors of infant temperament are largely unknown. We propose that prenatal exposure to both chemical and non-chemical environmental toxicants impacts the development of temperament, which can itself be used as a marker of risk for maladaptive neurobehavior in later life. In this study, we assessed associations among prenatal and early life exposure to lead, mercury, poverty, maternal depression and toddler temperament. A prospective cohort of women living in the Mexico City area were followed longitudinally beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to lead (blood, bone), mercury, and maternal depression were assessed repeatedly and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) was completed when the child was 24 months old. The association between each measure of prenatal exposure and performance on individual TTS subscales was evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Latent profile analysis was used to classify subjects by TTS performance. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate the prospective association between prenatal exposures and TTS performance. 500 mother-child pairs completed the TTS and had complete data on exposures and covariates. Three latent profiles were identified and categorized as predominantly difficult, intermediate, or easy temperament. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression predicted increasing probability of difficult toddler temperament. Maternal bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, also predicted difficult temperament. Prenatal lead exposure modified this association

  8. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  9. [Use of blood lead data to evaluate and prevent childhood lead poisoning in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to lead is a widespread and serious threat to the health of children in Latin America. Health officials should monitor sources of exposure and health outcomes to design, implement, and evaluate prevention and control activities. To evaluate the magnitude of lead as a public health problem, three key elements must be defined: I) the potential sources of exposure, 2) the indicators to evaluate health effects and environmental exposure, and 3) the sampling methods for the population at risk. Several strategies can be used to select the study population depending on the study objectives, the time limitations, and the available resources. If the objective is to evaluate the magnitude and sources of the problem, the following sampling methods can be used: I) population-based random sampling; 2) facility-based random sampling within hospitals, daycare centers, or schools; 3) target sampling of high risk groups; 4) convenience sampling of volunteers; and 5) case reporting (which can lead to the identification of populations at risk and sources of exposures). For all sampling methods, information gathering should include the use of a questionnaire to collect general information on the participants and on potential local sources of exposure, as well as the collection of biological samples. In interpreting data, one should consider the type of sampling used and the non-response rates, as well as factors that might influence blood lead measurements, such as age and seasonal variability. Blood lead measurements should be integrated in an overall strategy to prevent lead toxicity in children. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  10. Lead exposure and behavioral changes: comparisons of four occupational groups with different levels of lead absorption.

    PubMed

    Valciukas, J A; Lilis, R; Singer, R; Fischbein, A; Anderson, H A; Glickman, L

    1980-01-01

    The association between lead absorption and objective psychological performance tests in five groups with different levels of lead absorption was studied in the following groups: (1) a control, non-lead-exposed group; (2) cable splicers, (3) cable manufactures, and (4) secondary lead smelter workers. The following performance tests were used: Block Design, Digit Symbol, and Embedded Figures. Age-corrected performance test scores and the average of three test scores (INDEX) were used throughout. A significant association between performance tests scores and increased lead absorption was found. Zinc protoporphyrin level was a more "powerful" (in the statistical sense) indicator of lead-induced CNS effects than blood lead levels. This study provides additional evidence that neurotoxic effects associated with occupational exposure to lead can be demonstrated by means of performance tests. It has been known and widely accepted that increased lead absorption is associated with "non-specific" subjective symptoms: tiredness, sleep disturbance, irritability, etc. Psychometric techniques (including an appropriate statistical analysis strategy) are highly sensitive for the early detection of CNS neurotoxicity, such as metal toxicity. Moreover, even in lead-exposed but asymptomatic individuals, a significant correlation (negative) between test scores and levels of lead absorption could be detected. It is concluded that workers exposed to lead at levels considered "safe" might be at risk of developing brain dysfunction with long term exposure.

  11. Exposure to lead exacerbates dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Leite, G A S; Sawan, R M M; Teófilo, J M; Porto, I M; Sousa, F B; Gerlach, R F

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that co-exposure to lead and fluoride alter the severity of enamel fluorosis. Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, and 3 groups that received water containing 100 ppm of fluoride (F), 30 ppm of lead (Pb), or 100 ppm of F and 30 ppm of Pb (F+Pb) from the beginning of gestation. Enamel analysis and F and Pb determinations in enamel, dentine, and bone were performed in 81-day-old animals. Fluorosis was quantified using a new fluorosis index based on the identification of incisor enamel defects (white bands and white islets, representing hypomineralization, and cavities) weighted according to their severity and quantity. Hypomineralization was validated histopathologically by polarizing microscopy and microradiography. Scores were given by two blinded calibrated examiners (intra and interexaminer kappa values were 0.8 and 0.86, respectively). The control and the Pb groups presented normal enamel. The F+Pb group presented more severe enamel defects compared with the F group (P<0.0001). This study shows that lead exacerbates dental fluorosis in rodents, suggesting that co-exposure to lead may affect the degree of fluorosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Occupational Exposure to Lead and Lead Compounds.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to lead and its compounds, to identify the main circumstances of exposures, and to collect information on the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. Data came from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey which investigated the current prevalence and circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including lead, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool, OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. A total of 307 (6.1%) of the 4993 included respondents were identified as probably being exposed to lead in the course of their work. Of these, almost all (96%) were male; about half worked in trades and technician-related occupations, and about half worked in the construction industry. The main tasks associated with probable exposures were, in decreasing order: soldering; sanding and burning off paint while painting old houses, ships, or bridges; plumbing work; cleaning up or sifting through the remains of a fire; radiator-repair work; machining metals or alloys containing lead; mining; welding leaded steel; and working at or using indoor firing ranges. Where information on control measures was available, inconsistent use was reported. Applied to the Australian working population, approximately 6.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.6-7.0] of all workers (i.e. 631000, 95% CI 566000-704000 workers) were estimated to have probable occupational exposure to lead. Lead remains an important exposure in many different occupational circumstances in Australia and probably other developed countries. This information can be used to support decisions on priorities for intervention and control

  13. Lead exposure in firearms instructors of the Italian State Police.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Borraccia, V; Corfiati, Marisa; Mantineo, G A; Caciari, Tiziana; Marino, Marina; Soleo, L

    2010-01-01

    Several studies evaluated exposure to lead in relatively small groups of firearms instructors and shooters, mainly operating at indoor ranges. To assess the levels of lead exposure in a large sample of firearms instructors of the Italian State Police (SP) operating at either indoor or outdoor ranges. A crosssectional study was conducted in firearms instructors working in indoor (No. 188) and outdoor (No. 188) ranges compared with 170 foodplant workers. The personal and work characteristics and current blood lead (Pb-B) levels were evaluated The concentrations of environmental lead (Pb-E) were measured using personal samplers in 6 indoor and 6 outdoor firing ranges. The Pb-B levels in the two groups of firearms instructors were well below the ACGIH BEI, but significantly higher than in food plant workers. In the entire study sample the Pb-B level was seen to be influenced by age and job group. An excess risk of having Pb-B >100 microg/l was found in indoor range instructors and in those with greater job seniority. Pb-E <25 pg/m3 was measured in all the firing ranges examined. The low Pb-B and Pb-E levels assessed are the result of primary and secondary prevention interventions carried out over the years by the Italian State Police. The current Pb-B levels also seemed to be poorly influenced by higher past environmental and/or occupational lead exposure. In fact a certain number of firearms instructors, mainly operating at indoor ranges and with greater job seniority, had Pb-B levels consistent with occupational exposure to lead. Environmental and biological monitoring of lead exposure and specific health surveillance are therefore still necessary in this job group topreventpossible adverse health effects of lead even at low doses.

  14. Lead exposure and growth in the early preschool child: A follow-up report from the Cincinnati Lead Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Dietrich, K.N.; Bornschein, R.L.; Berger, O.; Hammond, P.B. )

    1991-11-01

    This report is a follow-up of an earlier study of the effects of low to moderate prenatal and postnatal lead exposure on children's growth in stature. Two hundred thirty-five subjects were assessed every 3 months for lead exposure (blood lead level) and stature (recumbent length) up to 33 months of age. Fetal lead exposure was indexed by maternal blood lead level during pregnancy. The adverse effects of lead on growth during the first year of life were reported previously. This analysis covers essentially the second and third years of life. The results indicate that mean blood lead level during this period was negatively associated with attained height at 33 months of age (P = .002). This association was, however, evidenced only among those children who had mean blood lead levels greater than the cohort median (greater than or equal to 10.77 micrograms/dL) during the 3- to 15-month interval. The results also suggest that the effect of lead exposure (both in utero as well as during the first year of life) are transient provided that subsequent exposure to lead is not excessive. It appears that maintaining an average blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL or more during the second and third year of life was detrimental to the child's attained stature at 33 months of age. Approximately 15% of this cohort experienced these levels of lead exposure. Continued follow-up of this cohort will reveal whether these lead-related deficits persist and whether they continue to be dependent on the level of exposure in an earlier period.

  15. Silver Valley lead study: further analysis of the relationship between blood lead and air lead

    SciTech Connect

    Snee, R.D.

    1982-02-01

    Blood lead and air lead levels of children who lived within 32 km of a smelter in Kellogg, ID were measured in 1974 and 1975. While an analysis of the 1974 survey has appeared, the results of the 1975 survey and an evaluation of the change in blood lead levels of those children who participated in both the 1974 and 1975 surveys has not previously been discussed in the literature. It is concluded that, for these data, in the air lead range of 0.5-5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, the blood lead-air lead relationship can be adequately described by blood lead-air lead slope which is approximately 1.0 and at most 1.4. This slope was also found to be independent of children's age. It is shown that an accurate estimate of the blood lead-air lead relationship cannot be obtained without taking proper account of selected environmental variables; specifically, pica, sex, age, father's work status, education, and home cleanliness.

  16. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  17. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role.

  18. Pediatric lead exposure from imported Indian spices and cultural powders.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cristiane Gurgel; Schaider, Laurel Anne; Brabander, Daniel Joseph; Woolf, Alan David

    2010-04-01

    Significant lead poisoning has been associated with imported nonpaint products. To describe cases of pediatric lead intoxication from imported Indian spices and cultural powders, determine lead concentrations in these products, and predict effects of ingestion on pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs). Cases and case-study information were obtained from patients followed by the Pediatric Environmental Health Center (Children's Hospital Boston). Imported spices (n = 86) and cultural powders (n = 71) were analyzed for lead by using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The simple bioaccessibility extraction test was used to estimate oral bioavailability. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was used to predict population-wide geometric mean BLLs and the probability of elevated BLLs (>10 microg/dL). Four cases of pediatric lead poisoning from Indian spices or cultural powders are described. Twenty-two of 86 spices and foodstuff products contained >1 microg/g lead (for these 22 samples, mean: 2.6 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.3]; maximum: 7.6 microg/g). Forty-six of 71 cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead (for 43 of these samples, mean: 8.0 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 5.2-10.8]; maximum: 41.4 microg/g). Three sindoor products contained >47% lead. With a fixed ingestion of 5 microg/day and 50% bioavailability, predicted geometric mean BLLs for children aged 0 to 4 years increased from 3.2 to 4.1 microg/dL, and predicted prevalence of children with a BLL of >10 microg/dL increased more than threefold (0.8%-2.8%). Chronic exposure to spices and cultural powders may cause elevated BLLs. A majority of cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead, and some sindoor contained extremely high bioaccessible lead levels. Clinicians should routinely screen for exposure to these products.

  19. Neurotoxic Effects and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yiming; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques are useful for risk assessment of toxic agents in the field of environmental health. Lead, a systemic toxicant affecting virtually every organ system, primarily affects the central nervous system, particularly the developing brain. Consequently, children are at a greater risk than adults of suffering from the neurotoxic effects of lead. The ability of lead to pass through the blood-brain barrier is due in large part to its ability to substitute for calcium ions. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. At the molecular level, lead interferes with the regulatory action of calcium on cell functions and disrupts many intracellular biological activities. Experimental studies have also shown that lead exposure may have genotoxic effects, especially in the brain, bone marrow, liver, and lung cells. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children, adults, and experimental animals, updated to January 2009. PMID:19476290

  20. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development.

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, R L

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure. The latter analysis indicates that for children less than 24 months of age, lead-containing dust in the home and on the children's hands are important determinates of their blood lead levels. This relationship is influenced by the amount of maternal involvement with their child and other indices of interaction between the child and primary caregiver. PMID:2417831

  1. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  2. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  3. Fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Bellinger, David; Smith, Donald; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schwartz, Joel; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-11-01

    The impact of prenatal lead exposure on neurodevelopment remains unclear in terms of consistency, the trimester of greatest vulnerability, and the best method for estimating fetal lead exposure. We studied prenatal lead exposure's impact on neurodevelopment using repeated measures of fetal dose as reflected by maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels. We measured lead in maternal plasma and whole blood during each trimester in 146 pregnant women in Mexico City. We then measured umbilical cord blood lead at delivery and, when offspring were 12 and 24 months of age, measured blood lead and administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We used multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates and 24-month blood lead, to compare the impacts of our pregnancy measures of fetal lead dose. Maternal lead levels were moderately high with a first-trimester blood lead mean (+/- SD) value of 7.1 +/- 5.1 microg/dL and 14% of values >or=10 microg/dL. Both maternal plasma and whole blood lead during the first trimester (but not in the second or third trimester) were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of poorer Mental Development Index (MDI) scores. In models combining all three trimester measures and using standardized coefficients, the effect of first-trimester maternal plasma lead was somewhat greater than the effect of first-trimester maternal whole blood lead and substantially greater than the effects of second- or third-trimester plasma lead, and values averaged over all three trimesters. A 1-SD change in first-trimester plasma lead was associated with a reduction in MDI score of 3.5 points. Postnatal blood lead levels in the offspring were less strongly correlated with MDI scores. Fetal lead exposure has an adverse effect on neurodevelopment, with an effect that may be most pronounced during the first trimester and best captured by measuring lead in either maternal plasma or whole blood.

  4. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility. PMID:1390270

  5. Effect of smelter emission reductions on children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Hilts, Steven R

    2003-02-15

    Trail, British Columbia has been the site of an active lead-zinc smelter for approximately 95 years. Since 1989, the community has been monitoring blood lead levels in children, studying exposure pathways and conducting comprehensive education and case management programs. From 1989 through 1996, mean blood lead levels of pre-school children declined at an average rate of 0.6 microg/dl per year. From 1996 to 1999, mean blood lead levels fell at an average rate of 1.8 microg/dl per year, from 11.5 in 1996 to 5.9 in 1999. The recent rapid decline appears to be mainly attributable to the start-up of a new lead smelter using modern flash-smelting technology in May of 1997. In 1998, the annual arithmetic mean air lead level in Trail was 0.28 microg/m(3), compared with 1.1 microg/m(3) in 1996. Reductions of approximately 50% were observed in lead loadings and concentrations in outdoor dustfall, street dust and indoor dustfall after smelter emissions were reduced. Slight reductions (statistically insignificant) have been observed in carpet dust and soil lead concentrations. During the summer of 2001, the smelting and refining operations at Trail were shut down completely for 3 months. During this period, average air lead levels in Trail dropped to 0.03 microg/m(3). The average blood lead level in Trail pre-school children at the end of the shutdown was 4.7 microg/dl. These results challenge prevailing theories about the relative importance of various environmental lead sources. For example, the US EPA Integrated Biokinetic Uptake Model for Lead (IEUBK), with its emphasis on soil concentrations, would not have predicted the dramatic decline in children's blood lead levels seen in Trail following the reductions in air lead levels. The Trail experience suggests that increased attention should be paid to the importance of active sources of highly bioavailable and mobile lead bearing dusts.

  6. The social costs of childhood lead exposure in the post-lead regulation era.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the benefits that might be realized if all children in the United States had a blood lead level of less than 1 microg/dL. Data were obtained from published and electronic sources. A Markov model was used to project lifetime earnings, reduced crime costs, improvements in health, and reduced welfare costs using 2 scenarios: (1) maintaining the status quo and (2) reducing the blood lead level of all children to less than 1 microg/dL. The cohort of US children between birth and age 6 years in 2008, with economic and health outcomes projected for 65 years. Increased primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing lead exposure among children and pregnant women. Societal costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Reducing blood lead levels to less than 1 microg/dL among all US children between birth and age 6 years would reduce crime and increase on-time high school graduation rates later in life. The net societal benefits arising from these improvements in high school graduation rates and reductions in crime would amount to $50 000 (SD, $14 000) per child annually at a discount rate of 3%. This would result in overall savings of approximately $1.2 trillion (SD, $341 billion) and produce an additional 4.8 million QALYs (SD, 2 million QALYs) for US society as a whole. More aggressive programs aimed at reducing childhood lead exposure may produce large social benefits.

  7. Environmental factors associated with blood lead levels in Venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Squillante, G; Medina, E; de Rojas, O; Sarmiento, A

    2000-06-01

    A preliminary study explored the relative contribution of residential sources of lead exposure on mentally challenged children who attend "special education" institutions (GI) compared to a group of age and sex matched school children (G2). We captured descriptive information and analyzed demographic variables, personal and household information, medical effects, environmental exposure factors, and children habits. Home paint, dust, soil, and water sampling was conducted and blood lead (BPb) levels determined. Eighteen G1 and 20 G2 children were studied. The mean G1 BPb was 16.9 +/- 7.9 microg/dl and was significantly higher than that in G2. Fifty percent of G1 children had PbB >20 microg/dl and 72.2% were >10 microg/dl. Low muscular strength, decreased osteotendinose reflexes, fine and gross motricity, deficient equilibrium, and hipotonic muscular tone coincided with >18 microg/dl BPb levels. In 61.1% of G1 homes paint lead levels were higher than permissible levels and 33.3% had dust lead exceeding that level. The high BPb levels in G1 probably resulted from ingestion of household paint, dust, and soil via "hand-to-mouth" activity. Environmental exposure to lead can be an important source of lead intake by infants and children and could affect neurological development. This study provides new insights currently unavailable for these children in Venezuela.

  8. Lead exposure and educational proficiency: moderate lead exposure and educational proficiency on end-of-grade examinations.

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; Moore, Colleen F; Magzamen, Sheryl; Imm, Pamela; Havlena, Jeffrey A; Anderson, Henry A; Kanarek, Marty S

    2012-10-01

    To investigate and quantify the impact of moderate lead exposure on students' ability to score at the "proficient" level on end-of-grade standardized tests. We compared the scores of 3757 fourth grade students from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Exam (WKCE). The sample consisted of children with a blood lead test before age 3 years that was either unquantifiable at the time of testing (<5 μg/dL) or in the range of moderate exposure (10-19 μg/dL). After controlling for gender, poverty, English language learner status, race/ethnicity, school disciplinary actions, and attendance percentage, results showed a significant negative effect of moderate lead exposure on academic achievement for all 5 subtests of the WKCE. Test score deficits owing to lead exposure were equal to 22% of the interval between student categorization at the "proficient" or "basic" levels in Reading, and 42% of the interval in Mathematics. Children exposed to amounts of lead before age 3 years that are insufficient to trigger intervention under current policies in many states are nonetheless at a considerable educational disadvantage compared with their unexposed peers 7 to 8 years later. Exposed students are at greater risk of scoring below the proficient level, an outcome with serious negative consequences for both the student and the school. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Smith, M R

    1996-07-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  10. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: Prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  11. The conceptual structure of the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.

    PubMed Central

    White, P D; Van Leeuwen, P; Davis, B D; Maddaloni, M; Hogan, K A; Marcus, A H; Elias, R W

    1998-01-01

    The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was developed to provide plausible blood lead distributions corresponding to particular combinations of multimedia lead exposure. The model is based on a set of equations that convert lead exposure (expressed as micrograms per day) to blood lead concentration (expressed as micrograms per deciliter) by quantitatively mimicking the physiologic processes that determine blood lead concentration. The exposures from air, food, water, soil, and dust are modeled independently by several routes. Amounts of lead absorbed are modeled independently for air, food, water, and soil/dust, then combined as a single input to the blood plasma reservoir of the body. Lead in the blood plasma reservoir, which includes extracellular fluids, is mathematically allocated to all tissues of the body using age-specific biokinetic parameters. The model calculation provides the estimate for blood lead concentration for that age. This value is treated as the geometric mean of possible values for a single child, or the geometric mean of expected values for a population of children exposed to the same lead concentrations. The distribution of blood lead concentrations about this geometric mean is estimated using a geometric standard deviation, typically 1.6, derived from the analysis of well-conducted community blood studies. PMID:9860910

  12. [Lead exposure in pregnant women and newborns: a screening update].

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, C; Cheymol, J; Dandres, A-M; Barbéry-Courcoux, A-L

    2007-01-01

    Human lead exposure has many sources. Relative importance of these sources varies widely according to geographic regions and human lifestyle. The impact of lead exposure on health has been well studied and public health interventions have been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate current prevalence of lead burden in neonates, and seek for sources of maternal and fetal intoxication. A prospective multicentre study was conducted by the "Réseau périnatal 92" on a population of pregnant women attending 3 maternal wards in the north of 'Hauts-de-Seine' department in France. Between December 2003 and May 2004, a total of 1021 pregnant women were included. All patients signed an informed consent before participating in the study. Cord blood samples were collected at delivery for lead measurements. The mean cord blood lead concentration was 23.2 microg/l. Eighteen neonates over 1021 (1.8%) had lead levels above 100 microg/l. An environmental query was conducted by the social and public health office of the department (DDASS), and data were collected regarding the state of the housing and the lifestyle of the concerned family. Main sources of lead intoxication were 'tagine' food plates in 83.3% of cases, 'khôl' powder (used as eyeliner) in 88.9% of cases and substandard housings in 22.2% of cases. A specialized paediatric follow-up for the 18 neonates was performed. With the exception of substandard housing (old lead painting), other sources of lead intoxication were discovered: 'tagine' plates and 'khôl' powder. Almost all of these products came from Morocco. A public health intervention would be able to inform the population about these yet unknown sources of lead intoxication.

  13. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela; de Jager, Pieter; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10μg/dl (p<0.001). Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental lead exposure as a risk for childhood aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, M; Akhtar, M J; Verma, S; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2011-01-01

    Concern about environmental lead exposure as a significant public health threat has increased as evidence has accumulated regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. Aplastic anemia is a hematological disorder of unknown etiology with a high lethality rate. Lead is a known toxicant for the hematopoietic system. Oxidative stress appears to be the possible mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead level on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from aplastic anemia disease. Seventeen children with aplastic anemia disease (15 male and 2 female, age 3-12 y) were recruited in the study group. Fifty one healthy children (45 male and 6 female, age 3-12 y) having normal blood profiles and not suffering from any chronic disease(s) were used as controls. Blood lead level and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for each). Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly higher while the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) level was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for each). Activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation of blood lead levels with δ-ALAD (r = -0.45; p < 0.05) and GSH (r = -0.32; p < 0.05), and a positive correlation with TBARS (r = 0.41; p < 0.05) and CAT (r = 0.37; p < 0.05). Although a causal pathway cannot be determined from this study, our results indicated that lead induces oxidative stress in children suffering from aplastic anemia. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for aplastic anemia warrants further research.

  15. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead

  16. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.31 μg dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.52 μg dL(-1); P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg dL(-1) vs. 1.65 μg dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.19 μg dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk

  17. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES 2 survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males ages 20 to 74 and documents a singificant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES 2, this study confirms the expected association oflead with left ventricular hypertrophy. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study's association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared ot the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the US, but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure.

  18. Methods for integrated exposure monitoring of lead and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Vahter, M.; Berglund, M.; Friberg, L. ); Slorach, S. ); Saric, M. ); Zheng Xingquan ); Fujita, Masahiko )

    1991-10-01

    An international pilot monitoring study on exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been implemented in Beijing, Yokohama, Stockholm, and Zagreb as part of the UNEP/WHO human exposure assessment locations (HEAL) Program. The main objective was to develop and test methods, including methods for quality assurance, for monitoring of personal exposure to Pb and Cd. The study included analytical training for Pb and Cd in blood, air filters, dust, diets, and feces, as well as exposure monitoring activities in small groups of nonsmoking women, 23-53 years of age, during 7 consecutive days. Airborne particulates, duplicate diets, feces, and blood were collected. An extensive quality assurance program was implemented in order to assure the reliability and comparability of the monitoring data. The main problem in the sample collection was associated with the air monitoring. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8 hr. Collection of duplicate diets during 1 week gave good estimates of average dietary intakes of Pb and Cd. The metal contents in feces were found useful for evaluation of total peroral intakes. The methods used made it possible to demonstrate that the diet was the main source of Cd exposure at all the HEAL sites.

  19. Anemia risk in relation to lead exposure in lead-related manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chung, Shun-Hui; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Su-Han; Liao, Chung-Min

    2017-05-05

    Lead-exposed workers may suffer adverse health effects under the currently regulated blood lead (BPb) levels. However, a probabilistic assessment about lead exposure-associated anemia risk is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure and anemia risk among factory workers in Taiwan. We first collated BPb and indicators of hematopoietic function data via health examination records that included 533 male and 218 female lead-exposed workers between 2012 and 2014. We used benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to estimate the critical effect doses for detection of abnormal indicators. A risk-based probabilistic model was used to characterize the potential hazard of lead poisoning for job-specific workers by hazard index (HI). We applied Bayesian decision analysis to determine whether BMD could be implicated as a suitable BPb standard. Our results indicated that HI for total lead-exposed workers was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.50-1.26) with risk occurrence probability of 11.1%. The abnormal risk of anemia indicators for male and female workers could be reduced, respectively, by 67-77% and 86-95% by adopting the suggested BPb standards of 25 and 15 μg/dL. We conclude that cumulative exposure to lead in the workplace was significantly associated with anemia risk. This study suggests that current BPb standard needs to be better understood for the application of lead-exposed population protection in different scenarios to provide a novel standard for health management. Low-level lead exposure risk is an occupational and public health problem that should be paid more attention.

  20. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  1. Microanalyzer for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. State-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments can only analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turnaround times, and they are expensive. In response to the growing need for a metal analyzer capable of on-site, real-time monitoring of trace toxic metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/stripping voltammetry (ASV), and validated the system using rat blood and urine spiked with known amounts of Pb. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with suitable sample pretreatment and by establishing turbulent flow of blood and urine containing Pb onto the electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. No matrix effect was observed for the voltammetric Pb signals, even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration ranges relevant to Pb exposure levels in humans (0-20 ppb in 10% blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50% urine samples). The device showed excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.44 ppb and 0.46 ppb, and % R.S.D. was 4.9 and 2.4 in 50% urine and 10% blood samples, respectively. It gave similar Pb concentrations in blood and urine to those measured by ICP-MS. It offered high throughput (3 min per sample) and economical use of samples (60 microL per measurement) as well as low reagent consumption (1 microg of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing environmental concerns associated with mercury use. Since it is miniaturized, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it shows much promise as the next-generation analyzer for the biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  2. Protoporphyrin (FEP/ZPP) screening in industrial lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1988-11-01

    Lead-acid battery manufacturers, as a group, are among the largest industrial users of lead in the United States, and every industry using this metal is confronted with a maze of federal regulations governing workplace conditions and employee health. In the biological testing category, particular emphasis has been placed on the periodic testing of blood for lead, to assess absorption of the metal, and protoporphyrin (abbreviated ZPP or FEP) testing as a means of monitoring the biological effects resulting from lead exposure. The protoporphyrin test, however, remains a matter of general confusion among industry managers and medical directors, and this article attempts to provide a concise and understandable explanation of this topic. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Fetal Lead Exposure at Each Stage of Pregnancy as a Predictor of Infant Mental Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Bellinger, David; Smith, Donald; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schwartz, Joel; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Background The impact of prenatal lead exposure on neurodevelopment remains unclear in terms of consistency, the trimester of greatest vulnerability, and the best method for estimating fetal lead exposure. Objective We studied prenatal lead exposure’s impact on neurodevelopment using repeated measures of fetal dose as reflected by maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels. Methods We measured lead in maternal plasma and whole blood during each trimester in 146 pregnant women in Mexico City. We then measured umbilical cord blood lead at delivery and, when offspring were 12 and 24 months of age, measured blood lead and administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We used multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates and 24-month blood lead, to compare the impacts of our pregnancy measures of fetal lead dose. Results Maternal lead levels were moderately high with a first-trimester blood lead mean (± SD) value of 7.1 ± 5.1 μg/dL and 14% of values ≥10 μg/dL. Both maternal plasma and whole blood lead during the first trimester (but not in the second or third trimester) were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of poorer Mental Development Index (MDI) scores. In models combining all three trimester measures and using standardized coefficients, the effect of first-trimester maternal plasma lead was somewhat greater than the effect of first-trimester maternal whole blood lead and substantially greater than the effects of second- or third-trimester plasma lead, and values averaged over all three trimesters. A 1-SD change in first-trimester plasma lead was associated with a reduction in MDI score of 3.5 points. Postnatal blood lead levels in the offspring were less strongly correlated with MDI scores. Conclusions Fetal lead exposure has an adverse effect on neurodevelopment, with an effect that may be most pronounced during the first trimester and best captured by measuring lead in either maternal plasma or whole blood. PMID:17107860

  4. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  5. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  6. Secondhand tobacco smoke: a source of lead exposure in US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; McLain, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3-19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children.

  7. Blood lead levels in children, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shunqin; Zhang Jinliang . E-mail: jinliangzhg@263.net

    2006-07-15

    To evaluate Chinese children's blood lead levels (BLLs) and identify its distribution features, we collected articles on children's BLLs published from 1994 to March 2004 using the Chinese Biomedical Disc and reviewed 32 articles eligible for the following criteria: (1) BLLs measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; (2) strict quality control; (3) no lead pollution sources in the areas where the screened subjects live; and (4) sample size bigger than 100. We found that mean BLLs of Chinese children was 92.9 {mu}g/L (37.2-254.2 {mu}g/L), and 33.8% (9.6-80.5%) of the subjects had BLLs higher than 100 {mu}g/L. Nine of the 27 provinces or cities reported had average BLLs {>=}100 {mu}g/L. Boys' BLL was 96.4 {mu}g/L, significantly higher than girls' 89.4 {mu}g/L (P<0.001). BLLs of children {<=}6 years increased with age. The mean BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas. Our results suggested that children's BLLs in China are higher than those of their counterparts in other countries due to its heavy lead pollution. Therefore, this is of great public health importance.

  8. Deficits in cognitive function and achievement in Mexican first-graders with low blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Canfield, Richard L; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Cebrián, Mariano E; Rico, Javier Alatorre; Ronquillo, Dolores; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-03-01

    Elevated blood lead levels in children are associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive functioning. Recent studies have reported inverse relations between lifetime exposure and intellectual functioning at blood lead concentrations below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) level of concern. We report associations between blood lead and cognitive performance for first-grade Mexican children living near a metal foundry. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the relation between children's concurrent blood lead concentrations (mean (SD) 11.4 microg/dL (6.1)) and their performance on 14 tests of global or specific cognitive functions. The blood lead-cognition relations were modeled using both linear and nonlinear methods. After adjustment for covariates, a higher blood lead level was associated with poorer cognitive performance on several cognitive tests. Segmented linear regressions revealed significant effects of lead but only for the segments defined by a concurrent blood lead concentration below 10-14 microg/dL. One implication of these findings is that at the age of 7 years, even in the absence of information on lead exposure in infancy and early childhood, a test result with blood lead < 10 microg/dL should not be considered safe. Together with other recent findings, these results add to the empirical base of support available for evaluating the adequacy of current screening guidelines and for motivating efforts at primary prevention of childhood lead exposure.

  9. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  10. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  11. Lead exposure: Public and occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  14. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  15. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  16. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  17. Failure of EPA`s IEUBK model to identify children at risk from lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Modeled blood lead concentrations derived from EPA`s Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model LEAD99 (Model) were compared to measured blood lead concentrations for two populations of children living in Colorado mining communities. The study areas were Clear Creek and California Gulch. Both studies presented paired blood lead level measurements and environmental media lead concentrations. The data for this paper were obtained from the Colorado Department of Health and publicly-available submissions made to EPA Region VIII. EPA has used the Model to identify soil lead concentrations that are protective of individual children.

  18. Lead exposure in young school children in South African subsistence fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela; Khan, Taskeen; Naicker, Nisha; Kootbodien, Tahira; Naidoo, Shan; Becker, Piet

    2013-10-01

    Lead is an established toxic substance, with wide-ranging health effects, including neurodevelopmental decrements and behavioural problems, even at low levels in blood. Anecdotal reports of lead melting to make fishing sinkers in South African subsistence fishing communities prompted the conduct of an epidemiological study in two South African fishing villages to investigate the extent of lead melting and the associated risks in children. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of lead melting, and the blood lead distributions and associated risk factors in children. Cross-sectional, analytical studies were undertaken among 160 young school children in the fishing villages of Struis Bay and Elands Bay located along the south-eastern and western South African coastline, respectively. Blood samples were collected for lead content analysis, and anthropometric and hemoglobin measurements were taken. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information about socio-economic status and risk factors for lead exposure. Blood lead levels ranged from 2.2 to 22.4 µg/dl, with the mean blood lead level equalling 7.4. Around 74% of the children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dl and 16% had blood lead levels ≥10 µg/dl. Socio-economic factors, and lead melting practices were strongly associated with elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels in these remote subsistence fishing communities were unexpectedly elevated, given the absence of local lead industries or other obvious sources of lead exposure. Lead exposure and poisoning is an important, yet neglected, public health concern in South African subsistence fishing communities, and potentially on the entire African continent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  20. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nunez, C M; Klitzman, S; Goodman, A

    1993-05-01

    Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education program for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York City. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n = 62) in 89% of the shops tested (n = 24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25 micrograms/dl. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10 micrograms/dl. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.

  1. Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Sadler, Richard C.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Ball, Andrew S.; Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children’s average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children’s blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  2. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyan; Cao, Jia; Yan, Jin; Wang, Ju; Cai, Shizhong; Yan, Chonghuai

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother's education level, father's occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp.), while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88). Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required.

  3. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhenyan; Cao, Jia; Yan, Jin; Wang, Ju; Cai, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother's education level, father's occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp.), while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88). Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required. PMID:28466011

  4. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Silbergeld, E K

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products. PMID:2088754

  5. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products.

  6. Association between essential tremor and blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Jurewicz, Eva C; Applegate, LaKeisha; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Parides, Michael; Andrews, Leslie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Carroll, Spencer; Todd, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant that causes tremor and cerebellar damage. Essential tremor (ET) is a highly prevalent neurologic disease associated with cerebellar involvement. Although environmental toxicants may play a role in ET etiology and their identification is a critical step in disease prevention, these toxicants have received little attention. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ET is associated with lead exposure. Therefore, blood lead (BPb) concentrations were measured and a lifetime occupational history was assessed in ET patients and in controls. We frequency matched 100 ET patients and 143 controls on age, sex, and ethnicity. BPb concentrations were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A lifetime occupational history was reviewed by an industrial hygienist. BPb concentrations were higher in ET patients than in controls (mean +/- SD, 3.3 +/- 2.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 microg/dL, respectively; median, 2.7 and 2.3 microg/dL; p = 0.038). In a logistic regression model, BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis [control vs. ET patient, odds ratio (OR) per unit increase = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; p = 0.007]. BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis (OR per unit increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; p = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence of lifetime occupational lead exposure was similar in ET patients and controls. We report an association between BPb concentration and ET. Determining whether this association is due to increased exposure to lead or a difference in lead kinetics in ET patients requires further investigation.

  7. SOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is defined here as the amount of a substance that comes into contact with an absorbing surface during a specified period of time. The normal units of exposure are expressed as micrograms per day. The two components of exposure are the concentration of the substance in ...

  8. SOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is defined here as the amount of a substance that comes into contact with an absorbing surface during a specified period of time. The normal units of exposure are expressed as micrograms per day. The two components of exposure are the concentration of the substance in ...

  9. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  10. Blood lead concentration and delayed puberty in girls.

    PubMed

    Selevan, Sherry G; Rice, Deborah C; Hogan, Karen A; Euling, Susan Y; Pfahles-Hutchens, Andrea; Bethel, James

    2003-04-17

    Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development. We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal development among girls (defined as females 8 to 18 years of age) who were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) in which race was self-reported or proxy-reported: 600 were non-Hispanic white, 805 were non-Hispanic African-American, and 781 were Mexican-American girls. Puberty was measured on the basis of the age at menarche and Tanner stage for pubic-hair and breast development. Geometric mean lead concentrations were less than 3 microg per deciliter (0.144 micromol per liter) in all three groups. As compared with concentrations of 1 microg per deciliter (0.048 micromol per liter), lead concentrations of 3 microg per deciliter were associated with decreased height (P<0.001), after adjustment for age, race, and other factors, but not with body-mass index or weight. Blood lead concentrations of 3 microg per deciliter were associated with significant delays in breast and pubic-hair development in African-American and Mexican-American girls. The delays were most marked among African-American girls; in this group, the delays in reaching Tanner stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 associated with a lead concentration of 3 microg per deciliter as compared with 1 microg per deciliter were 3.8, 5.3, 5.8, and 2.1 months, respectively, for breast development and 4.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 2.2 months, respectively, for pubic-hair development; the associated delay in age at menarche was 3.6 months. In white girls, there were nonsignificant delays in all pubertal measures in association with a lead concentration of 3 microg per deciliter. These data suggest that environmental exposure to lead may delay growth and pubertal development in girls, although confirmation is warranted in prospective studies. Copyright

  11. Childhood lead exposure in an industrial town in China: coupling stable isotope ratios with bioaccessible lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kai; Juhasz, Albert L; Huang, Lei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-04-21

    Fingerprinting based on stable isotopes of lead (Pb) in blood and environmental media helps to identify Pb exposure pathways in children. However, previous studies used stable isotopes of total Pb in media. In this study, a wire rope production town in China (Zhuhang) was selected for investigating the effectiveness of using isotope ratios in bioaccessible Pb to identify childhood Pb exposure pathways. Blood Pb levels of 115 children in Zhuhang were 1.7-20.4 μg dL(-1), averaging 6.1 ± 3.2 μg dL(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), and were ∼1.6 times the national average in China (3.9 ± 1.8 μg dL(-1)). Among different environmental media (housedust, soil, PM10, vegetables, rice, and drinking water), housedust (695 ± 495 mg kg(-1)) and vegetables [0.36 ± 0.40 mg (kg of fresh weight)(-1)] contained elevated Pb concentrations. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) of total Pb were the highest in housedust (0.8587 ± 0.0039 and 2.1049 ± 0.0087) but lower than blood Pb ratios (0.8634 ± 0.0027 and 2.1244 ± 0.0061). When using bioaccessible Pb in housedust (0.8639 ± 0.0018 and 2.1171 ± 0.0036), the isotope ratios overlapped with blood Pb ratios, suggesting that incidental ingestion of housedust was the predominant contributor to children's blood Pb. Coupling the stable isotope technique with bioaccessible Pb is more reliable for identifying Pb exposure pathways than total Pb determinations.

  12. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Norman; Zhang, Zhong-Fa; Sun, Jiayang; Ketterer, Michael E; Lalumandier, James A; Shulze, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48microg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter

  13. Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R

    2001-01-01

    The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status

  14. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  15. Childhood Lead Exposure After the Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline: An Ecological Study of School-Age Children in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Lauren K.; Asher, Daniel; Anandaraja, Natasha; Bopp, Richard F.; Merrill, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Luboga, Samuel; Trasande, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Tetraethyl lead was phased out of gasoline in Uganda in 2005. Recent mitigation of an important source of lead exposure suggests examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in this country. Ongoing concerns persist about exposure from the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, the country’s capital. Objectives We determined blood lead distributions among Kampala schoolchildren and identified risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥ 10 μg/dL). Analytical approach Using a stratified, cross-sectional design, we obtained blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 163 4- to 8-year-old children representing communities with different risks of exposure. Results The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 7.15 μg/dL; 20.5% of the children were found to have EBLL. Multivariable analysis found participants whose families owned fewer household items, ate canned food, or used the community water supply as their primary water source to have higher BLLs and likelihood of EBLLs. Distance < 0.5 mi from the landfill was the factor most strongly associated with increments in BLL (5.51 μg/dL, p < 0.0001) and likelihood of EBLL (OR = 4.71, p = 0.0093). Dust/soil lead was not significantly predictive of BLL/EBLL. Conclusions Lead poisoning remains highly prevalent among school-age children in Kampala. Confirmatory studies are needed, but further efforts are indicated to limit lead exposure from the landfill, whether through water contamination or through another mechanism. Although African nations are to be lauded for the removal of lead from gasoline, this study serves as a reminder that other sources of exposure to this potent neurotoxicant merit ongoing attention. PMID:20194080

  16. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community.

  17. Variability and trend of multiple blood lead measures among construction and manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Blando, James; Lu, Shou-En; Gu, Hui; Lin, Yong; Marshall, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated multiple blood lead measures collected over time and assessed differences arising from exposure and testing variability. Blood lead data was used to compare individuals from manufacturing and construction occupational cohorts. Trends of blood lead levels (BLLs) over time were analysed using mixed model analysis. Random selection of BLL values was used to determine the improvement in the precision of mean BLL estimates as the number of tests increased. From 2003-2007, there were 619 manufacturing and 657 construction workers with more than one blood lead test reported. Construction workers had much more variability in their blood lead trends. They also tended to have less frequent follow-up blood tests compared with manufacturing workers. Both occupational cohorts had persistent BLLs that resulted in many workers with chronically high blood lead values (>25 µg/dL). Approximately 11.2% of construction workers and 34.8% of manufacturing workers with an initial blood lead test above 25 µg/dL remained above this blood level through the study period. The precision in the mean BLL estimates increased more substantially for construction workers when compared with manufacturing workers as the number of blood lead tests per worker increased. This study confirmed differences in the pattern of blood lead tests and the resulting trends for manufacturing compared with construction workers. It also suggested that the number of blood lead tests performed on a worker is an important consideration in the assessment of a worker's mean blood lead estimate, and this is particularly true for workers with highly variable exposures.

  18. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-10-15

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for children and around 8% for adults. It is confirmed that the critical route of exposure is via ingestion, accounting for 99% of total lead intake, while inhalation contributes only to 1% of total lead intake. The resulting lead levels in the blood after 2 years of exposure to actual contamination conditions have been estimated as up to 2.2μg/dl in children and almost 1μg/dl in adults. Impacts from lead can occur even at such levels. The role of historical and present sources to lead in the environment is discussed, and, for specific child and adult exposure scenarios, external-internal concentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resulting concentrations of lead in blood are then presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  20. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  1. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  2. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  3. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

  4. Reproductive hazards of lead exposure among urban Egyptian men.

    PubMed

    El-Zohairy, E A; Youssef, A F; Abul-Nasr, S M; Fahmy, I M; Salem, D; Kahil, A K; Madkour, M K

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-five urban Egyptian males, aged 20-40, were assigned to two main groups to study the effects of their exposure to lead (Pb). Group I, infertile men (INF, n = 30), was divided into environmentally exposed (INF-E, n = 15) and environmentally and occupationally exposed (INF-EO, n = 15). A matching group (II) of fertile men (F, n = 25) was divided into fertile, environmentally exposed (F-E, n = 10), which was the control group, and fertile, environmentally and occupationally exposed (F-EO, n = 15). Semen parameters (i.e., count, morphology, motility, and volume), blood and semen Pb levels, and reproductive hormonal indices (i.e., serum testosterone, FSH, and LH) were measured in all subjects. Lead levels were always higher in blood than semen. Semen lead levels were significantly higher in all groups vs. the control (F-E) group. While no changes were observed in testosterone levels across groups, variable effects on LH and FSH levels were observed. Infertile-EO subjects showed a definite pattern of impaired semen parameters in comparison with infertile-E. No abnormalities were detected in hematologic, hepatic or renal function.

  5. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  6. Lifestyle and environmental factors as determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss population

    SciTech Connect

    Berode, M.; Wietlisbach, V.; Rickenbach, M.; Guillemin, M.P. )

    1991-06-01

    The determination of blood lead levels was included in a Swiss population survey on cardiovascular risk factors in 1984-1985; 931 men and 843 women aged 25 to 75 years participated in the study. Mean blood lead levels ({plus minus}SD) were 0.63 {plus minus} 0.27 {mu}mole/liter for men and 0.44 {plus minus} 0.19 {mu}mole/liter for women, respectively, with a slight increase with age for both sexes. These values are below the maximum level recommended by the Commission of the European Community in 1977; 18 cases were found with blood lead higher than 1.5 {mu}mole/liter and in six of these, a professional exposure was suspected. Smoking habits, drinking habits, and consumption of diary products were selected as lifestyle descriptors and educational level, occupational category, and size of the community as sociodemographic indicators. Smoking and alcohol consumption show a direct association with blood lead, consuming dairy products an inverse one. Occupation and level of education are significantly related to blood lead only for men, blue-collar workers and less-educated men being more exposed. A higher blood lead level in cities was only found for women. The lifestyle indicators showed a consistently stronger effect on blood lead than sociodemographic indicators. For mean, smoking has an effect on blood lead for blue-collar workers much stronger than that for nonindustrial employees and may compound in some way the professional exposure to lead.

  7. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  8. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  9. Tracking blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Andean adults working in a lead contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4, and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007, and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Lead exposure of the workers needs to be continually monitored.

  10. Comparative analysis of zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead levels in lead-exposed Andean children.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; Rifai, Nader; Shannon, Michael W

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/heme) as a biomarker for chronic lead (Pb) poisoning in children with a history of high Pb exposure. ZPP/heme ratio was measured in blood samples from 78 children (44 females and 34 males) with persistent Pb exposure from Pb glazing of ceramics in a local cottage industry in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador. Mean blood lead (PbB) level was 26.4 microg/dL (SD: 23.2; range: 4.0-107.0), and the mean ZPP/heme ratio was 152.4 micromol/mol (SD: 190.6; range: 36.0-1064.0). A regression analysis of PbB level and ZPP/heme ratio revealed a significant association (r=0.761, p= <0.0001), with the logZPP showing a higher correlation with PbB (r=0.869, p= <0.0001). The ZZP/heme ratio decreased significantly with increasing age (ANOVA, p=0.030). The mean ZPP/heme ratios for females and males were 139.6 and 169.0 micromol/mol, respectively, and were not statistically different (t-test, p=0.504). The elevated ZPP/heme ratios, coupled with high PbB levels observed in this cohort of Andean children of Pb-glazing workers, suggest chronic Pb intoxication and probable iron deficiency.

  11. Lead levels in saliva and in blood

    SciTech Connect

    P'an, A.Y.S.

    1981-02-01

    The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

  12. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    PubMed

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    2017-03-31

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (p<0.05). In Dokki, 20% of the studied group had blood lead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead level<10μg/dL (p<0.05). Those living in Helwan area, those with bad health habits, and those living in housing with increased exposure were at a statistically significantly higher risk of having blood lead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers.

    PubMed

    Jangid, Ambica P; John, P J; Yadav, D; Mishra, Sandhya; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning remains a major problem in India due to the lack of awareness of its ill effects among the clinical community. Blood lead, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used as biomarkers for lead toxicity The present study was designed to determine the impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers. A total of 250 subjects, of both sexes, ranging in age from 20 to 70 years, were recruited. On the basis of BLLs, the subjects were categorized into four groups: Group A (BLL: 0-10 μg/dl), Group B (BLL: 10-20 μg/dl). Group C (BLL: 20-30 μg/dl) and Group D (BLL: 30-40 μg/dl) having BLLs of 3.60 ± 2.71 μg/dl, 15.21 ± 2.65 μg/dl, 26.82 ± 2.53 μg/dl and 36.38 ± 2.83 μg/dl, respectively. Significant changes in biological markers due to elevated BLLs were noted. The relation of BLL and biological markers to demographic characteristics such as sex, habits, diet and substances abuse (smoking effect) were also studied in the present investigation. Males, urban population, non-vegetarians, and smokers had higher blood lead levels. δ-ALAD activity was found to be significantly lower with increased BLL (P < 0.001), while the ZPP level was significantly higher with increased BLL (P < 0.001). Further, BLL showed a negative correlation with δ-ALAD (r = -0.425, P < 0.001, N = 250) and a positive correlations with ZPP (r = 0.669, P < 0.001, N = 250). Chronic lead exposure affects the prooxidant-antioxidant equilibrium leading to cellular oxidative stress.

  14. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  15. Lifestyles, diets, and Native American exposure factors related to possible lead exposures and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Harper, B L

    2001-06-01

    Lead exposure is still a national concern, and it is possible that Native Americans who live on reservations and pursue traditional lifestyles may be at higher risk through both their unique exposure profiles and their potentially greater sensitivity. A major component of the exposure assessment is the diet. For tribal members, traditional lifestyles that include native foods, medicines, and traditional practices have evolved and proven to be the most healthful over many thousands of years of coexistence with the environment. However, a completely traditional diet may not be fully available for a variety of reasons; so, one must also consider the adverse health consequences caused by the loss of healthy native foods and medicines, the contamination of remaining native foods, the inability to practice one's religion, and the possibly lower quality of the substitute diet. Health evaluations of lead exposure on reservations should therefore consider at least two types of diets in addition to the typical suburban diet: (a) traditional diets composed of native foods and medicines that would result in increased exposure if the plants and animals are contaminated and (b) disadvantaged or commodity food diets that result in widespread vitamin and mineral deficits of the sort known to increase absorption of and response to lead. Additional exposure to lead might come from reservation housing which is often older, although the prevalence of lead-based paint on reservations is unknown. The degree of physiological response could also be affected by widespread exposures to other neurotoxins (such as mercury and PCBs in fish), underlying disease patterns, and genetics. Although each of these factors is plausible, their prevalence singly or in combination is unknown. Any correlation between these risk factors and blood lead levels on reservations is also unknown. This paper begins to address these gaps by discussing the range of traditional and current diets that may exist among

  16. The influence of age of lead exposure on adult gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Christopher J; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Cecil, Kim M

    2010-06-01

    Childhood lead exposure is associated with decreased cognitive abilities and executive functioning localized within the prefrontal cortex. Several studies have observed stronger associations between blood lead measurements obtained later in life than earlier measures, but there are no imaging studies investigating the developmental trajectory of blood lead levels taken during childhood on adult gray matter volume. In this study, we recruited 157 adults (20.8+/-1.5 years of age) from the Cincinnati Lead Study to undergo high resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Adjusted voxel-wise regression analyses were performed for associations between adult gray matter volume loss and yearly mean blood lead levels from 1 to 6 years of age in the entire cohort and by sex. We observed significant inverse associations between gray matter volume loss and annual mean blood lead levels from 3 to 6 years of age. The extent of prefrontal gray matter associated with yearly mean blood lead levels increased with advancing age of the subjects. The inverse associations between gray matter volume loss and yearly mean blood lead measurements were more pronounced in the frontal lobes of men than women. Analysis of women yielded significantly weaker associations between yearly mean blood lead levels and gray matter volume at all ages than either men or the combined cohort of men and women together. These results suggest that blood lead concentrations obtained during later childhood demonstrate greater loss in gray matter volume than childhood mean or maximum values. The relationship between childhood blood lead levels and gray matter volume loss was predominantly observed in the frontal lobes of males. This study demonstrates that maximum blood lead levels do not fully account for gray matter changes associated with childhood lead exposure, particularly in the frontal lobes of young men.

  17. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  18. Effects of occupational exposure to lead on left ventricular echocardio graphic variables.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ladan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sanei, Hamid; Rabiei, Katayoun; Arabzadeh, Somayeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2012-01-01

    Lead contamination can affect many body organs including the heart. This study assessed a number of echocardiographic indices to clarify the effects of lead on cardiac function among battery factory workers who are in constant exposure to lead. In a cross-sectional study, 142 male battery factory workers who had been exposed to lead for at least 1 year were evaluated. The subjects aged 25-55 years old and were excluded if they had hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases. Demographic characteristics, professional profile, lead exposure, history of respiratory diseases, drugs intake, and lifestyle information of the participants were collected. Height, weight and blood pressure measurements were then performed. Blood tests were also ordered to determine blood lead levels. The subjects finally underwent M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the effects of lead on the target indices. All statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS18. The mean age and mean duration of lead exposure of the subjects were 41.78 ± 13.58 and 23.54 ± 14.44 years, respectively. The mean blood lead level was 7.59 ± 2.75 µg/dl. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 12% of the participants. Blood lead levels were not significantly related with echocardiographic indices in the crude model or after adjustments for age alone or for age and other risk factors. Blood lead levels of our participants were below standard values. In addition, no significant relation was found between left ventricular function indices and blood lead levels. The absence of such relations could have been caused by the exclusion of individuals with hypertension or cardiovascular diseases. Structural modifications in battery factories following legislations in Iran might have been responsible for low blood lead levels among the subjects.

  19. The health impact of environmental pollutants: a special focus on lead exposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Harper, Carolyn C; Mathee, Angela; von Schirnding, Yasmin; De Rosa, Christopher T; Falk, Henry

    2003-08-01

    Studies have shown blood lead levels of some children in South Africa at levels of health concern. New studies show even relatively low lead levels to have detrimental effects on cognitive function in young children. Large numbers of South African inner-city and other children have been shown to have unacceptably high blood lead levels. Studies indicate that blood lead levels of children living in South Africa's urban areas are higher than those of children in most developed countries, including Great Britain, Europe, and the United States. Although data and reported studies are very sparse, mean blood lead levels of approximately 15 microg/dl have been reported in children. Elevated blood lead levels were associated with socioeconomic status and housing conditions. Key environmental risk factors for elevated blood levels were contaminated soil and dust in the urban environment, and the still large number of automobiles using leaded gasoline. In view of emerging evidence linking lead at increasingly lower levels to adverse effects in children, the South African government is taking actions to reduce lead exposure among vulnerable groups. Currently, South Africa has no national lead surveillance program. The government, therefore, has developed international and regional partnerships to prevent and address the problem of lead exposure.

  20. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:May 3,2017 Stroke ... your risk of stroke by understanding those you can control. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings ...

  1. Evaluation of association between biomarkers of lead exposure in Sardinian children (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sanna, Emanuele; De Micco, Alessandro; Vallascas, Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work is to verify whether there are statistically significant correlations between the concentrations of lead in blood, urine, and hair in children. The sample collected in 2007 consists of 163 children of both sexes from 11-14-year-olds, living in three municipalities of Sardinia (Italy). Inductively coupled plasma atomic mass spectrometry has been used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. For the overall sample, there is a non-significant partial correlation among the three matrices. However, for subjects with blood lead levels ≥5 μg/dL, there is a significant positive partial correlation between the lead levels in blood and hair, but not between blood and urine or between urine and hair. The results suggest that blood is the preferred biomarker to ascertain lead exposure in human populations, whereas hair can be used as a tool screening when an area is exposed to medium or high lead pollution.

  2. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  3. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes calculation of blood lead-air lead slope factor within an analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and air lead levels among participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The slope factors are compared wi...

  4. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes calculation of blood lead-air lead slope factor within an analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and air lead levels among participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The slope factors are compared wi...

  5. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Kim, Dennis; Jones, Robert L; Sulaiman, Rini; Blumenthal, Wendy; Tan, Regina; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 microg/dl (median: 8.6 microg/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 microg/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs > or =10 microg/dl and 2.4% had BLLs > or =20 microg/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 microg/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs > or =10 microg/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. A Noninvasive Isotopic Approach to Estimate the Bone Lead Contribution to Blood in Children: Implications for Assessing the Efficacy of Lead Abatement

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazda, Roberto; Campbell, Carla; Smith, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Lead hazard control measures to reduce children’s exposure to household lead sources often result in only limited reductions in blood lead levels. This may be due to incomplete remediation of lead sources and/or to the remobilization of lead stores from bone, which may act as an endogenous lead source that buffers reductions in blood lead levels. Here we present a noninvasive isotopic approach to estimate the magnitude of the bone lead contribution to blood in children following household lead remediation. In this approach, lead isotopic ratios of a child’s blood and 5-day fecal samples are determined before and after a household intervention aimed at reducing the child’s lead intake. The bone lead contribution to blood is estimated from a system of mass balance equations of lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood at the different times of sample collection. The utility of this method is illustrated with three cases of children with blood lead levels in the range of 18–29 μg/dL. In all three cases, the release of lead from bone supported a substantial fraction of the measured blood lead level postintervention, up to 96% in one case. In general, the lead isotopic compositions of feces matched or were within the range of the lead isotopic compositions of the household dusts with lead loadings exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action levels. This isotopic agreement underscores the utility of lead isotopic measurements of feces to identify household sources of lead exposure. Results from this limited number of cases support the hypothesis that the release of bone lead into blood may substantially buffer the decrease in blood lead levels expected from the reduction in lead intake. PMID:15626656

  7. An analysis of occupational blood lead trends in Manitoba, 1979 through 1987.

    PubMed

    Yassi, A; Cheang, M; Tenenbein, M; Bawden, G; Spiegel, J; Redekop, T

    1991-06-01

    While regulations for workplace lead exposure become more strict, their effectiveness in decreasing blood lead concentrations and the method by which this is attained have not been evaluated. An analysis was conducted of 10,190 blood lead samples from employees of 10 high-risk workplaces collected in Manitoba, 1979-87, as part of regulated occupational surveillance. A significant decrease in blood lead concentrations was observed overall as well as for each individual company. A 1979 government regulation to reduce blood lead to below 3.38 mumol/L (70 micrograms/dl) was followed by a drop in blood lead concentrations; a 1983 order to reduce blood leads to below 2.90 mumol/L (60 micrograms/dl) was not followed by such a drop. Longitudinal analysis by individual workers suggested that companies were complying by use of administrative control, i.e., removing workers to lower lead areas until blood lead levels had fallen, then returning them to high lead areas. Focusing upon blood lead as the sole criterion for compliance is not effective; regulations must specifically require environmental monitoring and controls. Biological surveillance serves as "back-up" to environmental surveillance and this database illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive centralized surveillance system.

  8. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  9. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of <.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels of lead in breast milk and their relation to maternal blood and bone lead levels at one month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; González-Cossío, Teresa; Peterson, Karen E; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-06-01

    Despite the many well-recognized benefits of breast-feeding for both mothers and infants, detectable levels of lead in breast milk have been documented in population studies of women with no current environmental or occupational exposures. Mobilization of maternal bone lead stores has been suggested as a potential endogenous source of lead in breast milk. We measured lead in breast milk to quantify the relation between maternal blood and bone lead levels and breast-feeding status (exclusive vs. partial) among 310 lactating women in Mexico City, Mexico, at 1 month postpartum. Umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were collected at delivery. Maternal breast milk, blood, and bone lead levels were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Levels of lead in breast milk ranged from 0.21 to 8.02 microg/L (ppb), with a geometric mean (GM) of 1.1 microg/L; blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.9 microg/dL (GM = 8.4 microg/dL); bone lead ranged from < 1 to 67.2 microg/g bone mineral (patella) and from < 1 to 76.6 microg/g bone mineral (tibia) at 1 month postpartum. Breast milk lead was significantly correlated with umbilical cord lead [Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) = 0.36, p < 0.0001] and maternal blood lead (rS= 0.38, p < 0.0001) at delivery and with maternal blood lead (rS = 0.42, p < 0.0001) and patella lead (rS= 0.15, p < 0.01) at 1 month postpartum. Mother's age, years living in Mexico City, and use of lead-glazed ceramics, all predictive of cumulative lead exposure, were not significant predictors of breast milk lead levels. Adjusting for parity, daily dietary calcium intake (milligrams), infant weight change (grams), and breast-feeding status (exclusive or partial lactation), the estimated effect of an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood lead (5.0 microg/dL) was associated with a 33% increase in breast milk lead [95% confidence interval (CI), 24 to 43%], whereas an IQR increase in patella lead (20 microg/g) was associated with a 14% increase in breast milk lead

  11. Levels of lead in breast milk and their relation to maternal blood and bone lead levels at one month postpartum.

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; González-Cossío, Teresa; Peterson, Karen E; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Despite the many well-recognized benefits of breast-feeding for both mothers and infants, detectable levels of lead in breast milk have been documented in population studies of women with no current environmental or occupational exposures. Mobilization of maternal bone lead stores has been suggested as a potential endogenous source of lead in breast milk. We measured lead in breast milk to quantify the relation between maternal blood and bone lead levels and breast-feeding status (exclusive vs. partial) among 310 lactating women in Mexico City, Mexico, at 1 month postpartum. Umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were collected at delivery. Maternal breast milk, blood, and bone lead levels were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Levels of lead in breast milk ranged from 0.21 to 8.02 microg/L (ppb), with a geometric mean (GM) of 1.1 microg/L; blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.9 microg/dL (GM = 8.4 microg/dL); bone lead ranged from < 1 to 67.2 microg/g bone mineral (patella) and from < 1 to 76.6 microg/g bone mineral (tibia) at 1 month postpartum. Breast milk lead was significantly correlated with umbilical cord lead [Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) = 0.36, p < 0.0001] and maternal blood lead (rS= 0.38, p < 0.0001) at delivery and with maternal blood lead (rS = 0.42, p < 0.0001) and patella lead (rS= 0.15, p < 0.01) at 1 month postpartum. Mother's age, years living in Mexico City, and use of lead-glazed ceramics, all predictive of cumulative lead exposure, were not significant predictors of breast milk lead levels. Adjusting for parity, daily dietary calcium intake (milligrams), infant weight change (grams), and breast-feeding status (exclusive or partial lactation), the estimated effect of an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood lead (5.0 microg/dL) was associated with a 33% increase in breast milk lead [95% confidence interval (CI), 24 to 43%], whereas an IQR increase in patella lead (20 microg/g) was associated with a 14% increase in breast milk lead

  12. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  13. Changes in serial blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Fernández Alba, J

    1994-01-01

    The first step in modeling lead kinetics during pregnancy includes a description of sequential maternal blood lead (PbB) during pregnancy and the factors controlling it. We analyzed PbB of 105 women living in the Valley of Mexico from week 12 to week 36 of pregnancy and again at parturition. We also used data from all women contributing blood at any stage of pregnancy to determine antecedents of PbB. Pregnancies were uneventful, and offspring were normal. Although geometric mean PbB level averaged around 7.0 micrograms/dl (0.34 mumol/l), with a range of 1.0-35.5 micrograms/dl throughout pregnancy, analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in mean PbB from week 12 to week 20 (1.1 micrograms/dl) and various significant increases in mean PbB from week 20 to parturition (1.6 micrograms/dl). Regression analyses confirmed the positive linear PbB trend from 20 weeks to parturition and additional contributions of dietary calcium, reproductive history, lifetime residence of Mexico City, coffee drinking, and use of indigenous lead-glazed pottery. Although decreasing hematocrit has been suggested to explain first-half pregnancy PbB decrease, the time course of hematocrit decrease in the present study did not match the sequential changes in PbB. While hemodilution and organ growth in the first half of pregnancy may account for much of the PbB decrease seen between 12 and 20 weeks, the remaining hemodilution and accelerated organ growth of the last half of pregnancy do not predict the trend toward increasing maternal PbB concentration from 20 weeks to delivery. Mobilization of bone lead, increased gut absorption, and increased retention of lead may explain part of the upward PbB trend in the second half of pregnancy. Reduction of lifetime lead exposure may be required to decrease risk of fetal exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9644197

  14. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  15. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  16. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes. PMID:22690192

  17. A geospatial analysis of the effects of aviation gasoline on childhood blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Hastings, Douglas

    2011-10-01

    Aviation gasoline, commonly referred to as avgas, is a leaded fuel used in small aircraft. Recent concern about the effects of lead emissions from planes has motivated the U.S. Environmental Protection to consider regulating leaded avgas. In this study we investigated the relationship between lead from avgas and blood lead levels in children living in six counties in North Carolina. We used geographic information systems to approximate areas surrounding airports in which lead from avgas may be present in elevated concentrations in air and may also be deposited to soil. We then used regression analysis to examine the relationship between residential proximity to airports and North Carolina blood lead surveillance data in children 9 months to 7 years of age while controlling for factors including age of housing, socioeconomic characteristics, and seasonality. Our results suggest that children living within 500 m of an airport at which planes use leaded avgas have higher blood lead levels than other children. This apparent effect of avgas on blood lead levels was evident also among children living within 1,000 m of airports. The estimated effect on blood lead levels exhibited a monotonically decreasing dose-response pattern, with the largest impact on children living within 500 m. We estimated a significant association between potential exposure to lead emissions from avgas and blood lead levels in children. Although the estimated increase was not especially large, the results of this study are nonetheless directly relevant to the policy debate surrounding the regulation of leaded avgas.

  18. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  20. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R.; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S.; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C.; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus—an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml−1) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Poreba, Rafał; Poreba, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Sampling problems in the micro determination of blood lead.

    PubMed

    Juselius, R E; Lupovich, P; Moriarty, R

    1975-01-01

    Sampling tube and fingertip contamination were found to present potential problems in the collection of samples for micro blood lead analyses. Large differences between micro screening and macro confirming lead levels were frequently observed when the time between collection of the two samples was 1-2 weeks. The magnitude of these differences decreased as macro blood lead concentration increased and were apparently a result of episodic lead ingestion in the population.

  4. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  5. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Adverse health effects from exposure to lead are now recognized to be among industrialized society's most important health problems. This report, prepared by the National Research Council's Committee on Measuring Lead Exposure in Critical Populations, concurs with new findings issued by the Centers for Disease Control which state that lead…

  6. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  7. Trends in blood lead levels in UK workers, 1995-2007.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jackie; Cotton, Richard; Cocker, John; Warren, Nicholas D

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated blood lead data (including zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and haemoglobin levels) collected at the UK's Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in order to determine temporal changes in occupational exposure to lead between 1995 and 2007. A total of 20,889 blood lead measurements and accompanying ZPP and haemoglobin results from 8810 workers at 972 companies from routine samples received by HSL over the period 1995-2007 were analysed. Time trends in blood lead levels for each industry sector were estimated using Bayesian mixed effects modelling. Reductions in median blood levels over the period 1995-2007 were seen in every sector except for those samples forwarded by occupational health providers, and range from 1.6% per year for workers in the smelting industry to 12% per year for workers in pottery and glazing industries. An overall reduction of 3.1% per year across all industries was determined. The percentage of results above the current UK suspension limit of 60 microg/dl fell from 4.8% in 1995 to 0.6% in 2007. ZPP and blood lead exhibited a strong association, but no significant correlation was found between blood lead and haemoglobin. Occupational exposure to lead has fallen across UK industries in recent years, although it remains substantially above background levels. There is evidence that many workers are exposed to elevated lead levels over a long period of time and this deserves renewed consideration now that inorganic lead has been reclassified as a probable human carcinogen.

  8. Lead intervention and pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana, Roseanne M; Troast, Richard; Mastriano, Maria; Follansbee, Mark H; Diamond, Gary L

    2003-05-23

    Lead intervention at Superfund sites typically seeks to reduce pediatric blood lead levels by disrupting the surface-to-hand-to-mouth pathway. This article presents the results of a survey of the publicly available literature on the effectiveness of lead intervention on pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites. The survey includes six hazardous waste sites located in Canada, Australia, and the United States at which intervention activities were conducted and pediatric blood lead levels were sampled both pre- and postintervention. Evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention on pediatric blood lead levels is often complicated due to confounding variables and statistical limitations. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the intervention studies reviewed in this report suggest that various approaches to the intervention of the dust ingestion pathway, alone or in combination, contributed to declines in blood lead levels in children living in areas heavily contaminated with lead.

  9. Lead exposures in the human environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.

  10. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.

  11. Childhood Exposure to Lead: A Common Cause of School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1992-01-01

    According to the U.S. Public Health Service, lead poisoning remains the most common and societally devastating environmental disease of young children. About 16 percent all American children have blood lead levels in the neurotoxic range. Being poor dramatically increases this risk. The lead industry has long camouflaged lead's toxicity.…

  12. Trends in occupational lead exposure since the 1978 OSHA lead standard.

    PubMed

    Okun, Andrea; Cooper, Gregory; Bailer, A John; Bena, James; Stayner, Leslie

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate trends in occupational lead exposures throughout U.S. industry after the establishment of the general industry lead standard in 1978 and the construction industry standard in 1993. Lead exposure measurements collected by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under their compliance and consultation programs were analyzed. Time trends in the distributions of exposure levels were evaluated graphically. Trends in the proportion of exposures above the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) were analyzed using logistic regression models. The distribution of lead exposure levels declined over the study time period for general industry, but not for construction. The median exposure levels for general industry facilities decreased five- to tenfold. Logistic regression models reveal statistically significant declines in the odds of a lead exposure exceeding the PEL. This study provides evidence for relatively large decreases in lead exposure levels in general industry facilities over time. The study does not provide similar evidence for the construction industry. Given the limited number of years of data available since the implementation of the revised construction standard for lead, re-analysis of lead exposure levels within this industry would be worthwhile when more data become available.

  13. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Kaul, B; Rasmuson, J O; Olsen, R L; Chanda, C R; Slazhneva, T I; Granovsky, E I; Korchevsky, A A

    2000-02-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the extent of lead exposure and prevalence of iron deficiency in 3 major cities of Kazakhstan. Blood lead (B-Pb.) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (ZnPP) levels of 475 children, age range 6 months to 7 yeas were measured. The mean B-Pb. levels in the different cities ranged from 4-7 micrograms/dl (minimum 1 to max 29 micrograms/dl) and similarly the mean ZnPP levels ranged from 26-32 micrograms/dl (minimum 12 and maximum 95 micrograms/dl), thus confirming low level lead poisoning of children at some sites. One to four year olds had greater than 10 micrograms/dl B-Pb in 18-27% cases compared with 3-7% cases in five to seven year olds. Prevalence of iron deficiency in 6 months to 4 year old children was the highest ranging from 28-86% compared with 4 to 15% in 4-7 year olds. However, there was remarkably low prevalence (4%) of iron deficiency in a group of 5-6 years olds. This study suggests that a targeted B-Pb and ZnPP monitoring together with an iron supplementation programme in the 3 cities of Kazakhstan is essential. Environmental education appears to have had a positive impact in lowering B-Pb at one site and should thus be expanded nationwide.

  14. Influence of occupational low-level lead exposure on renal parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Verschoor, M.; Wibowo, A.; Herber, R.; van Hemmen, J.; Zielhuis, R.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of lead exposure on renal function was examined. In 155 lead workers and 126 control workers, lead in blood (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) were measured as indicators of exposure to lead; various proteins in urine were measured as parameters of renal functions. Regression and matched-pair analyses suggest that tubular parameters may be more influenced by lead exposure than glomerular parameters. Changes in renal function parameters may already occur at PbB levels below 3 mumol/liter (600 micrograms/liter). The excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase appears to be the most consistent and sensitive parameter of an early effect on the tubular function.

  15. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = < 0.001). Other significant variables included age, gender (males), and non-farming-related occupations (e.g., technicians, factory workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = < 0.05). Thus, blood lead levels were positively associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  16. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  17. Effect of occupational exposure to lead on new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Sobczak, Andrzej; Szuła-Chraplewska, Magdalena; Zaciera, Marzena; Kurek, Jolanta; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela

    2017-05-01

    The cardiovascular effects of lead are caused primarily through an effect on blood pressure but are not just limited to an increased risk of hypertension. The aim of our study was to determine to what extent chronic exposure to lead affects new risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, such as biomarkers of inflammation (C reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and L-homoarginine). A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 231 male volunteers, aged 20-60 years, working for at least 2 years in jobs with exposure to lead during the mining and processing of lead-zinc ores. The association between lead in blood and CVD biomarkers was evaluated using multiple linear regression, and the effects of exposure level were observed in workers divided into subgroups according to their blood lead concentration: <250, 250-400 and >400 µg/L. Lead in the blood correlated with new risk factors for CVD except for ADMA. Multiple regression analysis revealed that predictive properties for lead in the blood increased for particular biomarkers in the following order: L-homoarginine, fibrinogen, CRP and homocysteine. Among the specified groups, significant differences were observed only between the groups with the most and least exposure to lead, which differed in concentrations by 54.3% for CRP, 19.3% for fibrinogen, 10.6% for homocysteine and -25.5% for L-homoarginine. These findings support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to lead can promote atherosclerosis, particularly in highly exposed individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The effect of occupational exposure to lead on the non-enzymatic antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    The role of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as uric acid, albumin, bilirubin, and α-tocopherol, in lead poisoning remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the association between occupational exposure to lead and non-enzymatic antioxidant concentrations in serum and plasma. The study population consisted of 278 healthy male employees of lead-zinc plants, with 129 workers classified as having low lead exposure (blood lead level - PbB = 20-39.9 µg/dl) and 149 workers classified as having high lead exposure (PbB = 40-59.8 µg/dl). The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. No one from this group had blood lead level or zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level greater than normal levels, being 10 µ/dl and 2.5 µg/g of hemoglobin, respectively. In addition to the levels of PbB and ZPP, serum levels of uric acid (UA), albumin, thiol groups of albumin, and bilirubin were determined. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and the plasma level of α-tocopherol were also evaluated. Lead exposure indices were significantly elevated in the examined subgroups as compared with the controls. Serum uric acid levels were significantly elevated in both subgroups, particularly in the group with high exposure. Serum bilirubin concentration was significantly elevated in the group with high exposure compared with the control group, while in the group with low exposure, it showed only a non-significant trend towards an increase. In contrast, ferric-reducing ability of plasma was not significantly greater in the examined subgroups as compared with the control group. Nevertheless, levels of albumin, thiol groups of albumin, and α-tocopherol levels were significantly decreased in the exposed subgroups compared with the control group. Occupational exposure to lead interferes with the blood non-enzymatic antioxidant system.

  19. Bullet fragment–induced lead arthropathy with subsequent fracture and elevated blood lead levels

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Jonathan; Meyers, Ridgely; Benham, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lead foreign bodies in joint spaces, often due to projectiles such as bullets, may cause localized arthropathy. There are no reports of joint fracture related to lead arthropathy. Additionally, lead foreign bodes embedded in the joint space may be a source of systemic lead absorption, causing elevated blood lead levels and toxicity to other organs. We present a young adult patient with retained left hip joint bullet fragments who developed suspected lead arthropathy and subsequent acute left hip fracture, as well as systemic lead absorption demonstrated by elevated blood lead levels. PMID:28127147

  20. Sex differences in the effects of prenatal lead exposure on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Gao, Zhen-Yan; Yan, Jin; Ying, Xiao-Lan; Tong, Shi-Lu; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2017-06-01

    Studies on the associations between prenatal lead exposure and birth outcomes have been inconsistent, and few data are available on the sex differences in these associations. We measured the cord blood lead levels of newborns in Shanghai and determined their associations with birth outcomes, which included birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and the ponderal index, in the total sample and within sex subgroups. A total of 1009 mother-infant pairs were enrolled from 10 hospitals in Shanghai between September 2008 and October 2009. The geometric mean of the cord blood lead concentrations was 4.07 μg/dl (95% CI: 3.98-4.17 μg/dl). A significant inverse association was found between cord blood lead levels and head circumference only in the male subgroup, and increasing cord blood lead levels were related to significant decreases in the ponderal index only in females. The birth weights of the male infants were positively associated with cord blood lead levels; after adjusting for the maternal intake frequency of preserved eggs, the estimated mean differences in birth weights decreased by 11.7% for each 1-unit increase in the log10-transformed cord blood lead concentration. Our findings suggest that prenatal lead exposure may have sex-specific effects on birth outcomes and that maternal dietary intake may be a potential confounder in these relationships. Further studies on this topic are highly warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: early preschool development.

    PubMed

    Ernhart, C B; Morrow-Tlucak, M; Marler, M R; Wolf, A W

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that low level lead exposure in the fetal and early preschool years is related to neuropsychological deficit was examined in a prospective study of child development. We also tested the hypothesis of reverse causality, i.e., that lead level is a function of prior developmental status. Fetal lead exposure was measured in maternal and cord blood while preschool lead level was measured in venous blood samples at ages six months, two years and three years. These blood lead measures (PbB) were related to concurrent and ensuing scores on developmental measures at six months, one year, two years, and three years. With statistical control of covariate measures (age, sex, race, birth weight, birth order, gestational exposure to other toxic substances, maternal intelligence, and several indicators of the quality of the caretaking environment) as well as potentially confounding risk factors (gestational exposure to alcohol and other toxic substances), most statistically significant associations of PbB with concurrent and later development were completely attenuated. Effects of lead exposure, significant or not, were not consistent in direction. In reverse-causality analyses, PbB was not related significantly to prior measures of developmental retardation or acceleration. It was concluded that the relationship of lead level and measures of development in these early years was primarily a function of the dependence of each on the quality of the caretaking environment.

  2. Blood lead and cadmium levels in children: A study conducted in Changchun, Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianling; Sheng, Lianxi; Yan, Zhenghong; Hong, Lianjin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to lead and cadmium in developing countries is considered to be a public health emergency. The present study was designed to investigate children’s exposure to lead and cadmium in Changchun, China. METHODS: A total of 1619 blood samples were collected at random from 1426 children between one and 14 years of age, and 204 adults from Changchun, China. Blood lead and cadmium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The average blood lead level in children was 60.29 μg/L, with boys exhibiting higher blood lead levels than girls. The average blood cadmium level in children was 1.26 μg/L, and differences were not observed between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from Changchun exhibited relatively low blood lead and cadmium levels compared with children from other cities, and higher lead and lower cadmium levels than adults. This may be related to leaded gasoline environmental pollution and children’s hand-to-mouth activities. PMID:24596479

  3. Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Tsai, S Y; Lee, M L; Wang, J D; Hu, H

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of long term occupational exposure to lead on function of the peripheral nervous system as reflected by vibration perception threshold (VPT), measured with a portable vibrameter. 217 Workers in a lead battery factory were required to have an annual blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the VPT test. A total of 206 workers were studied. The associations were analysed between VPTs and current blood lead concentration, mean concentration of blood lead over the past 5 years, maximum blood lead concentration during the past 5 years, index of cumulative blood lead (ICL), time weighted index of cumulative blood lead (TWICL), and percentage of lifespan spent at work in the plant, as well as the other potential confounders. Ordinary multiple regressions, generalised additive models, and hockey stick regression analyses were used to explore the potential existence of a threshold effect of blood lead variables on VPT. VPT at a frequency of 220 Hz ranged from 6 to 100 (10(-2) g, or 0.098 m/s(2)) with a mean (SD) of 19.8 (14.2) for the feet and from 4 to 43 with a mean (SD) of 10.2 (6.1) for the hands. The five variables of exposure to lead were all significantly correlated with VPT of the feet but not the hands. In multiple linear regression analyses, the mean of the blood lead concentrations and the TWICL were significantly associated with VPT of the feet. The relation between VPT of the feet and mean blood lead was shown to be a J shaped curve with a generalised additive model and local smoothing technique. In the hockey stick regression, evidence was found of a threshold effect at a mean blood lead concentration of 31 microgram/dl. Above this threshold it was estimated that each increase of 1 microgram/dl mean blood lead over 5 years would increase VPT of the feet by 0.29 (10(-2) g) or 0.028 m/s(2) (at a frequency of 220 Hz) with other potential confounders held constant. This study suggests

  4. Lead-glazed ceramic ware and blood lead levels of children in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Azcona-Cruz, M I; Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas, L; Zamora-Muñoz, J S; Romero-Placeres, M

    2000-01-01

    Although Mexico substantially reduced use of leaded gasoline during the 1990s, lead-glazed pottery remains a significant source of population exposure. Most previous studies of lead in nonoccupationally exposed groups in Mexico have been conducted in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Oaxaca, a poor southern state of Mexico, has a centuries-old tradition of use of low temperature lead-glazed ceramic ware manufactured mainly by small family businesses. We measured blood lead levels in 220 8-10-y-old children (i.e., not from pottery-making families) who were students in the innercity of Oaxaca and in the mothers of all children. The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 10.5 microg/dl (+7.0/-4.3 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 1.3-35.5 microg/dl). The corresponding mean value for the mothers was 13.4 (+9.0/-5.4 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 2.8-45.3 microg/dl). We used cutoffs that were greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, 20 microg/dl, and 30 microg/dl, and we determined that 54.9%, 10.3%, and 3.0% of the children were at or above the respective criteria. We accounted for 25.2% of the variance in blood lead levels of the children, using maternal responses to a questionnaire that assessed possible lead sources in a linear multiple-regression model. The most important factors related to lead levels were family use of lead-glazed pottery, use of animal fat in cooking, and family income. The addition of maternal blood lead level to the model increased accounted variance in blood lead to 48.0%. In logistic-regression modeling of children's blood lead levels, we used a cutoff of greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, and we found that use of lead-glazed pottery was the most important of all questionnaire items that were predictive of blood lead levels (odds ratio = 2.98). In Oaxaca, as is the case elsewhere in Mexico, lead-glazed ceramic ware remains a significant risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in children.

  5. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  6. Toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove

    SciTech Connect

    DeMent, S.H.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Eckhaus, M.A.; Strandberg, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen adult urban rock doves (Columba livia), 12 captured alive and one found dead, were studied from the Baltimore zoo. The mean concentration of lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range 10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). Three of the 13 birds with high measured blood and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot pellets in their gizzards. Correlations were not found between concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit. Conversely, high correlations were noted between concentrations of lead in the blood and measured liver and kidney concentrations (r = 0.946, P less than 0.01; r = 0.993, P less than 0.01, respectively). Numbers of intranuclear acid-fast inclusions per 10 consecutive fields (100x oil immersion lens) correlated well with measured kidney lead concentrations (r = 0.990, P less than 0.001).

  7. Effects of iron therapy on blood lead concentrations in infants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Sim, Chang Sun; Lee, Heun; Kim, Yangho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether blood lead concentration is elevated in iron-deficient infants, blood lead and serum ferritin concentrations, serum iron/transferring iron-binding capacity (Fe/TIBC) and complete blood counts were measured in 30 iron deficient and 35 control infants, aged 6-24 months. All 30 iron-deficient infants received iron supplementation (ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex, 6mg/kg Fe(3+)/day) for 1-6 months. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 18 of the iron deficient infants after their ferritin levels returned to the normal range. The geometric mean blood lead concentration was higher in iron deficient than in control infants (1.846 vs. 1.416μg/dL). After iron therapy, the blood lead levels of iron-deficient infants decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment levels (1.785 vs. 2.386μg/dL), and the hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations increased significantly. These findings indicate that iron deficiency increases blood lead concentrations in infants with very low blood lead concentrations.

  8. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  9. Relationship between blood lead concentrations and learning achievement among primary school children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Wu, Ting-Shan; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 20 years lead has been proven to exert an influence on the intelligence of children. Especially for children exposed to environmental lead, average blood lead was often lower than the officially recognized intoxication level. Because Kaohsiung is an industrial area in Taiwan and lead exposure is an important environmental issue, we attempted to ascertain the extent to which environmental lead influences the achievement of primary school children. We randomly selected 934 children from 32 primary schools in 11 districts of Kaohsiung City. Blood lead levels of the children were checked, and they were administered a questionnaire about their family information. Scores of several courses were used in this study on the relationship between a child's blood lead and his or her academic performance (Ranking with his or her classmates), including Chinese (reading and writing short Chinese articles), Mathematics, History and Society, and Natural Science. Multiple regression models were done with adjustments for the confounding effects of their parents' socioeconomic levels. The mean (SD) of 934 blood lead level was 5.50 (1.86) microg/dL. Spearman's coefficient showed that class rankings in Chinese, Mathematics, Natural Science, and History and Society were all strongly associated with blood lead levels (P<0.01). The multiple regression models revealed that blood lead level exerts a stronger influence on children's language ability (Chinese) than on their ability to calculate (Mathematics). Our results suggest that environmental lead exposure adversely affects a child's academic achievement, making a direct link between exposure to lead and academic attainment. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  10. Recent Developments in Low-Level Lead Exposure and Intellectual Impairment in Children

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Karin; Brown, Terry; Spurgeon, Anne; Levy, Len

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade children’s blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries, and current mean levels in developed countries are in the region of 3 μg/dL. Despite this reduction, childhood lead poisoning continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concerns remain over the effects of lead on intellectual development in infants and children. The evidence for lowered cognitive ability in children exposed to lead has come largely from prospective epidemiologic studies. The current World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention blood level of concern reflects this and stands at 10 μg/dL. However, a recent study on a cohort of children whose lifetime peak blood levels were consistently < 10 μg/dL has extended the association of blood lead and intellectual impairment to lower levels of lead exposure and suggests there is no safety margin at existing exposures. Because of the importance of this finding, we reviewed this study in detail along with other recent developments in the field of low-level lead exposure and children’s cognitive development. We conclude that these findings are important scientifically, and efforts should continue to reduce childhood exposure. However, from a public health perspective, exposure to lead should be seen within the many other risk factors impacting on normal childhood development, in particular the influence of the learning environment itself. Current lead exposure accounts for a very small amount of variance in cognitive ability (1–4%), whereas social and parenting factors account for 40% or more. PMID:15198918

  11. High levels of blood lead in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from Cazorla Natural Park (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernandez, A J; Martinez-Lopez, E; Romero, D; Maria-Mojica, P; Godino, A; Jimenez, P

    2005-08-01

    The blood lead of 23 griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) trapped in 2003 was analyzed in order to evaluate exposure to lead in the vulture population of Cazorla Natural Park (in southern Spain). In 2001 the use of leaded gasoline in vehicles was banned in the European Union; however, lead ammunition is still used in Spain in big-game hunting for red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar, which are ingested by vultures from September to March. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 43.07 +/- 31.96 microg/dL with a range of 17.39-144.80 microg/dL. Only two vultures had lead levels below 20 microg/dL, and two others had blood lead concentrations close to 150 microg/dL. In view of the results, we think the population of vultures from Cazorla Natural Park is suffering subclinical exposure to lead, with some individuals exposed to high toxicity risk. We concluded that ingestion of lead in the metallic form alone is sufficient to produce these blood lead concentrations, and we recommend the prohibition of lead ammunition for big-game hunting in order to preserve the vulture population.

  12. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  13. The management of lead exposure in pediatric populations

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.O.; Lewis, D.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Chronically elevated lead levels are a common problem affecting children. Although this problem occurs most frequently in the inner city, no community is safe from excessive pediatric lead exposure. Screening by erythrocyte protoporphyrin is a sensitive early indicator of rising lead levels. A Centers for Disease Control report recommends that all children be screened starting at 9 to 12 months. A classification system of various lead levels helps determine proper treatment. Health care practitioners need to be well-informed about lead exposure and how it occurs in order to educate parents. 10 refs.

  14. Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liubo; Wang, Zhou; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Jiang, Jie; Pathiraja, Nimal; Xiao, Ying; Jiao, Rui; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥ 20 years old) in various age-gender subgroups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the local food consumption data of Shenzhen adults. The mean and 95th percentile lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 0.59-0.73 and 0.75-0.94 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. In all food groups, the highest lead exposure was from 'Eggs and their products' (42.4-51.6% of the total exposure); preserved eggs being the main contributor. The other major contributors to lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 'Fish and seafood, and their products' (14.3-16.7% of the total exposure) and 'Vegetables and their products' (15.5-16.2% of the total exposure). The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for the risk assessment of lead, and the results showed that the risk was considered to be low in all age-gender groups for Shenzhen adults. However, having considered a number of toxic effects of lead, it is suggested that more efforts should be made to reduce the lead levels in foodstuff for Shenzhen adults.

  15. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors; they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, lead absorption occurs more readily in a child compared to an adult, and the child's development i...

  16. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors: they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities; lead absorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult; and the child's developmen...

  17. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors; they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, lead absorption occurs more readily in a child compared to an adult, and the child's development i...

  18. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors: they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities; lead absorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult; and the child's developmen...

  19. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indicators of lead, zinc and cadmium exposure in cattle. I. Results in a polluted area

    SciTech Connect

    Milhaud, G.E.; Mehennaoui, S.

    1988-12-01

    Dairy cattle on a farm located in the vicinity of a lead and zinc-ore processing factory were studied over 21 mo and compared with cattle on a control farm. Mean daily intakes of lead from the diet were 4.3 mg/kg body weight, with great variations; mean daily zinc intakes were 5.6 mg/kg body weight; and mean daily cadmium intakes were 0.064 mg/kg body weight. The 3 major indicators of contamination were blood lead concentrations, with mean values of 50 micrograms/100 ml of blood, zinc protoporphyrin with mean values of 165 micrograms/100 ml blood, and lead concentrations in hair which averaged 10 micrograms/g. Blood zinc concentrations and zinc concentrations were not significantly increased. One cow developed fatal post-partum paralysis. Liver, kidney and bone lead concentrations and kidney cadmium concentrations were good ''post-mortem'' indicators of exposure.

  1. Indicators of lead, zinc and cadmium exposure in cattle. I. Results in a polluted area.

    PubMed

    Milhaud, G E; Mehennaoui, S

    1988-12-01

    Dairy cattle on a farm located in the vicinity of a lead and zinc-ore processing factory were studied over 21 mo and compared with cattle on a control farm. Mean daily intakes of lead from the diet were 4.3 mg/kg body weight, with great variations; mean daily zinc intakes were 5.6 mg/kg body weight; and mean daily cadmium intakes were 0.064 mg/kg body weight. The 3 major indicators of contamination were blood lead concentrations, with mean values of 50 micrograms/100 ml of blood, zinc protoporphyrin with mean values of 165 micrograms/100 ml blood, and lead concentrations in hair which averaged 10 micrograms/g. Blood zinc concentrations and zinc concentrations were not significantly increased. One cow developed fatal post-partum paralysis. Liver, kidney and bone lead concentrations and kidney cadmium concentrations were good "post-mortem" indicators of exposure.

  2. Chronic lead exposure reduces junctional resistance at an electrical synapse.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1984-01-01

    Both acute and chronic lead exposure have been found to inhibit transmission at chemical synapses, possibly by interfering with inward calcium current. We have found that chronic lead exposure slightly reduces input resistance and greatly reduces the junctional resistance between two strongly electrically coupled neurons in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The net effect is to increase the strength of electrical coupling. A reduction in gap junctional resistance would also be expected to increase the flow of small molecules between cells. However, Lucifer Yellow injections did not reveal dye-coupling between the cells. Lead exposure also increases the capacitance of the neurons.

  3. Effect of exposure to lead on reproduction in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Piasek, M.; Kostial, K.

    1987-09-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the effect of chronic oral exposure to different levels of lead on male reproductive performance since oral exposure data are more relevant to human environmental exposure. Additionally, most previous results have been obtained after parenteral administration of lead. These experiments were performed on rats by using the incidence of pregnancy to assess male fertility and litter size and pup weight as indicators of the lead effect on perinatal development. Similar parameters were used in reproduction studies by other authors.

  4. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

  5. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  6. Prenatal lead exposure and relationship with maternal exposure determinants in a public maternity hospital of La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María; González, Horacio F; Girardelli, Ana; Caro, Laura Sanchez; Lobisuto, Mario; Delgado, Griselda; Disalvo, Liliana

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is a health hazard that may cause cognitive development impairments and other adverse effects in children. We conducted a cross sectional study analyzing cord blood lead levels (CBLL) of newborns and their relationship with maternal determinants of lead exposure. Mothers answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic, lifestyle habits and environmental characteristics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare CBLL geometrical means (GM) corresponding to the presence or absence of each lead exposure determinant, and Chi square test to study the relationship between CBLL and maternal lead exposure determinants. A total of 159 newborns participated in the study. CBLL GM was 2.1 μg/dL; and 25% of the participants had a measurable CBLL (LOQ=3.3 μg/dl). Although the participants had several determinants of lead exposure, we only found a significant relationship with inside household determinants, such as presence of lead piping (p=0.026), unplastered walls (p=0.046) and peeling paint (p=0.048). Our results show that CBLL GM was similar to that reported in several studies conducted around the world. However, 25% of the participants might have some degree of risk for lead poisoning.

  7. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  8. Relationship of biological indices of lead exposure to the health status of workers in a secondary lead smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P.B.; Lerner, S.I.; Gartside, P.S.; Hanenson, I.B.; Roda, S.B.; Foulkes, E.C.; Johnson, D.R.; Pesce, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The fidelity with which common indices of lead exposure correlate with renal and hematopoietic function and with frequency of symptoms was studied. The subjects were men working in a secondary lead smelter. Among several indices of renal function, only serum urea nitrogen (SUN) was consistely correlated with any of the indices of lead exposure. The concentration of lead in blood (PbB), the rate of urinary excretion of lead (PbU) and of delta aminolevulinic acid in the urine (ALAU) correlated with SUN. By contrast, erythrocytic porphyrin concentration (EP) did not correlate with SUN. Similarly, the frequency of occurrence of symptoms correlated well with PbB and ALAU but did not correlate with EP. All of the above indices of lead exposure, with the exception of PbU, correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) status. In summary, these results suggest that PbB rather than EP is the best single exposure index for biological monitoring of lead workers. This measurement should be supplemented by periodic determination of SUN and Hb.

  9. Changes in blood lead of a recreational shooter.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian L; Palmer, Jacqueline M; Bryce, Andrew

    2002-07-03

    We have measured the concentration and isotopic composition of lead in blood over a 15-month period for a subject who undertook recreational shooting in outdoor and indoor firing ranges on an irregular basis. We have also measured the isotopic composition in cast lead, Cu-jacketed and Teflon-coated bullets, propellant and primer from which he assembled the cartridges. Blood lead concentration increased from 3.2 to 6.7 microg/dl with use of dominantly cast lead bullets in the outdoor range. In two intervals when no firing was undertaken for 3-4 months, the blood lead concentrations either decreased towards a baseline value in the case where only Cu-jacketed bullets were fired or remained elevated when dominantly cast lead bullets were fired. The propellants contained <2 ppm Pb and contribute negligibly to blood lead. The isotopic composition of the primer used for all bullets was consistent with a source from the US. The bullets were of different materials and made in Australia and the US, with lead from sources of different geological age and hence different isotopic signatures. Variations in blood lead concentration and isotopic composition appear most strongly influenced by the bullets. Although more expensive, the use of Cu-jacketed bullets, non-lead primers and well-ventilated indoor firing ranges would lessen the health impacts of recreational shooting.

  10. Immunological effects of occupational exposure to lead (Review).

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Gangemi, Silvia; Di Salvatore, Valentina; Falzone, Luca; Libra, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    It is well-known that occupational and environmental exposure to several factors, including benzene, heavy metals, chemicals and mineral fibers, is associated with the risk of developing a great number of diseases. Numerous studies have been carried out in order to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity of these substances, with particular regard to the possible toxic effects on the immune system. However, little is known about the influence of heavy metals, such as lead, on the immune system in human populations. Lead is a heavy metal still used in many industrial activities. Human exposure to lead can induce various biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure, such as toxic effects on haematological, cardiovascular, nervous and reproductive systems. Several studies demonstrated that exposure to lead is associated to toxic effects also on the immune system, thus increasing the incidence of allergy, infectious disease, autoimmunity or cancer. However, the effects of lead exposure on the human immune system are not conclusive, mostly in occupationally exposed subjects; nevertheless some immunotoxic abnormalities induced by lead have been suggested. In particular, in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo lead is able to improve T helper 2 (Th2) cell development affecting Th1 cell proliferation. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms of lead immunotoxicity and the ability of lead to affect preferentially one type of immune response.

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia and blood lead concentrations in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Conde, Andréia; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Sakuma, Alice

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia, assessed by several parameters, and blood lead concentration in children. This cross-sectional study involved 384 Brazilian children, aged 2-11 years, who lived near a lead-manipulating industry. Complete blood counts were obtained by an automated cell counter. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin were determined respectively, by colorimetric, turbidimetric methods and chemiluminescence. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The impact of several parameters for assessment of iron status (haemoglobin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, red cell indices and red cell distribution width) and variables (gender, age, mother's education, income, body mass index, iron intake, and distance from home to lead-manipulating industry) on blood lead concentration was determined by multiple linear regression. There were significant negative associations between blood lead and the distance from home to the lead-manipulating industry (P<0.001), Hb (P=0.019), and ferritin (P=0.023) (R(2)=0.14). Based on these results, further epidemiological studies are necessary to investigate the impact of interventions like iron supplementation or fortification, as an attempt to decrease blood lead in children.

  12. The development of registries for surveillance of adult lead exposure, 1981 to 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Baser, M E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Since 1981, 15 states have established registries for surveillance of adult lead absorption, primarily based on reports of elevated blood lead levels from clinical laboratories. I review the status of the registries and recommend steps for further development. METHODS. Companies reported to the New York registry are compared with those cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). I present data on US workers and plants with potential lead exposures and blood tests, as well as review registries' reporting requirements. RESULTS. Registries identify many companies not cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, but underreporting occurs because (1) reporting is usually not required from laboratories outside the state, (2) most registries use a blood lead reporting level of 1.21 mumol/L, which excludes many exposed workers, and (3) many companies with potential exposures do not have routine monitoring programs. CONCLUSIONS. Registries' reporting requirements and procedures should be standardized, including a blood lead reporting level of 0.72 mumol/L. Elevated blood lead levels should be a reportable condition nationwide, and a comprehensive national surveillance system should be established: clinical laboratories should be required to report cases to those states with lead registries or directly to the national adult lead registry. PMID:1636831

  13. Lead in housing paints: an exposure source still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Z; Peng, R F; Chen, Q; Wu, Z G; Du, L

    2009-01-01

    After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints were very common in new paints available for housing and in existing residential paints. Twenty-nine of 58 new paint samples (50%) had lead content equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including 14 (24%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest sample contained 153,000 ppm lead, about 15% of the paint weight. Thirty-two new paints (55%) contained "soluble" lead exceeding 90 ppm, the current lead limit on paints in China. Of the existing paints, 16 of 28 samples of existing paint (57%) collected from 24 kindergartens and primary schools had lead concentrations equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including six samples (21%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest concentration sample contained 51,800 ppm lead, accounting for 5.2% of the paint weight. It has been shown in many areas that paint lead is a major exposure source for lead poisoning in children. This is particularly true after the phasing out of lead from gasoline. Effective limitation on lead content in new paint, and lead hazard control measures directed towards existing paint, could reduce children blood lead levels (BLLs). There has been a lead standard for paints in China since 1986 and a stricter limit was introduced in recent years. Governments should take it seriously and enforce regulations, commit a long-term challenge to eliminate paint lead as it is the threat to current and the next generation.

  14. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Simon, D; Kelsey, K; Todd, A C

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead levels in 798 lead workers and 135 controls without occupational lead exposure in the Republic of Korea. Tibia lead was assessed with a 30-min measurement by (109)Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and DMSA-chelatable lead was estimated as 4-hr urinary lead excretion after oral administration of 10 mg/kg DMSA. The primary goals of the analysis were to examine blood lead, tibia lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels by ALAD and VDR genotypes, controlling for covariates; and to evaluate whether ALAD and VDR genotype modified relations among the different lead biomarkers. There was a wide range of blood lead (4-86 microg/dL), tibia lead (-7-338 microg Pb/g bone mineral), and DMSA-chelatable lead (4.8-2,103 microg) levels among lead workers. Among lead workers, 9.9% (n = 79) were heterozygous for the ALAD(2) allele and there were no homozygotes. For VDR, 10.7% (n = 85) had the Bb genotype, and 0.5% (n = 4) had the BB genotype. Although the ALAD and VDR genes are located on different chromosomes, lead workers homozygous for the ALAD(1) allele were much less likely to have the VDR bb genotype (crude odds ratio = 0.29, 95% exact confidence interval = 0.06-0.91). In adjusted analyses, subjects with the ALAD(2) allele had higher blood lead levels (on average, 2.9 microg/dL, p = 0.07) but no difference in tibia lead levels compared with subjects without the allele. In adjusted analyses, lead workers with the VDR B allele had significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood lead levels (on average, 4.2 microg/dL), chelatable lead levels (on average, 37.3 microg), and tibia lead levels (on average, 6.4 microg/g) than did workers with the VDR bb genotype. The current data confirm past observations that the ALAD gene modifies the

  15. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with low level cumulative lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Kátia F.; Morata, Thais C.; Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cássia Bórnia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children,but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in childrenwith a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). Results The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 g/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I---III, III---V, and I---V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. PMID:25458254

  16. Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Waternaux, C.; Needleman, H.; Rabinowitz, M.

    1987-04-23

    In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per deciliter), or high (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per deciliter). Development was assessed semiannually, beginning at the age of six months, with use of the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (mean +/- SD, 100 +/- 16). Capillary-blood samples obtained at the same times provided measures of postnatal lead exposure. Regression methods for longitudinal data were used to evaluate the association between infants' lead levels and their development scores after adjustment for potential confounders. At all ages, infants in the high-prenatal-exposure group scored lower than infants in the other two groups. The estimated difference between the overall performance of the low-exposure and high-exposure groups was 4.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 7.3). Between the medium- and high-exposure groups, the estimated difference was 3.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 6.3). Scores were not related to infants' postnatal blood lead levels. It appears that the fetus may be adversely affected at blood lead concentrations well below 25 micrograms per deciliter, the level currently defined by the Centers for Disease Control as the highest acceptable level for young children.

  17. Blood Lead Levels in Young Children: US, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    McClure, Leland F; Niles, Justin K; Kaufman, Harvey W

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends in blood lead levels in children <6 years of age, this Quest Diagnostics Health Trends report builds on previously reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data with a much larger national group and adds more detail and novel assessments. This report describes the results from a 6-year retrospective study (May 2009-April 2015) based on >5 million blood lead level results (including >3.8 million venous results) from children <6 years old living in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We evaluated yearly changes and examined demographic categories including sex, pre-1950s housing construction, poverty income ratios (PIRs), Medicaid enrollment status, and geographic regions. Among children <6 years old, 3.0% exhibited blood lead levels ≥5.0 μg/dL (high). There were significant differences in high blood lead levels based on sex, pre-1950s housing construction quintiles, and PIR <1.25 and PIR >5 (all P < .01). Health and Human Services regions, states, and 3-digit ZIP code areas exhibited drastically different frequencies of high blood lead levels and blood lead levels ≥10.0 μg/dL (very high). Generally, levels declined over time for all groups. Examination of more than 5 million venous blood lead level results in children younger than 6 years old allowed for a robust, detailed analysis of blood lead level group results by geography and other criteria that are prohibited with the narrower National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Progress in reducing the burden of lead toxicity is a public health success story that is incomplete with some identified factors posing larger, ongoing challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Flint, Paul L.; Smith, Milton R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993–1995. Lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (≥0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  19. Cadmium and lead in blood in relation to low bone mineral density and tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Alfvén, Tobias; Järup, Lars; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to cadmium may cause kidney and bone damage. Urinary cadmium is commonly used as the dose estimate for the body burden of cadmium. However, elevated levels of cadmium in the urine may reflect not only high levels of cadmium dose but also renal dysfunction. In this study we used blood cadmium as the dose estimate. In addition, we analyzed blood lead. We examined 479 men and 542 women, ages 16-81 years, who were environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium and lead. We used urinary protein alpha 1-microglobulin as a marker for tubular proteinuria and measured forearm bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between blood cadmium and tubular proteinuria was strong, even when we excluded occupationally exposed participants. The subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels had a 4-fold risk of tubular proteinuria compared to the subgroup with the lowest blood cadmium levels. In the older age group (age > 60), the risk of low bone mineral density (z-score < -1) for the subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels was almost 3-fold compared to the group with lowest blood cadmium levels. We found no similar associations for lead. The observed effects may be caused by higher cadmium exposure in the past. This study strengthens previous evidence that cadmium exposure may affect both bone mineral density and kidney function. PMID:12117647

  20. Trends in blood lead levels in Christchurch (NZ) and environs 1978-85.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, D; Coope, P A; Malpress, W A; Janus, E D

    1986-01-01

    Blood lead levels have been monitored since 1974 and have shown a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) from 1978 to 1985 in 2830 subjects from Christchurch and environs. From a baseline in August 1978-81 to August 1985 blood lead levels in a population which had no relevant exposure to lead other than that from the general environment have fallen in adult males and females (greater than 17 years) by 42%, and in school and pre-school children greater than 9 months by 44% and 46% respectively. Reduction of blood lead has accelerated during the last three years. This can be linked to changes in dietary intake and clean up of lead in domestic and industrial environments. Over this decade the lead content of petrol (0.84 g/l) and petrol sales have remained unchanged. PMID:3772282

  1. Blood lead levels in children living in three communities, at different risks of lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbritti, G.; Cicioni, C.; Gambelunghe, M.; Fiordi, T.; Accattoli, M.P.; Morucci, P.; Bellucci, E.; Bauleo, F.A. )

    1988-12-01

    We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta than in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.

  2. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L.; Salas-Pacheco, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002). To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01). Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL. PMID:28420209

  3. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L; Salas-Pacheco, José M

    2017-04-18

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13-43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002). To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = -0.113; p < 0.01). Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = -0.413; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  4. Childhood blood lead levels and intellectual development after ban of leaded gasoline in Taiwan: a 9-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Chin; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Han-Bin; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Huang, Hsin-I; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-04-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with children's neurodevelopment, even at low doses. Leaded gasoline was banned in Taiwan in 2000 to reduce environmental exposure to Pb. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effect of low-level Pb exposure in young children. In 2001-2002, we have recruited 430 pregnant women in the third-trimester in Taichung, Taiwan who answered detailed questionnaires in the obstetric clinic. A total of 119, 76, and 66 children were followed up at 2-3, 5-6 and 8-9 years, respectively. We collected blood samples from pregnant women, Umbilical cord and children, and evaluated children's neurodevelopment and cognition function at all three time points using Bayley and Wechsler tests. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood lead (BPb) levels. Geometric mean of BPb in pregnant women, cord blood and children at 2-3, 5-6 and 8-9 years old were 2.21, 1.30, 2.48, 2.49 and 1.97 μg/dl, respectively. Low-level postnatal Ln BPb was significantly associated with not only decreasing intelligence quotient (IQ), but also delayed cognitive function in children at 5-8 years (β: -5.97, SE: 2.59, p=0.025), after adjustment for maternal education, maternal BPb exposure, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (HOME), and gender of child, using linear mixed models. No significant relation was observed between prenatal and cord blood Pb levels and children's cognitive function in children 2-8 years. Low-level postnatal BPb levels in children at 2-5 years may have lagged effects on neurodevelopment in those at 5 to 8 years. Action is warranted to reduce even very low environmental Pb levels to reduce the developmental burden of Pb on children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pediatric lead exposure and the water crisis in Flint, Michigan.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Rachel D

    2017-02-01

    Changing the source of the water supply to save money had the unintended consequence of exposing residents of Flint, Mich., to elevated lead levels in their drinking water. A study done at Flint's Hurley Children's Hospital demonstrated that the incidence of elevated blood lead levels of children living in the affected area nearly doubled after the change in the water source. This article reviews the recommendations for lead screening and for reporting, following, and treating children with blood lead levels greater than 5 mcg/dL.

  6. Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E.; Jacobs, David E.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R.; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children’s blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. Data sources National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Data extraction and synthesis Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children’s later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that ≥30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Conclusions Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention. PMID:18941567

  7. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  8. [Parental education to reduce blood lead levels in children with mild and moderate lead poisoning: a randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Shi, Rong

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of parental education on reducing lead exposure of children by examining the changes in blood lead levels of chi