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Sample records for blood lead levels

  1. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  2. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  3. Relationship between lead mining and blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Murgueytio, A M; Evans, R G; Sterling, D A; Clardy, S A; Shadel, B N; Clements, B W

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied blood lead levels of 226 randomly selected children, aged 6-92 mo, who lived in either a lead-mining area or a nonmining area, and 69 controls. The authors sought to determine to what extent mining activities contributed to blood lead levels in the children. The mean blood lead levels in the study and control groups were 6.52 microg/dl and 3.43 microg/dl, respectively. The corresponding proportions of children with elevated blood lead levels were 17% and 3%. Soil and dust lead levels were up to 10 times higher in the study than the control group. Elevated blood lead levels appeared to result from exposure to both lead-mining waste and lead-based paint. Mining waste was the cause of the higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in these children. PMID:9886161

  4. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. )

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  5. Blood lead levels in children, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shunqin; Zhang Jinliang . E-mail: jinliangzhg@263.net

    2006-07-15

    To evaluate Chinese children's blood lead levels (BLLs) and identify its distribution features, we collected articles on children's BLLs published from 1994 to March 2004 using the Chinese Biomedical Disc and reviewed 32 articles eligible for the following criteria: (1) BLLs measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; (2) strict quality control; (3) no lead pollution sources in the areas where the screened subjects live; and (4) sample size bigger than 100. We found that mean BLLs of Chinese children was 92.9 {mu}g/L (37.2-254.2 {mu}g/L), and 33.8% (9.6-80.5%) of the subjects had BLLs higher than 100 {mu}g/L. Nine of the 27 provinces or cities reported had average BLLs {>=}100 {mu}g/L. Boys' BLL was 96.4 {mu}g/L, significantly higher than girls' 89.4 {mu}g/L (P<0.001). BLLs of children {<=}6 years increased with age. The mean BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas. Our results suggested that children's BLLs in China are higher than those of their counterparts in other countries due to its heavy lead pollution. Therefore, this is of great public health importance.

  6. Blood lead level and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Christine L M; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R; Peterson, Edward L; Maliarik, Mary; McCabe, Michael J; Barone, Charles; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2005-07-01

    Asthma and lead poisoning are prevalent among urban children in the United States. Lead exposure may be associated with excessive production of immunoglobulin E, possibly increasing asthma risk and contributing to racial disparities. The objective of this study was to examine racial differences in the association of blood lead level (BLL) to risk of developing asthma. We established and followed a cohort prospectively to determine asthma onset, using patient encounters and drug claims obtained from hospital databases. Participants were managed care enrollees with BLL measured and documented at 1-3 years of age. We used multiple variable analysis techniques to determine the relationship of BLL to period prevalent and incident asthma. Of the 4,634 children screened for lead from 1995 through 1998, 69.5% were African American, 50.5% were male, and mean age was 1.2 years. Among African Americans, BLL > or = 5 and BLL > or = 10 microg/dL were not associated with asthma. The association of BLL > or = 5 microg/dL with asthma among Caucasians was slightly elevated, but not significant [adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-2.9; p = 0.40]. Despite the small number of Caucasians with high BLL, the adjHR increased to 2.7 (95% CI, 0.9-8.1; p = 0.09) when more stringent criteria for asthma were used. When compared with Caucasians with BLL < 5 microg/dL, African Americans were at a significantly increased risk of asthma regardless of BLL (adjHR = 1.4-3.0). We conclude that an effect of BLL on risk of asthma for African Americans was not observed. These results demonstrate the need for further exploration of the complex interrelationships between race, asthma phenotype, genetic susceptibilities, and socioenvironmental exposures, including lead.

  7. Lead levels in saliva and in blood

    SciTech Connect

    P'an, A.Y.S.

    1981-02-01

    The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

  8. Predictors of blood lead levels in organolead manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M P; Stewart, W; Schwartz, B S

    1995-10-01

    The relations between recent and cumulative exposure to organic and inorganic lead and blood lead levels were examined in 222 organolead manufacturing workers. Personal monitoring data grouped by 29 exposure zones were used to derive estimates of recent and cumulative occupational exposure. Recent exposure to organic lead and recent combined exposure to organic and inorganic lead were significantly and positively associated with blood lead levels. Exposure duration was found to modify the relation between recent inorganic lead exposure and blood lead levels. Age and cigarette smoking were positively associated with blood lead levels, whereas alcohol use was associated with lower blood lead levels. This is in notable contrast to the influence of alcohol consumption on blood lead levels among inorganic lead workers or the general population. Furthermore, the data suggested that current alcohol use modified the relation between recent organic lead exposure and blood lead levels (P = .08): current alcohol users evidenced less of an increase in blood lead levels with increasing recent organic lead exposures than did workers who did not currently use alcoholic beverages. The data suggest that organic lead exposure affects blood lead levels, probably after dealkylation to inorganic lead. The associations with alcohol consumption may be evidence for differences in enzyme-mediated metabolism of organolead compounds. Finally, the data suggest that recent external lead exposure and internal lead stores both influenced blood lead levels in these workers. PMID:8542343

  9. Low-level lead exposure, blood pressure, and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.; McCarron, D.A.; Bennett, W.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous research has shown an association of both blood lead and dietary calcium with blood pressure (BP) in populations. We examined the relationship between blood levels and BP, the effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead, and whether the reported antihypertensive effect of calcium supplementation was related to any observed change in blood lead. BP was measured on four occasions, 1 week apart in 251 subjects. During this period, blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) levels were measured, as well as markers of calcium metabolism. In an intervention period, 142 patients were assigned to receive 1 g of calcium per day as calcium carbonate for 12 weeks; at the end of this period, blood lead and EPP were remeasured. In males, blood lead levels were significantly, directly related to BP; a 0.48 mumol/dL (10 micrograms/dL) increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a 5 mm Hg increase in systolic pressure. There was no relationship of blood lead levels to BP in females. EPP was unrelated to BP. Similarly, there was no relationship of blood lead levels to markers of calcium metabolism. With calcium supplementation, blood lead and EPP levels did not change significantly. We conclude that it is unlikely that modification of lead status explains any effects of calcium supplementation on BP.

  10. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  11. Blood lead levels in radiator repair workers in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; McCammon, J B; Hoffman, R E; Baron, R C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory-based blood lead surveillance system in Colorado identified radiator repair workers as having the highest blood lead levels of all worker groups reported. A survey of 42 radiator repair shops in ten locales throughout Colorado was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of workers with elevated blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The survey was designed to test the sensitivity of the surveillance system and to assess working conditions and practices in the radiator repair industry in Colorado. Of 63 workers, 39 (62%) had blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The sensitivity of the surveillance system for detecting radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels was estimated at 11%. None of the radiator repair shops had adequate local exhaust ventilation. Work practice and engineering modifications are needed to reduce lead exposure in this industry.

  12. Prediction of children's blood lead levels on the basis of household-specific soil lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, R.J.; Bain, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    To help guide policy decisions about removing lead-contaminated soils, the authors estimated a regression model for predicting a child's blood lead level on the basis of his or her household-specific soil lead level. The data analyzed were blood lead levels (1-45 micrograms/dl) and household-specific soil lead levels (53-20,700 ppm) of 596 children aged 1-5 years who lived in the Helena Valley of Montana and the Silver Valley of Idaho during August 1983. A non-threshold, multiple linear regression model indicated that the estimated mean natural log transformed blood lead level increased by 0.231 micrograms/dl for each unit increase in natural log transformed soil lead level (ppm), after adjusting for the average number of daily outdoor play hours and whether someone in the household smoked. The model predicted that, at a soil lead level of 1,000 ppm, a child who does not play outside and who does not live in a household where someone smokes would be at low risk of lead toxicity (blood lead level between 4 and 24 micrograms/dl).

  13. Blood lead levels in children in south central Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, S J; Williams, F A; Delrahim, S; Khan, F; Kraft, M; Lu, M; Manalo, M; Sanchez, M; Wooten, D J

    1996-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 3 679 pediatric records from King/Drew Medical Center, south central Los Angeles, between 1991 and 1994. Blood lead levels of children were followed to age 18 y. Patients were not referred specifically for lead poisoning. The sample was primarily Latino. Geometric mean blood lead peaked at 6.7 micrograms/dl (0.32 mumol/l) between 2 and 3 y of age. There was a downward secular trend and a seasonal trend. Males had higher lead levels than females. Children who lived in several zipcode areas, in which the lowest family incomes were reported, had higher lead levels. More Latino children had higher lead levels than African American children. Latino children (i.e., 20.2%) who were 1-5 y of age had blood lead levels that were > or = 10 micrograms/dl. Young Latino children in this zone of Los Angeles may be at increased risk for lead exposure.

  14. Relating tooth and blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B. |

    1995-12-01

    Lead concentrations in shed teeth have found increasing utility in research studies of lead exposure and child development. Teeth are useful because they record lead levels and are easily collected. However, in considering internal doses of lead, most of what has been learned about human lead toxicity and kinetics has been expressed in terms of blood lead concentrations. For example, a computerized literature search found {open_quotes}blood lead{close_quotes} as a key word in 1,035 articles cited between January and October 1994. Only 9 articles were found for {open_quotes}tooth lead{close_quotes}. Because of the advantages of using teeth to assess lead exposure, the relation between teeth and blood lead levels deserves more attention. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  16. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Brubaker, R L; Mackenzie, C J; Godolphin, W J

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  17. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators

    SciTech Connect

    van Netten, C.; Brubaker, R.L.; Mackenzie, C.J.; Godolphin, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  18. Lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Winter, N L; Eberly, S; Yakir, B; Tanner, M; Emond, M; Matte, T D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the relationship between lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels. METHODS: A random-sample survey was used to identify and enroll 205 children, 12 to 31 months of age, who had resided in the same house since at least 6 months of age. Children's blood and household dust, water, soil, and paint were analyzed for lead, and interviews were conducted to ascertain risk factors for elevated blood lead (> or = 10 micrograms/dL). RESULTS: Children's mean blood lead level was 7.7 micrograms/dL. In addition to dust lead loading (micrograms of lead per square foot), independent predictors of children's blood lead were Black race, soil lead levels, ingestion of soil or dirt, lead content and condition of painted surfaces, and water lead levels. For dust lead standards of 5 micrograms/sq ft, 20 micrograms/sq ft, and 40 micrograms/sq ft on noncarpeted floors, the estimated percentages of children having blood lead levels at or above 10 micrograms/dL were 4%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, after adjusting for other significant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Lead-contaminated house dust is a significant contributor to lead intake among urban children who have low-level elevations in blood lead. A substantial proportion of children may have blood lead levels of at least 10 micrograms/dL at dust lead levels considerably lower than current standards. PMID:8876511

  19. Blood lead levels in copper smelter workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Karita, K; Shinozaki, T; Yano, E; Amari, N

    2000-01-01

    Lead exposure of workers in a Japanese copper smelter was assessed by determining lead levels in blood, air and flue cinder at the copper smelting processes. All the samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean lead levels of air were highest at the anode department followed by the converter, smelter and blend departments. The mean level of blood lead of the workers in the anode department was also the highest among the four smelting departments. The mean blood lead levels of the workers in each department were positively correlated with their air lead levels (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). This study indicates therefore that workers in copper smelters have been exposed to lead in their workplace. Though this finding has already been reported in preceding studies, the Ordinance on Prevention of Lead Poisoning in Japan has not included copper smelter into its target job categories if their lead concentration in the raw material is less than 3%. The limitation of the present Ordinance which defines the targets by the types of job and not by the actual exposure, is discussed.

  20. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  1. Blood lead levels in NASCAR Nextel Cup teams.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory; McNair, C Scott; Matusiak, Matthew M; Madlem, Jyl

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study determines whether NASCAR racing teams demonstrate exposure to lead from exhaust by evaluation of blood lead levels (BLL). Participants were stratified by proximity to fuel exhaust or whether they worked on an engine. Each participant completed a self-reported survey recording demographics, lead exposure (occupational or in-home environment), and any physical symptoms of lead toxicity. Blood lead levels were then measured. BLL of 47 individuals ranged from 1-22 microg/dL with a median of 9.4 microg/dL. Nineteen of 47 (40.4%) had BLL > or = 10 microg/dL. Participants exposed to exhaust gas had the highest relative risks (RR) for elevated lead, followed by working on brakes and radiator repair. The RR of having an elevated BLL and self-reported adverse health outcomes or symptoms was increased. This study of NASCAR racing teams demonstrates lead exposure.

  2. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  3. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  4. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  5. Blood lead levels of Korean lead workers in 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to document the trend in blood lead levels in Korean lead workers from 2003 until 2011 and blood lead levels within each of the main industries. Methods Nine years (2003–2011) of blood lead level data measured during a special health examination of Korean lead workers and collected by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency were analyzed. Blood lead levels were determined by year, and a geometric mean (GM) was calculated for each industry division. Results The overall GM blood lead level for all years combined (n = 365,331) was 4.35 μg/dL. The GM blood lead level decreased from 5.89 μg/dL in 2003 to 3.53 μg/dL in 2011. The proportion of the results ≥30 μg/dL decreased from 4.3% in 2003 to 0.8% in 2011. In the “Manufacture of Electrical Equipment” division, the GM blood lead level was 7.80 μg/dL, which was the highest among the industry divisions. The GM blood lead levels were 7.35 μg/dL and 6.77 μg/dL in the “Manufacturers of Rubber and Plastic Products” and the “Manufacture of Basic Metal Products” division, respectively. Conclusions The blood lead levels in Korean lead workers decreased from 2003 to 2011 and were similar to those in the US and UK. Moreover, workers in industries conventionally considered to have a high risk of lead exposure also tended to have relatively high blood lead levels compared to those in other industries. PMID:25379187

  6. Influence of nutrient intake on blood lead levels of young children at risk for lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W; Sexton, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were 205 children from low-income families who were approximately 1 year of age and living in old, urban houses. The data collected for each child included blood lead level, nutritional status, and amount of lead exposure, which was assessed from samples of household dust. Multiple linear regression analyses showed a statistically significant positive association between lead exposure and blood lead. Statistically significant positive associations were found between blood lead and total fat as well as blood lead and saturated fat, independent of lead exposure and age of the child. Regression modeling and stratified analysis showed that mean blood lead increased with increasing lead exposure as well as with increasing caloric intake, suggesting that caloric intake modifies the association between lead exposure and blood lead. The findings from this study, if replicated in other studies, support a dietary intervention to reduce the amount of total calories, total fat, and saturated fat among children 1 year of age at risk for lead exposure, while maintaining adequate intake of these dietary components. Our results also reinforce recommendations that removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses should be the primary means of preventing lead exposure. PMID:12460816

  7. Effect of personal hygiene on blood lead levels of workers at a lead processing facility.

    PubMed

    Askin, D P; Volkmann, M

    1997-10-01

    The relationship between personal hygiene and blood lead levels was tested at a lead processing facility. During the workers' semiannual respirator fit test, when they were confident their hands were clean, the amount of lead on their right hands was measured. Samples were obtained by cleaning one entire hand with a wiping towel treated with a proprietary mixture of alcohol, surfactants, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Wipe samples were analyzed for total lead and then compared with the worker's blood lead level. Each worker's personal habits at rest were also observed. Workers with more than 1 year's experience had a significantly positive correlation between lead on the hand tested and their blood level. The study strongly suggests that lead on the skin ultimately enters the bloodstream. The route of entry was not investigated. Personal habits of the workers with high blood lead levels were observed to include actions that would quickly contaminate their hands shortly after washing.

  8. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes calculation of blood lead-air lead slope factor within an analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and air lead levels among participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The slope factors are compared wi...

  9. The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Avila, M; Smith, D; Meneses, F; Sanin, L H; Hu, H

    1998-01-01

    There is concern that previously accumulated bone lead stores may constitute an internal source of exposure, particularly during periods of increased bone mineral loss (e.g., pregnancy, lactation, and menopause). Furthermore, the contribution of lead mobilized from bone to plasma may not be adequately reflected by whole-blood lead levels. This possibility is especially alarming because plasma is the main circulatory compartment of lead that is available to cross cell membranes and deposit in soft tissues. We studied 26 residents of Mexico City who had no history of occupational lead exposure. Two samples of venous blood were collected from each individual. One sample was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-magnetic sector mass spectrometry for whole-blood lead levels. The other sample was centrifuged to separate plasma, which was then isolated and analyzed for lead content by the same analytical technique. Bone lead levels in the tibia and patella were determined with a spot-source 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean lead concentrations were 0.54 microg/l in plasma, 119 microg/l in whole blood, and 23.27 and 11.71 microg/g bone mineral in the patella and tibia, respectively. The plasma-to-whole-blood lead concentration ratios ranged from 0.27% to 0.70%. Whole-blood lead level was highly correlated with plasma lead level and accounted for 95% of the variability of plasma lead concentrations. Patella and tibia lead levels were also highly correlated with plasma lead levels. The bivariate regression coefficients of patella and tibia on plasma lead were 0.034 (p<0. 001) and 0.053 (p<0.001), respectively. In a multivariate regression model of plasma lead levels that included whole-blood lead, patella lead level remained an independent predictor of plasma lead level (ss = 0.007, p<0.001). Our data suggest that although whole-blood lead levels are highly correlated with plasma lead levels, lead levels in bone (particularly trabecular bone) exert an additional

  10. Blood lead levels of primary school children in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, R; Henderson, A K; Daley, W R; Naughton, M; Khan, M H; Rahman, M; Kieszak, S; Rubin, C H

    2001-01-01

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, has one of the highest air lead levels in the world. In February 2000, we evaluated children at five primary schools in Dhaka to determine blood lead (BPb) levels, sources of environmental exposure, and potential risk factors for lead poisoning. Selected schools represented a range of geographic and socioeconomic strata. A total of 779 students 4-12 years of age participated. The mean BPb level was 15.0 microg/dL (range 4.2-63.1 microg/dL). Most students (87.4%) had BPb levels above the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's level of concern (10 microg/dL). Elevated BPb levels correlated with soil eating [odds ratio (OR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-8.39], low parental education (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.97-3.75), living close to major roads (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.23-4.29), and increasing age (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06-1.16). BPb levels measured were similar to those in other countries that use leaded gasoline. No other potential sources of lead exposure were consistently identified. Combustion of leaded gasoline is the main source of lead exposure in Dhaka, resulting in ubiquitous contamination of the environment. The increase in BPb levels with age, a finding contrary to observations in the United States and Australia, may be related to increased outdoor activities. The Bangladeshi government recently announced a plan to eliminate leaded gasoline. Baseline BPb surveys are critical to develop and evaluate intervention policies. Strategies to reduce BPb levels need to address variations in socioeconomic status, construction type and location of housing, and levels of hygiene. PMID:11445508

  11. Blood lead levels in children living in three communities, at different risks of lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbritti, G.; Cicioni, C.; Gambelunghe, M.; Fiordi, T.; Accattoli, M.P.; Morucci, P.; Bellucci, E.; Bauleo, F.A. )

    1988-12-01

    We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta than in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.

  12. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  13. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, M.H.; Romieu, I.; Rios, C.; Rivero, A.; Palazuelos, E.

    1991-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 {mu}g/dL, with a mean of 10.6 {mu}g/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 {mu}g/dL and 22% over 15 {mu}g/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food. There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC. Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (< 15 {mu}g/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery.

  14. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery.

  15. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J; Barbour, A G; Cox, D H; Folland, D S; Ligo, R N; Throckmorton, J

    1979-01-01

    Dose-response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects have been evaluated in 160 lead workers in two smelters and a chemicals plant. Blood lead levels ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 mumol/litre (16-280 microgram/dl). Clinical evidence of toxic exposure was found in 70 workers (44%), including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anaemia (Hgb less than 8.69 mumol/litre (Hb/4) or 14.0 gm/dl) in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (greater than or equal to 7.14 mmol/litre or 20 mg/dl) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. No toxicity was detected at blood lead levels below 1.93 mumol/litre (40 microgram/dl). However, 13% of workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 mumol/litre (40-79 microgram/dl) had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. Anaemia was found in 5% of workers with lead levels of 1.93-2.85 mumol/litre (40-59 microgram/dl), in 14% with levels of 2.90 to 3.81 mumol/litre (60-79 microgram/dl), and in 36% with levels greater than or equal to 3.86 mumol/litre (80 microgram/dl). Elevated blood urea nitrogen occurred in long-term lead workers. All but three workers with increased blood urea nitrogen had at least four years occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation; eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance, and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability. These data support the establishment of a permissible biological limit for blood lead at a level between 1.93 and 2.90 mumol/litre (40-60 microgram/dl). PMID:508643

  16. Air and blood lead levels in a battery factory.

    PubMed

    Ibiebele, D D

    1994-08-01

    Chronic exposure of acid-lead battery factory workers to lead was assessed by determining blood lead levels (PbB) in 80 blood samples obtained from 20 workers and relating the values to lead in air (PbA) values in 80 air samples collected at four operational areas. All the samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The geometric means of PbA at the sampling areas were: 92.01 micrograms/m3 in the casting and pasting area; 85.73 micrograms/m3 in the assembly line area; 36.31 micrograms/m3 in the battery charging and sales area; and 4.2 micrograms/m3 in the administration area. The corresponding PbB values were 32.19 micrograms/dl, 35.42 micrograms/dl, 17.33 micrograms/dl and 7.78 micrograms/dl, respectively. The correlations between the PbA and PbB were positive for all the areas and also for the dry and wet seasons. The possibility of predicting PbB by monitoring PbA needs to be evaluated.

  17. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  18. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics.

  19. Blood lead levels in children and pregnant women living near a lead-reclamation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, P; Lavoie, M; Goulet, L; Nantel, A J; Gingras, S

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lead contamination around a lead-reclamation plant on the blood lead levels of children and pregnant women living in the area. DESIGN: Prevalence study. SETTING: Residents living 150 m or less (high-exposure area), 151 to 400 m (intermediate-exposure area) or 401 to 800 m (low-exposure area) southeast from the plant. PARTICIPANTS: All children aged 10 years or less and all pregnant women living in the designated area. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of venous blood lead levels with soil lead concentrations in the areas in which the subjects lived and with sociodemographic and behavioural factors. MAIN RESULTS: Of the estimated 57 pregnant women 38 (67%) participated: 20 were in the high-exposure area and 18 in the other two areas; their geometric mean blood lead levels were low (0.15 and 0.13 mumol/L respectively). Of the 625 eligible children 510 (82%) participated: 169 were in the high-exposure area, 179 in the intermediate-exposure area and 162 in the low-exposure area; their geometric mean lead levels were 0.43, 0.30 and 0.26 mumol/L respectively. Within each age group children in the high-exposure area had the highest levels. The mean levels for children aged 6 months to 5 years were 0.49, 0.35 and 0.28 mumol/L in the three areas respectively. Within each exposure group children aged 1 to 2 years had the highest levels. No potential confounding variables could explain the relation between blood lead level and soil lead concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women's blood lead levels did not seem to be affected by exposure level, but the children's levels were primarily related to the soil lead concentration. PMID:2007239

  20. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  1. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (<10 µg/dL) have indicated associations of blood lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  2. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  3. Impacts of traffic-induced lead emissions on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Z; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a purely toxic heavy metal which induces a wide variety of adverse physiologic effects. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 8,000 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, traffic-induced emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitute more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas where no phase-out activities have been adopted. Gasoline lead content and traffic volume are strongly correlated with concentrations of lead in various environmental media. In the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline remains the predominant grade in many countries. This paper assesses the status of lead pollution from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Beirut based on field measurements of lead in air and roadside dust of urban and rural/suburban areas and recent data on soil and blood lead levels. Average atmospheric lead concentrations was about 1.86 microg m(-3) at urban locations and 0.147 microg m(-3) at suburban locations. The analysis of roadside dust revealed an average lead level of 353 microg g(-1) along urban streets and 125 microg g(-1) along rural/suburban roads. Blood lead levels were also relatively high in comparison to countries where leaded gasoline has been phased-out.

  4. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  5. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  6. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified.

  7. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873

  8. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Esterman, A; Lewis, M; Roder, D; Calder, I

    1986-01-01

    This survey included 1,239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's "level of concern." There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  9. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.; Esterman, A.; Lewis, M.; Roder, D.; Calder, I.

    1986-07-01

    This survey included 1239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's ''level of concern.'' There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  10. Changes in serial blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Fernández Alba, J

    1994-01-01

    The first step in modeling lead kinetics during pregnancy includes a description of sequential maternal blood lead (PbB) during pregnancy and the factors controlling it. We analyzed PbB of 105 women living in the Valley of Mexico from week 12 to week 36 of pregnancy and again at parturition. We also used data from all women contributing blood at any stage of pregnancy to determine antecedents of PbB. Pregnancies were uneventful, and offspring were normal. Although geometric mean PbB level averaged around 7.0 micrograms/dl (0.34 mumol/l), with a range of 1.0-35.5 micrograms/dl throughout pregnancy, analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in mean PbB from week 12 to week 20 (1.1 micrograms/dl) and various significant increases in mean PbB from week 20 to parturition (1.6 micrograms/dl). Regression analyses confirmed the positive linear PbB trend from 20 weeks to parturition and additional contributions of dietary calcium, reproductive history, lifetime residence of Mexico City, coffee drinking, and use of indigenous lead-glazed pottery. Although decreasing hematocrit has been suggested to explain first-half pregnancy PbB decrease, the time course of hematocrit decrease in the present study did not match the sequential changes in PbB. While hemodilution and organ growth in the first half of pregnancy may account for much of the PbB decrease seen between 12 and 20 weeks, the remaining hemodilution and accelerated organ growth of the last half of pregnancy do not predict the trend toward increasing maternal PbB concentration from 20 weeks to delivery. Mobilization of bone lead, increased gut absorption, and increased retention of lead may explain part of the upward PbB trend in the second half of pregnancy. Reduction of lifetime lead exposure may be required to decrease risk of fetal exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9644197

  11. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

  12. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1130 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the PHA shall complete a...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level... as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the designated party shall complete a...

  14. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the...

  15. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the...

  16. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level... as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the designated party shall complete a...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level... as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the designated party shall complete a...

  19. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance § 35.730 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... subpart applies has been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1130 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the PHA shall complete a...

  1. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the...

  2. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance § 35.730 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... subpart applies has been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1130 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the PHA shall complete a...

  4. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the...

  5. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance § 35.730 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... subpart applies has been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1130 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the PHA shall complete a...

  7. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance § 35.730 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... subpart applies has been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the...

  8. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level... as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the designated party shall complete a...

  9. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance § 35.730 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... subpart applies has been identified as having an environmental intervention blood lead level, the...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1130 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. (a... department or provider verifies that the child has an environmental intervention blood lead level, such... known case of a child with an environmental intervention blood lead level to the HUD field office....

  11. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  12. An investigation of dust lead sampling locations and children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance on where to collect dust lead wipe samples in homes to best characterize the risk of a resident child having a blood lead level at or above the CDC level of concern (10 microg/dl). In 1998, the Milwaukee Health Department enrolled 72 children living in pre-1950 buildings: 34 had elevated (i.e., > or = 10 microg/dl) blood lead levels (EBL); and 38 had non-elevated blood lead levels (non-EBL). This study explored dust lead sampling locations by examining loading differences between homes where children with EBL and non-EBL lived. Floor, windowsill, and window trough samples were collected in the living room, kitchen, bathroom, and child's bedroom and play area. Floor samples were collected at four locations: room entry; center of the room; under a window; and against the wall opposite the window (perimeter). Geometric mean floor dust lead levels were generally two to three times higher in homes of EBL children than homes of non-EBL children. Sampling the floor at the room entry or center is preferable to sampling under the window or from the perimeter of the room. When the central floor average was used, the room combinations that had the greatest differences between homes of EBL children and non-EBL children all included a sample from the child's bedroom and excluded the bathroom. When the entry floor average was used, the greatest differences also excluded bathrooms, but otherwise included a mix of all of the other rooms. Window samples did not distinguish where children with EBLs versus non-EBLs resided. This paper is based on Milwaukee alone, so generalizing results to other locations should be done with caution. PMID:16823397

  13. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  14. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-05-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  15. Environmental Lead Exposure in Polish Children: Blood Lead Levels, Major Sources and Principles of the Lead Poisoning Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Muszyńska-Graca, Maja; Dąbkowska, Beata; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna; Sakowska-Maliszewska, lwona; Woźniakowa, Yvonna

    2003-01-01

    In Poland, children are exposed to lead from the combustion of leaded gasoline and industrial processes. Since the early 1990s, emission levels have declined, and a ban on leaded petrol is anticipated in 2005. Major industrial sources are located in Silesia Province and the copper mining centre (Legnica region). Concerns about, lead exposure in children date back to the 1980s; mean blood lead levels (BILL)reported in children living near lead smelters in Silesia exceeded 20ug/dl. in the 1990s, mean BLLs were decreasing, both in urban children and those living near lead industry. Lower than the CDC action level of 101ug/dl, they were however higher than mean values in children from the other countries, where leaded gasoline had already been banned. Childhood lead poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive approach, involving different sectors. Medical prevention focuses on the early detection of exposed child by the blood lead testing and individual case management. An increasing body of evidence, indicating adverse effects even below the current “safe” level of 101ug/dl, argues for intensification of the primary prevention, which requires legal, economic and technical measures. Public health efforts should contribute to the reduction and elimination of sources of exposure in child’s environment and public education campaigns. PMID:18365064

  16. Determinants of blood lead levels across the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Avila, M; Villalpando, C G; Palazuelos, E; Hu, H; Villalpando, M E; Martinez, D R

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the impact of menopause on lead remobilization from bone-lead stores. The study was conducted between 1993 and 1995 in Mexico City and included 903 women (mean age = 46.8 y [standard deviation = 8.2 y]). Participants provided information about reproductive variables and known risk factors for high PbB levels. PbB levels were determined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The authors used linear-regression models to describe the relationship between PbB levels and variables of interest. PbB levels ranged from 1.0 microg/dl to 43.8 microg/dl (mean = 11.0 microg/dl). Menopausal women at baseline had the highest PbB levels; the mean difference between pre- and postmenopausal women was 0.76 microg/dl (95% confidence interval = 0.024, 1.48). We observed an inverted U-shaped relationship between PbB level and age. The highest PbB levels were observed in women aged 47-50 y. Other important predictors of PbB levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, number of pregnancies, history of cigarette smoking, and height. Our results support the hypothesis that bone lead may be mobilized during menopause and may constitute an important source of exposure.

  17. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    PubMed

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05). However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  18. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Siegel, Kristy A.; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05). However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami. PMID:16968968

  19. Levels of lead in breast milk and their relation to maternal blood and bone lead levels at one month postpartum.

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; González-Cossío, Teresa; Peterson, Karen E; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Despite the many well-recognized benefits of breast-feeding for both mothers and infants, detectable levels of lead in breast milk have been documented in population studies of women with no current environmental or occupational exposures. Mobilization of maternal bone lead stores has been suggested as a potential endogenous source of lead in breast milk. We measured lead in breast milk to quantify the relation between maternal blood and bone lead levels and breast-feeding status (exclusive vs. partial) among 310 lactating women in Mexico City, Mexico, at 1 month postpartum. Umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were collected at delivery. Maternal breast milk, blood, and bone lead levels were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Levels of lead in breast milk ranged from 0.21 to 8.02 microg/L (ppb), with a geometric mean (GM) of 1.1 microg/L; blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.9 microg/dL (GM = 8.4 microg/dL); bone lead ranged from < 1 to 67.2 microg/g bone mineral (patella) and from < 1 to 76.6 microg/g bone mineral (tibia) at 1 month postpartum. Breast milk lead was significantly correlated with umbilical cord lead [Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) = 0.36, p < 0.0001] and maternal blood lead (rS= 0.38, p < 0.0001) at delivery and with maternal blood lead (rS = 0.42, p < 0.0001) and patella lead (rS= 0.15, p < 0.01) at 1 month postpartum. Mother's age, years living in Mexico City, and use of lead-glazed ceramics, all predictive of cumulative lead exposure, were not significant predictors of breast milk lead levels. Adjusting for parity, daily dietary calcium intake (milligrams), infant weight change (grams), and breast-feeding status (exclusive or partial lactation), the estimated effect of an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood lead (5.0 microg/dL) was associated with a 33% increase in breast milk lead [95% confidence interval (CI), 24 to 43%], whereas an IQR increase in patella lead (20 microg/g) was associated with a 14% increase in breast milk lead

  20. Blood lead levels in the general population of Taiwan, Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Liou, S H; Wu, T N; Chiang, H C; Yang, G Y; Wu, Y Q; Lai, J S; Ho, S T; Guo, Y L; Ko, Y C; Chang, P Y

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental lead exposure of the general population in Taiwan. A total of 2919 residents of Taiwan were selected by multistage sampling methods. The participants were characterized by questionnaires and 10 ml venous blood was collected for blood lead measurement. A quality assurance/quality control program was designed during the analysis of blood lead levels. The mean blood lead level of 2719 residents without occupational lead exposure was 8.29 +/- 5.92 micrograms/dl. After adjustment for age and sex distribution to the Taiwan general population, the mean blood lead level was 8.10 micrograms/dl. Adjusted for an 11% underestimation of blood lead levels among the six laboratories, the mean blood lead level was estimated to be 8.99 micrograms/dl. This study also found that blood lead levels were associated with personal characteristics, i.e., gender, ethnic group, education level; lifestyle factors, i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, sources of drinking water; and residential location, i.e., levels of urbanization, distance of house from the road. However, age, floor of residence, milk consumption, betel nut consumption, and Chinese herbal drug consumption were not found to be associated with blood lead levels. These results show that blood lead levels in Taiwan residents were not higher than in most developed and developing countries. Environmental lead pollution does not seem to be a serious problem in Taiwan.

  1. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  2. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  3. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  4. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally...

  5. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally...

  6. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally...

  7. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally...

  8. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally...

  9. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iavicoli, I. . E-mail: iavicoli.ivo@rm.unicatt.it; Carelli, G. . E-mail: gcarelli@rm.unicatt.it; Stanek, E.J. . E-mail: stanek@schoolph.umass.edu; Castellino, N. . E-mail: iclml@rm.unicatt.it; Calabrese, E.J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2006-01-15

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-{gamma}) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 {mu}g/dL), which is below background (2-3 {mu}g/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations.

  10. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community.

  11. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  12. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  13. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  14. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level... child has an environmental intervention blood lead level, such verification shall constitute.../or addresses of children of less than 6 years of age with an identified environmental...

  15. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  16. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants.

  17. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  18. Validity and interpretation of blood lead levels: a study of Danish school children.

    PubMed

    Lyngbye, T; Jørgensen, P J; Grandjean, P; Hansen, O N

    1990-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations were measured in a group of children from a group of 9- to 10-year-old school children in Aarhus, Denmark. The study group was selected as a high-level and a low-level lead group, as identified by the lead concentration in the circumpulpal dentine in deciduous teeth shed 2-3 years previously. The validity of the blood sampling technique was investigated in adult volunteers, and lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption. Capillary blood sampling by a finger-stick method was preferred, as the slight contamination caused by this technique was deemed acceptable. The children with the highest dentine lead levels (n = 70), had blood lead concentrations of 0.08-0.63 mumol/l and a geometric mean of 0.28 mumol/l. The children with lowest dentine levels (n = 76) had blood lead concentrations of 0.08-0.70 mumol/l and a geometric mean of 0.18 mumol/l. The blood lead concentrations were compared with interview data on behaviour, family habits, diet, parents' tobacco smoking and occupation, water lead measurements, and traffic counts. A total of 20% of the variation in blood lead was explained by parents' tobacco smoking, the child's number in the sibship, gender, and consumption of canned food at home.

  19. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  20. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  1. Behaviors and blood lead levels of children in a lead-mining area and a comparison community

    SciTech Connect

    Murgueytio, A.M.; Evans, R.G.; Sterling, D.; Serrano, F.; Roberts, D.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between behavioral and other modifiable factors and blood lead levels in children living in a lead-mining community and in a comparison group of children. Children six to 71 months of age were selected from a community that was heavily contaminated with lead-mining waste and from a comparison community. Participants were interviewed, and venous blood was collected for lead analysis. Environmental measurements of soil, dust, and paint were made. Study results indicate that average blood lead levels and environmental measurements were significantly higher in the mining community. Factors that were related to blood lead levels included income, education, home ownership, age of home, playing in grassy areas rather than dirt, putting nonfood items in mouth, bathing and washing practices, number of hours playing outside, taking nonfood items outside, swallowing nonfood items, and putting paint chips in mouth. These factors explained more of the variation in blood lead levels in the control group than in the mining group. Lead intervention strategies that consist only of education designed to modify behavior might be less effective in high-exposure areas such as those where lead-mining and smelting operations occur. Interventions that combine education with remedial activities are more effective in prevention of lead exposure.

  2. Determinants of bone and blood lead levels among teenagers living in urban areas with high lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P

    1998-01-01

    Although lead has been extensively studied in children, its sources and effects remain unclear in adolescents. This study examined the relation of blood and tibia bone lead levels to lead determinants. One hundred adolescents living in Mexico City and surrounding suburbs were studied. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and tibia lead was measured by a K X-ray Fluorescence (KXRF) instrument. Blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.2 microgram/dl, with a mean of 7.4 microgram/dl. Bone lead ranged from <1 to 44.82 microgram Pb/g bone mineral, with a mean of 4.8 microgram Pb/g. Predictors of bone lead included higher traffic density near the home, mother's smoking history, and time spent outdoors. Predictors of log-transformed blood lead included bone lead levels, male sex, use of lead-glazed ceramics, and living in Mexico City. Bone lead remained a significant predictor of blood lead after adjusting for covariates in a final multivariate regression model. In our final model, a rise in bone lead from the middle of the lowest quintile to the middle of the highest quintile (a difference of 21.6 microgram Pb/g) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 1.2 microgram/dl. Our data suggest that in addition to current sources of environmental lead exposure, bone lead accumulated over time constitutes a moderate source of circulating lead during adolescence and may account for some of the adverse health effects documented in recent studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9799189

  3. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  4. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. . Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  5. Blood lead and cadmium levels in children: A study conducted in Changchun, Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianling; Sheng, Lianxi; Yan, Zhenghong; Hong, Lianjin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to lead and cadmium in developing countries is considered to be a public health emergency. The present study was designed to investigate children’s exposure to lead and cadmium in Changchun, China. METHODS: A total of 1619 blood samples were collected at random from 1426 children between one and 14 years of age, and 204 adults from Changchun, China. Blood lead and cadmium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The average blood lead level in children was 60.29 μg/L, with boys exhibiting higher blood lead levels than girls. The average blood cadmium level in children was 1.26 μg/L, and differences were not observed between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from Changchun exhibited relatively low blood lead and cadmium levels compared with children from other cities, and higher lead and lower cadmium levels than adults. This may be related to leaded gasoline environmental pollution and children’s hand-to-mouth activities. PMID:24596479

  6. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  7. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.S.; Luebbert, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Schamber, J.; Rosenberg, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  9. Blood lead level and neurobehavioral development among children living in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, H; Romiew, I; Palazuelos, E; Mancilla-Sanchez, T; Meneses-Gonzalez, F; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between blood lead levels and neuropsychological and behavioral development of 139 children (7-9 y of age) who attended school in the southwestern part of Mexico City. A trained psychologist administered an IQ test to 84% of the children, and teachers graded them for agility, socialization, expression, and knowledge. Parents also answered a questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. Anodic stripping voltametry was used to determine blood lead levels. Regression models were used to determine the best predictors of IQ and teachers' rating scores. The mean blood lead level was 19.4 micrograms/dl (standard deviation [SD] = 7.6), with a geometric mean of 17.8 micrograms/dl (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 16.5-19.1). Blood lead was the strongest predictor of full-scale IQ, and there was a significant negative trend between blood lead, full-scale IQ, and teachers' rating scores. In this study, children with higher levels of blood lead performed more poorly on psychometric tests and had poorer educational attainment than their counterparts. These results suggest an association between neuropsychological and behavioral impairment and lead exposure.

  10. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12-60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17-30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46-60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80-25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541-1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349-9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs.

  11. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  12. Trends in blood lead levels in Christchurch (NZ) and environs 1978-85.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, D; Coope, P A; Malpress, W A; Janus, E D

    1986-01-01

    Blood lead levels have been monitored since 1974 and have shown a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) from 1978 to 1985 in 2830 subjects from Christchurch and environs. From a baseline in August 1978-81 to August 1985 blood lead levels in a population which had no relevant exposure to lead other than that from the general environment have fallen in adult males and females (greater than 17 years) by 42%, and in school and pre-school children greater than 9 months by 44% and 46% respectively. Reduction of blood lead has accelerated during the last three years. This can be linked to changes in dietary intake and clean up of lead in domestic and industrial environments. Over this decade the lead content of petrol (0.84 g/l) and petrol sales have remained unchanged. PMID:3772282

  13. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in donkeys and mules near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Gunter, E.W.; Matte, T.D. )

    1990-02-01

    During the course of an investigation into community lead poisoning near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels were measured in 8 exposed and 6 (3 Jamaican, 3 US) unexposed donkeys and mules. The blood lead levels of 6 animals in the contaminated area ranged from 7.5 to 33 micrograms/dl (mean = 17.6 micrograms/dl), compared to 1.8 and 2.4 in unexposed Jamaican animals. More striking was the difference in zinc protoporphyrin levels; all 8 exposed donkeys and mules had values between 900 and 1890 micrograms/dl, compared with a range of 34-46 micrograms/dl for 3 Jamaican control donkeys. These findings suggest that zinc protoporphyrin may be a useful method of screening for subclinical lead toxicity in equines.

  14. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  15. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  16. Linking source and effect: resuspended soil lead, air lead, and children's blood lead levels in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Taylor, Mark

    2013-03-19

    This study evaluates atmospheric concentrations of soil and Pb aerosols, and blood lead levels (BLLs) in 367839 children (ages 0-10) in Detroit, Michigan from 2001 to 2009 to test a hypothesized soil → air dust → child pathway of contemporary Pb risk. Atmospheric soil and Pb show near-identical seasonal properties that match seasonal variation in children's BLLs. Resuspended soil appears to be a significant underlying source of atmospheric Pb. A 1% increase in the amount of resuspended soil results in a 0.39% increase in the concentration of Pb in the atmosphere (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.50%). In turn, atmospheric Pb significantly explains age-dependent variation in child BLLs. Other things held equal, a change of 0.0069 μg/m(3) in atmospheric Pb increases BLL of a child 1 year of age by 10%, while approximately 3 times the concentration of Pb in air (0.023 μg/m(3)) is required to induce the same increase in BLL of a child 7 years of age. Similarly, a 0.0069 μg/m(3) change in air Pb increases the odds of a child <1 year of age having a BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL by a multiplicative factor of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.26 to 1.37). Overall, the resuspension of Pb contaminated soil explains observed seasonal variation in child BLLs.

  17. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  18. Residential lead-based-paint hazard remediation and soil lead abatement: their impact among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Beiser, A; Bellinger, D; Copenhafer, D; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study describes the impact of residential lead-based-paint hazard remediations on children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. METHODS: Changes in blood lead levels were observed following paint hazard remediation alone and in combination with soil abatement. RESULTS: After adjustment for the confounding variables paint hazard remediation alone was associated with a blood lead increase of 6.5 micrograms/dL (P = 0.5), and paint hazard remediation combined with soil abatement was associated with an increase of 0.9 microgram/dL (P = 36). CONCLUSIONS: Lead-based-paint hazard remediation as performed in this study, is not an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. PMID:9357358

  19. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Blood Lead Levels in Pregnancy: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Mercado-García, Adriana; Peterson, Karen E.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead exposure is associated with deficits in fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Calcium supplementation may attenuate fetal exposure by inhibiting mobilization of maternal bone lead and/or intestinal absorption of ingested lead. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the effect of 1,200 mg dietary calcium supplementation on maternal blood lead levels during pregnancy. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted from 2001 through 2003 in Mexico City, we randomly assigned 670 women in their first trimester of pregnancy to ingest calcium (n = 334) or placebo (n = 336). We followed subjects through pregnancy and evaluated the effect of supplementation on maternal blood lead, using an intent-to-treat analysis by a mixed-effects regression model with random intercept, in 557 participants (83%) who completed follow-up. We then conducted as-treated analyses using similar models stratified by treatment compliance. Results Adjusting for baseline lead level, age, trimester of pregnancy, and dietary energy and calcium intake, calcium was associated with an average 11% reduction (0.4 μg/dL) in blood lead level relative to placebo (p = 0.004). This reduction was more evident in the second trimester (−14%, p < 0.001) than in the third (−8%, p = 0.107) and was strongest in women who were most compliant (those who consumed ≥ 75% calcium pills; −24%, p < 0.001), had baseline blood lead > 5 μg/dL (−17%, p < 0.01), or reported use of lead-glazed ceramics and high bone lead (−31%, p < 0.01). Conclusion Calcium supplementation was associated with modest reductions in blood lead when administered during pregnancy and may constitute an important secondary prevention effort to reduce circulating maternal lead and, consequently, fetal exposure. PMID:19165383

  20. Risk factors for high levels of lead in blood of schoolchildren in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Olaiz, G; Fortoul, T I; Rojas, R; Doyer, M; Palazuelos, E; Tapia, C R

    1996-01-01

    Risk factors associated with blood lead levels exceeding 15 microg/dl were analyzed in this report. This relatively high lead level was selected because, at the time the study commenced, it was considered to be a "safe" level. A total of 1583 schoolchildren were studied. The students were from (a) two areas in Mexico City (Tlalnepantla and Xalostoc) that have had historically high concentrations of lead in air, and (b) three areas (Pedregal, Iztalpalapa, and Centro) with less impressive air lead levels. Parents were presented with a questionnaire that solicited information about lead risk factors. A bivariate analysis and a multilogistic analysis were conducted to identify associations and to identify the model that most accurately explains the variability of the sample. High blood lead concentrations were found in children who lived in Xalostoc and Tlalnepantla (16.1 and 17.0 microg/dl, respectively), and the lowest concentration (i.e., 10 microg/dl) was found in children from Iztapalapa. The strongest association was with area of residence, followed by education level of parents, cooking of meals in glazed pottery, and chewing or sucking of yellow or other colored pencils. A child's area of residence is the most significant risk factor that must be accounted for when any study of lead and blood lead concentrations is undertaken. Follow-up in similar populations should assist greatly in the evaluation of the impact of governmental actions on public health.

  1. Cord blood lead level in an urban inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Chawla, S; Elbakoush, F; Natarajan, G; Dwaihy, M; Berry, A; Ravindranath, Y; Bhambhani, K; Narayan, S B

    2016-09-16

    Lead levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in umbilical cord blood samples of 150 neonates in an urban inner-city hospital. The mean (SD) gestation and birth weight of our cohort were 38.8 (1.7) weeks and 3,217 (519) grams. There were 89% African-Americans, 53% males and 79% were born via vaginal delivery. Mean (SD) maternal age was 24.5 (5.8) years. History of drug abuse and smoking was reported in 8.7% and 10.7% respectively, with only 1 mother reporting a history of high lead level in childhood. Prenatal vitamin intake was reported in 99.3%. Cord blood lead level was available in 144 patients, with lead level of <1μg/dL seen in 141 (97.9%) and>1 in 3 (2.1%) patients. No patient had cord blood lead level of >2μg/dL. High lead levels during childhood in high-risk urban population, however, suggest the need for intensive efforts for prevention of environmental exposure to lead in early childhood. PMID:27589550

  2. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (P<0.01), and a weaker but significant correlation between plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood PCB concentrations (P<0.05). It was apparent that delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood provided a sensitive and precise estimate of lead contamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  3. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood levels in children of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Carreon, T.; Lopez, L.

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants` households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 {mu}g/dl with a mean of 9.9 {mu}g/dl (SD 5.8 {mu}/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 {mu}g/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used or prepare children`s food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children`s hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. An evaluation of recent blood lead levels in Port Pirie, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Edward; Thomas, Raylene; Simon, David; Phipps, Catherine; Ward, Carla; Calder, Ian

    2003-02-15

    The Port Pirie Lead Program commenced in 1984. The abatement program involves identification of children with elevated blood lead levels, house decontamination, soil treatment, development of heavily vegetated buffer zones around the smelter, family education and support and community education. Since 1984 the smelter has also implemented substantial new emission controls and environmental improvements. Blood lead and air monitoring programs as well as investigations of emission sources, ongoing household contamination and infant exposure mechanisms are in place. Although capillary blood lead monitoring has shown a significant decrease in the mean blood lead levels of the children, 61% of children aged 1-4 years still exceed 10 microg/dl, with 28% at or above 15 microg/dl. Re-entrainment of lead from the contaminated areas within the city is only a small contributor to air-borne lead levels compared with that from the smelter and its environs. The smelter has undertaken extensive work to reduce windborne fugitive emissions. While attempts to demonstrate reductions in air lead have been hampered by large annual variations in wind speed and direction, air lead studies have confirmed that only small losses are now arising from the stockpile area of the smelter site. Evidence suggests that worker hygiene improvements, relocation of children to lower exposure suburbs, community education, house decontamination, specific measures for individual children with elevated blood lead, and avoidance of tank rainwater have all been partially successful. A substantial investigation program has refocused intervention efforts towards reducing exposure from indoor environments during the first year of life and contributed to improved identification and ranking of ongoing smelter emission sources.

  5. Negative Relationship between Erythropoietin Dose and Blood Lead Level in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of increased blood lead levels have been well discussed. Several antioxidant agents have been reported to offer protection from lead toxicity and to reduce blood lead levels (BLL). Given that erythropoietin (EPO) also has antioxidant properties, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of EPO and other clinical variables on BLL in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We recruited 931 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients who had undergone HD for at least 6 months and who had ever received blood lead level (BLL) study. Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents followed the The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guideline. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data based on this study. In the group with EPO, 7% had high BLL. In the group without EPO, 22% had high BLL. From the stepwise liner regression, urban areas, hemodialysis duration, and clearance of urea (KT/Vurea) were positively associated with log BLL. In contrast, diabetes (DM), and monthly EPO dose were negatively associated with log BLL. This study showed that EPO dose might be negatively associated with blood lead levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:27680289

  6. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the

  7. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  8. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Blood level of cadmium and lead in occupationally exposed persons in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15–40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The respective mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were 11.63±1.73 μg/dl and 45.43±6.93 μg/dl in occupationally-exposed subjects, while in non-exposed subjects 2.03±0.55 μg/dl and 12.08±2.87 μg/dl. The results show that occupational exposure increases the blood level of cadmium and lead, which consequently increases the health risk of the exposed individuals. PMID:27486374

  10. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  11. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  12. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  13. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  15. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  16. Changing blood lead levels and oxidative stress with duration of residence among Taiwan immigrants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Ching; Lin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Immigrants lack appropriate health care access and other resources needed to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental health risks. Little is known about the impact of lead exposure and oxidative stress among immigrants. Thus, this study was to examine the differences between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress levels of immigrants and non-immigrants, and to investigate the determinants of increased BLLs or oxidative stress levels among immigrants. We collected demographic data of 239 immigrant women and 189 non-immigrant women who resettled in the central area of Taiwan. Each study participant provided blood samples for genotyping and for measuring blood metal levels and oxidative stress. Recent immigrants were at risk for elevated BLLs. Decreased BLLs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased blood selenium levels were significantly associated with duration of residence in Taiwan. Elevated BLLs and MDA in recent immigrants may serve as a warning sign for the health care system. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living environments, thereby improving the health of immigrants.

  17. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  18. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  19. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  20. Vehicular traffic as a determinant of blood-lead levels in children: a pilot study in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Meneses, F; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1992-01-01

    The major determinants of blood-lead levels were studied in 90 children who attended an outpatient pediatric clinic in Mexico City. All children, who were from 1-10 y of age, were from homes for which socioeconomic status had been categorized as medium to high. Blood-lead levels ranged from 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.008) to 1.21 (SD = 0.06 mumol/l). The main determinant of blood-lead levels was place of residence. Children who lived on private streets (i.e., low-traffic areas) had a significantly lower blood-lead level than children who lived on large avenues and who resided close to main roads (p = .0001, r2 = .27). This observation documented high exposure levels among children who live in Mexico City and suggested that leaded fuel used in Mexico could play an important role in determining blood-lead levels in this population.

  1. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  2. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  3. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  4. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards.

  5. Declining Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Coronel Parra, Angelica M.; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Design and Methods Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. Results The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 μg/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 μg/dL found in the same study area in the 1996–2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 μg/dL mean level found in the 2003–2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 μmol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 μg/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. Conclusion While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. PMID:23684775

  6. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  7. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  8. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  9. The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine renovation of older housing is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning, but the contribution to children’s blood lead levels is poorly defined for children with lower exposure levels. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 276 children followed from 6 to 24 months of age. We conducted surveys of renovation activities and residential lead hazards and obtained blood lead level (B-Pb) every six months. We analyzed B-Pb in a repeated measures design using a mixed effects linear model. Results Parent reported interior renovation ranged from 11 to 25% of housing units at the four, 6-month periods. In multivariable analysis, children whose housing underwent interior renovation had a 12% higher mean B-Pb by two years of age compared with children whose housing units were not renovated (p < 0.01). The time between renovation and the child blood lead sample was associated with higher B-Pb (p-value for trend <0.01); compared to children in non-renovated housing, children whose housing units underwent renovation in the prior month had a 17% higher mean B-Pb at two years of age, whereas children whose housing renovation occurred in the prior 2–6 months had an 8% higher mean B-Pb. We also found an association between higher paint lead loading, measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based paint lead index, and child B-Pb (p = 0.02); for every 10 mg/cm2 increase in paint lead loading index there was a 7.5% higher mean childhood B-Pb. Conclusions In an analysis of data collected before the recent changes to Environmental Protection Agency’s Lead, Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule, routine interior housing renovation was associated with a modest increase in children’s B-Pb. These results are important for the provision of clinical advice, for housing and public health professionals, and for policymakers. PMID:23981571

  10. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  11. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  12. Blood Lead Level (BLL) in the Adult Population of Jodhpur: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chambial, Shailja; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Sharma, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, and reproductive and nervous systems. Routes of exposure to lead include contaminated air, water, soil, food, and consumer products. The possibility of lead exposure in humans is therefore of great significance from health point of view. Occupational exposure is a common known cause of lead poisoning in adults but current status of adults exposed otherwise is not known. School teachers representing wide local population were selected and asked to furnish information regarding possible lead exposure. Blood lead level (BLL) was estimated using anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean BLL was 6.89 ± 9.5 μg/dl (<3.5->65 μg/dl) in representative adult population. Out of the total 16 % were found to be having BLL >10 μg/dl which has significantly decreased from leaded gasoline era. Those with increased BLL (>10 μg/dl) were found to have common determinants like usage of old metallic pipes for plumbing, water consumption without any purification system, usage of cosmetics and Ayurvedic/herbal medicines. PMID:26089625

  13. Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hozhabri, Siroos; White, Franklin; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Luby, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a widespread environmental contaminant worldwide and is associated with adverse outcomes in children, including impaired neurobehavioral development and learning difficulties. A cross-sectional survey of 53 young children was conducted in a fishing village on an island adjacent to Karachi, Pakistan. Whole blood from each individual was tested for lead levels. Also tested were samples of cooked food, house dust, and drinking water from 36 households. Laboratory determinations were made by the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research with quality control by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fifty-two subjects (98%) had blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl (mean 21.60 microg/dl), an internationally recognized threshold for potential neurotoxicity. The mean concentration was 3.90 microg/g in cooked food, 4.02 microg/l in drinking water, and 91.30 microg/g in house dust. These findings indicate possible major health concerns and suggest significant environmental contamination in this community as well as the need to identify locally relevant early childhood exposures.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  15. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  16. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  17. Current pediatric and maternal lead levels in blood and breast milk in Andean inhabitants of a lead-glazing enclave.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    Prenatal and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities in children. As part of an ongoing health-monitoring study, blood lead (PbB) levels were compared in 90 children tested in 2003 (current group) and 166 children tested between 1996 and 2000 (reference group) in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination. The mean PbB level for children in the reference group was 40 microg/dL (range, 6.2-119.1), and significantly higher than the mean PbB level of 25.5 microg/dL (range, 2.1-94.3) for the current group (t test, P = 0.0001). An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects for age and gender and no significant interaction between age and gender for the current group but a significant age by gender interaction for the reference group (F = 5.96, P = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.258, P = 0.01) between PbB level and age for males but not for females in the reference group. The Pb levels in breast milk from nursing mothers ranged from 0.4-20.5 microg/L (mean, 4.6), and the PbB levels in the breastfeeding mothers ranged from 4.5-35.2 microg/dL (mean, 17.1). The PbB levels of mother-infant pairs ranged from 4.6-27.4 microg/dL for mothers and 3.9-33.5 microg/dL for infants. The results showed significantly reduced PbB levels in children in the study area and suggest that a Pb education and prevention program contributed to the current reduction in Pb intoxication. PMID:15354063

  18. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  19. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  20. Blood lead levels in children aged 5-9 years living in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Duarte, Diana; Echenique, Marlin; Guette, Jorge; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Parsons, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    During June-August 2004, blood lead (BPb) levels and various hematological parameters were evaluated in children aged 5-9 years old at ten primary schools located in eight neighborhoods in Cartagena, Colombia. The schools selected for this study are attended mainly by children from families of low income. A total of 189 subjects participated in the survey. The arithmetic mean+/-standard error BPb level was 5.49+/-0.23 microg/dL (range<1.0-21.0 microg/dL). The geometric mean was 4.74 microg/dL (95% CI: 4.29-5.18). A proportion of the children (7.4%) had BPb levels above the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's threshold of concern (10 microg Pb/dL). BPb levels were correlated weakly, but significantly and positively, with red blood cell count (RBC), and negatively with child body size, age, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). BPb levels did not differ significantly between boys and girls but significant differences were observed between neighborhoods (P<0.001). Activities such as metal melting-related processes and fishing net sinker production are the main sources of Pb exposure in Cartagena.

  1. Blood lead levels in Noranda children following removal of smelter-contaminated yard soil.

    PubMed

    Gagné, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1979, children two to five years of age living in Rouyn-Noranda, QC, in an urban district located within 1 km from a copper smelter had mean (geometric) blood lead levels (BLL) of 21 micrograms/dL. Afterwards, stack emissions were lowered. In 1989, mean (geom.) BLL were reduced to 11 micrograms/dL; 50% of the district children had BLL less than 10 micrograms/dL. In 1990-91, a $3 million top soil removal operation took place; residential lots having more than 500 ppm soil lead were decontaminated. In 1991, BLL were reduced to 7 micrograms/dL; 75% of the children had less than 10 micrograms/dL. Geographic analysis of the 1991 results showed that children with the highest BLL lived nearest to the smelter, where atmospheric dustfall to the ground reached 36 mg/m2/month. Follow-up pediatric blood lead campaigns are planned in 1993 and 1995, to evaluate the effects of an ongoing program for further reduction of atmospheric smelter emissions.

  2. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead–Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Lu, Shou-En; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S.; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C.; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin P.; Ross, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to discern the proportion of blood lead (PbB) attributable to ambient air lead (PbA), given the multitude of lead (Pb) sources and pathways of exposure. The PbB–PbA relationship has previously been evaluated across populations. This relationship was a central consideration in the 2008 review of the Pb national ambient air quality standards. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between PbB and PbA concentrations among children nationwide for recent years and to compare the relationship with those obtained from other studies in the literature. Methods: We merged participant-level data for PbB from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and NHANES 9908 (1999–2008) with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We applied mixed-effects models, and we computed slope factor, d[PbB]/d[PbA] or the change in PbB per unit change in PbA, from the model results to assess the relationship between PbB and PbA. Results: Comparing the NHANES regression results with those from the literature shows that slope factor increased with decreasing PbA among children 0–11 years of age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that a larger relative public health benefit may be derived among children from decreases in PbA at low PbA exposures. Simultaneous declines in Pb from other sources, changes in PbA sampling uncertainties over time largely related to changes in the size distribution of Pb-bearing particulate matter, and limitations regarding sampling size and exposure error may contribute to the variability in slope factor observed across peer-reviewed studies. Citation: Richmond-Bryant J, Meng Q, Davis A, Cohen J, Lu SE, Svendsgaard D, Brown JS, Tuttle L, Hubbard H, Rice J, Kirrane E, Vinikoor-Imler LC, Kotchmar D, Hines EP, Ross M. 2014. The Influence of declining air lead levels on blood lead–air lead slope factors in children. Environ Health Perspect 122:754

  3. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  4. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted. PMID:27089677

  5. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted.

  6. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  7. Exposure sources and reasons for testing among women with low blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Motao; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2011-08-01

    Previous research has focused on highly elevated blood lead (PbB). This study examined reasons for testing and potential sources of exposure among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l (15 μg/dl). A questionnaire was mailed to 18- to 49-year-old women in upstate New York, USA, who were PbB tested in 2007. The most common testing reason was pregnancy among 125 women who returned the questionnaire. Among women tested for PbB during pregnancy, doctors ordered approximately 80% of tests regardless of lead level. Few women with PbBs less than 0.24 μmol/l (5 μg/dl) reported a potential source of lead exposure. However, among women with PbBs of 0.24-0.71 μmol/L (5-14.9 μg/dl), 29.2% had a job and 21.2% had a hobby with potential lead exposure. There are systematic differences in reasons for testing and exposure sources among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l and these differences have implications for screening. PMID:21547811

  8. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  9. Lead levels in whole blood of sheep from different areas of the Nile delta.

    PubMed

    Takla, P G; Mohamed, H A; Wright, J; Fahmy, F

    1989-03-25

    The concentration of lead has been determined in samples of whole blood from Osimi and Rahmani sheep grazing near main highways in three areas of the Nile delta region of Egypt. Between 117 and 200 blood samples were collected from each area. The mean values for the blood lead content were 0.062, 0.067 and 0.083 micrograms/ml, and were low in all the locations. The value of 0.083 micrograms/ml obtained for the samples taken from the partly industralised Enshass region was significantly higher than the mean values from the other sites. PMID:2728270

  10. An Investigation of Outpatient Children's Blood Lead Level in Wuhan China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wu, Siqi; Xiang, Yun; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood lead levels (BLLs) and possible influencing factors in children in Wuhan China were investigated in order to understand current lead pollution exposure and provide a scientific basis for prevention and policy making. Materials and Methods BLL data were collected from 15,536 out-patients in Wuhan Children Hospital in 2012 full year. All of them were under 18 years of age (Mean ± SD: 4.32±3.2, 64.4% boys). The BLLs were measured by an atomic absorption spectrometry (BH2100). Results The geometric mean of BLLs for all the subjects was 44.75 µg/L (95%CI: 44.46 µg/L – 45.05 µg/L), much lower than that reported in previous studies. The prevalence of the elevated BLLs (≥ 100 µg/L) in the children tested was 2% in 2012 and the prevalence of BLLs (≥ 50 µg/L) was 44%. Age and sex could be possible influencing factors for BLLs in the children (p<0.001). In addition, the BLLs in different seasons were different (p<0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate that BLLs have significantly decreased in children in Wuhan during recent years. However, we should continuously pay attention to lead pollution and emphasize that prevention is much more important than treatment for controlling children's BLLs. PMID:24740029

  11. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  12. Blood Lead Levels and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Concentrations in Peripubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. Methods: We recruited 394 boys 8–9 years of age from an industrial Russian town in 2003–2005 and followed them annually thereafter. We used linear regression models to estimate the association of baseline BLLs with serum IGF-1 concentration at two follow-up visits (ages 10–11 and 12–13 years), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Results: At study entry, median BLL was 3 μg/dL (range, < 0.5–31 μg/dL), most boys (86%) were prepubertal, and mean ± SD height and BMI z-scores were 0.14 ± 1.0 and –0.2 ± 1.3, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the mean follow-up IGF-1 concentration was 29.2 ng/mL lower (95% CI: –43.8, –14.5) for boys with high versus low BLL (≥ 5 μg/dL or < 5 μg/dL); this difference persisted after further adjustment for pubertal status. The association of BLL with IGF-1 was stronger for mid-pubertal than prepubertal boys (p = 0.04). Relative to boys with BLLs < 2 μg/dL, adjusted mean IGF-1 concentrations decreased by 12.8 ng/mL (95% CI: –29.9, 4.4) for boys with BLLs of 3–4 μg/dL; 34.5 ng/mL (95% CI: –53.1, –16.0) for BLLs 5–9 μg/dL; and 60.4 ng/mL (95% CI: –90.9, –29.9) for BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions: In peripubertal boys with low-level lead exposure, higher BLLs were associated with lower serum IGF-1. Inhibition of the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth axis may be one possible pathway by which lead exposure leads to growth delay. PMID:23632160

  13. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Chang, Se-Jin; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL) with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.79), digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33–7.86), and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07–7.81) were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10–20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06–13.06). The RRs of females with 10–20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16–3.20) and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21–149.4). The RRs of females with BLL 10–20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74–62.93) and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69–147.86) was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender. PMID:26469177

  14. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  15. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment.

  16. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  17. Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Winters, Paul C; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current study was limited to adults age 60 and older. We examined two measures of cognitive functioning: self-reported functional limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion (NHANES 1999-2008; n=7277) and performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; NHANES 1999-2002; n=2299). We evaluated quintiles of BLL (<1.30, 1.79-<2.30, 2.30-<3.20, and ≥3.20μg/dL) in relation to cognitive functioning using logistic (functional limitation) and linear (DSST scores) regression in SUDAAN, adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty-income ratio, education, and self-reported general health status. BLLs were not associated with self-reported confusion or memory problems in crude and adjusted analyses, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.0 (ref.), 0.9 (CI=0.7-1.3), 0.8 (CI=0.6-1.2), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.3), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.4), respectively, in increasing quintiles. Similarly, there was no clear association between performance on the DSST and BLL after accounting for all covariates. Our findings add to the inconsistent evidence regarding the association between concurrent BLLs and cognitive function in older adults. Early-life or long-term, accumulated lead exposures may be etiologically more relevant to accelerated cognitive decline at older age. PMID:21093481

  18. Blood lead levels and enzymatic biomarkers of environmental lead exposure in children in Cordoba, Argentina, after the ban of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Martínez, S A; Simonella, L; Hansen, C; Rivolta, S; Cancela, L M; Virgolini, M B

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant found in industrial activities, many of them already prohibited worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate current blood Pb (PbB) levels in children in Cordoba, Argentina, and to compare these with similar studies performed before Pb was banned in gasoline in 1996. We also sought to identify mechanistically relevant biomarkers by measuring δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. We finally aimed to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with Pb toxicity. Blood samples collected from 161 healthy children between September 2009 and February 2010 revealed mean PbB levels of 2.58 ± 0.30 µg/dl. Enzymatic δ-ALAD, CAT, and SOD activities showed no significant variations when plotted against PbB levels. Finally, children living in the suburbs have higher PbB levels than their city counterparts, while low socioeconomic status increased δ-ALAD inhibition compared with that of middle-income children. Overall, these results evidenced a substantial reduction in exposure to Pb in this pediatric population over a decade after Pb was restricted in gasoline and reveal the importance of pursuing novel biomarkers of toxicity along with the sociodemographic profile to complement Pb diagnosis.

  19. Blood lead levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: the BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Ana I; Cervantes-Amat, Marta; Esteban, Marta; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Mayor, Juan; Castaño, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the first baseline information on a national scale regarding lead exposure in the Spanish adult population. Blood lead levels were measured in a representative sample of the Spanish working population (1880 subjects aged 18-65 years) in order to help establish reference levels, follow temporal trends, identify high-exposure groups and to enable comparisons with other countries. All participants completed an epidemiological questionnaire including gender, age, occupational sector, geographic area, and dietary and lifestyle information. We found that the geometric mean of blood lead levels in the study population was 24.0μg/L (95% CI: 23.0-25.1μg/L), with women having significantly lower levels than men, 19.5μg/L (18.5-20.5μg/L) compared to 28.3μg/L (26.7-30.0μg/L), respectively. Mean blood lead levels were higher in elder groups in both genders. Women of a childbearing age had blood levels of 18.0μg/L (GM). Reference values (95%) for lead in blood in the studied population was 56.80μg/L, with -64.00μg/L, 44.80μg/L and 36.00μg/L for man, women and women of childbearing age, respectively. Workers from the service sector had lower blood lead levels than those from the construction, agricultural and industry sectors. Small, although significant, geographical differences had been found. In an European comparison, the Spanish population studied herein had lead levels similar to populations in countries such as France and Belgium, and slightly lower levels than Italian, Czech, German or UK populations.

  20. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  1. Blood lead levels and δ-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 μg/dl, range 0.49-25.61 μg/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 μg/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 μg/dl). Because δ-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited δ-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 μg/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and δ-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species.

  2. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    PubMed

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of < 10 microg/dL. In this report we provide information to help clinicians understand blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL, identify gaps in knowledge concerning lead levels in this range, and outline strategies to reduce childhood exposures to lead. We also summarize scientific data relevant to counseling, blood lead screening, and lead-exposure risk assessment. To aid in the interpretation of blood lead levels, clinicians should understand the laboratory error range for blood lead values and, if possible, select a laboratory that achieves routine performance within +/-2 microg/dL. Clinicians should obtain an environmental history on all children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and

  3. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  4. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  5. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures.

  6. Blood metal concentrations of manganese, lead, and cadmium in relation to serum ferritin levels in Ohio residents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wright, Chris W; Gocheva, Vihra V; Hudgens, Edward; Bowler, Rosemarie M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess ferritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents. Recruited participants included residents from Marietta, East Liverpool, and Mt. Vernon, OH, USA, who were aged 30-75 years and lived at least 10 years in their respective town. The levels of the neurotoxic metals such as manganese, cadmium, and lead were assayed in whole blood. Serum was analyzed for ferritin level [as a biomarker of iron (Fe) status]. An association between blood metal concentrations and independent variables (age, serum ferritin, manganese exposure status, and sex) by multiple regression analysis was assessed, controlling for various covariates such as BMI, educational level, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. Overall, the geometric means of blood manganese, cadmium, and lead levels of all participants (n = 276) were 9.307 μg/L, 0.393 μg/L, and 1.276 μg/dL, respectively. Log serum ferritin concentrations were inversely associated with log blood manganese concentration (β = -0.061 log ferritin and β = 0.146 categorical ferritin) and log blood cadmium concentrations (β = -0.090 log ferritin and β = 0.256 categorical ferritin). Log serum ferritin concentrations were not associated with log blood lead concentrations. Variables of age, sex, and exposure status were not associated with log manganese concentrations; however, log blood cadmium concentrations were higher in older population, women, and smokers. Log blood lead concentrations were higher in older population, men, and postmenopausal women. Our study showed that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood manganese and cadmium, but not blood lead, in Ohio residents. These metals showed different toxicokinetics in relation to age, sex, and menopausal status despite

  7. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.

  8. Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Avila, M; Gonzalez-Cossio, T; Palazuelos, E; Romieu, I; Aro, A; Fishbein, E; Peterson, K E; Hu, H

    1996-10-01

    Despite the recent declines in environmental lead exposure in the United States and Mexico, the potential for delayed toxicity from bone lead stores remains a significant public health concern. Some evidence indicates that mobilization of lead from bone may be markedly enhanced during the increased bone turnover of pregnancy and lactation, resulting in lead exposure to the fetus and the breast-fed infant. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of the interrelationships between environmental, dietary, and lifestyle histories, blood lead levels, and bone lead levels among 98 recently postpartum women living in Mexico City. Lead levels in the patella (representing trabecular bone) and tibia (representing cortical bone) were measured by K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF). Multivariate linear regression models showed that significant predictors of higher blood lead included a history of preparing or storing food in lead-glazed ceramic ware, lower milk consumption, and higher levels of lead in patella bone. A 34 micrograms/g increase in patella lead (from the medians of the lowest to the highest quartiles) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 2.4 micrograms/dl. Given the measurement error associated with KXRF and the extrapolation of lead burden from a single bone site, this contribution probably represents an underestimate of the influence of trabecular bone on blood lead. Significant predictors of bone lead in multivariate models included years living in Mexico City, lower consumption of high calcium content foods, and nonuse of calcium supplements for the patella and years living in Mexico City, older age, and lower calcium intake for tibia bone. Low consumption of milk and cheese, as compared to the highest consumption category (every day), was associated with an increase in tibia bone lead of 9.7 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that patella bone is a significant contributor to blood lead during lactation

  9. A community-initiated study of blood lead levels of Nicaraguan children living near a battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Morales Bonilla, C; Mauss, E A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In response to requests by parents in Managua, Nicaragua, whose neighborhood borders a battery factory, 97 children were tested for blood lead, as were 30 children in a neighborhood without an obvious source of environmental lead. METHODS: Venous blood was examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Educational workshops were conducted. RESULTS: Mean blood lead levels were 17.21 +/- 9.92 micrograms/dL in the index children and 7.40 +/- 5.37 micrograms/dL in the controls (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Children living near the battery factory are at increased risk of lead poisoning. The parents were able to petition the government to control the factory emissions and to improve appropriate health services. The factory is now closed. PMID:9842385

  10. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children ages 24-72 months: NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, RC; Long, DL; Jurevic, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels and the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children 24 to72 months using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 μg/dL as the reference blood lead level (N=3127). Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88, and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5 μg/dL, 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL, respectively when compared with children having less than 2 μg/dL blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14, and 1.91, respectively for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels and increasing numbers of carious teeth in children 24 to72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  11. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for

  12. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  13. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chiang, Han-Yueh; Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p<0.05 to p<0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 microg/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p<0.05-p<0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 microg/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  14. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  16. Blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupational short-term exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P; Birkner, Ewa; Chwalba, Artur; Hudziec, Edyta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-08-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a short-term exposure to lead on the blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 37 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44days. Their blood lead level raised from 10.7±7.67μg/dl at baseline to the level of 49.1±14.1μg/dl at the end of the study. The level of hemoglobin and values of MCH and MCHC were decreased due to a short-term exposure to lead by 2%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The counts of WBC, LYM, and MXD increased significantly by 5%, 7%, and 35%. Similarly, the count of PLT increased by 7%, while PDW, MPV, and P-LCR decreased by 6%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. The levels of IL-7, G-CSF, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, SCF, and PECAM-1, decreased significantly by 30%, 33%, 8%, 30%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. A short-term occupational exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level and increased counts of WBC and PLT. Changes in counts and proportions of different types of leukocytes and decreased values of PLT indices, such as PDW, MPV, and P-LCR, due to the subacute lead-exposure may be associated with lead-induced decreased levels of cytokines related to hematopoiesis, including SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF. PMID:27298078

  17. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bio-indicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans. PMID:19953418

  18. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-< 90 μg/dl blood lead and semen lead level was lowest 20.6 ± 8.60 μg/dl and 48.17 ± 51.33 μg/dl respectively and showed highest total count of sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-< 90 μg/dl and was 45.33 ± 26.62% and 36.67 ± 11.60% respectively and was statistically significant. At serum zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-< 80 μg/dl. Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-< 90 μg/dl. The results suggest that Serum zinc level of values 80-< 90 μg/dl is the optimum level to have the best impact on semen parameter as well it is the critical level at which the semen lead level is lowest. Serum zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  19. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France.

    PubMed

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-12-01

    The decline in children's Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008-2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child's address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria. PMID:26633457

  20. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France.

    PubMed

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-12-03

    The decline in children's Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008-2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child's address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria.

  1. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    PubMed Central

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria. PMID:26633457

  2. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  3. COMPLIANCE STATUS DOES NOT EFFECT CHANGES IN CHILDREN'S BLOOD LEAD LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Childhood lead poisoning is a well-recognized health concern. Lead-based paint in homes poses a particular risk for children, and protecting children from lead hazards remains an urgent public health need. This study sought to examine the housing factors affecting lon...

  4. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices were measured, and blood samples taken. Blood samples were tested to assess BLLs. Children's BLLs between the two groups were compared and factors associated with elevated BLLs among Guiyu children were analyzed by group Lasso logistic regression model. Results Children living in Guiyu had significant higher BLLs (7.06 µg/dL) than the quantity (5.89 µg/dL) of Haojiang children (P<0.05). Subgroup analyses of BLLs exceeding 10 µg/dL showed the proportion (24.80%) of high-level BLLs for Guiyu children was greater than that (12.84%) in Haojiang (P<0.05). Boys had greater BLLs than girls, irrespectively of areas (P<0.05). The number of e-waste piles or recycling workshops around the house (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 3.87) significantly contributed to the elevated BLLs of children in Guiyu, and girls had less risk (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83) of e-waste lead exposure than boys. Conclusions This analysis reinforces the importance of shifting e-waste recycling piles or workshops to non-populated areas as part of a comprehensive response to e-waste lead exposure control in Guiyu. To correct the problem of lead poisoning in children in Guiyu should be a long-term mission. PMID:25136795

  5. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  6. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb.

  7. The relationship between blood lead levels and periodontal bone loss in the United States, 1988-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Bruce A; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Brody, Debra J

    2002-01-01

    An association between bone disease and bone lead has been reported. Studies have suggested that lead stored in bone may adversely affect bone mineral metabolism and blood lead (PbB) levels. However, the relationship between PbB levels and bone loss attributed to periodontal disease has never been reported. In this study we examined the relationship between clinical parameters that characterize bone loss due to periodontal disease and PbB levels in the U.S. population. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994, for the analyses. A total of 10,033 participants 20-69 years of age who completed a periodontal examination and had whole blood tested for lead were examined. Four types of periodontal disease measures were used to indicate oral bone loss: periodontal pocket depth, attachment loss extent, attachment loss severity, and the presence of dental furcations. We found that dental furcations were the best periodontal bone loss indicator for PbB levels (p = 0.005) in a multivariate linear regression model adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, poverty status, smoking, and age of home. Furthermore, after additional modeling, we found a smoking and dental furcation interaction (p = 0.034). Subsequent stratified analyses indicated that current and past smoking is an effect modifier for dental furcations on PbB levels. These findings indicate that increased PbB levels may be associated with advanced periodontal bone loss, particularly among people with a history of smoking. PMID:12361924

  8. Association of maternal and child blood lead and hemoglobin levels with maternal perceptions of parenting their young children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Cook, Casey A; Queirolo, Elena I

    2011-12-01

    Biological and psychosocial factors affect child development and behavior. Whereas biological underpinnings behind the neurotoxic effects of lead are studied extensively, the effects of psychosocial factors contributing to poor behavioral outcomes in lead-exposed children are not well understood. Parental attributes and practices may moderate or mediate the effects of lead on children's behavioral outcomes. We investigated the hypothesis that maternal and child lead and hemoglobin levels are associated with maternal perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, we hypothesized that children with higher blood lead (BLL) and lower hemoglobin concentrations would be associated with poorer maternal self-assessments of their parenting skills or the mother-child relationship. Children aged 13-55 months and their mothers (n=109) were recruited from among the participants of a previous lead and anemia screening study and from preschools in Montevideo, Uruguay. The mother-child pair attended two study visits: one to collect biological samples and answer demographic and child questionnaires, including statements regarding parenting; and a second to evaluate maternal IQ, depression and stress, and child development. Of the children, 51.6% had blood lead concentrations (BLLs) ≥ 5 μg/dL, 18.0% had anemia, and 8% had both conditions. Among mothers, 48.4% had BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL, 16.0% had anemia, and 11% had both. BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL in mother or child were associated with lower maternal perceptions of being skilled at discipline (p<0.05). Maternal anemia was associated with lower likelihood that mothers would let their children explore and play (p<0.05), whereas child anemia was associated with maternal perception of lower emotional support (p<0.01). In addition to shared environmental exposures, parenting and family interactions need to be considered as potentially contributing factors to poorer outcomes in lead-exposed children. PMID:21925208

  9. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and when based on a child's risk for lead poisoning. Those who are considered at risk — such as ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? Lead Poisoning Pica Getting a Blood Test (Video) ...

  10. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  11. High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara – Nigeria and the potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ≥45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ≥400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71µg/dL (range: 8-332µg/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

  12. [Intelligence and neurocognitive tests among students living in a industrialized region of Sardinia with relatively low blood levels of lead].

    PubMed

    Carta, Plinio; Aru, Gabriella; Carta, Laura; Carta, Roberta; Ibba, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In several recent epidemiological studies blood lead levels (BLLs) even below the current CDC intervention level of 10 microg/dl have been associated with reduced neurocognitive capacities of children, with no clear evidence of a "safe" threshold. We analyzed the relationship between the BLLs and the neurocognitive capacities of 205 Sardinian students aged 11 to 15 years, using 2 tests of the Swedish Performance Evaluating System (SPES) and the full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). The studied population included 104 children (61 males and 43 females) living in Portoscuso, a town 2 Km far from a lead smelter (mean BLLs: 5.98 +/- 2.2; max 11.5 microg/dl), and 101 age-matched students (55 males and 46 females) living in Sant'Antioco, a town about 20 Km far from the same smelter (mean BLLs: 2.08 +/- 0.8; max 4.5 microg/dl). Subjects with BLLs above 4 microg/dl performed worse in the SPES tests and scored about 5.0 points less on the full-scale IQ compared to the students with lower BLLs. The adjusted regression coefficients derived from the multivariate analysis showed that higher BLLs were significantly associated with worse performances in the SPES tests and with reduced IQ (0.94 points for each microg/dl of BLL). This study confirms the potential neurotoxicity of low-levels of lead suggesting the need of lowering the actual CDC "limit of concern" for children to values lower than 4 microg/dl, improving at the same time the environmental primary prevention for limiting the lead exposure of subjects living near the lead smelter.

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated With the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    LaChance, Jenny; Sadler, Richard Casey; Champney Schnepp, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed differences in pediatric elevated blood lead level incidence before and after Flint, Michigan, introduced a more corrosive water source into an aging water system without adequate corrosion control. Methods. We reviewed blood lead levels for children younger than 5 years before (2013) and after (2015) water source change in Greater Flint, Michigan. We assessed the percentage of elevated blood lead levels in both time periods, and identified geographical locations through spatial analysis. Results. Incidence of elevated blood lead levels increased from 2.4% to 4.9% (P < .05) after water source change, and neighborhoods with the highest water lead levels experienced a 6.6% increase. No significant change was seen outside the city. Geospatial analysis identified disadvantaged neighborhoods as having the greatest elevated blood lead level increases and informed response prioritization during the now-declared public health emergency. Conclusions. The percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels increased after water source change, particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Water is a growing source of childhood lead exposure because of aging infrastructure. PMID:26691115

  14. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  15. The positive association between elevated blood lead levels and brain-specific autoantibodies in autistic children from low lead-polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; Bjørklund, Geir; Urbina, Mauricio A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2016-10-01

    The underlying pathogenic mechanism in autoimmune disorders is the formation of autoantibodies. In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it has been documented increased levels of brain-specific autoantibodies. Furthermore, lead (Pb) has been identified as one of the main neurotoxicants acting as environmental triggers for ASD as it induces neuroinflammation and autoimmunity. The present study is the first to explore a potential relationship between the levels of blood lead (BPb) and seropositivity of anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies in ASD children. Levels of BPb and serum anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies were measured in 60 children with ASD and 60 healthy control matched children, aged between 5 and 12 years, recruited from low Pb-polluted areas. The levels of BPb were significantly higher in ASD children than in healthy control children (P < 0.001). Patients with ASD had significantly higher frequency of increased BPb levels ≥10 μg/dL (43.3 %) than healthy control children (13.3 %; P < 0.001). There were significant and positive correlations between the levels of BPb, and the values of Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) (P < 0.01) and IQ in children with ASD (P < 0.001). Patients with ASD showing increased levels of BPb had significantly higher frequency of seropositivity of anti-ribosomal P antibodies (92.3 %) than patients with normal BPb levels (32.3 %; P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that increased levels of BPb in some children with ASD may trigger the production of serum anti-ribosomal P antibodies. Further research is warranted to determine if the production of brain autoantibodies is triggered by environmental Pb exposure in children with ASD. The possible therapeutic role of Pb chelators in ASD children should also be studied.

  16. Soil lead-blood lead relationship among Boston children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Bellinger, D.C.

    1988-12-01

    Lead contaminated soil has been consistently been found to contribute significantly to children's risk of blood lead elevation. An association between soil lead and blood lead has been reported for children in Holland, Rochester, New York, Omaha, Nebraska, Christchurch, New Zealand, and Kellogg, Idaho. The authors report on the connection between soil and blood lead levels among a group of Boston children in order to document this pattern of association in a specific setting which may be analogous to other situations of interest. The base population consisted of 11,837 consecutive births at the Boston Hospital for Women between April 1979 and April 1981.

  17. Persistent increase of blood lead level and suppression of δ-ALAD activity in northern bobwhite quail orally dosed with even a single 2-mm spent lead shot.

    PubMed

    Holladay, S D; Kerr, R; Holladay, J P; Meldrum, B; Williams, S M; Gogal, R M

    2012-10-01

    Birds that display grit ingestion behavior are potentially at risk of lead (Pb) poisoning from mistaken ingestion of spent Pb shot pellets. The majority of available studies designed to assess such risk have used unspent shot pellets rather than field-obtained spent shot, which is oxidized and otherwise changed by weathering. Available studies also often administered more or heavier shot pellets to a bird than it might be expected to ingest. The current study dosed northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) weighing 194.6 ± 23.1 g (female birds) and 199.3 ± 12.2 g (male birds) with one to three spent no. 9 Pb shot collected from a skeet range, with particular interest in the toxicity that may occur from ingestion of a single 2-mm, 50 mg shot. An 8 week post-dosing clinical observation period was employed, over which feed consumption, body weight, blood Pb levels, and a battery of blood physiological parameters were made. Weight loss occurred in the birds, including male birds dosed with one Pb pellet. Erythrocyte delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) levels were decreased for the duration of the study across exposures and to levels associated with injury in wild bird populations. Decreased ALAD was particularly severe in female birds dosed with one Pb pellet and was still 92 % decreased at 8 weeks after dosing. Together, these results suggest that inadvertent ingestion of a single no. 9 Pb shot pellet can adversely affect the health of northern bobwhite quail.

  18. Prediction of blood lead levels in children before and after remediation of soil samples in the upper Meza Valley, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2015-10-15

    The Meza Valley, Slovenia, has been contaminated by Pb smelting, resulting in an epidemic of lead poisoning in childhood. The potential of remediation with EDTA soil washing to mitigate the risk from Pb poisoning was investigated by applying the Integrated Exposure Uptake Bio-kinetic (IEUBK) model. Soils from 79 locations were collected and the total and bio-accessible Pb concentrations were determined before and after extraction with 60 mmol kg(-1) EDTA. Extraction reduced the soil Pb concentration in towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna by 53, 67 and 62%, respectively, and the concentration of in vitro bio-accessible Pb in the simulated human gastric phase by 2.6-, 3.2- and 2.9-times, respectively. The predictions of the IEUBK model based on Pb contamination data were verified with data on blood Pb levels in children. The IEUBK model predicted that, after soil remediation, the number of locations at which the expected blood Pb level in children was higher than the stipulated 10 μg d L(-1) would decrease by 90, 38 and 91% in the towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna, respectively. The results confirmed the feasibility of soil washing with EDTA as an efficient remediation measure in Mezica and Crna and advice for soil capping/removal for the most polluted town of Zerjav.

  19. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  20. Blood lead and cadmium levels and relevant factors among children from an e-waste recycling town in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Liangkai; Wu Kusheng; Li Yan; Qi Zongli; Han Dai; Zhang Bao; Gu Chengwu; Chen Gangjian; Liu Junxiao; Chen Songjian; Xu Xijin; Huo Xia

    2008-09-15

    Background: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, and thus toxic heavy metals may keep on threatening to the health of local children. Some related factors may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) or blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Objective: To investigate the children's BLLs and BCLs in Guiyu and Chendian as compare to discuss the effects of primitive e-waste recycling activities on children's health. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight children less than 8 years who lived in Guiyu and Chendian were observed, and their BLLs and BCLs were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Questionnaire survey for risk factors was also performed and data were analyzed using spearman correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs and BCLs as compared with those living in Chendian (p<0.01). In Guiyu, 70.8% of children (109/154) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL, and 20.1% of children (31/154) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L, compared with 38.7% of children (48/124) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL and 7.3% of children (9/124) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L in Chendian (p<0.01, respectively). We also observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p<0.01). Mean height of children in Guiyu was significantly lower than that in Chendian (p<0.01). The risk factors related to children's BLLs and BCLs mainly included father's engagement in the work related to e-waste, children's residence in Guiyu and the amount of time that children played outside near the road everyday. Conclusions: There are close relationships between the BLLs, BCLs in children and the primitive e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Environmental pollution, especially lead pollution, has threatened the health of children living around e-waste recycling site.

  1. Blood lead level and its association with body mass index and obesity in China - Results from SPECT-China study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Chi; Nie, Xiaomin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Zhai, Hualing; Lin, Dongping; Cui, Shiyong; Jensen, Michael D.; Lu, Yingli

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to report environmental and blood lead level (BLL) in China, and investigate the relationship of BLL with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. 5558 subjects were enrolled from 16 sites in China. BLL was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Median (interquartile range) of BLL was 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.16) for men and 37.79 μg/L (25.13–54.35) for women, about twice higher than in U.S. population. Subjects in rural and high-economic-status areas had significantly greater BLL (P < 0.001). However, in these areas, the lead levels in drinking water, river water and rice were comparable to or significantly lower than those in urban and low-economic-status areas. After adjustment for age, urbanization, economic status and metabolic factors, BLL was independently associated with BMI in women (P for trend < 0.001), but not in men. In fully adjusted model, increased quartiles of BLL were associated with significantly increased odds ratios of obesity (P for trend < 0.01) in women. In conclusion, BLLs in Chinese adults were much higher than in developed countries. There was a sex-specific association between BLL and BMI. Elevated BLL does not appear to be associated with lead levels in drinking water or rice, suggesting some other exposure source. PMID:26658662

  2. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  3. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl. PMID:9813839

  4. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  5. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposures to lead: recommendations of CDC's Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    PubMed

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant, and exposure to lead is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. Lead is associated with negative outcomes in children, including impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, CDC defined the blood lead level (BLL) that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, CDC also recognized that a BLL of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at BLLs < or =10 microg/dL. This report summarizes the findings of a review of clinical interpretation and management of BLLs < or =10 microg/dL conducted by CDC's Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. This report provides information to help clinicians understand BLLs < or =10 microg/dL, identifies gaps in knowledge concerning lead levels in this range, and outlines strategies to reduce childhood exposures to lead. In addition, this report summarizes scientific data relevant to counseling, blood lead screening, and lead exposure risk assessment. To aid in the interpretation of BLLs, clinicians should understand the laboratory error range for blood lead values and, if possible, select a laboratory that achieves routine performance within +/-2 microg/dL. Clinicians should obtain an environmental history on all children they examine, provide families with lead prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As local and patient circumstances permit, clinicians should consider early referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and consider more frequent rescreening of children with BLLs approaching 10 microg/dL, depending on the potential for exposure to lead, child age, and season of testing. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and

  6. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    PubMed Central

    Zolaly, Mohammed Adnan; Hanafi, Manal Ibrahim; Shawky, Nashaat; el-Harbi, Khalid; Mohamadin, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood), which often culminates in death. Objective To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents’ education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer. Results The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 μg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 μg/dL). A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 μg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 μg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 μg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 μg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 μg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 μg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR]) that affect BLLs (≥10 μg/dL) indicated that using cosmetics (OR = 18.5, confidence interval [CI] = 14.4–19.8), putting colored toys in mouth (OR = 15.7, CI = 3.6–16.2), eating canned food (OR = 9.8, CI = 7.0–10.1), and using newspaper during food preparation (OR = 7.6, CI = 6.3–8.2) are risk factors. There were significant correlations between BLLs and family habits (r = 0.225, P = 0.000), personal habits (r = 0.321, P = 0.000), eating habits (r = 0.128, P = 0.002) and school building characteristics (r = 0.469, P = 0.000). There was a significant correlation between BLLs and anemia in age group 6 < 12 years (P = 0.000) and age group 12

  7. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels. • Maternal HFE

  8. Blood lead level modifies the association between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Ho; Leem, Jong-Han; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2013-01-14

    Oxidative stress may be affected by lead exposure as well as antioxidants, yet little is known about the interaction between dietary antioxidants and blood lead levels (BLL) on oxidative stress level. We investigated the interaction between dietary antioxidants and BLL on oxidative stress level. As part of the Biomarker Monitoring for Environmental Health conducted in Seoul and Incheon, Korea, between April and December 2005, we analysed data from 683 adults (female = 47·4 %, mean age 51·4 (sd 8·4) years) who had complete measures on BLL, dietary intakes and oxidative stress marker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)). Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, BLL was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 8-OHdG by ELISA. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the association between dietary antioxidants and 8-OHdG. Geometric means of BLL and 8-OHdG concentrations were 4·1 (sd 1·5) μg/dl and 5·4 (sd 1·9) μg/g creatinine, respectively. Increases of vitamins C and E were significantly associated with the decrease of log10 8-OHdG in the adults from the lowest quartile of the BLL group (≤ 3·18 μg/dl, geometric mean = 2·36 μg/dl) than those of the highest quartile BLL group (>5·36 μg/dl, geometric mean = 6·78 μg/dl). Regarding antioxidant-related foods, vegetables excluding kimchi showed a higher inverse relationship with 8-OHdG in the lowest quartile BLL group than the highest group. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the BLL and increasing the intake of dietary antioxidants in the urban population in Korea.

  9. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar. PMID:25608177

  10. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar.

  11. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-07-01

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother-placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR-RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods.

  12. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-07-01

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother-placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR-RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. PMID:25981872

  13. Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

  14. Availability and comparability of human biomonitoring data across Europe: a case-study on blood-lead levels.

    PubMed

    Smolders, R; Alimonti, A; Cerna, M; Den Hond, E; Kristiansen, J; Palkovicova, L; Ranft, U; Seldén, A I; Telisman, S; Schoeters, G

    2010-02-15

    Recently, it has become clear that the complexity of environmental health issues requires an approach that takes into account the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. An urgent issue that has surfaced is the need for accurate tools to better describe exposure characterization to environmental chemicals. By including human biomonitoring (HBM) data, a greater precision in exposure and associated risk estimates and more accurate dose-response relationships may be achieved. A restricting issue still is the availability of reliable and comparable HBM data. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to find out whether it is practically feasible to collect raw, individual HBM data across Europe; and (2) to evaluate the comparability and use of these HBM data for environmental health impact assessment at a European scale. Blood-lead (B-Pb) was selected as the chemical of choice because of its long history as an environmental pollutant in HBM programs and its known public health relevance. Through literature search and identification of HBM experts across Europe, HBM programs that measured B-Pb were identified and asked to share individual data on age, gender and B-Pb levels. Following this request, more than 20,000 individual data points from 8 European countries were collected. Analysing these data made clear that it is difficult to use disparate data collections because of the inherent variability with respect to the gender and age of participants and calendar-years sampled. When these confounders were taken however, there was no additional variability in B-Pb distributions among different countries. It was concluded that while it is possible to collect HBM data from different sources across Europe, the need to get data from comparable (sub-)populations is essential for appropriate use and interpretation of HBM data for environmental health impact assessment.

  15. Contribution of lead from calcium supplements to blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Palmer, J M; Korsch, M J; Taylor, A J

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to determine the contribution of lead to blood from consumption of calcium supplements approximating the recommended daily intakes over a 6-month period. Subjects were males and females ages 21 to 47 years (geometric mean 32 years) with a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 2.5 microg/dL. They were subdivided into three groups. One treatment group (n = 8) was administered a complex calcium supplement (carbonate/phosphate/citrate) and the other treatment group (n = 7) calcium carbonate. The control group (n = 6) received no supplement. The lead isotopic compositions of the supplements were completely different from those of the blood of the subjects, allowing us easily to estimate contribution from the supplements. The daily lead dose from the supplements at 100% compliance was about 3 microg Pb. Three blood samples were taken at 2-month intervals before treatment to provide background values, and three were taken during treatment. Subjects in the treatment group were thus their own controls. Lead isotopic compositions for the complex supplement showed minimal change during treatment compared with pretreatment. Lead isotopic compositions in blood for the calcium carbonate supplement showed increases of up to 0.5% in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio, and for all isotope ratios there was a statistically significant difference between baseline and treatment (p < 0.005). The change from baseline to treatment for the calcium carbonate supplement differed from that for both the control group and the group administered the complex supplement. Blood lead concentrations, however, showed minimal changes. Variations in blood lead levels over time did not differ significantly between groups. Our results are consistent with earlier investigations using radioactive and stable lead tracers, which showed minimal gastrointestinal absorption of lead in the presence of calcium (+/- phosphorus) in adults. Even though there is no discernible increase in

  16. Contribution of lead in dust to children's blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, M J

    1983-01-01

    The importance of urban dust as a source of lead for young children is still disputed. Although blood-lead data from various population surveys usually show a peak concentration in early childhood, there is evidence that such a peak is small or absent altogether in children without much access to the general environment. An examination of those studies where groups of people in regions of low and high lead contamination have been compared shows that the child/adult blood-lead ratio is almost always enhanced in the more exposed groups. This implies a route of lead uptake which is important for children but less so for adults, and it is likely that this route is the dust-hand-mouth one. There are sufficient data to suggest a quantitative relationship between raised levels of blood lead and lead in dust. There is a strong case for a lead-in-dust standard but some will probably remain unpersuaded unless or until there are reliable data for blood lead and environmental lead involving matched groups of young people from urban and rural areas. PMID:6873030

  17. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  18. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  19. Comparison of the entropy technique with two other techniques for detecting disease clustering using data from children with high blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Swartz, J B; Rothenberg, S J; Teklehaimanot, S; Khan, F

    1999-04-15

    The entropy technique was compared with two other case-control techniques for detecting disease clustering using data on blood lead levels of children who were patients at the King/Drew Medical Center in South-Central Los Angeles in 1991 to 1994. The other two methods are the nearest neighbor technique (NNT) and Moran's IPOP technique, a variation of Moran's I test, in which rates are adjusted for population size. Four different blood lead levels (15 microg/dl, 20 microg/dl, 30 microg/dl, 35 microg/dl) were used as cutoff levels to designate cases. Persons with blood lead levels greater than or equal to the cutoff level were designated as cases. The authors found significant clustering for all four cutoff levels using the entropy method, and for the first three cutoff levels using the NNT. They found significant clustering with Moran's IPOP for some scales for two of the cutoff levels. While performance of the entropy technique and the NNT were independent of scale, that of Moran's IPOP was highly scale-dependent.

  20. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ≥5 μg/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water.

  1. Variation in an Iron Metabolism Gene Moderates the Association Between Blood Lead Levels and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Elmore, Alexis L.; Natarajan, Neil; Friderici, Karen H.; Nikolas, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental condition, there is also considerable scientific and public interest in environmental modulators of its etiology. Exposure to neurotoxins is one potential source of perturbation of neural, and hence psychological, development. Exposure to lead in particular has been widely investigated and is correlated with neurodevelopmental outcomes, including ADHD. To investigate whether this effect is likely to be causal, we used a Mendelian randomization design with a functional gene variant. In a case-control study, we examined the association between ADHD symptoms in children and blood lead level as moderated by variants in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. The HFE gene regulates iron uptake and secondarily modulates lead metabolism. Statistical moderation was observed: The magnitude of the association of blood lead with symptoms of ADHD was altered by functional HFE genotype, which is consistent with a causal hypothesis. PMID:26710823

  2. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Blood Lead Level, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status of Battery Manufacturing Workers of Western Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghanwat, Ganesh; Patil, Jyotsna; Kshirsagar, Mandakini; Sontakke, Ajit; Ayachit, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high blood lead level induces oxidative stress and alters the antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers. Supplementation of vitamin C is beneficial to reduce the oxidative stress and to improve the antioxidant status of these workers. Aim The main aim of this study was to observe the changes in blood lead levels, oxidative stress i.e. serum lipid peroxide and antioxidant status parameters such as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase and serum nitrite after the vitamin C supplementation in battery manufacturing workers. Materials and Methods This study included 36 battery manufacturing workers from Western Maharashtra, India, having age between 20-60 years. All study group subjects were provided vitamin C tablets (500 mg/day for one month) and a blood sample of 10 ml each was drawn by puncturing the anterior cubital vein before and after vitamin C supplementation. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using the standard methods. Results Blood lead levels were not significantly altered, however, serum lipid peroxide (p<0.001, -15.56%) and serum nitrite (p<0.001, -21.37%) levels showed significant decrease and antioxidant status parameters such as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (p<0.001, 38.02%) and catalase (p<0.001, 32.36%) revealed significant increase in battery manufacturing workers after the supplementation of vitamin C. Conclusion One month vitamin C supplementation in battery manufacturing workers is not beneficial to decrease the blood lead levels. However, it is helpful to reduce the lipid peroxidation and nitrite formation and enhances the erythrocytes superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. PMID:27190789

  3. Possible Relationship between Chronic Telogen Effluvium and Changes in Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Iron Total Blood Levels in Females: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Abeer M; Sh Hamed, Sameera; Gaballah, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hair loss is a common and distressing problem that can affect both males and females of all ages. Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) is idiopathic diffuse scalp hair shedding of at least 6 months duration. Hair loss can be one of the symptoms of metal toxicity. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic metals that can cause acute and chronic health problems in human. The aim of the present study is to determine if there is a relationship between these metals and CTE in women and if CTE is also associated with changes in zinc (Zn) or iron (Fe) blood levels. Materials and Methods: Pb, Cd, Fe and Zn total blood levels were determined in 40 female patients fulfilling the criteria of CTH and compared with total blood levels of same elements in 30 well-matched healthy women. Results: Quantitative analysis of total blood Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd revealed that there were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding Fe, Zn, and Pb. Yet, Cd level was significantly higher in patients than controls. In addition, Cd level showed significant positive correlation with the patient's body weight. Conclusion: Estimation of blood Pb and Cd levels can be important in cases of CTE as Cd toxicity can be the underlying hidden cause of such idiopathic condition. PMID:26622152

  4. "One-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis of lead levels in blood using a foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde and disposable screen-printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanfang; Xu, Lubin; Li, Shuying; Chen, Qi; Yang, Daoshan; Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Hua

    2015-03-21

    A foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde (mPMF) was synthesized and further deposited on disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electroanalysis of Pb(2+) ions in blood. Investigations indicate that the prepared mPMF is ultrastable in water, showing a mesoporous structure and an amine-rich composition, as characterized by electronic microscopy images and IR spectra. Importantly, it possesses a highly-selective chelating ability and a powerful absorbent capacity for Pb(2+) ions. By way of solid-state PbCl2 voltammetry, the mPMF-modified sensor could allow for the detection of Pb(2+) ions in one drop of blood with a high detection selectivity, sensitivity (down to about 0.10 μg L(-1) Pb(2+) ions) and reproducibility. Such a simple "one-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis method equipped with disposable SPEs and a portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable or on-site monitoring of blood Pb(2+) levels in the clinical laboratory.

  5. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low.

  6. Maternal Anxiety and Lead Levels in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiklin, Harris; Mosher, Barbara

    There is a relationship between maternal anxiety and lead levels in children. Data were collected from the mothers of 15 children with "normal" lead levels and 15 children with elevated blood levels. Anxiety was measured by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. All families lived in areas with poor housing. Treatment of lead poisoning tends to focus…

  7. Seasonality and Children’s Blood Lead Levels: Developing a Predictive Model Using Climatic Variables and Blood Lead Data from Indianapolis, Indiana, Syracuse, New York, and New Orleans, Louisiana (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Mielke, Howard W.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Johnson, David L.; Gonzales, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    On a community basis, urban soil contains a potentially large reservoir of accumulated lead. This study was undertaken to explore the temporal relationship between pediatric blood lead (BPb), weather, soil moisture, and dust in Indianapolis, Indiana; Syracuse, New York; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Indianapolis, Syracuse, and New Orleans pediatric BPb data were obtained from databases of 15,969, 14,467, and 2,295 screenings, respectively, collected between December 1999 and November 2002, January 1994 and March 1998, and January 1998 and May 2003, respectively. These average monthly child BPb levels were regressed against several independent variables: average monthly soil moisture, particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter (PM10), wind speed, and temperature. Of temporal variation in urban children’s BPb, 87% in Indianapolis (R2 = 0.87, p = 0.0004), 61% in Syracuse (R2 = 0.61, p = 0.0012), and 59% in New Orleans (R2 = 0.59, p = 0.0000078) are explained by these variables. A conceptual model of urban Pb poisoning is suggested: When temperature is high and evapotranspiration maximized, soil moisture decreases and soil dust is deposited. Under these combined weather conditions, Pb-enriched PM10 dust disperses in the urban environment and causes elevated Pb dust loading. Thus, seasonal variation of children’s Pb exposure is probably caused by inhalation and ingestion of Pb brought about by the effect of weather on soils and the resulting fluctuation in Pb loading. PMID:15929906

  8. Effect of Pregnancy on the Levels of Blood Cadmium and Lead: analysis of 2006–2011 Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Kangsheng; GU, Pingqing; CHEN, Wenjun; SHI, Juan; SHI, Chuan; XIA, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prenatal lead exposure could not only affect various organ systems of the mother, but also provide a plumbeous environment for the fetus and newborns, and may affect the fetus in a number of detrimental ways. The aim of this study was to adequately determine the interaction between these factors and risky behaviors such as smoking. Methods: Data from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital survey during the years of 2006–2011 were used (n = 4400) to evaluate the effections of age, parity, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, pregnancy, iron (Fe) storage status and smoking status on the consumption of the levels of blood cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) of females aged 16–35yr old. The blood samples were sent to determine blood lead / cadmium concentration by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). STATA 12.1 software (www.stata.com) was used to fit regression models for each of the two metals. Results: For both of the two metals, age was positively while BMI was negatively associated with the levels of these metals in blood. Smokers showed statistically significantly higher levels of Cd and Pb (P=0.007), while irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to nonsmokers. Conclusion: Novel to this study, pregnancy was found to be associated with significantly lower levels of Cd and Pb, while irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to non-pregnant females. It is conceivable that pregnancy could thus accelerate clearance of these metals in the blood. PMID:24427748

  9. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  10. Silver Valley lead study: further analysis of the relationship between blood lead and air lead

    SciTech Connect

    Snee, R.D.

    1982-02-01

    Blood lead and air lead levels of children who lived within 32 km of a smelter in Kellogg, ID were measured in 1974 and 1975. While an analysis of the 1974 survey has appeared, the results of the 1975 survey and an evaluation of the change in blood lead levels of those children who participated in both the 1974 and 1975 surveys has not previously been discussed in the literature. It is concluded that, for these data, in the air lead range of 0.5-5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, the blood lead-air lead relationship can be adequately described by blood lead-air lead slope which is approximately 1.0 and at most 1.4. This slope was also found to be independent of children's age. It is shown that an accurate estimate of the blood lead-air lead relationship cannot be obtained without taking proper account of selected environmental variables; specifically, pica, sex, age, father's work status, education, and home cleanliness.

  11. Relationships of video assessments of touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards to parental perceptions of child behaviors and blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Ko, Stephen; Schaefer, Peter D; Vicario, Cristina M; Binns, Helen J

    2007-01-01

    Childrens' touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards were measured using video observations. Descriptions were made of childrens' outdoor residential play environments. Behaviors assessed were used to examine (1) validity of parental responses to questions on childrens' oral behaviors and outdoor play and (2) relationships of mouthing behaviors to blood lead levels (BLLs). Thirty-seven children aged 1-5 years were recruited for 2 h of video recording in their yard and blood lead measurement. Video assessments included hourly rates of hand touches to ground/walking-level surfaces (cement/stone/steel, porch floor/steps, grass, and bare soil) and oral behaviors. Parental questionnaires assessed their child's outdoor activities, behaviors, and home environment. The children were: mean 39 months; 51% male; 89% Hispanic; and 78% Medicaid or uninsured. Twenty-two children had a blood lead measured (mean 6 microg/dl). During taping, all children had access to cement, 92% to grass, 73% to bare soil, and 59% to an open porch. Children had frequent touching and mouthing behaviors observed (median touches/h: touches to surfaces 81; hand-to-mouth area (with and without food) 26; hand-in-mouth 7; and object-in-mouth 17). Blood lead was directly correlated with log-transformed rates of hand-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.564, n=22, P=0.006) and object-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.482, n=22, P=0.023) behaviors. Parental questionnaire responses did not accurately reflect childrens' observed oral behaviors, play habits, or play environment. These data confirm the direct relationship between hand-to-mouth activities and BLLs and fail to validate parental perceptions of their child's mouthing behaviors or outdoor play environment. PMID:16941017

  12. Association of Cord Blood Levels of Lead, Arsenic, and Zinc and Home Environment with Children Neurodevelopment at 36 Months Living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Umezaki, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Background Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level prenatal lead exposure and child development. Because of limited earlier epidemiological studies with birth cohort follow up design, it still remains inconclusive that either the associations of cord blood level of toxic, and essential elements, and postnatal raising environment on neurodevelopment of children remains constant throughout childhood or change over time. Aims This study aims to investigate the influence of in utero toxic [lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] and essential elements [zinc (Zn)] levels on neurodevelopment of 36 months children in Chitwan valley, Nepal taking the postnatal environment into account. Study Designs and Subjects In this birth cohort study, participants (N=100 mother-infants’ pairs) were recruited in Chitwan district, Nepal. We measured Pb, As and Zn concentrations in cord blood. Postnatal raising environment (i.e., Home score or home environment hereafter) was evaluated using Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 36 months of age (n=70) were assessed using Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariate regression was performed (n=70) to see the association of in utero toxic and essential elements level and home environment with neurodevelopment score adjusted for covariates. Results Cord blood levels of Pb, As and Zn were not associated with any BSID II cluster scores of 36 months children. The children with relatively superior HOME score and concurrent nutritional status (weight at 36 months) showed better cognitive development (i.e., MDI scores) and motor functions than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion In this general population in Nepal, prenatal Pb, As and Zn levels are not important determinants of the neurodevelopment of 36- month-old children while a consistent beneficial effect of a stimulating home environment on neurodevelopmental indicators

  13. Relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1988-06-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an elevated blood lead level was a significant predictor of subsequent systolic blood pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed association. These data suggest that blood lead level can influence systolic blood pressure even within the normal range.

  14. Balance ability in 7- and 10-year-old children: associations with prenatal lead and cadmium exposure and with blood lead levels in childhood in a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M; Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most studies reporting evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on the ability to balance have been conducted in high-exposure groups or have included adults. The effects of prenatal exposure have not been well studied, nor have the effects in children been directly studied. The aim of the study was to identify the associations of lead (in utero and in childhood) and cadmium (in utero) exposure with the ability to balance in children aged 7 and 10 years. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Participants Maternal blood lead (n=4285) and cadmium (n=4286) levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) during pregnancy. Child lead levels were measured in a subsample of 582 of ALSPAC children at age 30 months. Main outcome measures Children completed a heel-to-toe walking test at 7 years. At 10 years, the children underwent clinical tests of static and dynamic balance. Statistical analysis using SPSS V.19 included logistic regression modelling, comparing categories of ≥5 vs <5 µg/dL for lead, and ≥1 vs <1 µg/L for cadmium. Results Balance at age 7 years was not associated with elevated in utero lead or cadmium exposure (adjusted OR for balance dysfunction: Pb 1.01 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01), n=1732; Cd 0.95 (0.77 to 1.20), n=1734), or with elevated child blood lead level at age 30 months (adjusted OR 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05), n=354). Similarly, neither measures of static nor dynamic balance at age 10 years were associated with in utero lead or cadmium exposure, or child lead level. Conclusions These findings do not provide any evidence of an association of prenatal exposure to lead or cadmium, or lead levels in childhood, on balance ability in children. Confirmation in other cohorts is needed. PMID:26719320

  15. Home environment and cord blood levels of lead, arsenic, and zinc on neurodevelopment of 24 months children living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Fujiwara, Takeo; Umezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and neurodevelopment at birth measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III). In the present paper, a follow-up of the same cohort was made on 24-month-old infants regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of these metals, taking the postnatal environment into account. In total, the same100 mother-infant pairs as the previous study, whose Pb, As, and Zn concentrations in cord blood were known, were recruited. Postnatal raising environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 24 months of age (n=74) was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariable regression adjusting for covariates was performed to determine the associations of in utero levels of toxic and essential elements and the home environment with neurodevelopment scores. Unlike the NBAS III conducted for newborns, none of the BSID II cluster scores in 24-month-old infants were associated with cord blood levels of Pb, As, and Zn. The total HOME score was positively associated with the mental development scale (MDI) score (coefficient=0.67, at 95% CI=0.03 to 1.31). In this cohort, a detrimental effect of in utero Pb and As on neurodevelopmental indicators observed at birth disappeared at 24 months, while an association between neurodevelopment and home environment continued.

  16. Relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure.

  17. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, D S; Osterloh, J; Becker, C E; Bernard, B; Smith, A H; Fisher, J M; Syme, S L; Holman, B L; Johnston, T

    1988-01-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressures varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 micrograms/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (micrograms/dL) [90% C. I., -1.6, 5.3]. The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (micrograms/dL) [90% C. I., 0.1, 4.9]. These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure. PMID:3203632

  18. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  19. Association of blood lead levels with urinary F2-8α Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-Guanosine concentrations in first-grade Uruguayan children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Aditi; Queirolo, Elena; Peregalli, Fabiana; Mañay, Nelly; Martínez, Gabriela; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a potential molecular mechanism for lead-induced toxicities, yet, we have limited understanding of the relation between low-level lead (Pb) exposure and OS, especially in children. This cross-sectional study examines the association between blood lead level (BLL) and two OS markers—urinary F2-8α isoprostane or isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-Guanosine or 8-OH-dG (a marker of DNA damage) in 211 children, aged 5–8 years, from Montevideo, Uruguay. The role of dietary intakes of vitamin C and zinc in modifying the relation between BLL and OS was also examined. The mean (SD) BLL of the study children was 4.7 (2.2) μg/dL, with 30.2% children having BLL ≥5 μg/dL, the current reference level set by the US Centre for Disease Control for identifying, monitoring and management of children with elevated BLL. In covariate-adjusted analysis, there was a weak positive association between BLL and urinary isoprostane (adjusted for specific gravity) [β = 0.09, p< 0.1]. No association was found between children’s BLL and urinary 8-OH-dG. Interactions between dietary intakes of vitamin C or zinc and BLL on OS biomarkers were not consistent. However, when BLL and vitamin C or BLL and zinc were modeled together, BLL was independently associated with isoprostane concentration [β = 0.10, p< 0.05] but vitamin C or zinc intake was not. These findings suggest that there may be a potential adverse effect of BLL on OS in children with low-level Pb exposure. There is a need to study the effects of Pb on other OS measures, as well as the role of OS in mediating low-level Pb toxicity on functional outcomes. PMID:25863186

  20. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  1. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    PubMed

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  2. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  3. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-03-25

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River.

  4. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-04-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  5. Home environment and cord blood levels of lead, arsenic, and zinc on neurodevelopment of 24 months children living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Fujiwara, Takeo; Umezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and neurodevelopment at birth measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III). In the present paper, a follow-up of the same cohort was made on 24-month-old infants regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of these metals, taking the postnatal environment into account. In total, the same100 mother-infant pairs as the previous study, whose Pb, As, and Zn concentrations in cord blood were known, were recruited. Postnatal raising environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 24 months of age (n=74) was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariable regression adjusting for covariates was performed to determine the associations of in utero levels of toxic and essential elements and the home environment with neurodevelopment scores. Unlike the NBAS III conducted for newborns, none of the BSID II cluster scores in 24-month-old infants were associated with cord blood levels of Pb, As, and Zn. The total HOME score was positively associated with the mental development scale (MDI) score (coefficient=0.67, at 95% CI=0.03 to 1.31). In this cohort, a detrimental effect of in utero Pb and As on neurodevelopmental indicators observed at birth disappeared at 24 months, while an association between neurodevelopment and home environment continued. PMID:25213681

  6. Blood lead concentration after a shotgun accident.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Dahlin, Lars; Knebel, Richard; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-01-01

    In an accidental shooting, a man in his late forties was hit in his left shoulder region by about 60 lead pellets from a shotgun. He had injuries to the vessels, the clavicle, muscles, and nerves, with total paralysis of the left arm due to axonal injury. After several surgical revisions and temporary cover with split skin, reconstructive surgery was carried out 54 days after the accident. The brachial plexus was swollen, but the continuity of the nerve trunks was not broken (no neuroma present). We determined the blood lead (BPb) concentration during a follow-up period of 12 months. The BPb concentration increased considerably during the first months. Although 30 lead pellets were removed during the reconstructive surgery, the BPb concentration continued to rise, and reached a peak of 62 microg/dL (3.0 micromol/L) on day 81. Thereafter it started to decline. Twelve months after the accident, BPb had leveled off at about 30 microg/dL. At that time, muscle and sensory functions had partially recovered. The BPb concentration exceeded 30 microg/dL for 9 months, which may have influenced the recovery rate of nerve function. Subjects with a large number of lead pellets or fragments embedded in the body after shooting accidents should be followed for many years by regular determinations of BPb. To obtain a more stable basis for risk assessment, the BPb concentrations should be corrected for variations in the subject's hemoglobin concentration or erythrocyte volume fraction. PMID:11781173

  7. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Domeneh, Behrooz Hashemi; Tavakoli, Nader; Jafari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD) = 6.06) in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61) and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83). Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59) were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption. PMID:25538776

  8. Influence of membrane sodium transport upon the relation between blood lead and blood pressure in a general male population.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, T; Hannaert, P; Orssaud, G; Huel, G; Garay, R P; Claude, J R; Juguet, B; Festy, B; Lellouch, J

    1988-01-01

    Five red blood cell cation transport systems (RBCTS), together with blood lead level and blood pressure, were measured in 129 male adult subjects who were not occupationally exposed to lead or subsequent to a course of treatment for hypertension. Blood lead was positively related with systolic blood pressure, and to a lesser degree with diastolic blood pressure. Blood lead was found significantly negatively related to one of the RBCTS, Na+,K+ cotransport, and in addition, Na+,K+ cotransport appeared negatively related to blood pressure. Final results showed that blood lead no longer accounts for an increase in systolic blood pressure when Na+,K+ cotransport was taken into account; the same trend was observed with diastolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that a blood lead-related Na+,K+ cotransport impairment could explain the blood pressure increase observed to parallel the blood lead increase. PMID:3203645

  9. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  10. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S.

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  11. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  12. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults: selective update of 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force Review. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and ... 2016:chap 206. Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: U.S. ...

  13. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  14. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Patel, Devesh Kumar

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 microL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 microL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL(-1) lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL(-1). The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility. PMID:20004520

  15. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also ... sugar levels. continue How to Check Blood Sugar Levels Blood glucose testing is easier, less painful, and ...

  16. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children. PMID:22617721

  17. The potential effect of metallothionein 2A - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on blood cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha Aliyev, Vugar; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-10-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. Because of their rich thiol groups, MTs bind to the biologically essential metals and perform these metals' homeostatic regulations; absorb the heavy metals and assist with their transportation and extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) core promoter region - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu levels in the blood samples. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using the 616 blood samples and the genotype frequencies were found as 86.6% homozygote typical (AA), 12.8% heterozygote (AG) and 0.6% homozygote atypical (GG). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system and the average levels of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the blood samples were 1.69 {+-} 1.57 ppb, 30.62 {+-} 14.13 ppb, 0.98 {+-} 0.49 ppm and 1.04 {+-} 0.45 ppm, respectively. As a result; highly statistically significant associations were detected between the - 5 A/G core promoter region SNP in the MT2A gene and Cd, Pb and Zn levels (p = 0.004, p = 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively), but no association was found with Cu level (p = 0.595). Individuals with the GG genotype had statistically lower Zn level and higher Cd and Pb levels in the blood samples than individuals with AA and AG genotypes. This study suggests that having the GG genotype individuals may be more sensitive for the metal toxicity and they should be more careful about protecting their health against the toxic effects of the heavy metals. - Highlights: > MT2A -5A/G SNP has strong effect on the Cd, Pb and Zn levels in the blood. > MT2A GG individuals should be more careful for their health against metal toxicity. > This SNP might be considered as a biomarker for risk of disease related to metals.

  18. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  19. EFFECT MEASURE MODIFICATION OF BLOOD LEAD-AIR LEAD SLOPE FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is abundant literature finding that blood lead (PbB) levels are directly influenced by susceptibility factors including race and ethnicity, age, and housing. However, no study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the PbB-air lead (PbA) relationship...

  20. Chronic exposure of mice to environmentally relevant, low doses of cadmium leads to early renal damage, not predicted by blood or urine cadmium levels.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Sandy; Maringwa, John; Faes, Christel; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2007-01-01

    Mice were exposed to cadmium (Cd) concentrations ranging from 0 to 100mg CdCl(2)/l in the drinking water for 1, 4, 8, 16 and 23 weeks. Urine samples were taken regularly, Cd content was determined in blood, liver, kidney and urine and histological analyses of the kidney were performed. Kidney cortex Cd content increased linearly with time and dose, while blood levels reached a plateau at 8 weeks and liver at 16 weeks in mice exposed to 100mg CdCl(2)/l after which both started to decrease. Urinary Cd levels were not correlated with the kidney Cd content. A multivariate regression model taking into account the actual Cd intake, calculated from the volume of water taken in by each animal and the exposure concentration, confirmed that blood is an indicator of acute exposure, while kidney Cd content is a reliable indicator of chronic exposure. The urinary protein content was significantly increased from 16 weeks on in mice exposed to 100mg CdCl(2)/l (p<0.05), while other signs of proximal tubular damage (glucosuria, enzymuria) were not detected. Histologically more vacuoles and lysosomes were present in the proximal tubule cells with increasing time and dose. The results indicate that chronic exposure to low doses of Cd induced functional and histological signs of early damage at concentrations in or below the ones generally accepted as safe. Our study does not corroborate the statement that urine Cd levels are a reliable indicator of total Cd body burden, at least when the body burden is low.

  1. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values. PMID:27178291

  2. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  3. Effect measure modification of blood lead-air lead slope factors.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Cohen, Jonathan; Davis, J Allen; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant literature finding that susceptibility factors, including race and ethnicity, age, and housing, directly influence blood lead levels. No study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the blood lead-air lead relationship nationally. The objective is to evaluate whether susceptibility factors act as effect measure modifiers on the blood lead-air lead relationship. Participant level blood lead data from the 1999 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with air lead data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models were run with and without an air lead interaction term for age group, sex, housing age, or race/ethnicity to determine whether these factors are effect measure modifiers for all ages combined and for five age brackets. Age group and race/ethnicity were determined to be effect measure modifiers in the all-age model and for some age groups. Being a child (1-5, 6-11, and 12-19 years) or of Mexican-American ethnicity increased the effect estimate. Living in older housing (built before 1950) decreased the effect estimate for all models except for the 1-5-year group, where older housing was an effect measure modifier. These results are consistent with the peer-reviewed literature of time-activity patterns, ventilation, and toxicokinetics. PMID:24961837

  4. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J

    1991-01-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES II survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males aged 20 to 74 and documents a significant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES II, this study confirms the expected association of lead with left ventricular hypertrophy (p less than 0.01). Such an association with permanent cardiovascular changes adds weight to the blood pressure findings. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study's association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared to the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the U.S., but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure. PMID:1828226

  5. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency leads to prolonged foreign body response in the brain associated with increased IL-1β levels and leakage of the blood brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Weiming; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes with specificity towards extracellular matrix (ECM) components. MMPs, especially MMP-9, have been shown to degrade components of the basal lamina and disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus, contribute to neuroinflammation. In the present study we examined the role of MMP-9 in the foreign body response in the brain. Millipore filters of mixed cellulose ester were implanted into the brain cortex of wild type and MMP-9 -null mice for a period of 2 d to 8 wks and the response was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. We observed enhanced and prolonged neuroinflammation in MMP-9-null mice, evidenced by persistence of neutrophils, macrophages/microglia, and reactive astrocytes up to 8 wks post-implantation. In addition, blood vessel density around implants was increased in MMP-9-null mice and detection of mouse serum albumin (MSA) indicated that vessels were leaky. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that this defect was associated with the absence of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and ZO-2 from vessels in proximity to implants. Analysis of brain sections and brain protein extracts revealed that the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which is a substrate for MMP-9, were significantly higher in MMP-9-null mice at 8wks post-implantation. Collectively, our studies suggest that increased levels of IL-1β and the delayed repair of BBB are associated with prolongation of the FBR in MMP-9-null mice. PMID:19264129

  7. Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee

    2003-01-01

    To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended dietary allowances for zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D, and kilocalories. As expected, MBPb was strongly and positively related to NBPb. Among the anthropometric measures of maternal nutritional status, variables measuring gain in weight and arm circumference were negatively related to NBPb. In multivariable models reflecting different analytic strageties and including MBPb, anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D were negatively related to NBPb. The effect of zinc varied substantially depending on model covariates. Effects of dietary constituents are difficult to distinguish, given the intercorrelated nature of nutrients in the diet. Nevertheless, the influences of maternal anthropometric variables, iron, and vitamin D on neonatal lead levels are clear in our analyses. PMID:12573905

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.

  9. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  10. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  11. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead

  12. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.31 μg dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.52 μg dL(-1); P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg dL(-1) vs. 1.65 μg dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.19 μg dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk

  13. Blood lead screening among newly arrived refugees in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Proue, Mandi; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Oberg, Charles

    2010-06-01

    During the last 10 years, the prevalence rate of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in the general population in the United States has decreased, while the rate of EBLLs among refugee children in this country has remained high. Because of this, national guidelines recommend both an initial and a repeat screening of refugee children. To explore blood lead screening among refugee children in Minnesota, we examined data on 1,256 children who arrived in Minnesota between 2004 and 2007. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of refugee children who are screened for blood lead; identify the characteristics of refugee children with an EBLL following screening; and describe the characteristics of refugee children who received a repeat blood lead test. Our results showed that approximately 6% of refugee children in Minnesota had an EBLL and fewer than half of all refugee children in the sample received a repeat test. For that reason, primary care providers should be periodically reminded of the importance of repeat lead screening for refugee children.

  14. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  15. Mineral intake and blood levels in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-02-01

    Concern has been raised that a long-term high-fiber diet may lead to mineral deficiencies. In this study, mineral intake and blood levels were investigated in 92 ovolacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium was adequate in both groups. The intake of iron and magnesium was significantly higher in the vegetarians. Mean blood levels of iron, iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and magnesium were within normal limits in both groups. Serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in male vegetarians. Iron binding capacity was significantly lower in vegetarians of both sexes. It is concluded that a long-term ovolacto vegetarian diet does not lead to mineral deficiencies.

  16. Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Sadler, Richard C.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Ball, Andrew S.; Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children’s average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children’s blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  17. Improved Participation for Blood Lead Screening with In-Home Phlebotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kathryn C.; Miranda, Veronica; Galaviz, Vanessa E.

    2008-01-01

    Both nationally and within the State of California, it is unlikely that those children most susceptible to lead exposure are adequately screened for blood lead levels. New and creative approaches are necessary to reach these individuals. In-home phlebotomy was employed to test blood lead levels of 128 San Diego households containing Latino…

  18. Health and safety—the downward trend in lead levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.; Wilson, D. N.

    Lead has been known and used by man for thousands of years and its toxic properties have been known for almost as long. In consequence, a wide body of legislation has built up and is designed to protect individuals in both the occupational and the general environments. At the occupational level, two types of controls are widely employed, namely, lead-in-air and lead-in-blood. Limits placed on the amount of lead-in-air are designed to ensure that individuals are not exposed to unsafe levels of lead via inhalation. Currently, the most common standard is 0.15 mg m -3 but there is a clear downward trend and levels as low as 0.05 mg m -3 are mandatory in some countries. Controls on the amount of lead-in-blood give a more direct indication of the exposure experienced by individuals. The most common level presently employed is 70 μg m -3 but, as knowledge of the health effects of lead improves, lower levels are being introduced and 50 μg m -3 is now fairly common. While women are no more sensitive to lead than men, some countries do employ lower blood-lead limits for women in the workplace in order to protect any developing foetus. This paper examines the levels currently in force in various countries and describes developments which are now taking place in the legislation that is being enacted in several parts of the world. As far as the general public is concerned, only a relatively small number of countries employ controls. Where controls do exist, however, they are set at much lower levels than for the occupational environment in order to protect the most sensitive members of the population. Several countries employ limits on lead in ambient air. Traditionally, these have been set at either 1.5 or 2.0 μg m -3, but several countries are currently considering sharp downward revisions to levels of the order of 0.5 μg m -3. A few countries offer guidance on acceptable blood levels for the general population, most commonly for children. Again downward revisions are

  19. Identification of gasoline lead in children's blood using isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tera, O; Schwartzman, D W; Watkins, T R

    1985-01-01

    The isotopic composition and concentrations of lead were measured, using mass spectrometric analysis, in blood drawn from 14 young children who lived in Washington, D.C. The isotopic composition of lead in ambient air, which reflects the changing sources of gasoline lead, was also determined for the period of sampling. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 4.38 to 24.7 micrograms/100 g blood. Based on linear patterns that involved ratios of all four isotopes consistent with two component mixing, we estimate a minimum contribution of recent gasoline lead ranging from 0 to 57% of the blood lead burden.

  20. Evaluation of lead levels in children living near a Los Angeles county battery recycling facility.

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, A R; Dominguez, A; Flessel, P

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between environmental lead measurements surrounding a Los Angeles County battery recycling facility and the blood lead levels of the children living nearby. Environmental lead measurements and blood lead levels of young children living in a community adjacent to a stationary lead source were compared to those living in a community without a stationary lead source. Predictors of blood lead level were identified. The blood lead levels of the children living near the secondary lead smelter were within the normal range (< 5 micrograms/dl). The absence of ground cover was associated with slightly increased blood lead levels; however, this increase was not of biological significance. Lead levels in surface soil near the stationary lead source were elevated compared to the control community; however, the soil affected community, which may be due in part to controls recently installed at the stationary lead source. PMID:8919770

  1. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  2. Lead testing wipes contain measurable background levels of lead.

    PubMed

    Keenan, James J; Le, Matthew H; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Gaffney, Shannon H

    2010-03-01

    Lead is registered under the California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65) as both a carcinogen and a reproductive hazard. As part of the process to determine if consumer products satisfy Proposition 65 with respect to lead, various wipe sampling strategies have been utilized. Four commonly used wipe materials (cotton gauze, cotton balls, ashless filter paper, and Ghost Wipes) were tested for background lead levels. Ghost Wipe material was found to have 0.43 +/- 0.11 microg lead/sample (0.14 microg/wipe). Wipe testing for lead using Ghost Wipes may therefore result in measurable concentrations of lead, regardless of whether or not the consumer product actually contains leachable lead. PMID:20087726

  3. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  4. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  5. Blood lead in children and its determinants in Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, A B; Williams, S V; Frumkin, H; Kondawar, V K; Glick, H; Ganju, A K

    2001-01-01

    In a community-based cross-sectional study of 297 children aged 6 months to 6 years in an Indian city, the authors assessed the prevalence of elevated (> or = 10 microg/dL) blood lead (PbB) levels, their risk factors, and the lead contents in potential environmental sources. Mean PbB was 18.4 microg/dL +/- 16.5. The prevalence of elevated PbB was 67%. Anticipated risk factors for elevated PbB were living in houses painted with lead-based paint, odds ratio (OR) 6.42 (1.75, 23.6; p = 0.005), recent exposures to lead-based paint, OR 2.61 (1.07, 6.66; p = 0.03), and the use of the eye cosmetic ma," OR 2.63 (1.24, 5.56; p = 0.01). Unanticipated results were effect of upper caste as a risk factor, OR (adjusted) 1.85 (95% CI = 0.96, 3.57; p = 0.06), and the lack of effect of traffic, parental occupational exposure, or nutritional status. Analysis of various environmental sources such as paint, pencils, crayons, and clay revealed high lead levels. These results demonstrate the existence of a major environmental health problem in Indian children, with risk factors that differ from those in other countries. PMID:11373042

  6. Blood Lead Secular Trend in a Cohort of Children in Mexico City (1987–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Schnaas, Lourdes; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Flores, María-Fernanda; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen; Osorio, Erica; Perroni, Estela

    2004-01-01

    We determined the secular trend in blood lead levels in a cohort of 321 children born in Mexico City between 1987 and 1992. Blood lead level was measured every 6 months during a 10-year period. We modeled the effect of yearly air lead concentration nested within the calendar year in which the child was born, family use of lead-glazed pottery, socioeconomic status, year in which the child was born, age of the child at the time of blood lead measurement, place of residence, and an indicator variable for subjects with complete or incomplete blood lead values. The yearly mean of air lead of the Valley of Mexico decreased from its highest level of 2.80 μg/m3 in 1987 to 0.07 μg/m3 in 2002. The contribution of air lead to blood lead according to year of birth was strongest for subjects born in 1987 and fell to nearly zero for children born in 1992. The geometric mean of the entire cohort rose from 8.4 μg/dL in the first year of life to 10.1 μg/dL in the second and decreased thereafter until it reached 6.4 μg/dL at 10 years of age. Children of families who used lead-glazed ceramics had blood lead levels 18.5% higher than did children of nonusing families. Children who belonged to the lowest socioeconomic levels had blood lead levels 32.2% higher than did those of highest socioeconomic levels. Children who lived in the northeast part of the city had blood lead levels 10.9% higher compared with those who lived in the southwest. PMID:15238286

  7. Blood lead and coronary heart disease risk among elderly men in Zutphen, The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Kromhout, D

    1988-01-01

    Information about blood lead and other coronary heart disease risk factors was collected in 1977 among 152 men aged 57 to 76 years in the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands. Blood lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The blood lead distribution was skewed to the right. The median blood lead concentration was 167 micrograms/L, and the mean was 183 micrograms/L. Blood lead levels above 300 micrograms/L were present among 8.6% and levels above 400 micrograms/L among 1.3% of the Zutphen men. Blood lead was of borderline significance to cigarette smoking. After both univariate and multivariate analyses, a significant association was found between blood lead and blood pressure. This relation was stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Of the 141 elderly men free of coronary heart disease in 1977, 26 developed coronary heart disease between 1977 and 1985. Blood lead was not associated with coronary heart disease incidence in both univariate and multivariate analyses. PMID:3203644

  8. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. PMID:26556755

  9. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised.

  10. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Simon, D; Kelsey, K; Todd, A C

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead levels in 798 lead workers and 135 controls without occupational lead exposure in the Republic of Korea. Tibia lead was assessed with a 30-min measurement by (109)Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and DMSA-chelatable lead was estimated as 4-hr urinary lead excretion after oral administration of 10 mg/kg DMSA. The primary goals of the analysis were to examine blood lead, tibia lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels by ALAD and VDR genotypes, controlling for covariates; and to evaluate whether ALAD and VDR genotype modified relations among the different lead biomarkers. There was a wide range of blood lead (4-86 microg/dL), tibia lead (-7-338 microg Pb/g bone mineral), and DMSA-chelatable lead (4.8-2,103 microg) levels among lead workers. Among lead workers, 9.9% (n = 79) were heterozygous for the ALAD(2) allele and there were no homozygotes. For VDR, 10.7% (n = 85) had the Bb genotype, and 0.5% (n = 4) had the BB genotype. Although the ALAD and VDR genes are located on different chromosomes, lead workers homozygous for the ALAD(1) allele were much less likely to have the VDR bb genotype (crude odds ratio = 0.29, 95% exact confidence interval = 0.06-0.91). In adjusted analyses, subjects with the ALAD(2) allele had higher blood lead levels (on average, 2.9 microg/dL, p = 0.07) but no difference in tibia lead levels compared with subjects without the allele. In adjusted analyses, lead workers with the VDR B allele had significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood lead levels (on average, 4.2 microg/dL), chelatable lead levels (on average, 37.3 microg), and tibia lead levels (on average, 6.4 microg/g) than did workers with the VDR bb genotype. The current data confirm past observations that the ALAD gene modifies the

  11. Changes in blood lead of a recreational shooter.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian L; Palmer, Jacqueline M; Bryce, Andrew

    2002-07-01

    We have measured the concentration and isotopic composition of lead in blood over a 15-month period for a subject who undertook recreational shooting in outdoor and indoor firing ranges on an irregular basis. We have also measured the isotopic composition in cast lead, Cu-jacketed and Teflon-coated bullets, propellant and primer from which he assembled the cartridges. Blood lead concentration increased from 3.2 to 6.7 microg/dl with use of dominantly cast lead bullets in the outdoor range. In two intervals when no firing was undertaken for 3-4 months, the blood lead concentrations either decreased towards a baseline value in the case where only Cu-jacketed bullets were fired or remained elevated when dominantly cast lead bullets were fired. The propellants contained <2 ppm Pb and contribute negligibly to blood lead. The isotopic composition of the primer used for all bullets was consistent with a source from the US. The bullets were of different materials and made in Australia and the US, with lead from sources of different geological age and hence different isotopic signatures. Variations in blood lead concentration and isotopic composition appear most strongly influenced by the bullets. Although more expensive, the use of Cu-jacketed bullets, non-lead primers and well-ventilated indoor firing ranges would lessen the health impacts of recreational shooting.

  12. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Muntner, Paul . E-mail: pmuntner@tulane.edu; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi; Rabito, Felicia A.; He Jiang; Todd, Andrew C.

    2007-07-15

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via {sup 109}Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 {mu}g/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 {mu}g/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead {>=}25 {mu}g/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 {mu}g/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral ({mu}g/g) and 13 {mu}g/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 {mu}g/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 {mu}g/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead {>=}20 {mu}g/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 {mu}g/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression.

  13. Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R

    2001-01-01

    The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status

  14. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  15. Ethnic differences in blood lead concentration among workers in a battery manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, K S; Ong, C N

    1991-11-01

    Blood lead levels of two ethnic groups (11 Chinese and 25 Malays) of workers in a factory manufacturing lead accumulator battery were studied. The mean adjusted (for environmental lead levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking by analysis of covariance) blood lead level of the Malays was 34.8 micrograms/dl as compared to 22.4 micrograms/dl for the Chinese. This difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Oral ingestion of lead, through eating of food with hands contaminated by lead compound, among the Malay workers was suggested as a possible cause for the difference in the mean blood lead levels. Preventive measures and recommendations to overcome the problem among this particular group of workers were discussed.

  16. Ethnic differences in blood lead concentration among workers in a battery manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, K S; Ong, C N

    1991-11-01

    Blood lead levels of two ethnic groups (11 Chinese and 25 Malays) of workers in a factory manufacturing lead accumulator battery were studied. The mean adjusted (for environmental lead levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking by analysis of covariance) blood lead level of the Malays was 34.8 micrograms/dl as compared to 22.4 micrograms/dl for the Chinese. This difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Oral ingestion of lead, through eating of food with hands contaminated by lead compound, among the Malay workers was suggested as a possible cause for the difference in the mean blood lead levels. Preventive measures and recommendations to overcome the problem among this particular group of workers were discussed. PMID:1803964

  17. Relationship between increased blood lead and pregnancy hypertension in women without occupational lead exposure in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Mazaheri, Maria; Beheshti, Sasan; Ghazizadeh, Shirin; Sakai, Tadashi; Morita, Yoko; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between blood lead levels and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Participants were 110 pregnant women, of whom 55 were hypertensive, 27 +/- 5.6 yr of age (mean +/- standard deviation) (range = 17-40 yr); the other 55 women were age- and gravidity-matched normotensive controls. Participants were selected on the basis of their medical history and the results of a questionnaire-based interview. Subjects were at gestational ages 37 +/- 2.5 wk (range = 30-41 wk) and were not occupationally exposed to lead. Blood samples were collected within 24 hr after delivery, and blood lead levels were measured. For the hypertensive cases, blood lead levels were 5.7 +/- 2 microg/dl (range = 2.2-12.6 microg/dl [0.27 +/- 0.10 micromol/l; range = 0.11-0.60 micromol/l]), which were significantly higher than those of the control group (i.e., 4.8 +/- 1.9 microg/dl; range = 1.9-10.6 microg/dl [0.23 +/- 0.09 micromol/l; range = 0.09-0.51 micromol/l]). There were no significant differences in blood lead concentrations among hypertensive subjects with proteinuria (n = 30) and those without proteinuria (n = 25). Results of this study indicated that low-level lead exposure may be a risk factor for pregnancy hypertension. PMID:16075900

  18. Blood Lead and Other Metal Biomarkers as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Brody, Debra J; Flegal, Katherine M; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Axelrad, Daniel A; Parker, Jennifer D

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988 to 1994 found an association of increasing blood lead levels < 10 μg/dL with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The potential need to correct blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjust for biomarkers for other metals, for example, cadmium and iron, had not been addressed in the previous NHANES III-based studies on blood lead-CVD mortality association. We analyzed 1999 to 2010 NHANES data for 18,602 participants who had a blood lead measurement, were ≥ 40 years of age at the baseline examination and were followed for mortality through 2011. We calculated the relative risk for CVD mortality as a function of hemoglobin- or hematocrit-corrected log-transformed blood lead through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with adjustment for serum iron, blood cadmium, serum C-reactive protein, serum calcium, smoking, alcohol intake, race/Hispanic origin, and sex. The adjusted relative risk for CVD mortality was 1.44 (95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.98) per 10-fold increase in hematocrit-corrected blood lead with little evidence of nonlinearity. Similar results were obtained with hemoglobin-corrected blood lead. Not correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin resulted in underestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association while not adjusting for iron status and blood cadmium resulted in overestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association. In a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, log-transformed blood lead was linearly associated with increased CVD mortality. Correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjustments for some biomarkers affected the association.

  19. Blood Lead and Other Metal Biomarkers as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yutaka; Brody, Debra J.; Flegal, Katherine M.; Fakhouri, Tala H.I.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Axelrad, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Analyses of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988 to 1994 found an association of increasing blood lead levels <10 μg/dL with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The potential need to correct blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjust for biomarkers for other metals, for example, cadmium and iron, had not been addressed in the previous NHANES III-based studies on blood lead-CVD mortality association. We analyzed 1999 to 2010 NHANES data for 18,602 participants who had a blood lead measurement, were ≥40 years of age at the baseline examination and were followed for mortality through 2011. We calculated the relative risk for CVD mortality as a function of hemoglobin- or hematocrit-corrected log-transformed blood lead through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with adjustment for serum iron, blood cadmium, serum C-reactive protein, serum calcium, smoking, alcohol intake, race/Hispanic origin, and sex. The adjusted relative risk for CVD mortality was 1.44 (95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.98) per 10-fold increase in hematocrit-corrected blood lead with little evidence of nonlinearity. Similar results were obtained with hemoglobin-corrected blood lead. Not correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin resulted in underestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association while not adjusting for iron status and blood cadmium resulted in overestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association. In a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, log-transformed blood lead was linearly associated with increased CVD mortality. Correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjustments for some biomarkers affected the association. PMID:26735529

  20. Blood Lead and Other Metal Biomarkers as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Brody, Debra J; Flegal, Katherine M; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Axelrad, Daniel A; Parker, Jennifer D

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988 to 1994 found an association of increasing blood lead levels < 10 μg/dL with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The potential need to correct blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjust for biomarkers for other metals, for example, cadmium and iron, had not been addressed in the previous NHANES III-based studies on blood lead-CVD mortality association. We analyzed 1999 to 2010 NHANES data for 18,602 participants who had a blood lead measurement, were ≥ 40 years of age at the baseline examination and were followed for mortality through 2011. We calculated the relative risk for CVD mortality as a function of hemoglobin- or hematocrit-corrected log-transformed blood lead through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with adjustment for serum iron, blood cadmium, serum C-reactive protein, serum calcium, smoking, alcohol intake, race/Hispanic origin, and sex. The adjusted relative risk for CVD mortality was 1.44 (95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.98) per 10-fold increase in hematocrit-corrected blood lead with little evidence of nonlinearity. Similar results were obtained with hemoglobin-corrected blood lead. Not correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin resulted in underestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association while not adjusting for iron status and blood cadmium resulted in overestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association. In a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, log-transformed blood lead was linearly associated with increased CVD mortality. Correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjustments for some biomarkers affected the association. PMID:26735529

  1. Relationship between soil lead, dust lead, and blood lead concentrations in pets and their owners: evaluation of soil lead threshold values.

    PubMed

    Berny, P J; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted in Granite City, Illinois during the months of August through October 1991. The study involved a subpopulation of 77 households having 106 dogs and cats which was a corollary to a major study conducted in humans by the Illinois Department of Public Health to evaluate lead exposure. A secondary lead smelter had been in operation in this town for almost 80 years and was shut down in 1982. Important soil contamination with lead was reported and this paper presents data regarding levels of soil and dust lead and associated blood lead concentrations in animals and their owners in a total of 77 households. Overall, blood lead concentrations (BLC) were low (0-13 micrograms/dl in the animal owners; 0-28 micrograms/dl in pets). There was no significant relationship between soil or dust lead and BLC in humans; however, the relationship was significant in animals. Odds ratios were computed to determine whether 500 or 1000 ppm lead in environmental samples was associated with increased risk of having a high BLC. We could not find any increased risk in humans, while the risk did increase in animals. It is concluded that animals are more at risk than their owners of having a high BLC when exposed to the same contaminated environment and can be used to monitor the bioavailability of lead.

  2. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  3. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  4. Fiber sensor design and application on blood lead measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Juan; Feng, Aiming; Li, Chenxia; Xu, Shiqing

    2008-12-01

    Blood lead detecting can make certain valuation to human being health and environment problem. Traditional blood lead detecting instrument used only in laboratory analysis with long time and relatively expensive cost disadvantage. Based on small volume and strong anti-interference of fiber sensor, the paper designed fiber system, including fiber sensor and demodulate system, which can be used in blood lead measurement. Using compound environment fixed in fiber sensor, fiber transferred the reflected light with Pb consistency information, then the impatt diode receives modulated light intensity and demodulates to corresponding lead thickness. with designed fiber system, the paper measured some blood samples with 2.67% precision and 0.231 variance. The designed fiber system is very considerable and usable.

  5. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  6. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  7. [Effectiveness of blood-testis and blood-epididymis barriers for lead].

    PubMed

    Marchlewicz, M

    1994-01-01

    Over the period of the last 30 years there was a marked decrease in the number of spermatozoa produced by the gonads of men. It is felt that this observation is due to the influence of environmental pollution, wherein the lead plays quite an important role. In sperms of men, who are professionally exposed to lead compounds, oligo-, asteno-, and teratospermia is disclosed. Studies were performed on sexually mature male rats after 9-month-long exposure to lead acetate (II) as well as a group of animals after 3-month-long interval in the exposure. The changes provoked by the lead were evaluated by employing a number of study techniques, namely: morphological examination of testes with taking into account the stages of seminiferous epithelial cycle, and epididymis, giving due consideration to zones; electron microscopic examination of seminiferous cells and interstitial tissue, as well as the cells in the wall of epididymis and spermatozoa; X-ray microanalysis determining the presence and type of elements on ultrathin section; spectrophotometrical determination of Pb content in blood, testes and epididymides; determination of testosterone concentration (T) in blood serum. It has been revealed that the blood-testis barrier protects seminiferous epithelium against the toxic action of the lead. No deposits of Pb were observed either in germinal cells or Sertoli cells. The endocrine testicular cells outside the barrier had also unchanged ultrastructure, and contained no Pb. That finding was expressed by normal T level in blood serum. The only cells in the area of the testis, in whose cytoplasm there was Pb confirmed by X-ray microanalysis, were macrophages in the interstitial tissue of the testis. Apart from that, it has been disclosed that the blood-epididymis barrier does not provide a barrier against this element. Pb deposits were seen in smooth myocytes, epithelial cells and in the lumen of epididymal duct. That correlated with a marked decrease in the number of

  8. Comparison of capillary earlobe and venous blood monitoring for occupational lead surveillance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lauralynn; Jones, Robert L; Ashley, Kevin; Deddens, James A; Kwan, Lorna

    2004-04-01

    techniques are identified and evaluated, earlobe sampling should be avoided in the surveillance of occupational blood lead levels.

  9. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  10. IQ and Blood Lead from 2 to 7 Years of Age: Are the Effects in Older Children the Residual of High Blood Lead Concentrations in 2-Year-Olds?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ware, James H.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18–30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4–6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20–44 μg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  11. Relationship among maternal blood lead, ALAD gene polymorphism and neonatal neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Yun, Li; Zhang, Weixing; Qin, Kejun

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a widely used heavy metal that can affect children's nervous system development. ALAD gene polymorphism is associated with lead neurotoxicity. This study aimed to clarify the relationship among maternal blood lead, ALAD gene polymorphism, and neonatal neurobehavioral development through detecting maternal blood lead and ALAD gene polymorphism. 198 maternal and neonatal were selected as the research object. Graphite furnace atomic absorption method was applied to detect the maternal blood lead concentration. PCR-RFLP was used to detect ALAD genotype distribution. Neonatal NANB score was treated as effect indicator. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. The ALAD genotype was 181 cases (91.4%) for ALAD11 and 17 cases (8.6%) for ALAD12. ALAD allele frequency distribution accords with genetics Hardy-Weinberg balance (P > 0.05). Blood lead level in maternal with ALAD12 genotype was significantly higher than with ALAD11 genotype (P < 0.01). NANB score in high blood lead neonatal group was obviously lower than the low blood lead group (P < 0.05). Newborn's NANB score from the maternal with ALAD11 genotype was lower than from the maternal with ALAD12 genotype (P < 0.01). After ruling out the confounding factors influence by multiple linear regressions, ALAD gene polymorphisms had no significant correlation with neonatal NANB score (P > 0.05). ALAD gene polymorphism is associated with the blood lead level. Low level lead exposure in utero may cause newborn early neurobehavioral maldevelopment. Maternal ALAD gene polymorphism can affect early neonatal neurobehavioral development by influencing the blood lead level.

  12. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  13. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in acute lead encephalopathy: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, T W; Mushak, P; O'Tuama, L A; Krigman, M R

    1975-12-01

    Acute lead encephalopathy was induced in adult guinea pigs by administering daily oral doses of lead carbonate. During the development of the encephalopathy, the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier was evaluated with electron microscopy and tracer probes. Blood, cerebral gray matter, liver, and kidney were analyzed for lead, calcium, and magnesium content. The animals regularly developed an encephalopathy after four doses of lead. There were no discernible pathomorphologic alterations in the cerebral capillaries or perivascular glial sheaths. Furthermore, no evidence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction was demonstrated with Evans blue-albumin complex or horseradish peroxidase. Blood-brain barrier permeability to radiolead was not increased in the intoxicated animals. During the development of the encephalopathy there was a progressive rise in the lead concentration in all tissues. Concurrently, there was a significant rise in brain calcium. These results suggest that the encephalopathic effects of lead may be mediated directly at the neuronal level.

  14. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  15. Isotopic ratio based source apportionment of children's blood lead around coking plant area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Lead exposure in the environment is a major hazard affecting human health, particularly for children. The blood lead levels in the local children living around the largest coking area in China were measured, and the source of blood lead and the main pathways of lead exposure were investigated based on lead isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) in blood and in a variety of media, including food, airborne particulate matter, soil, dust and drinking water. The children's blood lead level was 5.25 (1.59 to 34.36 as range) μg dL(-1), lower than the threshold in the current criteria of China defined by the US Centers for Disease Control (10 μg dL(-1)). The isotopic ratios in the blood were 2.111±0.018 for (208)Pb/(206)Pb and 0.864±0.005 for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, similar to those of vegetables, wheat, drinking water, airborne particulate matter, but different from those of vehicle emission and soil/dust, suggesting that the formers were the main pathway of lead exposure among the children. The exposure pathway analysis based on the isotopic ratios and the human health risk assessment showed that dietary intake of food and drinking water contributed 93.67% of total exposed lead. The study further indicated that the coal used in the coking plant is the dominant pollution source of lead in children's blood.

  16. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Beldomenico, Pablo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana; Uhart, Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning in waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a long recognized worldwide problem but poorly studied in South America, particularly in Argentinean wetlands where duck hunting with lead gunshot is extensive. In 2008, we found high pellet ingestion rates in a small sample of hunted ducks. To expand our knowledge on the extent of lead exposure and to assess health risks from spent shot intake, during 2011 and 2012 we sampled 415 hunter-killed ducks and 96 live-trapped ducks. We determined the incidence of lead shot ingestion and lead concentrations in bone, liver and blood in five duck species: whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), white-faced tree duck (D. viduata), black-bellied whistling-duck (D. autumnalis), rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) and Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis). The ingestion of lead shot was confirmed in 10.4% of the ducks examined (43/415), with a prevalence that varied by site and year, from 7.6% to 50%. All bone samples (n=382) and over 60% of liver samples (249/412) contained lead concentrations above the detection limit. The geometric mean lead concentration in tissues (mg/kg dry weight) was 0.31 (GSD=3.93) and 3.61 (GSD=4.02) for liver and bone, respectively, and 0.20 (GSD=2.55) in blood (mg/kg wet weight). Lead levels surpassed toxicity thresholds at which clinical poisoning is expected in 3.15% of liver samples, 23.8% of bones and 28% of blood samples. Ducks with ingested lead pellets were much more likely to have high levels of lead in their liver. Rosy-billed pochards were consistently more prone to ingesting lead shot than other duck species sampled. However, whistling ducks showed higher levels of lead in liver and bone. Our results suggest that lead from ammunition could become a substantial threat for the conservation of wild duck populations in Argentina. The replacement of lead by non-toxic shot would be a reasonable and effective solution to this problem.

  17. Determinants of elevated blood lead during pregnancy in a population surrounding a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, J.H.; Factor-Litvak, P.; Murphy, M.J.; Zhao, Yuhua; Lolacono, N.J. ); Popovac, D.; Ahmedi, X.; Zvicer, Z.; Nenezic, D.U. ); Shrout, P.; Kline, J.; Stein, Z. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York ); Mehmeti, A.; Rajovic, B. )

    1990-11-01

    The authors are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a non-lead-exposed control town, were interviewed. Blood was obtained for blood lead (PbB), hemoglobin erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin measurements. Women were seen again at delivery, at which time maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. While many demographic and social characteristics were similar across the two towns, women in Pristina were more likely to report employment outside the home, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy. As expected, PbB levels were substantially higher in the smelter town. Within T. Mitrovica, distance between the home and the smelter was the most important predictor of PbB at mid-pregnancy and delivery. Husband's employment in the lead industry was associated with a significant increase in maternal PbB levels independent of place of residence. Overall, the placenta was a poor barrier to lead; the relationship between maternal PbB and umbilical cord PbB was linear across a wide range of PbB levels.

  18. Effect of Season of the Year on Lead Levels in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Diane K.; Bomba, Anne K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined blood lead levels in 1,190 children residing in Mississippi. Found that boys had a higher level than girls, and black children had a higher level than white children. The percentage of children with lead toxicity was 8.5 percent. The winter season had a significantly lower lead level than autumn. (Author/KB)

  19. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: <30 ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from <25 ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from <62.7 ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from <5.0 ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  20. Distribution of lead-203 in human peripheral blood in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Lee, W R

    1980-01-01

    In-vitro experiments using 203Pb were performed to identify the lead binding components in human peripheral blood. The distribution of lead in plasma, in the red cell membrane, and within the red cell was also investigated. Studies of the distribution of 203Pb in whole blood showed that at a lead concentration of 2.45 mumol/l (50 micrograms/100 ml) about 94% of lead had been incorporated by the erythrocytes and 6% remained in the plasma. After extraction of lipid by a methanol/chloroform mixture, about 75% of the lead was found to be associated with the protein fraction. The lipid contained about 21% of the 203Pb, the remainder being in the aqueous plasma. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of blood plasma showed that almost 90% of the 203Pb was present in the albumin fraction; the remainder was likely to be associated with high molecular weight globulins. Several binding sites were identified on the erythrocyte membrane. The high molecular weight component, about 130 000-230 000, was the most important 203Pb binding site. Chemical modification of membrane proteins suggested that the carboxyl groups are the major ligand responsible for most of the lead binding. SH groups of the membrane may have a minor role, but amino groups did not appear to affect the lead binding. The binding of lead to erythrocytes was not confined to membranes, over 80% of lead in blood penetrates into erythrocytes and binds to intracellular components. Gel chromatography of the haemolysate showed that over 90% of the 203Pb was attached to the haemoglobin molecule. PMID:7370196

  1. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  2. [Biological levels of lead in residents of Poland].

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, M

    1993-01-01

    The author discussed current data on sources of the environmental exposure to lead, health effects of exposure in adults and children as well as recommended admissible concentrations of lead in blood. The review of studies on biological monitoring of exposure to lead in Poland permits to state that the results of measurements of Pb-B concentrations performed by laboratories which did not participate in the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance were often overestimated evoking public concern. The outcome of investigations carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz and other institutions which are provided with appropriate analytical equipment, tested under the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance gives the ground for a hypothesis that an excessive environmental exposure to lead in Poland may result only from industrial emission. The mean geometric lead blood concentrations in persons living in areas free from industrial emissions of lead range from 40 to 70 micrograms/l and they do not prove any potential hazard for adults. Exposure of children and pregnant women living in areas polluted with lead due to industrial emissions and where mean geometric Pb-B concentrations reach 100-170 micrograms/l may create a significant problem. The results obtained emphasize the need for targetted surveillance aimed at identifying areas of excessive lead contamination, measurements of Pb-B concentrations in populations living in those areas and necessary preventive measurements. Collection of blood samples and measurements of lead levels should be performed only by those laboratories which satisfy necessary requirements.

  3. The association between occupational lead exposure and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels.

    PubMed Central

    Kristal-Boneh, E; Coller, D; Froom, P; Harari, G; Ribak, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to clarify the possible associations between blood lead level and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. METHODS: Levels of blood lead, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in 56 male industrial employees who were exposed to lead were compared with those in 87 unexposed employees. RESULTS: Mean blood lead levels were 42.3 (+/- 14.9) micrograms/dL in the exposed group and 2.7 (+/- 3.6) micrograms/dL in the nonexposed group. The exposed subjects had higher mean levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lead levels are positively associated with total and HDL cholesterol. PMID:10394320

  4. LEAD STUDIES : III. THE EFFECTS OF LEAD ON RED BLOOD CELLS. PART 1. CHANGES IN HEMOLYSIS.

    PubMed

    Aub, J C; Reznikoff, P; Smith, D E

    1924-07-31

    It appears, from the investigations in other laboratories, that the anemia observed in cases of lead poisoning is due to destruction of blood rather than to diminished production of blood. The method of poisoning cells in vitro with lead was adopted in order to study this phenomenon, and distinct effects were thereby obtained, even when only 0.001 mg. of lead is added to approximately 5 billion washed red corpuscles. In order to obtain optimum results the usual dosage employed was ten times this or 0.01 mg. per 5 billion cells. The following changes were observed in cells so treated. 1. Such a marked increase in the resistance to hypotonic salt solution develops that complete hemolysis does not occur until the cells are exposed to a saline solution of 0.05 per cent. Untreated cells are completely hemolyzed in 0.25 or 0.225 per cent saline. 2. This reaction is quantitative and varies with the concentration of lead used. Under the conditions of our experiments this phenomenon seems to be unique. The effects of arsenic are very slight in comparison. 3. While from this reaction it may be concluded that lead increases cellular resistance, it also appears that it shortens the life of blood cells. This may be demonstrated by the much more rapid appearance of hemolysis than normal when the cells are merely allowed to stand in Ringer solution of any dilution. 4. In rabbits with acute lead poisoning these same phenomena may be noted in vivo. 5. Both phenomena may be changed in vitro by varying the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of lead, as Fici has already pointed out. 6. If normal cells stand in Ringer solution for 6 hours something diffuses into the solution which largely reduces the action of lead. After repeated washing these cells react with lead in the usual manner. 7. Small amounts of serum react with lead and eliminate its effects. Red blood cells, treated with a mixture of lead and blood serum, show normal hemolysis in hypotonic salt

  5. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  6. The change of blood Pb levels of basketball players after strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Savaş, Seyfi; Senel, Omer; Okan, Ilyas; Celikkan, Hüseyin

    2007-04-01

    This study is related to the investigation of the Pb levels in blood of the 12 healthy University male basketball players before and after a strenuous training session by the use of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Although the results do not show acute lead intoxication it is obvious that blood lead levels show significant increase after training sessions. The average increase in blood lead levels is 297%. This increase is largely due to increased respiration rate during the training period.

  7. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  8. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  9. Hemolyzed, lyophilized bovine blood for quality control of lead determination of human whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.S.; Meranger, J.C.; Connor, J.

    1985-09-01

    The determination of Pb in human whole blood is perhaps the most common application of biological monitoring in occupational and environmental health. However, the lack of an adequate reference material has prevented a thorough evaluation of current analytical methods for Pb in blood and hence the evaluation of data generated by using such methods. As a result the concentration of Pb in human whole blood is not accurately known. In this paper the authors report the preparation and analysis of two freeze-dried bovine whole blood reference specimens containing two different levels of Pb.

  10. Low level lead inhibits the human brain cation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, J.M.; Sprenkle, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The impact of low level lead exposure on human central nervous system function is a major public health concern. This study addresses the inhibition of the cation pump enzyme Na,K-ATPase by low level lead. Human brain tissue was obtained at autopsy and frozen until use. Brain homogenates were preincubated with PbCl{sub 2} for 20 min at 0{degree}C. Inhibition of K-paranitrophenylphosphatase (pNPPase), a measure of the dephosphorylation step of Na,K-ATPase, reached steady state within 10 min. K-pNPPase activity, expressed as a percentage of control, fell to 96.3 {plus minus} 0.9% at 0.25 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) to 82.0 {plus minus} 1.6% at 2.5 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) in homogenates prepared from normal brain. Similar results were obtained with homogenates prepared from brains of patients with a history of alcohol abuse and of those with other miscellaneous conditions. Since the mean blood level of lead in the US has ranged recently from m9.2 to 16.0 ug/dl, these results indicate that current in vivo levels of lead exposure may impair important human brain function.

  11. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  12. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  13. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Namihira, D; Saldivar, L; Pustilnik, N; Carreón, G J; Salinas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 micrograms/dl (SD 19.88 microgram/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 micrograms/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 micrograms/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 micrograms/kg/d.

  14. [Environmental exposure factors and the concentrations of blood lead in Mexico City children].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Muñoz, I; Cortés, M; Rivero, A; Catalán, J

    1993-01-01

    Risk factors that contribute to high blood lead concentrations were determined in 113 infants, aged 3 to 7 years old, that attended pediatric consultation at the American British Cowdray Hospital (ABC) from May 1991 to October 1992. The range of blood lead concentrations was 4 to 45 micrograms/dl, with an average value of 15.6 micrograms/dl (DE = 7.0), and a geometric mean of 14.2 micrograms/dl (IC 95% = 11.9-16.5). Seventy six percent of the children presented blood lead concentrations of over 10 micrograms/dl. The main predictors of blood lead levels were the use of glazed pottery for cooking rice (ANOVA, p = 0.0000) and the storage of food in glazed pottery (t-test, p = 0.005). There was a significant association between the use of glazed pottery for cooking rice and blood lead concentrations (tendency p = 0.000). The attributable risk of this population due to the use of glazed pottery was 81 per cent. This study sustains the need to develop and enforce public health policies for programs of lead poisoning prevention.

  15. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  16. Effect of chelation treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-related blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil-Manesh, F.; Gonick, H.C.; Weiler, E.W.J. Univ. of California, Los Angeles ); Prins, B.; Purdy, R. ); Weber, M.A. Univ. of California, Irvine ); Ren, Qing )

    1994-04-01

    An elevation in mean blood pressure was found in rats treated with low lead (0.01%) for 6 months and then only water for an additional 6 months (discontinuous low lead). Not change in blood pressure was found in rats similarly treated with high lead (0.5%) (discontinuous high lead). Administration of DMSA (0.5% in drinking water), for 5 days every 2 months following cessation of lead administration, resulted in a significant lowering of blood pressure in both groups of animals. In the low-lead but not the high-lead group, this was associated with an increase in plasma cyclic GMP (acting as a second messenger for endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) and a decrease in the plasma concentration of 12-kDa hypertension-associated protein. Plasma endothelin-3 (ET-3) levels were decreased in discontinuous high-lead rats, increased in dicontinuous low-lead rats, but were unaltered by DMSA treatment. We infer that the elevated blood pressure in the discontinuous low-lead rats is related to an increase in the putative vasoconstrictors, ET-3 and the hypertension-associated protein, without a change in the vasodilator, EDRF. With DMSA treatment, plasma cyclic GMP in low-lead rats increased above normal, and the hypertension-associated protein decreased, resulting in lowered blood pressure. DMSA was shown to act as an antioxidant in vitro. Thus the DMSA effect on plasma cGMP (EDRF) may occur via a scavenging effect on EDRF-inactivating reactive oxygen species. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Use of blood levels to infer carcass levels of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Stout, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Inferences may be made about the carcass levels of a contaminant based on the contaminant level in blood samples. A method is given for comparing such populations that utilizes bivariate normal distributions and their principal axes, thereby avoiding a dilemma arising from the use of regression techniques. Confidence intervals and power calculations are given. Data from captive barn owls provide partial justification for the use of this method.

  18. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2010-01-01

    In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

  19. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-01-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition. PMID:12676627

  20. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  1. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  2. Using performance indicators to monitor attendance at the Broken Hill blood lead screening clinic.

    PubMed

    Boreland, Frances; Lyle, David

    2009-04-01

    Although the average blood lead level of 1-4-year-old children in Broken Hill has halved since 1991, about 1 in 5 still have blood lead levels higher than the national target (<10 microg/dL). The estimated proportion of children attending the Lead Clinic has declined, to approximately 42% in 2006, raising concern that some children with elevated blood lead levels may not be presenting, thus missing out on appropriate treatment and advice. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of attendance at the clinic as a first step to understanding what factors contribute to clinic attendance and non-attendance. Routinely collected data from the Lead Clinic database were used to describe the impact of factors such as child age, the lead-risk area in which they live, seasonal influences and specific promotional activities on clinic attendance rates from 1999 to June 2007. Estimates of the number of children living in each of the five lead-risk areas were derived from 2001 and 2006 census data and estimates of the number of children born to mothers resident in Broken Hill were derived from the Midwives Data Collection. Attendance rates declined by approximately one-third during the study period. Younger children, and those living closer to the central mining area, were more likely to attend for blood lead screening. Cohort analysis indicated cumulative attendance has declined, with children born in 2005 having a cumulative incidence at 18 months of age 5-10% lower than that for previous birth cohorts. The majority (54%) of children who developed a notifiable blood lead level (15 microg/dL) were first detected at 2 years of age or older, a number of whom (40%) had no recorded tests before the age of 2 years. The analysis has demonstrated the benefits of using an expanded set of performance indicators to monitor the blood lead screening programme. It provides valuable additional information about the reach of the programme. Next steps include seeking additional feedback

  3. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Dietrich, K; Auinger, P; Cox, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxicant, but the lowest blood lead concentration associated with deficits in cognitive functioning and academic achievement is poorly defined. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of relatively low blood lead concentrations-especially concentrations <10 micrograms per deciliter (microg/dL)--with performance on tests of cognitive functioning in a representative sample of US children and adolescents. METHODS: The authors used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and performance on tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, nonverbal reasoning, and short-term memory among 4,853 children ages 6-16 years. RESULTS: The geometric mean blood lead concentration for children n the study sample was 1.9 microg/dL; 172 (2.1%) had blood lead concentrations > or =10 microg/dL. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, region of the country, parent or caregiver's educational level, parent or caregiver's marital status parent, serum ferritin level, and serum cotinine level, the data showed an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and scores on four measures of cognitive functioning. For every 1 microg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, there was a 0.7-point decrement in mean arithmetic scores, an approximately 1-point decrement in mean reading scores, a 0.1-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of nonverbal reasoning, and a 0.5-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of short-term memory. An inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and arithmetic and reading scores was observed for children with blood lead concentrations lower than 5.0 microg/dL. CONCLUSION: Deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations lower than 5 microg/dL. PMID:11354334

  4. Association between essential tremor and blood lead concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D; Jurewicz, Eva C; Applegate, LaKeisha; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Parides, Michael; Andrews, Leslie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Carroll, Spencer; Todd, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant that causes tremor and cerebellar damage. Essential tremor (ET) is a highly prevalent neurologic disease associated with cerebellar involvement. Although environmental toxicants may play a role in ET etiology and their identification is a critical step in disease prevention, these toxicants have received little attention. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ET is associated with lead exposure. Therefore, blood lead (BPb) concentrations were measured and a lifetime occupational history was assessed in ET patients and in controls. We frequency matched 100 ET patients and 143 controls on age, sex, and ethnicity. BPb concentrations were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A lifetime occupational history was reviewed by an industrial hygienist. BPb concentrations were higher in ET patients than in controls (mean +/- SD, 3.3 +/- 2.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 microg/dL, respectively; median, 2.7 and 2.3 microg/dL; p = 0.038). In a logistic regression model, BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis [control vs. ET patient, odds ratio (OR) per unit increase = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; p = 0.007]. BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis (OR per unit increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; p = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence of lifetime occupational lead exposure was similar in ET patients and controls. We report an association between BPb concentration and ET. Determining whether this association is due to increased exposure to lead or a difference in lead kinetics in ET patients requires further investigation. PMID:14594619

  5. [Investigation of the enrichment and separation of lead and lead isotopes in simulated blood matrix].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Tang, Xiao-ping; Liu, Tie-bing; Liu, Duo-jian; Wang, Jing-yu

    2012-03-01

    The enrichment and separation method was used in the present paper to overcome the influence of matrix effect on the determination of lead concentration and isotope ratios. The patented method was used to enrich and separate the lead in simulated blood matrix; the lead concentrations and isotope ratios were determined by ICP-MS before and after enrichment and separation. The recovery rate of Pb is more than 99% through this method while the removal rate of major impurity ions such as Na, K is about 80%. The concentrations of each lead isotope decrease with the matrix concentration increasing (p < 0.001), and lead isotope ratios show no significant differences in the matrix of different concentrations. When the matrix concentration is more than 62.5 microg x mL(-1), the strength will decrease with the determination times increasing. It was concluded that the characteristics of this method are of high recovery rate (> 99%), fast, simple and convenient, and it can raise the accuracy and precision of the concentration determination of lead isotopes and has no significant influence on the accuracy of lead isotope ratios determination.

  6. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  7. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in maternal, cord blood and placenta of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabah, Abdullah

    2011-03-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood samples of 1578 women who delivered at the Al-Kharj King Khalid Hospital between 2005 and 2006. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of heavy metal exposure in mothers and their newborns and to identify predictors of maternal exposure. Lead was detected in all cord and maternal blood and in 96% of placental tissues. Only in 0.89% and 0.83% of cord and maternal blood samples were the levels of lead above the CDC threshold limit of 10 μg/dl. Maternal blood lead was also higher (2.3%) than the German Reference value in women of 7 μg/dl. Approximately 9.3% of women had a placental lead above the 95th percentile in the range of 0.83-78 μg/g dry wt., a level of possible developmental toxicity. Cadmium was detected in 94.8% and 97.9% of cord and maternal blood samples respectively, though only five newborns had a cadmium level above the OSHA threshold limit of 5 μg/l. Comparing our results to the newly revised German Reference value for nonsmokers, 48.6% of mothers had blood cadmium levels >1.0 μg/l. We found as well that 25% of women had placental cadmium in the >75th percentile, in the range of 0.048-4.36 μg/g dry wt., which is likely to affect fetal growth and development. Of the maternal and cord blood samples, 11.2% and 13%, respectively, had mercury levels >5.8 μg/l, which is the EPA reference dose. Nearly 49% of women had mercury levels >2.0 μg/l, the German Reference value for those who consume fish ≤3 times a month. Around 50% of the mothers had placental mercury in the range of 0.031-13.0 μg/g dry wt. Regression analyses indicated that the levels of metals in the blood and placenta were influenced by several factors. This study provides informative baseline biomonitoring data and reveals a substantial exposure to heavy metals in non-occupationally exposed Saudi mothers and their newborns that might jeopardize the health of both. Additional

  8. A Biomonitoring Study of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Blood of New York City Adults

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Wendy; Gwynn, R. Charon; Jeffery, Nancy; Kass, Daniel; Thorpe, Lorna E.; Garg, Renu K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the New York City (NYC) adult population. Methods We measured blood metal concentrations in a representative sample of 1,811 NYC residents as part of the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004. Results The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 2.73 μg/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.58–2.89]; blood lead concentration was 1.79 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.73–1.86); and blood cadmium concentration was 0.77 μg/L (95% CI, 0.75–0.80). Mercury levels were more than three times that of national levels. An estimated 24.8% (95% CI, 22.2–27.7%) of the NYC adult population had blood mercury concentration at or above the 5 μg/L New York State reportable level. Across racial/ethnic groups, the NYC Asian population, and the foreign-born Chinese in particular, had the highest concentrations of all three metals. Mercury levels were elevated 39% in the highest relative to the lowest income group (95% CI, 21–58%). Blood mercury concentrations in adults who reported consuming fish or shellfish 20 times or more in the last 30 days were 3.7 times the levels in those who reported no consumption (95% CI, 3.0–4.6); frequency of consumption explained some of the elevation in Asians and other subgroups. Conclusions Higher than national blood mercury exposure in NYC adults indicates a need to educate New Yorkers about how to choose fish and seafood to maximize health benefits while minimizing potential risks from exposure to mercury. Local biomonitoring can provide valuable information about environmental exposures. PMID:17938732

  9. Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Studies have shown that high blood cholesterol levels play a role in the development of coronary heart disease in adults, and that the process leading to atherosclerosis begins in childhood. To address the problem of high cholesterol levels in children, the Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels recommends complementary approaches for individuals and…

  10. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration.

  11. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed.

  12. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed. PMID:24627997

  13. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  14. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  15. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  16. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  17. A retrospective examination of in-home educational visits to reduce childhood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B. |; Pawel, D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-05-01

    A number of human health effects from lead are well known. However, the means for reducing lead exposure in children has been a subject of uncertainty. This paper presents results of a retrospective study of educational lead reduction interventions in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for children who had elevated blood lead levels between 20 and 24 {micro}g/dl. The study examined Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) records of baseline and follow-up blood lead measurements. A study group of children received an in-home educational visit by an MHD paraprofessional. The educational visits last about an hour and the importance of reducing lead exposure, nutritional suggestions, and dust clean-up practices and behavioral changes that can reduce lead exposure are discussed. After the intervention, the average observed blood lead level declined by 4.2 {micro}g/dl or by about 21%. A decline of 1.2 {micro}g/dl (6%) was also observed in a reference group of 226 children who did not receive an MHD in-home visit. The decline in the reference group may be partially due to education at the clinics taking the blood samples. The study group had a decline in blood lead levels 3.1 {micro}g/dl (15%) greater than the reference group, with the difference between groups being statistically significant with a P value of less than 0.001. Although significant exposures remained in most of the children studied, important lead reductions were observed with this relatively inexpensive and simple intervention. Education in the homes of families at risk for lead poisoning may be an effective component of programs to reduce blood lead levels.

  18. The relationship between lead in plasma and whole blood in women.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Donald; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Mercado, Adriana; Hu, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that plasma lead levels may better reflect the toxicologically labile fraction of circulatory Pb that is more freely available for exchange with target tissues than do Pb levels in whole blood. Studies have also reported an apparent severalfold variation in the relative partitioning of Pb between whole blood and plasma (or serum) for a given whole-blood Pb level. This may reflect inherent differences in the plasma Pb/whole blood Pb partitioning among individuals and/or methodologic challenges associated with the collection and analyses of samples that generally contain < 1-2 ng total Pb. Here, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the relationship between Pb in whole blood and plasma in environmentally exposed reproductive-age women (n = 63) living in Mexico City, Mexico. We collected whole blood and plasma samples using trace metal clean techniques and analyzed them for Pb using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A subset of subjects provided repeated blood samples weekly for 4 consecutive weeks (n = 17 subjects) or every 1-2 months over a 9-month period (n = 14 subjects). Plasma Pb concentration was significantly positively associated with whole-blood Pb in a curvilinear fashion over the range of blood Pb values observed here (2.13-39.7 microg/dL). This relationship was best described by the function Plasma Pb = e (-2.392 + 0.0898 x blood Pb), where SE(coefficient) = 0.0054, SE(constant) = 0.063 (n = 63 subjects, n = 141 observations). Results from the short- and long-term repeated collection subjects indicated that the within- and between-subject variance components were not significantly different between the two subsets of subjects. The between-subjects component accounts for 78% of the variance in plasma Pb levels, while the residual variance (22%) may be attributed to other unmeasured factors. Collectively, this study demonstrates that plasma Pb measurements may be applied to general clinical settings

  19. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  20. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  1. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. PMID:26906251

  2. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children's case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb(2+) concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb(2+) ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. PMID:26906251

  3. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics.

  4. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure as they described the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, this model, ln PbB = ln (..beta../sub 0/ + B/sub 1/ PbA + B/sub 2/ PbS + ..beta../sub 3/ PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  5. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure to describe the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, the model, ln PbB = ln (Bo + B1 PbA + B2 PbS + B3 PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m.

  6. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  7. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  8. Low lead doses and atherogenic diet in rabbits: biochemical results in blood.

    PubMed

    Speich, M; Métayer, C; Arnaud, P; Nguyen, V G; Bousquet, B; Boiteau, H L

    1983-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of blood lead, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, GOT and GPT enzymes, phosphorus, proteins, plasma calcium and magnesium, and erythrocyte magnesium were studied for 25 weeks in 4 groups of 6 rabbits each receiving different diets: I (controls), II (water with 9.66 mumol/l of lead), III (atherogenic) and IV (atherogenic + 9.66 mumol/l of lead). Differences observed, with respect to the diets, for lead, cholesterol, enzymes, proteins and erythrocyte magnesium were evident from the 42nd day on. Low lead doses raised the levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in group II, whereas triacylglycerols were lower in the plasma of group IV in comparison with group III and were accumulated in the aorta. The elevation of enzymes in groups III and IV indicated heart and liver dysfunctions. There was a significant drop in erythrocyte magnesium in groups III and IV, which was especially marked in the latter group, with an interaction between the two diets.

  9. Assessing risk with increasingly stringent public health goals: the case of water lead and blood lead in children.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Previous predictions of children's blood lead levels (BLLs) through biokinetic models conclude that lead in tap water is not a primary health risk for a typical child under scenarios representative of chronic exposure, when applying a 10 μg/dL BLL of concern. Use of the US Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) biokinetic model to simulate children's exposure to water lead at home and at school was re-examined by expanding the scope of previous modeling efforts to consider new public health goals and improved methodology. Specifically, explicit consideration of the more sensitive population groups (e.g., young children and, particularly, formula-fed infants), the variability in BLLs amongst exposed individuals within those groups (e.g., more sensitive children at the upper tail of the BLL distribution), more conservative BLL reference values (e.g., 5 and 2 μg/dL versus 10 μg/dL) and concerns of acute exposure revealed situations where relatively low water lead levels were predicted to pose a human health concern.

  10. Assessing risk with increasingly stringent public health goals: the case of water lead and blood lead in children.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Previous predictions of children's blood lead levels (BLLs) through biokinetic models conclude that lead in tap water is not a primary health risk for a typical child under scenarios representative of chronic exposure, when applying a 10 μg/dL BLL of concern. Use of the US Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) biokinetic model to simulate children's exposure to water lead at home and at school was re-examined by expanding the scope of previous modeling efforts to consider new public health goals and improved methodology. Specifically, explicit consideration of the more sensitive population groups (e.g., young children and, particularly, formula-fed infants), the variability in BLLs amongst exposed individuals within those groups (e.g., more sensitive children at the upper tail of the BLL distribution), more conservative BLL reference values (e.g., 5 and 2 μg/dL versus 10 μg/dL) and concerns of acute exposure revealed situations where relatively low water lead levels were predicted to pose a human health concern. PMID:24642433

  11. Changes in low levels of lead over the course of pregnancy and the association with birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rabito, Felicia A; Kocak, Mehmet; Werthmann, Derek W; Tylavsky, Frances A; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Data are lacking on the effect of low level prenatal lead exposure. We examined the change in blood lead from the second trimester until delivery and the association between maternal and cord blood lead and birth outcomes in 98 participants of the CANDLE birth cohort study. Mixed effects models were constructed to assess blood lead change over pregnancy and regression models were used to explore the relationship with cord blood lead, characteristics effecting maternal lead, birth weight and gestational age. Overall, the geometric mean maternal blood level was 0.43 μg/dL. Maternal blood lead at each time point was predictive of cord blood lead level. A 0.1 μg/dL increase in second trimester lead was associated with lower birth weight and pre-term birth. Maternal blood lead below 1 μg/dL behaves in a manner similar to lead at higher levels and is associated with a small decrease in birth weight and gestational age. PMID:25461912

  12. Weight gain and maturity in fetuses exposed to low levels of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Allred, E. ); Needleman, H. Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA ); Schoenbaum, S. Harvard Community Health Plan, Cambridge, MA )

    1991-04-01

    The relationship between prenatal low-level lead exposure and fetal growth was evaluated in a sample of 4,354 pregnancies in which the mean umbilical cord blood lead level was 7.0 {mu}g/dl. Higher cord blood lead levels were significantly associated with gestations of slightly longer duration. Comparing infants with cord blood lead levels {much gt} 15 {mu}g/dl to those with levels < 5 {mu}g/dl, adjusted risk ratios of 1.5 to 2.5 were observed for low birth weight (<2,500 g) and for fetal growth indices that express birth weight as a function of length of gestation (e.g., small-for-gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation). The 95% confidence intervals of these risk ratios included 1, however, precluding rejection of the null hypothesis of no association. The authors conclude that the risk of adverse fetal growth is not increased at cord blood lead levels <15 {mu}g/dl but that modest increases in risk may be associated with levels {much gt} 15 {mu}g/dl.

  13. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels.

  14. Impact on blood lead in children and adults following relocation from their source of exposure and contribution of skeletal tissue to blood lead

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, B.L. |

    1996-04-01

    The goal of hazard abatement is the identification and systematic elimination of lead hazards in the community, which should ultimately result in lowering of blood lead (PbB), especially in children. Such a goal is a daunting task in mining or smelting communities such as Broken Hill in Australia where industrial activities operating for more than 100 years and natural weathering over millennia have resulted in widespread contamination. {open_quotes}The single most important factor in managing of childhood lead poisoning is reducing the child`s exposure to lead{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}. Luke reviewed the remediation programs in seven large smelter operations outside Australia using environmental and biological indices, before and after intervention, to gauge the success. He concluded that outcomes varied from temporary improvements in Kellog, Idaho to apparently more successful outcomes in El Paso and Dallas, Texas. At Port Pirie, Luke identified that the most significant predictor of a reduction in PbB levels was permanent relocation out of the high risk areas, whereas in a later assessment Maynard identified, in addition to permanent relocation, level of expenditure on house dedusting and refurbishment, improved dust hygiene practices, and improved early morning diet as likely to reduce PbB levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on PbB of relocation of two families from their source of lead, in this case from the Broken Hill mining community. To gauge the impact of relocation, the results are compared with twenty seven children who relocated within the Broken Hill community from high to low risk areas. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Interrelationships of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in tests from one lead battery plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A period prevalence study examining concurrent PbB, ZPP and Hgb test values from 236 employees of one lead-acid battery manufacturing plant over a six month period was conducted. Fifty-six job categories in the plant were grouped on the basis of proximity and/or similarity of lead exposure. Diagrams of plant layout, the process flow chart, work order, department numbers and biological and environmental data from earlier plant surveys were used in dividing the jobs into five exposure index groups. Length of service with the company was calculated to provide an indication of the duration of occupational exposure to lead. Length of service in the exposure index group was calculated to provide information regarding the duration of exposure as measured by the type of job. Recommendations were made that: 1) a single set of tests not be evaluated in isolation but considered as part of the overall pattern of an individual's laboratory data; 2) ZPP be required by OSHA for periodic monitoring; 3) use of both the PbB and ZPP tests is necessary for biological monitoring at PbB levels less than or equal to 55 ..mu..g/dL; and 4) a PbB value of 40 ..mu..g/dL is a good level to use in determining who will have more frequent biological monitoring for the purpose of OSHA compliance.

  16. Implications of the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention blood lead reference value.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mackenzie S; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535,000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  17. Implications of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Blood Lead Reference Value

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mackenzie S.; Gerstenberger, Shawn L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535 000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  18. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  19. [Lead content in blood of children living near zinc smelter plant exposure on environmental tobacco smoking (ETS)].

    PubMed

    Bogunia, Mariusz; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Bogunia, Edyta; Brodziak, Barbara; Ahnert, Bozena; Nogaj, Ewa; Kowol, Jolanta; Rzepka, Jerzy; Winiarska, Halina; Wojtanowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the results of concentration of lead in the blood of children living near and background the plant smelter are presented. 510 girls and 567 boys from schools located at Tarnowskie Góry and Miasteczko Slaskie took part in the study. Concentration of lead content in the blood of children was determined by the ASA method with the apparatus Pye Unicam SP-9. Smoking of parents increased the level of lead in the blood. Higher concentration of lead was show in blood girls (8.09 microg/100 ml) and boys (9.78 microg/100 ml) exposure to tobacco smoke in comparison to girls (6.19 microg/100 ml) and boys (6.81 microg/100 ml) living in no smoking conditions.

  20. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in San Francisco MUNI bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    San Francisco MUNI bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood pressure (BP) in 342 drivers. Two groups of subjects were identified. These subjects treated for hypertension (n = 54) and untreated subjects (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic BPs varied from 102-173 mmHg and from 61-105 mm Hg respectively in untreated subjects. They varied from 110-206 mmHg and from 73-127 mmHg respectively in treated subjects. The Pb-B varied from 2-15 {mu}g/dl in untreated subjects, and 2-25 {mu}g/dl in treated drivers. The relationship between BP and the logarithm of Pb-B was examined in each group separately using multiple regression techniques. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The regression coefficient relating systolic BP and In(Pb-B) was 1-2 mmHg/ln({mu}g/Dl) (90% C.I.: {minus}2,5) in untreated subjects. The relationship in treated subjects was too unstable to be accurately determined. The coefficients for diastolic BP were 2.0-2.5 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 0.1,4.5) and 6 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 2,11) in untreated and treated subjects respectively.

  1. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  2. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  3. [Relationship between blood lead and free erythrocyte-protoporphyrin of female workers exposed to low concentration of lead operating environment].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Liu, L; Yang, J

    2000-11-01

    The thesis focused in the research on whether low-lead operation would have effects on female workers. Based on investigation of 82 female workers under an operation environment with lead concentration of 0.0315 mg/m3, the following report indicated that differences did exist in terms of free erythrocyte-protoporphyrin(FEP), lead-blood(Pb-B) and lead-urine(Pb-U) values between the exposure and control groups. Pb-B, FEP and Pb-U were found closely interrelated and comparatively sensitive. Dose-response relationship was discovered in the process, positive percentage of Pb-B and FEP were 20.73% and 21.95% respectively, 13.4% above the maximal standard in both cases. In consequence, it was concluded that exposure to the 0.0315 mg/m3 lead concentration (0.03 mg/m3 being the normal) was still harmful to the female workers. Apart from that, the article suggested that the upper limit of lead in blood for common women (in Changchun city) was properly defined at 1.46 mumol/L. With FEP as the standard, the article made repective comparisons on the female workers' intelligence quotient (IQ) and the symptom occurrence of the neural system. People with IQ value between 60 to 79, 80 to 89, 90 to 109 or 110 to 119, the rates of showing positive report with FEP > or = 0.90 mumol/L were 27.6%, 22.6% and 15.0% respectively. The general occurrence rate on various level of FEP was obviously higher than that of the control group. The highest occurrence rate of 208.32% and 58.74% appeared when the FEP value was between 0.36 mumol/L to 0.54 mumol/L. When we made the comparison according to different symptoms as headache, dizziness, hypomnesis, somnipathy, palpitation and ephidrosis, the occurrence rate of headache was distinctively highger than that of the somnipathy.

  4. A polymorphism in AGT and AGTR1 gene is associated with lead-related high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Kim, Hak-Jae

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of polymorphisms in two renin-angiotensin system-related genes, expressed as angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), with blood lead levels and lead-related blood pressure in lead-exposed male workers in Korea. A cross-sectional study involving 808 lead-exposed male workers in Korea was conducted using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy to differentiate the various genotypes of polymorphisms in the AGT and AGTR1 genes. The association of clinical characteristics with genotypes as modifiers was estimated after adjustment for age, smoking status, drinking status, body mass index and job duration of each subject. Genotype and allele frequencies of the M235T polymorphism in AGT were associated with lead-related high blood pressure status. Moreover, blood lead levels were associated with allele frequencies of the AGT M235T polymorphism. These results suggested that the M/M genotype and M allele of AGT are risk factors for lead-related high blood pressure.

  5. Lead in School Children from Morelos, Mexico: Levels, Sources and Feasible Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Farías, Paulina; Álamo-Hernández, Urinda; Mancilla-Sánchez, Leonardo; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Carrizales-Yáñez, Leticia; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead is a pervasive pollutant, associated at low levels to many adverse health effects. Objective: To investigate lead levels, exposure pathways and intervention possibilities in school children from Alpuyeca, in Morelos, Mexico. Methods: Blood lead concentrations (BPb) were measured in 226 children in 2011. Exposure pathways were assessed through a questionnaire, lead measurements in different environmental matrices and spatial aggregation analysis of lead concentrations. Results: BPb ranged from 1.5 to 36.5 µg/dL, with a mean (SD) of 7.23 (4.9) µg/dL. Sixty-four and 18% of the children had BPb > 5 µg/dL and > 10 µg/dL, respectively. The use of lead glazed ceramics was reported in almost half of the households; it was the main BPb determinant and it was associated with an increased risk of having BPb > 5 g/dL by 2.7 times (p = 0.001). Environmental samples were within US EPA’s lead recommended limits, and blood lead levels were randomly distributed in the community. Conclusions: Lead remains a public health problem in Alpuyeca, Mexico. Unlike other local pollutants, lead exposure prevention can be achieved inexpensively and in a short term. Interventions should make mothers aware of lead’s health effects and empower them to safeguard their children’s health by avoiding the culturally ingrained use of lead glazed pottery. PMID:25493390

  6. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  7. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  8. [Regional effect research of blood lead concentrations and isotopic fingerprints in four cities by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Wang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Ouyang, Li

    2011-11-01

    Blood lead is a reflection of environment lead in vivo, its concentration could be used to assess lead exposure of environment quantitatively, and its isotopic ratio could be used to fingerprint environment source qualitatively. In the present study, concentrations and isotopic ratios of blood lead (BPb) of four cities in China were measured by ICP-MS for the first time. The regional effects of BPb in four Chinese cities were observed in our study. The BPb levels of industrial cities (Taiyuan and Chengdu) are higher than that of non-industrial cities (Suzhou and Beijing), indicating that industrial pollution remains primary lead contamination factor. The BPb isotopic ratios are diverse with the different character of environment the individuals live in. Food-borne lead probably has replaced the air-borne lead to be the major source of BPb in Beijing. Besides, regional effect of BPb in some developed cities is partly weakened by diversity of vast majority of imported resources.

  9. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  10. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  11. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian

    2014-04-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  12. Association of blood pressure and PCB level in Yusho patients

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, K.; Okumura, M.

    1985-02-01

    Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with Yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these Yusho patients.

  13. Assessing cerebral blood flow control from variability in blood pressure and arterial CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Dragana; Birch, Anthony A; Panerai, Ronney B; Simpson, David M

    2015-08-01

    Blood flow to the brain is controlled by a number of physiological mechanisms that respond to changes in arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2 levels and many other factors. Assessing the integrity of this control system is a major challenge. We report on repeatability of measures based on single and multiple input models during spontaneous and enhanced fluctuations in blood pressure.

  14. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  15. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  16. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  17. Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Moturi, M Charles; Gottesfeld, P; Wafula, Godfrey A; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

  18. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  19. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  20. Evaluation of potentially significant increase of lead in the blood during long-term bed rest and space flight.

    PubMed

    Kondrashov, Vladislav; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Chettle, David; Zerwekh, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    We address a gap in the knowledge of lead turnover under conditions of prolonged bed rest and microgravity by developing a quantitative model of the amount of lead returned to blood circulation from bone. We offer the hypothesis that skeletal unloading, such as typically occurs during extended bed rest or microgravity, will result in bone lead being released to the blood, as has already been demonstrated in the case of calcium. We use initial bone lead concentrations to develop predictive models of blood lead elevation. Our theoretical calculations with typical bone lead loads measured in today's 40-60-year-old generation, suggest that the estimated blood lead concentrations in long duration (e.g., 100 days) space flight could average between 20 and 40 microg dl(-1), a range with well-established toxic effects. For a similar duration of bed rest, estimated blood lead concentration could be as high as 10-20 microg dl(-1), which is a level of concern, particularly if we consider females of childbearing age. The preliminary experimental results were obtained under multi-institutional collaborations, with the main outcome received from an on-going bed rest study, Prevention of Microgravity-Induced Stone Risk by KMgCitrate, conducted at the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Based on theoretical modeling and some preliminary experimental results, this concept may have important clinical implications by allowing prediction of the magnitude of blood lead elevation, thereby establishing the means to prevent lead toxicity during long duration space flight of astronauts and in conditions of prolonged bed rest such as complicated pregnancy, spinal cord injury induced paralysis and comatose patients. PMID:15742874

  1. Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Jaar, Bernard G.; Schwartz, Brian S.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; Simon, David; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Low-level cadmium exposure, e.g., urinary cadmium < 2.0 μg/g creatinine, is widespread; recent data suggest nephrotoxicity even at these lower levels. Few studies have examined the impact of low-level cadmium exposure in workers who are occupationally exposed to other nephrotoxicants such as lead. Methods We evaluated associations of urine cadmium, a measure of cumulative dose, with four glomerular filtration measures and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in lead workers. Recent and cumulative lead dose was assessed via blood and tibia lead, respectively. Results In 712 lead workers, mean (SD) blood and tibia lead, urine cadmium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation were 23.1 (14.1) μg/dl, 26.6 (28.9) μg Pb/g bone mineral, 1.15 (0.66) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, urine creatinine, smoking, alcohol, education, annual income, diastolic blood pressure, current or former lead worker job status, new or returning study participant, and blood and tibia lead, higher ln-urine cadmium was associated with higher calculated creatinine clearance, eGFR (β = 8.7 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI = 5.4, 12.1) and ln-NAG but lower serum creatinine. Conclusions Potential explanations for these results include a normal physiologic response in which urine cadmium levels reflect renal filtration; the impact of adjustment for urine dilution with creatinine in models of kidney outcomes; and cadmium-related hyperfiltration. PMID:20974743

  2. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level lead exposure. This study examined the sensitivity of a novel odor recognition task to differences in pre-adolescent C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed from birth to PND 28, to 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (higher-dose) lead acetate (N=33). Blood lead levels (BLLs) determined by ICP-MS ranged from 0.02 to 20.31 μg/dL. Generalized linear mixed model analyses with litter as a random effect showed a significant interaction of BLL×sex. As BLLs increased olfactory recognition memory decreased in males. Among females, non-linear effects were observed at lower but not higher levels of lead exposure. The novel odor detection task is sensitive to effects associated with early chronic low-level lead exposure in young C57BL/6J mice.

  3. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level