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Sample records for blood urine saliva

  1. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In Field Detection of Biologicals in Human Blood Serum, Saliva and Urine Using Pan Coated Quartz Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    removed and stored at 40 C for use in assays. 11 inhibit these proteins. Other enzymes, such as a - amylase , are also found in abundance in saliva . This...Detection of Biologicals in Human Blood Serum, Saliva and Urine Using Pan Coated Quartz Crystals PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Carter CONTRACTING...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Field Detection of Biologicals in 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Human Blood Serum, Saliva and Urine Using Pan Coated Quartz Crystals

  3. Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R; Umbach, David M; Bernbaum, Judy C; Twaddle, Nathan C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166 full-term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula, or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. A total of 381 urine, 361 saliva, and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and used similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots. Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than in the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable only in a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy formula-fed infants than in the cow milk formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies

  4. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and amebic colitis by detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva by a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rashidul; Kabir, Mamun; Noor, Zannatun; Rahman, S M Mazidur; Mondal, Dinesh; Alam, Faisal; Rahman, Intekhab; Al Mahmood, Abdullh; Ahmed, Nooruddin; Petri, William A

    2010-08-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of amebic liver abscess is challenging, as most patients at the time of diagnosis do not have a concurrent intestinal infection with Entamoeba histolytica. Fecal testing for E. histolytica parasite antigen or DNA is negative in most patients. A real-time PCR assay was evaluated for detection of E. histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva samples from amebic liver abscess as well as amebic colitis patients in Bangladesh. A total of 98 amebic liver abscess and 28 amebic colitis patients and 43 control subjects were examined. The real-time PCR assay detected E. histolytica DNA in 49%, 77%, and 69% of blood, urine, and saliva specimens from the amebic liver abscess patients. For amebic colitis the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay for detection of E. histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva was 36%, 61%, and 64%, respectively. All blood, urine, and saliva samples from control subjects were negative by the real-time PCR assay for E. histolytica DNA. When the real-time PCR assay results of the urine and saliva specimens were taken together (positive either in urine or saliva), the real-time PCR assay was 97% and 89% sensitive for detection of E. histolytica DNA in liver abscess and intestinal infection, respectively. We conclude that the detection of E. histolytica DNA in saliva and urine could be used as a diagnostic tool for amebic liver abscess.

  5. Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population.

    PubMed

    Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Márquez, Claudia; Femia, Pedro; Olmedo, Pablo; López-Guarnido, Olga; Pla, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure.

  6. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; López-Guarnido, O; Rodrigo, L; Gil, F

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  7. Determination of mercury in blood, urine and saliva for the biological monitoring of an exposure from amalgam fillings in a group with self-reported adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Holger; Ludwig, Heidi; Bader, Michael; Bailer, Josef; Eickholz, Peter; Staehle, Hans Jörg; Triebig, Gerhard

    2002-04-01

    It has been argued that the release of mercury from amalgam fillings is of toxicological relevance. The aim of the study was to determine the internal mercury exposure of two groups differing in their attitude towards possible health hazards by mercury from amalgam fillings. It was to be examined if the two groups differ with regard to the mercury concentration in different biological matrices and to compare the results with current reference values. Blood, urine and saliva samples were analyzed from 40 female subjects who claimed to suffer from serious health damage due to amalgam fillings ("amalgam sensitive subjects"). 43 female control subjects did not claim any association ("amalgam non-sensitive controls"). Mercury was determined by means of cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Number and surfaces of amalgam fillings were determined by dentists for each subject. Median (range) mercury levels in blood were 2.35 (0.25-13.40) micrograms/l for "amalgam sensitive subjects" and 2.40 (0.25-10.50) micrograms/l for "amalgam non-sensitive controls". In urine, the median mercury concentrations were 1.55 (0.06-14.70) micrograms/l and 1.88 (0.20-8.43) micrograms/g creatinine respectively. No significant differences could be found between the two groups. Mercury levels in blood and urine of the examined subjects were within the range of background levels in the general population including persons with amalgam fillings. Stimulated saliva contained 76.4 (6.7-406.0) micrograms mercury/l in "amalgam sensitive subjects" and 57.0 (2.8-559.0) micrograms mercury/l in controls (not significant). Mercury levels in saliva did not correlate with the concentrations in blood and urine, but merely with the number of amalgam fillings or of the filling surfaces. Mercury in saliva is therefore not recommended for a biological monitoring.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that

  10. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  11. Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in human saliva and urine: loop-mediated isothermal amplification for malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Akhlaghi, Lame; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Farivar, Leila; Razmjou, Elham

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in urine and saliva of malaria patients. From May to November 2011, 108 febrile patients referred to health centers in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of south-eastern Iran participated in the study. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were analyzed with nested PCR and LAMP targeting the species-specific nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of P. falciparum and P. vivax and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy by comparison to blood nested PCR assay. When nested PCR of blood is used as standard, microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and urine samples showed sensitivity of 97.2%, 89.4% and 71% and specificity of 100%, 97.3% and 100%, respectively. LAMP sensitivity of blood, saliva, and urine was 95.8%, 47% and 29%, respectively, whereas LAMP specificity of these samples was 100%. Microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and LAMP of blood were comparable to nested PCR of blood (к=0.95, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively), but agreement for nested PCR of urine was moderate (к=0.64) and poor to fair for saliva LAMP and urine LAMP (к=0.38 and 0.23, respectively). LAMP assay showed low sensitivity for detection of Plasmodium DNA in human saliva and urine compared to results with blood and to nested PCR of blood, saliva, and urine. However, considering the advantages of LAMP technology and of saliva and urine sampling, further research into the method is worthwhile. LAMP protocol and precise preparation protocols need to be defined and optimized for template DNA of saliva and urine.

  12. Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Urine and Saliva Samples in Nonhuman Primate Model.

    PubMed

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John Maina; Gachie, Beatrice Muthoni; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Waema, Maxwell Wambua; Maranga, Dawn Nyawira; Maina, Naomi Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-borne parasitic zoonotic disease. The disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the most prevalent in Africa. Early diagnosis is hampered by lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques. This study explored the potential of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of T. b. gambiense infection in a vervet monkey HAT model. Six vervet monkeys were experimentally infected with T. b. gambiense IL3253 and monitored for 180 days after infection. Parasitaemia was scored daily. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, and urine samples were collected weekly. PCR and LAMP were performed on serum, CSF, saliva, and urine samples. The detection by LAMP was significantly higher than that of parasitological methods and PCR in all the samples. The performance of LAMP varied between the samples and was better in serum followed by saliva and then urine samples. In the saliva samples, LAMP had 100% detection between 21 and 77 dpi, whereas in urine the detection it was slightly lower, but there was over 80% detection between 28 and 91 dpi. However, LAMP could not detect trypanosomes in either saliva or urine after 140 and 126 dpi, respectively. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of LAMP in diagnosis of HAT using saliva and urine samples.

  13. Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Urine and Saliva Samples in Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John Maina; Gachie, Beatrice Muthoni; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Waema, Maxwell Wambua; Maranga, Dawn Nyawira; Maina, Naomi Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-borne parasitic zoonotic disease. The disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the most prevalent in Africa. Early diagnosis is hampered by lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques. This study explored the potential of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of T. b. gambiense infection in a vervet monkey HAT model. Six vervet monkeys were experimentally infected with T. b. gambiense IL3253 and monitored for 180 days after infection. Parasitaemia was scored daily. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, and urine samples were collected weekly. PCR and LAMP were performed on serum, CSF, saliva, and urine samples. The detection by LAMP was significantly higher than that of parasitological methods and PCR in all the samples. The performance of LAMP varied between the samples and was better in serum followed by saliva and then urine samples. In the saliva samples, LAMP had 100% detection between 21 and 77 dpi, whereas in urine the detection it was slightly lower, but there was over 80% detection between 28 and 91 dpi. However, LAMP could not detect trypanosomes in either saliva or urine after 140 and 126 dpi, respectively. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of LAMP in diagnosis of HAT using saliva and urine samples. PMID:26504841

  14. Realising the Potential of Urine and Saliva as Diagnostic Tools in Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of homeostatic perturbations following various psychophysiological stressors is essential in sports and exercise medicine. Various biomarkers are routinely used as monitoring tools in both clinical and elite sport settings. Blood collection and muscle biopsies, both invasive in nature, are considered the gold standard for the analysis of these biomarkers in exercise science. Exploring non-invasive methods of collecting and analysing biomarkers that are capable of providing accurate information regarding exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress is of obvious practical importance. This review describes the potential benefits, and the limitations, of using saliva and urine to ascertain biomarkers capable of identifying important stressors that are routinely encountered before, during, or after intense or unaccustomed exercise, competition, over-training, and inappropriate recovery. In particular, we focus on urinary and saliva biomarkers that have previously been used to monitor muscle damage, inflammation, cardiovascular stress, oxidative stress, hydration status, and brain distress. Evidence is provided from a range of empirical studies suggesting that urine and saliva are both capable of identifying various stressors. Although additional research regarding the efficacy of using urine and/or saliva to indicate the severity of exercise-induced psychophysiological stress is required, it is likely that these non-invasive biomarkers will represent "the future" in sports and exercise medicine.

  15. [HBsAG in feces, urine and saliva].

    PubMed

    Lento, F G; Tandurella, S

    1979-01-01

    After some observations about the tests of the research exposed in the literature, authors illustrate the tests for 142 patients divided into 5 groups: a) patients affected with acute viral hepatitis; b) patients affected with praegressa acute viral hepatitis; c) relatives of patients with acute viral hepatitis; d) volunteers; e) patients affected with chronic uraemia under dialisis periodic treatment. After the testing control, authors, conclude with an hipotesis: a possible epidemic function of faeces, urine saliva, in the passage of the acute viral hepatitis.

  16. Improved performance with saliva and urine as alternative DNA sources for malaria diagnosis by mitochondrial DNA-based PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Putaporntip, C; Buppan, P; Jongwutiwes, S

    2011-10-01

    Saliva and urine from malaria-infected individuals contain trace amounts of Plasmodium DNA, and therefore, could be used as alternative specimens for diagnosis. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cytb-PCR) of four human malaria species and Plasmodium knowlesi was developed and tested with 693 blood samples from febrile patients living in diverse malaria-endemic areas of Thailand, and compared with microscopy and nested PCR targeting small-subunit rRNA (18S-PCR). Cytb-PCR was 16% and 39.8% more sensitive than 18S-PCR and microscopy, respectively, in detecting all of these malarial species in blood samples. Importantly, 34% and 17% of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax mono-infections, respectively, detected by microscopy were, in fact, mixed P. falciparum and P. non-falciparum infections. Analysis of matched blood, saliva and urine from 157 individuals showed that microscopy and Cytb-PCR of saliva yielded no significant difference in detecting P. falciparum and P. vivax. However, Cytb-PCR of saliva was more sensitive than microscopy for diagnosis of mixed-species infections. A combination of Cytb-PCR of saliva and of urine significantly outperformed microscopy (p 0.0098 for P. falciparum, p 0.006 for P. vivax, and p 0.0002 for mixed infections). Furthermore, Plasmodium malariae and P. knowlesi could also be identified in saliva and urine with this method. Therefore, the Cytb-PCR developed herein offers a high potential for the use of both saliva and urine for malaria diagnosis, with a sensitivity comparable with or superior to that of microscopy.

  17. Lead levels in saliva and in blood

    SciTech Connect

    P'an, A.Y.S.

    1981-02-01

    The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

  18. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematuria is when blood in the urine is invisible to the naked eye; it only shows up ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. Blood in Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications. The anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) and penicillin can cause urinary bleeding. Visible urinary blood sometimes ... anti-inflammatory pain relievers and antibiotics such as penicillin are known to increase the risk of urinary ...

  20. Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Aydin, Suleyman; Sarac, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kalayci, Mehmet; Artas, Gokhan; Yardim, Meltem; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1–T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to

  1. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada

    2007-04-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field.

  2. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  3. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  4. [Progesterone and pregnanediol-glucuronid concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas and their application in pregnancy diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Volkery, Janine; Wittek, Thomas; Sobiraj, Axel; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almuth

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the measurement of the pregnancy associated hormones progesterone (P4) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) in saliva, milk and urine of alpacas and their potential use in pregnancy diagnosis. Sample of blood, saliva, milk and urine were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and throughout the pregnancy. Concentrations of P4 and PdG were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Pregnancy was checked by ultrasonography at any sampling time. The milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm progesterone kit which was designed for dairy cattle. EIA-Concentrations of P4 in blood, milk and urine and urine PdG concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in not pregnant alpacas. There was no difference in concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The accuracy of the progesterone kit was 90% for diagnosis of pregnancy and 69% for non-pregnancy. However, 70% of the false positive results also showed relatively high P4 milk concentrations in the EIA. Values of P4 in blood and PdG in urine are comparable to previous reports in alpacas and therefore can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. Saliva seems unsuitable in pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas milk seems to be an adequate alternative. The use of milk and urine would simplify the pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas since in contrast to the current methods (e. g. blood progesterone) the owners can take the samples. The avoidance of blood sampling results in a considerable stress reduction for the animals. P4 measurement in milk and PdG measurement in urine are good alternatives in pregnancy diagnosis during the first month of pregnancy, when a trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination is not yet reliable. However, since high values of P4 and PdG only show the presence of active luteal tissue and therefore are indirect markers of pregnancy the diagnosis should be confirmed using ultrasound later in pregnancy.

  5. Isolation of Infective Zika Virus from Urine and Saliva of Patients in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Kely A. B.; de Castro, Marcia G.; Gerber, Alexandra L.; de Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent threat provoking a worldwide explosive outbreak. Since January 2015, 41 countries reported autochthonous cases. In Brazil, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly cases was linked to ZIKV infections. A recent report describing low experimental transmission efficiency of its main putative vector, Ae. aegypti, in conjunction with apparent sexual transmission notifications, prompted the investigation of other potential sources of viral dissemination. Urine and saliva have been previously established as useful tools in ZIKV diagnosis. Here, we described the presence and isolation of infectious ZIKV particles from saliva and urine of acute phase patients in the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine urine and five saliva samples from nine patients from Rio de Janeiro presenting rash and other typical Zika acute phase symptoms were inoculated in Vero cell culture and submitted to specific ZIKV RNA detection and quantification through, respectively, NAT-Zika, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Two ZIKV isolates were achieved, one from urine and one from saliva specimens. ZIKV nucleic acid was identified by all methods in four patients. Whenever both urine and saliva samples were available from the same patient, urine viral loads were higher, corroborating the general sense that it is a better source for ZIKV molecular diagnostic. In spite of this, from the two isolated strains, each from one patient, only one derived from urine, suggesting that other factors, like the acidic nature of this fluid, might interfere with virion infectivity. The complete genome of both ZIKV isolates was obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarity with strains previously isolated during the South America outbreak. Conclusions/Significance The detection of infectious ZIKV particles in urine and saliva of patients during the acute phase may represent a critical factor in the spread of virus. The epidemiological

  6. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  7. Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting. PMID:27013544

  8. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

  9. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalances in the urine, like too much calcium kidney stones kidney diseases taking certain medicines, like some over- ... is a sign of something more serious — like kidney stones or a specific kidney disease — doctors will treat ...

  10. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV.

  11. Column liquid chromatographic analysis of quinine in human plasma, saliva and urine.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Dixon, P A; Ogunbona, F A

    1993-06-23

    A new simple, selective and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of quinine in plasma, saliva and urine is described. The ion-pair method was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 column, using perchlorate ion as the counter ion and ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. Quinine was well resolved from its major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, and the internal standard, primaquine. The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml and the recovery was greater than 90% from the three biological fluids.

  12. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-03-17

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18-25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual's exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals.

  13. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  14. Tailored Assays for Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Investigations of Aliskiren and Enalapril in Children: An Application in Serum, Urine, and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Tins, Jutta; Ramusovic, Sergej; Läer, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Drugs that are effectively used to treat hypertension in adults (e.g., enalapril) have not been sufficiently investigated in children. Studies required for pediatric approval require special consideration regarding ethics, study design, and conduct and are also associated with special demands for the bioanalytic method. Pediatric-appropriate assays can overcome these burdens and enable systematic investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic in all pediatric age groups. METHODS: Tailored assays were developed for pharmacokinetic investigation of a drug in 100 μL of serum, saliva, and urine. All assays were applied in a proof-of-concept study to 22 healthy volunteers who had been given 300 mg aliskiren hemifumarate or 20 mg enalapril maleate and allowed for dense sampling. Changes in humoral parameters of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were also evaluated with 6 parameters in 2.1 mL blood per time point. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic results of aliskiren and enalapril obtained by low-volume assays in serum and urine were comparable to that noted in the literature. The dense sampling enabled very detailed concentration-time profiles that showed high intersubject variability and biphasic absorption behavior of aliskiren. The replacement of invasive sampling by saliva collection appears inappropriate for both drugs because the correlations of drug concentrations in both fluids were low. A low-volume assay was also used to determine values for in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and to compare those results with the published literature. CONCLUSION: These results support both the use of low-volume assays in pediatric research and the systematic investigation of their use in neonates and infants. Use of this assay methodology will increase information about drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in this vulnerable population and might contribute to safe and effective use of pharmacotherapy. PMID:26766933

  15. Bisphenol A and Other Metabolites in Human Saliva and Urine Associated with the Placement of Composite Restorations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    grooves of molars, and on any anterior surfaces needing restorative care. No randomization of patients will be performed as the background...Urine Associated with the Placement of Composite Restorations " 3. Principal Investigator (PI): William J. Dunn, Col, USAF, DC, 81 DS/SGD, Phone: (228...Human Saliva and Urine Associated with the Placement of Composite Restorations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Y1-DE-7002-01 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  16. Exploring the concurrent presence of hepatitis A virus genome in serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples of hepatitis A patients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Madhuri S; Bhalla, Shilpa; Kalrao, Vijay R; Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2014-04-01

    The use of saliva and urine as an alternative to serum samples for detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibodies has been documented. However, these samples remain underreported or unexplored for shedding of HAV. To address this issue, paired serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples collected from hepatitis A patients were screened by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of HAV RNA. HAV RNA was detected in 67.6% (44/65), 52.3% (34/65), 8.7% (5/57), and 12.3% (8/65) of the serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained for partial RNA polymerase region grouped HAV strains from all of the clinical samples of the study in subgenotype IIIA. Low frequency of HAV nucleic acid in saliva and urine samples indicates limited utility of these samples in genomic studies on HAV but suggests its potential for transmission and infection of hepatitis A.

  17. Effect of dietary copper on the copper content of urine, parotid saliva, and sweat in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Turnlund, J.R. )

    1989-02-09

    Eleven young men were confined to a metabolic research unit to study the effect of the level of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu metabolism. They were fed a constant diet containing the following three levels of dietary Cu: adequate Cu (1.68 mg/d) for 24 days (MP1), low Cu (0.785 mg/d) for 42 days (MP2), and high Cu (7.53 mg/d) for 24 days (MP3). Urine was collected throughout the study and Cu was determined in 6-day pools from the beginning of the study, the end of each MP, and the midpoint of MP2. Parotid saliva was collected near the end of each MP. Sweat was collected from the upper arm and ancillary area of three subjects for 2-day periods near the end of each MP. Urinary Cu averaged 0.34, 0.34 and 0.33 {mu}mol/d for MP 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.39 {mu}mol/d. Parotid saliva Cu averaged 13.4, 13.0, and 12.0 nmol/L for MP 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 6.9 to 17.8 nmol/L. Sweat Cu levels were very low and did not appear to be affected by dietary Cu. The limited data suggest that sweat losses would have little effect on Cu balance. Neither urinary nor salivary Cu was affected by dietary Cu or related to indices of Cu status (serum Cu, ceruloplasmin, or erythrocyte superoxide dismutase). Urinary and salivary Cu differed significantly among individuals. Results suggest that urinary, salivary, and sweat Cu do not play a role in regulating Cu retention or affect Cu status of humans.

  18. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Adrian A.; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumption to decrease the burden of cancers in regions of high betel consumption. In the search for biomarkers of betel consumption, we measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) the appearance and disappearance of betel alkaloids (characteristic for betel nuts), N-nitroso compounds, and chavibetol (characteristic for Piper Betle leaves) in saliva (n=4), hair (n=2), and urine (n=1) of occasional betel nut/quid chewers. The betel alkaloids arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine were detected in saliva of all four participants and peaked within the first 2 h post-chewing before returning to baseline levels after 8 h. Salivary chavibetol was detected in participants consuming Piper Betle leaves in their quid and peaked ~1 h post-chewing. Urinary arecoline, guvacoline, and arecaidine excretion paralleled saliva almost exactly while chavibetol glucuronide excretion paralleled salivary chavibetol. No betel nut related compounds were detected in the tested hair samples using various extraction methods. From these preliminary results, we conclude that betel exposure can only be followed on a short-term basis (≤8 h post-chewing) using the applied biomarkers from urine and saliva while the feasibility of using hair has yet to be validated. PMID:26619803

  19. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumption to decrease the burden of cancers in regions of high betel consumption. In the search for biomarkers of betel consumption, we measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) the appearance and disappearance of betel alkaloids (characteristic for betel nuts), N-nitroso compounds, and chavibetol (characteristic for Piper Betle leaves) in saliva (n=4), hair (n=2), and urine (n=1) of occasional betel nut/quid chewers. The betel alkaloids arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine were detected in saliva of all four participants and peaked within the first 2 h post-chewing before returning to baseline levels after 8 h. Salivary chavibetol was detected in participants consuming Piper Betle leaves in their quid and peaked ~1 h post-chewing. Urinary arecoline, guvacoline, and arecaidine excretion paralleled saliva almost exactly while chavibetol glucuronide excretion paralleled salivary chavibetol. No betel nut related compounds were detected in the tested hair samples using various extraction methods. From these preliminary results, we conclude that betel exposure can only be followed on a short-term basis (≤8 h post-chewing) using the applied biomarkers from urine and saliva while the feasibility of using hair has yet to be validated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  1. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  2. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Szarc Vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  3. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hematuria can be seen because it changes the color of urine, which can happen with just a ...

  4. Microanalyzer for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. State-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments can only analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turnaround times, and they are expensive. In response to the growing need for a metal analyzer capable of on-site, real-time monitoring of trace toxic metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/stripping voltammetry (ASV), and validated the system using rat blood and urine spiked with known amounts of Pb. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with suitable sample pretreatment and by establishing turbulent flow of blood and urine containing Pb onto the electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. No matrix effect was observed for the voltammetric Pb signals, even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration ranges relevant to Pb exposure levels in humans (0-20 ppb in 10% blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50% urine samples). The device showed excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.44 ppb and 0.46 ppb, and % R.S.D. was 4.9 and 2.4 in 50% urine and 10% blood samples, respectively. It gave similar Pb concentrations in blood and urine to those measured by ICP-MS. It offered high throughput (3 min per sample) and economical use of samples (60 microL per measurement) as well as low reagent consumption (1 microg of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing environmental concerns associated with mercury use. Since it is miniaturized, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it shows much promise as the next-generation analyzer for the biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  5. Lead distribution in the saliva and blood fractions of rats after intraperitoneal injections.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, N; P'an, A Y

    1984-07-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1, 2 or 3 i.p. injections of lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after the last injection. Lead concentration was determined by flameless AAS technique in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva and submaxillary gland tissue. The concentration of lead in saliva was about 5% of whole blood lead concentration and around 61% of plasma filtrate lead level. Saliva lead concentration was significantly related both to whole blood lead concentration and plasma filtrate lead concentration (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001; r = 0.80, P = 0.001 respectively). Lead was present in the submaxillary gland tissue; the amount of lead increased with increasing amounts administered.

  6. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  7. Detection of Methamphetamine and Morphine in Urine and Saliva Using Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence and a Second-Order Calibration Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B. Y.; Ye, Y.; Liao, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    A new method was developed to determine the methamphetamine and morphine concentrations in urine and saliva based on excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled to a second-order calibration algorithm. In the case of single-drug abuse, the results showed that the average recoveries of methamphetamine and morphine were 95.3 and 96.7% in urine samples, respectively, and 98.1 and 106.2% in saliva samples, respectively. The relative errors were all below 5%. The simultaneous determination of methamphetamine and morphine in urine using two second-order algorithms was also investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained with a self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm. The root-mean-square errors of the predictions were 0.540 and 0.0382 μg/mL for methamphetamine and morphine, respectively. The limits of detection of the proposed methods were very low and sufficient for studying methamphetamine and morphine in urine.

  8. The management of occupational exposures to blood and saliva in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G D; Fleming, G J

    2000-09-01

    Accidental injuries when handling sharp or rotating instruments can allow inoculation of a dental team member by the patient's blood or saliva. The risk of transmission of HIV from occupational exposure among dental workers is low and to date no occupational exposure has resulted in HIV transmission. However, hepatitis B and C have a high morbidity and mortality and are more infectious than HIV. This paper demonstrates how occupational exposures to blood and saliva could be managed in general dental practice and outlines the legal responsibilities of a dentist in the management of these exposures.

  9. Progesterone, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, relaxin and oestrone sulphate concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and their application in pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Volkery, J; Gottschalk, J; Sobiraj, A; Wittek, T; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-25

    The pregnancy-associated hormones, progesterone (P4), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), relaxin (RLN) and oestrone sulphate (E1S) in plasma, saliva, milk and urine of alpacas were measured in order to assess their potential use for pregnancy diagnosis. Samples were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and at different stages throughout pregnancy (confirmed by ultrasonography). The hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm P4 kit, designed for dairy cattle. Although the concentration of P4 in plasma, milk and urine, and the concentration of PdG in urine were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant alpacas, there was no difference in the concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The on-farm milk P4 kit showed a sensitivity of 90 per cent for diagnosis of pregnancy and a specificity of 69 per cent for non-pregnancy. The concentration of RLN in plasma increased significantly after the second month, and concentration of E1S in plasma and urine during the last month of pregnancy, whereas, there were no significant differences in RLN or E1S concentrations in saliva and milk between pregnant and non-pregnant alpacas. Values of P4, RLN and E1S in plasma, and PdG and E1S in urine are comparable with the previous reports in alpacas and, therefore, can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. This is the first study to include determination of pregnancy-associated hormones in the saliva and milk of alpacas. However, saliva seems to be unsuitable for pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas, P4 in milk, as well as PdG and E1S in urine, seem to be adequate tools for diagnosis.

  10. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  12. The use of forensic tests to distinguish blowfly artifacts from human blood, semen, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA.

  13. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common causes are: bladder or kidney infections kidney stones high levels of calcium and other minerals in ... Bladder) Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Kidney Diseases in Childhood Kidney Stones Glomerulonephritis High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Recurrent Urinary Tract ...

  14. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  15. Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic receptors for the QCM-D-based detection of L-nicotine in diluted saliva and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Alenus, J; Ethirajan, A; Horemans, F; Weustenraed, A; Csipai, P; Gruber, J; Peeters, M; Cleij, T J; Wagner, P

    2013-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic receptors that are able to specifically bind their target molecules in complex samples, making them a versatile tool in biosensor technology. The combination of MIPs as a recognition element with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM-D with dissipation monitoring) gives a straightforward and sensitive device, which can simultaneously measure frequency and dissipation changes. In this work, bulk-polymerized L-nicotine MIPs were used to test the feasibility of L-nicotine detection in saliva and urine samples. First, L-nicotine-spiked saliva and urine were measured after dilution in demineralized water and 0.1× phosphate-buffered saline solution for proof-of-concept purposes. L-nicotine could indeed be detected specifically in the biologically relevant micromolar concentration range. After successfully testing on spiked samples, saliva was analyzed, which was collected during chewing of either nicotine tablets with different concentrations or of smokeless tobacco. The MIPs in combination with QCM-D were able to distinguish clearly between these samples: This proves the functioning of the concept with saliva, which mediates the oral uptake of nicotine as an alternative to the consumption of cigarettes.

  16. Development of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of thiocynate ion in human urine and saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Daryanavard, Seyed Mosayeb; Abdolhosseini, Sana

    2013-02-15

    Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAE-ME) procedure coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement has been developed for determination of thiocyanate ion (SCN(-)) in water and biological fluids samples. The method is based on protonation of SCN(-) ions in acidic medium and extraction of thiocyanic acid into fine droplets of chloroform as an extraction solvent contains rhodamine B (RhB). The RhB was protonated in presence of thiocynanic acid to form highly colored ion-pair complex of [thiocynate][RhBH(+)] in chloroform, which used for subsequent spectrophotometric determination of SCN(-) ions. Experimental parameters for both spectrophotometric reaction and USAE-ME procedure have been optimized. Under optimized conditions the calibration curve for SCN(-) showed good linearity in the range of 38.0-870.0ngmL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967). The limit of detection (S/N=3) and preconcentration factor were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 40, respectively. Relative standard deviation for determination of 200ngmL(-1) of SCN(-) was 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied for determination of SCN(-) ion in tap water, mineral bottled water and human saliva and urine samples with an average recovery of 99.2%.

  17. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  18. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  19. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  20. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs. PMID:27800487

  1. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  2. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  3. A versatile method for analysis of saliva, plasma and urine for total thiols using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Stachniuk, Justyna; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Furmaniak, Paulina; Głowacki, Rafał

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method using 2-chloro-1-methyllepidinium tetrafluoroborate (CMLT) as a derivatization reagent was developed for simultaneous determination of homocysteine (Hcy), glutathione (GSH), γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GluCys), cysteinylglycine (CysGly), N-acetylcysteine (NACys) and cysteine (Cys) in human saliva, plasma and urine. Separation of the analytes was achieved in just 7min using an HPLC, followed by UV detection at 355nm. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Aeris PEPTIDE XB-C18 (150mm×4.6mm, 3.6µm) column from Phenomenex with a gradient elution: 0-4.0min, 7-30% B; 4.0-5.5min, 30-7% B; 5.5-7.5min, 7% B; (A: B, v/v); (A) 0.5% CH3COOH and (B) EtOH. Mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate 1.0mLmin(-1). Linearity in detector response for total thiols was observed over the range of 0.1-20μmolL(-1) for Hcy, GSH and γ-GluCys, 0.25-50μmolL(-1) for NACys and CysGly and 5-300 for Cys. The LOQ values for Hcy, GSH, γ-GluCys, NACys, CysGly and Cys were 0.05, 0.05, 0.10, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.08μmolL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully implemented to analysis of the samples donated by 15 apparently healthy volunteers and 10 patients.

  4. Viral latency in blood and saliva of simian foamy virus-infected humans.

    PubMed

    Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV.

  5. Developmental validation of RSID-saliva: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of saliva.

    PubMed

    Old, Jennifer B; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Reich, Karl A

    2009-07-01

    Current methods for forensic identification of saliva generally assay for the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase, an enzyme long associated with human saliva. Here, we describe the Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID-Saliva), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antisalivary amylase monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of salivary amylase, rather than the activity of the enzyme. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive for human saliva; RSID-Saliva detects less than 1 microL of saliva. The sensitivity of RSID-Saliva allows investigators to sample a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority for DNA-STR analysis. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva identifies saliva from a variety of materials (e.g., cans, bottles, envelopes, and cigarette-butts) and it does not cross-react with blood, semen, urine, or vaginal fluid. RSID-Saliva is a useful forensic test for determining which evidentiary items contain saliva and thus may yield a DNA profile.

  6. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lundby, C

    2014-05-01

    The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping').

  7. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bond strength of self-etching adhesive system- An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Madhusudhana; Gogala, Dorasani; Mathew, Vinod B; Thangala, Venugopal; Deepthi, Mandava; Sasidhar, Nalluru

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of saliva and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive to enamel and dentin; and, to compare the difference in bond strength due to contamination beforeand after application of the self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: 40 human mandibular molars were wet ground on both buccal and lingual surfaces to prepare flat superficial enamel and dentin surfaces. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40) based on the substrate (enamel and dentin). Each group was further divided into five subgroups (n = 8) based on the type of contamination it was subjected to, and the step in the bonding sequence when the contamination occurred (before or after adhesive application). Fresh saliva and fresh human blood were applied either before or after the application of Xeno III® self-etching adhesive system (SES). Composite resin was applied as inverted, truncated cured cones that were subjected to shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test were used. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the bond strength was shown after both saliva and blood contamination before and after Xeno III® application (P< 0.05). Bond strength is significantly reduced after contamination with blood as compared to saliva. Conclusions: When self-etching adhesive systems are used, saliva and blood contamination significantly decrease the bond strength of the adhesive to enamel and dentin of the tooth. PMID:22876017

  8. Comparison of Test Results for Zika Virus RNA in Urine, Serum, and Saliva Specimens from Persons with Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease - Florida, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Andrea M; Cone, Marshall; Mock, Valerie; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Stanek, Danielle; Blackmore, Carina; Likos, Anna

    2016-05-13

    In May 2015, Zika virus was reported to be circulating in Brazil. This was the first identified introduction of the virus in the Region of the Americas. Since that time, Zika virus has rapidly spread throughout the region. As of April 20, 2016, the Florida Department of Health Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL) has tested specimens from 913 persons who met state criteria for Zika virus testing. Among these 913 persons, 91 met confirmed or probable Zika virus disease case criteria and all cases were travel-associated (1). On the basis of previous small case studies reporting real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Zika virus RNA in urine, saliva, and semen (2-6), the Florida Department of Health collected multiple specimen types from persons with suspected Zika virus disease. Test results were evaluated by specimen type and number of days after symptom onset to determine the most sensitive and efficient testing algorithm for acute Zika virus disease. Urine specimens were collected from 70 patients with suspected Zika virus disease from zero to 20 days after symptom onset. Of these, 65 (93%) tested positive for Zika virus RNA by RT-PCR. Results for 95% (52/55) of urine specimens collected from persons within 5 days of symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; only 56% (31/55) of serum specimens collected on the same date tested positive by RT-PCR. Results for 82% (9/11) of urine specimens collected >5 days after symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; none of the RT-PCR tests for serum specimens were positive. No cases had results that were exclusively positive by RT-PCR testing of saliva. BPHL testing results suggest urine might be the preferred specimen type to identify acute Zika virus disease.

  9. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  10. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention.

  11. Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita

    2009-01-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking.

  12. Applicability of two commercially available kits for forensic identification of saliva stains.

    PubMed

    Pang, Benjamin C M; Cheung, Bobbie K K

    2008-09-01

    The RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test are two recently developed forensic saliva detection kits. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and the specificity of the two test kits with the Phadebas amylase test by analyzing amylases from various sources including human, animals, plants, and micro-organism. The data demonstrate that the RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test offer higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of saliva than the Phadebas amylase test. The detection limits of the RSID-saliva test, the SALIgAE-saliva test, and the Phadebas amylase test equate to 10, 4, and 1000 nL, respectively for human saliva. The RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test were further evaluated by analyzing semen, vaginal secretion, breast milk, blood, urine, sweat, and feces. The results of the two tests are in good agreement. The two tests reacted with urine, breast milk, and feces, but not with semen, vaginal secretion, blood, and sweat.

  13. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection for creatinine, protein, calcium Blood tests such as PT , PTT or INR tests The treatment will depend on the cause of blood in the urine.

  14. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  15. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-07-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources.

  16. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E.; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa’s environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly. PMID:26812135

  17. Selective determination of elemental mercury in blood and urine exposed to mercury vapor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Hursh, J B; Clarkson, T W; Suzuki, T

    1981-06-01

    A method is described to ensure quantitative measurement of dissolved mercury vapor (Hg0) in blood and urine. Room air passed through samples of blood and urine carries with it all the dissolved Hg0 but leaves behind all the ionic mercury (Hg++). Oxidation of Hg0 to Hg++ in blood samples is completely inhibited by addition of ethanol (0.5% v/v). To minimize error due to evaporation of Hg0, it is suggested that samples should be stored at 0 degree C and Hg0 should be determined within 60 min of collection of blood samples and within 10 min of urine samples.

  18. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2)  = 0.5; P < 0.0001) and lymphocytes (R(2)  = 0.4; P = 0.001) and was not correlated to the monocyte counts (R(2)  = 0.07; P = 0.7). Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva.

  19. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  20. [Quantitative determination of strychnine in blood and urine by gas chromatography with mass-selective detector].

    PubMed

    Kataev, S S; Krylova, E A

    2010-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of strychnine in biological fluids by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry is proposed. The preparation of samples for the analysis included extraction of strychnine from blood and urine with the use of AccuBond(II) EVIDEX cartridges for solid-phase extraction and SPEC MP3 disks respectively. The efficiency of extraction was estimated at 0.05 mg/l for blood and 0.02 mg/l for urine. The detection limit was 0.10 mg/l in blood and 0.05 mg/l in urine.

  1. Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, I. A.; Burlingame, R. W.; Wang, A. P.; Chawla, K.; Grove, T.; Wang, J.; Southern, S. O.; Iqbal, M.; Gunn, L. C.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Genalyte has developed a multiplex silicon photonic chip diagnostics platform (MaverickTM) for rapid detection of up to 32 biological analytes from a drop of sample in just 10 to 20 minutes. The chips are manufactured with waveguides adjacent to ring resonators, and probed with a continuously variable wavelength laser. A shift in the resonant wavelength as mass binds above the ring resonators is measured and is directly proportional to the amount of bound macromolecules. We present here the ability to multiplex the detection of hemorrhagic fever antigens in whole blood, serum, and saliva in a 16 minute assay. Our proof of concept testing of a multiplex antigencapture chip has the ability to detect Zaire Ebola (ZEBOV) recombinant soluble glycoprotein (rsGP), Marburg virus (MARV) Angola recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and dengue nonstructural protein I (NS1). In parallel, detection of 2 malaria antigens has proven successful, but has yet to be incorporated into multiplex with the others. Each assay performs with sensitivity ranging from 1.6 ng/ml to 39 ng/ml depending on the antigen detected, and with minimal cross-reactivity.

  2. Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

  3. Urine is a better biomarker source than blood especially for kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Change is the soul of biomarker definition. Changes are more likely to be removed from blood because of homeostasis mechanisms of the body. Therefore, urine is probably a better biomarker source than blood. The road map to the urinary biomarker era is proposed. Researchers are reminded the potential opportunities and risks in their study design. Kidney diseases are emphasized as they produce most significant changes in urine.

  4. Cotinine concentrations in semen, urine, and blood of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, M F; Hulka, B S; Margolin, B H; Truong, Y K; Hu, P C; Schramm, M M; Griffith, J D; McCann, M; Everson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine levels in the semen, urine, and blood of 88 male smokers and nonsmokers, aged 18 to 35, were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Detectable cotinine levels were found in all three body fluids, and cotinine levels in all three fluids were highly correlated. Cotinine levels in semen and blood were of similar magnitude; cotinine levels in urine were an order of magnitude or more higher. In all three fluids, cotinine levels increased with an increase in cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8363014

  5. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (<380 copies/1×10(5) cells) than that in the peripheral blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission.

  6. Saliva and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases.

  7. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  8. Determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Huda M A; Cooper, Gail A A

    2009-10-01

    Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is considered a potential biomarker for alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA). A robust and sensitive method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of BHB in postmortem blood and urine using deuterated gamma-hydroxybutyrate as an internal standard. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction and silyl derivatization. The limits of detection and lower limits of quantification in blood and urine were 2 and 7 mg/L and 2 and 6 mg/L, respectively. The interday and intraday precision was measured by coefficients of variation for blood and urine and ranged from 1.0 to 12.4% for quality control samples spiked at 50 and 300 mg/L. The linear range of 50-500 mg/L resulted in an average correlation of R(2) > 0.99, and the average extraction recoveries in blood and urine were >or= 82% and >or= 59%, respectively. BHB remains stable in blood spiked at a concentration of 300 mg/L for 15 days when stored within a refrigerator (2-5 degrees C). Postmortem blood and urine samples were analyzed using the validated method for cases where the deceased had a history of chronic alcohol abuse to establish the use of BHB as a potential marker of AKA.

  9. Benzene in blood and phenol in urine in monitoring benzene exposure in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Braier, L.; Levy, A.; Dror, K.; Pardo, A.

    1981-01-01

    Determinations of benzene concentration in blood and of phenol in urine were made by head-space gas chromatography techniques on samples taken near the end of the work day from two groups of workers potentially exposed to low levels of benzene in the work-place atmosphere. Preliminary results suggest that benzene in blood is more reliable than phenol tests for assessing both exposure and uptake of benzene. Normal values of phenol in urine (10 mg/liter or less) were found in nearly all those cases in which benzene was detected in the blood.

  10. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters.

  11. Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the ultrasensitive determination of interleukin-6 in saliva and urine using poly-HRP streptavidin conjugates as labels for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, I; Moreno-Guzmán, M; González-Cortés, A; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-10-01

    A novel magnetoimmunosensor design for interleukin-6 (IL-6) which involved the covalent immobilization of anti-IL-6 antibodies onto carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticles and a sandwich-type immunoassay with signal amplification using poly-HRP-streptavidin conjugates is reported. All the variables concerning the preparation and the electroanalytical performance of the immunosensor were optimized. The use of poly-HRP-strept conjugates as enzymatic labels instead of conventional HRP-strept allowed enhanced signal-to-blank current ratios to be obtained. A linear calibration plot between the measured steady-state current and the log of IL-6 concentration was achieved in the 1.75 to 500 pg/mL range, which was not feasible when using HRP-strep as label. A limit of detection of 0.39 pg/mL IL-6 was obtained. The anti-IL-6-MB conjugates exhibited an excellent storage stability providing amperometric responses with no significant loss during at least 36 days. The magnetoimmunosensor showed also an excellent selectivity against potentially interfering substances. The immunosensor was used to determine IL-6 in urine samples spiked at three different concentration levels with clinical relevance. Moreover, IL-6 was measured in three different saliva samples corresponding to a periodontitis patient, a smoker volunteer, and a non-smoker volunteer. The obtained results were statistically in agreement with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit.

  12. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual...finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for...hemorrhage (SAH) in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment , which is

  13. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages.

  14. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  15. Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

  16. The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

  17. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  18. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These

  19. Stable RNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains revealed from whole genome expression analysis of time-wise degraded samples

    PubMed Central

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Hanekamp, Eline; Kokshoorn, Mieke; van IJcken, Wilfred

    2007-01-01

    Human body fluids such as blood and saliva represent the most common source of biological material found at a crime scene. Reliable tissue identification in forensic science can reveal significant insights into crime scene reconstruction and can thus contribute toward solving crimes. Limitations of existing presumptive tests for body fluid identification in forensics, which are usually based on chemoluminescence or protein analysis, are expected to be overcome by RNA-based methods, provided that stable RNA markers with tissue-specific expression patterns are available. To generate sets of stable RNA markers for reliable identification of blood and saliva stains we (1) performed whole-genome gene expression analyses on a series of time-wise degraded blood and saliva stain samples using the Affymetrix U133 plus2 GeneChip, (2) consulted expression databases to obtain additional information on tissue specificity, and (3) confirmed expression patterns of the most promising candidate genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction including additional forensically relevant tissues such as semen and vaginal secretion. Overall, we identified nine stable mRNA markers for blood and five stable mRNA markers for saliva detection showing tissue-specific expression signals in stains aged up to 180 days of age, expectedly older. Although, all of the markers were able to differentiate blood/saliva from semen samples, none of them could differentiate vaginal secretion because of the complex nature of vaginal secretion and the biological similarity of buccal and vaginal mucosa. We propose the use of these 14 stable mRNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains in future forensic practice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0182-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17579879

  20. Validated method for the simultaneous determination of Delta9-THC and Delta9-THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Verstraete, Alain; Proença, Paula; Corte-Real, Francisco; Monsanto, Paula; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-06

    A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH THC. The compounds were quantified by selected ion recording of m/z 315.31, 329.18 and 343.16 for THC, 11-OH THC and THC-COOH, respectively, and m/z 318.27 and 346.26 for the deuterated internal standards, THC-d(3) and THC-COOH-d(3), respectively. The method proved to be precise for THC and THC-COOH both in terms of intra-day and inter-day analysis, with intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) less than 6.3, 6.6 and 6.5% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.8 and 7.7% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Day-to-day CVs were less than 3.5, 4.9 and 11.3% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.2 and 6.4% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2 ng/mL for THC in oral fluid and 0.5 ng/mL for THC and THC-COOH and 20 ng/mL for 11-OH THC, in urine and blood. Calibration curves showed a linear relationship for THC and THC-COOH in all samples (r(2)>0.999) within the range investigated. The procedure presented here has high specificity, selectivity and sensitivity. It can be regarded as an alternative method to GC-MS for the confirmation of positive immunoassay test results, and can be used as a suitable analytical tool for the quantification of THC and THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and/or blood samples.

  1. The Identification and Quantitation of Triamterene in Blood and Urine from a Fatal Aircraft Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    high performance liquid chromatography were used to identify and quantitate triamterene in blood and urine. Triamterene is a strong absorber in the ultraviolet region and has an unusual UV spectrum, which simplifies the identification and quantitation of this substance by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  2. [Determination of strontium content in whole blood and urine by icp-ms].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, T S; Gileva, O V; Stenno, E V; Veikhman, G A; Nedochitova, A V

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of strontium determination in the whole blood and urine of children living near ore deposits containing up to 20% strontium sulfate have been determined. The average strontium content in the whole blood of two children groups of 109.52 ± 11.07 mg/L and 131.62 ± 12.95 mg/L, significantly exceeded the level in the comparison group 44.2 ± 4.24 mg/L. The average strontium contents of two groups of children in urine were 1252.3 ± 332.2 mg/L and 1341.5 ± 241.8 mg/L, these values were 4.2 and 4.5 times higher than in the comparison group 296.4 ± 61.5 mg/L. The conditions for blood and urine sample preparation were optimized to reduce measure errors and to determine strontium at the reference concentration level. The accuracy of the results has been confirmed by analysis of the standard samples Seronorm™ Whole Blood L1, L2, L3 and Seronorm™ Urine.

  3. The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segurson, Jack

    It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction to…

  4. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  5. Analysis of acetylene in blood and urine using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kageura, Mitsuyoshi; Takamoto, Mutsuo; Matsusue, Aya; Sugimura, Tomoko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2009-09-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of acetylene in blood and urine samples was investigated. Using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), acetylene was measured with isobutane as the internal standard in the headspace method, which revealed a linear response over the entire composite range with an excellent correlation coefficient, both in blood (R = 0.9968, range = 5.39-43.1 microg/ml) and urine (R = 0.9972, range = 2.16-10.8 microg/ml). The coefficients of variation (CV) for blood ranged from 2.62 to 11.6% for intra-day and 4.55 to 10.4% for inter-day. The CV for urine ranged from 2.38 to 3.10% for intra-day and 4.83 to 11.0% for inter-day. The recovery rate as an index of accuracy ranged from 83 to 111%. The present method showed good reliability, and is also simple and rapid. In actual samples from a charred cadaver due to acetylene explosion, the measured concentrations of acetylene by this method were 21.5 microg/ml for femoral vein blood, 17.9 microg/ml for right atrial blood, 25.5 microg/ml for left atrial blood and 7.49 microg/ml for urine. Quantification of acetylene provides important information, because the acetylene concentration is a vital reaction or sign. For example, when acetylene is filled in a closed space and then explodes, in antemortem explosion, the blood acetylene concentration of the cadaver might be significant. On the other hand, in postmortem explosion, acetylene is not detected in blood. Furthermore, when several victims are involved in one explosion, comparison of the sample concentrations can also provide useful information to establish the conditions at the accident scene; therefore, the present method is useful in forensics.

  6. Blood and Urine Cadmium, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cadmium exposure has been inconsistently related to blood pressure. Objectives We updated and reevaluated the evidence regarding the relationships of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension (HTN) in nonoccupationally exposed populations. Data sources and extraction We searched PubMed and Web of Science for articles on BCd or UCd and BP or HTN in nonoccupationally exposed populations and extracted information from studies that provided sufficient data on population, smoking status, exposure, outcomes, and design. Data synthesis Twelve articles met inclusion criteria: eight provided data adequate for comparison, and five reported enough data for meta-analysis. Individual studies reported significant positive associations between BCd and systolic BP (SBP) among nonsmoking women [β = 3.14 mmHg per 1 μg/L untransformed BCd; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14–6.14] and among premenopausal women (β = 4.83 mmHg per 1 nmol/L log-transformed BCd; 95% CI, 0.17–9.49), and between BCd and diastolic BP (DBP) among women (β = 1.78 mmHg comparing BCd in the 90th and 10th percentiles; 95% CI, 0.64–2.92) and among premenopausal women (β = 3.84 mmHg per 1 nmol/L log-transformed BCd; 95% CI, 0.86–6.82). Three meta-analyses, each of three studies, showed positive associations between BCd and SBP (p = 0.006) and DBP (p < 0.001) among women, with minimal heterogeneity (I2 = 3%), and a significant inverse association between UCd and HTN among men and women, with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 80%). Conclusion Our results suggest a positive association between BCd and BP among women; the results, however, are inconclusive because of the limited number of representative population-based studies of never-smokers. Associations between UCd and HTN suggest inverse relationships, but inconsistent outcome definitions limit interpretation. We believe a longitudinal study is merited. PMID:20716508

  7. Genotyping of celiac disease-related-risk haplotypes using a closed-tube polymerase chain reaction analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples.

    PubMed

    Ollikka, Pia; Raussi, Hanna-Mari; Laitala, Ville; Jaakkola, Lassi; Hovinen, Jari; Hemmilä, Ilkka; Ylikoski, Alice

    2009-03-01

    Expansion of molecular diagnostics more widely into clinical routines requires simplified methods allowing automation. We developed a homogeneous, multilabel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on time-resolved fluorometry, and studied the use of dried disk samples in PCR. Celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotyping was used to verify the method with blood and saliva samples dried on S&S 903 and IsoCode sample collection papers. Three sample preparation procedures, including manufacturer's manual elution, an automated elution, and direct use of disk samples, were compared using dried disk samples. The three procedures gave successful amplification and correct genotyping results. Owing to the simplicity of the direct use of disk samples in PCR, this method was chosen for the subsequent homogeneous analysis of blood (n=194) and saliva (n=30) disk samples on S&S 903 paper. The results revealed that, in addition to DNA samples (n=29), both blood and saliva disk samples were successfully amplified and genotyped using the homogeneous PCR assays for HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. The homogeneous PCR assays developed provide a useful tool to genotype celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 alleles. Furthermore, the method provides a direct way to perform a closed-tube PCR analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples enabling simple automation.

  8. The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.

    PubMed

    Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L

    1994-11-01

    Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Shelagh K.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs. Results. PBDE congeners were not found in urine samples; findings focus on blood and perspiration. 80% of participants tested positive in one or more body fluids for PBDE 28, 100% for PBDE 47, 95% for PBDE 99, and 90% for PBDE 100 and PBDE 153. Induced perspiration facilitated excretion of the five congeners, with different rates of excretion for different congeners. Conclusion. Blood testing provides only a partial understanding of human PBDE bioaccumulation; testing of both blood and perspiration provides a better understanding. This study provides important baseline evidence for regular induced perspiration as a potential means for therapeutic PBDE elimination. Fetotoxic and reproductive effects of PBDE exposure highlight the importance of further detoxification research. PMID:28373979

  10. [Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].

    PubMed

    Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2008-01-01

    Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits.

  11. Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation.

  12. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known δ13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (δ13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (δ13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (δ13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the δ13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in

  13. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  14. Relation between blood- and urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Karlsson, L

    2005-12-01

    Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine was determined by multivariate analysis with urinary pH and creatinine as predictor variables. Amphetamine was determined in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with deuterium-labelled internal standards. The concentration of amphetamine in urine was about 200 times greater than the concentration in blood; the mean and median urine/blood ratios were 214 and 160, respectively, with large individual variations. The Pearson correlation coefficient between urine (y) and blood (x) amphetamine was r = 0.53, n = 48, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001), although the residual standard deviation (SD) was large (+/- 181 mg/L). The correlation coefficient increased (r = 0.60) when the concentration of amphetamine in urine was normalized for dilution by dividing with the creatinine content. When urinary pH and creatinine were both included as predictor variables, the correlation coefficient was even higher (r = 0.69), now explaining 48% (r2 = 0.48) of the variation in urine-amphetamine concentration. However, the partial regression coefficient for creatinine (53 +/- 28.7) was not statistically significant (t = 1.85, P > 0.05), whereas the corresponding regression coefficient for pH was highly significant and had a negative sign (-102 +/- 32.6, t= -3.12, P < 0.005). Other factors could impact on the urine-blood amphetamine relationship, such as route of administration, pattern of voiding and time elapsed after use of the drug.

  15. Sticky Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, Louise; Solomon, Michael; Schultz, William

    2016-11-01

    Oral and even systemic health begins with healthy saliva by maintaining antibacterial activity, lubricating hard and soft oral tissues, healing, tasting, chewing, and swallowing. Saliva functionality is intimately linked to its rheology. Alterations in saliva rheology may indicate or cause unhealthy biological function. One imprecise pathological designation is "sticky saliva", usually self-reported or qualitatively described by health professionals. Saliva is 99% water and therefore behaves like water in shear. Saliva also contains mucins, electrolytes, enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. These additional constituents enable saliva to form a long-lasting filament with a "beads-on-a-string" morphology in extension. Therefore, the main kinematic feature that distinguishes the coupling between the oral cavity and saliva elongational mechanics. We investigate the effect of pH and salinity on saliva filament formation with preliminary experiments and compare to 1D unsteady viscoelastic models. We discuss the results in the context of saliva functionality and in generating more satisfactory saliva substitutes for those suffering from xerostomia. We will discuss when beads-on-a-string are likely to occur.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for ABH antigen detection on red blood cells and in saliva: secretor status-related ABO subgroup identification.

    PubMed

    Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Sutapun, Boonsong; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Seedacoon, Wuttigrai; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2017-03-27

    Low antigenic expression of ABO subgroup system on red blood cell (RBC) is cause of discrepancy between forward and reverse blood typing in the standard agglutination technique. Neutralization agglutination is employed for verification of the detection of ABH substances in saliva. However, the neutralization technique is complicated, time-consuming and requires expertise. To overcome these drawbacks, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging was developed for ABH antigen detection on RBCs and in saliva. An antibody array was designed to classify the ABO subgroups by anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies; the array was immobilized on a carboxymethyl-dextran sensor-surface. RBCs and saliva specimens from sixty-four donors were analysed by passing them over the antibody array, where the secretor status and blood group could be simultaneously identified. Consequently, the immobilized antibodies could specifically and quantitatively detect the ABH antigen on RBCs. Using the direct assay, the SPR signal of saliva detection was weaker than that of RBC detection. However, a sandwich assay with a mixture of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies could efficiently enhance the signal. The sensor chip provided high specificity (cut-off at 100 to 175 micro refractive index units) and high precision at 0.06%-4.9% CV. The blood group results of the sixty-four donor specimens obtained by SPR agreed with the standard agglutination test with 100% accuracy. SPR could indicate different ABH antigen densities on the RBCs and nearly the same amounts of ABH substances in the saliva of strong and weak subgroups. Finally, we also demonstrated reduced assay time and fewer complications with the SPR imaging platform compared to the neutralization technique.

  17. Validation of the Neogen® Fentanyl ELISA Kit for Blood and Urine.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Wegner, Kristin

    2017-01-23

    The Neogen(®) Fentanyl ready-to-use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was validated following the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines. Two decision points, 0.5 and 1 ng/mL, were successfully validated for whole blood. For urine, two decision points, 1 and 5 ng/mL, were also successfully validated. The validation included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, plate drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation. The empirically determined limit of detection was 0.25 ng/mL for blood and 0.5 ng/mL for urine. Precision was determined at five different concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 ng/mL with 15 replicates at each level for whole blood and demonstrated a <2.4% coefficient of variation (CV). In urine, the CV was <5.6% at six different concentrations from 0.5 to 7.5 ng/mL with 15 replicates at each level. Cross-reactivity was evaluated for norfentanyl, acetyl fentanyl, 4-anilino-N-phenethylpiperidine, beta-hydroxythiofentanyl, butyryl fentanyl and furanyl fentanyl.

  18. Immunoassay screening of diphenhydramine (Benadryl®) in urine and blood using a newly developed assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren C; Castro, Catherine; Catbagan, Philip; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong

    2012-03-01

    Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a common over the counter antihistamine that produces drowsiness and has the potential to cause driving under the influence of drugs-related accidents. To date there are no commercially available immunoassay screening kits for its detection in biological fluids such as urine and/or blood. We describe a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen and report on its utility in the analysis of authentic specimens taken from volunteers. The assay is specific for detection of DPH and does not detect closely related antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine. There is a varying amount of cross-reactivity seen with certain tricyclic compounds, due to similarities in side chain structure with DPH. Intra- and interday precision of the assay were determined to be less than 10%. The assay is highly sensitive and has a working range from 1 to 500 ng/mL for urine and 1 to 250 ng/mL for blood. The assay was further validated with authentic urine and blood specimens obtained from volunteers and coroner's laboratories.

  19. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  20. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 µg/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba λ = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 µg/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 µg/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in μg/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 ± 2.20 µg/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 ± 4.60 µg/L of Ba for urine).

  1. Extremes of urine osmolality - Lack of effect on red blood cell survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Fleming, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were allowed a third of normal water intake for 20 days, and food consumption decreased. The reticulocyte count indicated a suppression of erythropoiesis. Urine osmolality increased from 2,000 mosmol/kg to 3,390 mosmol/kg. Random hemolysis and senescence of a cohort of red blood cell (RBC) previously labeled with (2-(C-14)) glycine was monitored via the production of (C-14)O. Neither hemolysis nor senescence was affected. Following water restriction, the polydipsic rats generated a hypotonic urine. Urine osmolality decreased to 1,300 mosmol/kg for at least 6 days; a reticulocytosis occurred, but RBC survival was unaffected. These results contradict those previously reported, which suggest that RBC survival is influenced by the osmotic stress imposed on the RBC by extremes of urine tonicity. This discrepancy, it is concluded, is due to differences in the methods employed for measuring RBC survival. The random-labeling technique employed previously assumes a steady state between RBC production and destruction. The cohort-labeling technique used here measures hemolysis and senescence independent of changes in RBC production, which is known to be depressed by fasting.

  2. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  3. Postmortem tissue samples: an alternative to urine and blood for drug analysis in racehorses.

    PubMed

    Uboh, C E; Rudy, J A; Railing, F A; Enright, J M; Shoemaker, J M; Kahler, M C; Shellenberger, J M; Kemecsei, Z; Das, D N

    1995-09-01

    Although urine is the sample of choice for drug tests in racehorses, it is rarely obtained following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while racing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the significance of postmortem tissue samples as an alternative to urine and blood samples in equine drug analysis following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while participating in a competitive race. Postmortem tissue samples were frozen (-80 degrees C) until analyzed. A 30-40-g portion of each organ was homogenized in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), deproteinized, hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase, extracted, and screened by thin-layer chromatography and immunoassay. Samples that initially tested positive for drug(s) were then extracted using high-flow, solid-phase extraction cartridges. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of butorphanol in horses HB355 and CD387, pentobarbital in horse HO940, and ergotamine in horses HO940 and CD387 was detected and confirmed. Thus, in the absence of urine and blood samples following sudden death, postmortem tissue samples are equally useful for forensic toxicological investigations of racehorses.

  4. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Morgan, Marsha K; Madden, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, methodology was developed for measuring a suite of 10 different cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and urine using an electrochemiluminescent multiplex Th1/Th2 cytokine immunoassay platform. Measurement distributions and correlations for eight interleukins (IL) (1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated using 90 blood plasma, 77 EBC, and 400 urine samples collected from nominally healthy adults subjects in North Carolina in 2008-2012. The in vivo results show that there is sufficient sensitivity for characterizing all 10 cytokines at levels of 0.05-0.10 ρg/ml with a dynamic range up to 100 ng/ml across all three of these biological media. The measured in vivo results also show that the duplicate analysis of blood, EBC and urine samples have average estimated fold ranges of 2.21, 3.49, and 2.50, respectively, which are similar to the mean estimated fold range (2.88) for the lowest concentration (0.610 ρg/ml) from a series of spiked control samples; the cytokine method can be used for all three biological media. Nine out of the 10 cytokines measured in EBC were highly correlated within one another with Spearman ρ coefficients ranging from 0.679 to 0.852, while the cytokines measured in blood had a mix of negative and positive correlations, ranging from -0.620 to 0.836. Almost all correlations between EBC and blood were positive. This work also represents the first successful within- and between-person evaluation of ultra trace-level inflammatory markers in blood, EBC, and urine.

  5. Determinations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate in blood and urine during alcohol oxidation in man.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, S; Muto, T; Nagoya, T; Shimamura, M; Saito, M; Tainaka, H

    1989-01-01

    Blood and urine samples were analyzed for ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate during alcohol oxidation in Japanese men by head space gas chromatography, following the consumption of 16 ml/kg of beer during a 20 min period. The maximum level of blood/urine ethanol was found to be 15-17 mM (20-22 mM), while that of acetaldehyde in a flusher and in non-flushers was 20 microM (52 microM) and 2-5 microM (10-13 microM), respectively. Acetate levels in these groups ranged from 0.2 mM (0.1 mM) to 0.8 mM (1.0 mM). Blood ethanol levels were dose dependent, whereas acetaldehyde and acetate levels reflected individual metabolic rates. The relative concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood and that of acetate in alcohol metabolism could be summarized as follows: 7500 (15 mM): 1-3 (2-5 microM); 250-400 (0.5-0.8 mM) for non-flushers; and 7500 (15 mM): 5-10 (10-20 microM): 250-400 (0.5-0.8 mM) for a flusher.

  6. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  7. Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in Saliva by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 2011–2012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

  8. Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and Saliva

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0123 TITLE: Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor...ANNUAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26 2012 25 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cyanide is a deadly poison which may be ingested or inhaled

  9. Differences in AMY1 Gene Copy Numbers Derived from Blood, Buccal Cells and Saliva Using Quantitative and Droplet Digital PCR Methods: Flagging the Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Siong Gim; Chan, Yiong Huak; Heng, Chew Kiat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The human salivary (AMY1) gene, encoding salivary α-amylase, has variable copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. We aimed to determine if real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the more recently available Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can provide a precise quantification of the AMY1 gene copy number in blood, buccal cells and saliva samples derived from the same individual. Methods Seven participants were recruited and DNA was extracted from the blood, buccal cells and saliva samples provided by each participant. Taqman assay real-time qPCR and ddPCR were conducted to quantify AMY1 gene copy numbers. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the difference in AMY1 gene copy number between the different biological specimens and different assay methods. Results We found significant within-individual difference (p<0.01) in AMY1 gene copy number between different biological samples as determined by qPCR. However, there was no significant within-individual difference in AMY1 gene copy number between different biological samples as determined by ddPCR. We also found that AMY1 gene copy number of blood samples were comparable between qPCR and ddPCR, while there is a significant difference (p<0.01) between AMY1 gene copy numbers measured by qPCR and ddPCR for both buccal swab and saliva samples. Conclusions Despite buccal cells and saliva samples being possible sources of DNA, it is pertinent that ddPCR or a single biological sample, preferably blood sample, be used for determining highly polymorphic gene copy numbers like AMY1, due to the large within-individual variability between different biological samples if real time qPCR is employed. PMID:28125683

  10. Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Theo H; Boer, Theo S; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2003-11-01

    In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper. Blood glucose and urinary paracetamol-glucuronic acid were extracted from filter paper spots reproducibly and with high yield. Fractional isotopomer distributions of glucose and paracetamol-glucuronic acid when extracted from filter paper spots were almost identical to those isolated from the original body fluids. Rates of infusion of labeled compounds could be adjusted without perturbing hepatic glucose metabolism. This approach was used in mice to find the optimal metabolic condition for the study of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. In fed mice, no isotopic steady state was observed during a 6-h label-infusion experiment. In 9-h-fasted mice, isotopic steady state was reached after 3 h of label infusion and important parameters in hepatic glucose metabolism could be calculated. The rate of de novo glucose-6-phosphate synthesis was 143 +/- 17 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) and partitioning to plasma glucose was 79.0 +/- 5.2%. In 24-h-fasted mice, abrupt changes were noticed in whole body and in hepatic glucose metabolism at the end of the experiment.

  11. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Schloegl, Haiko; Dresen, Sebastian; Spaczynski, Karin; Stoertzel, Mylène; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed via LC-MS/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg/l. When stored at 4 degrees C in airtight test tubes, EtG concentrations remained relatively constant; when stored at room temperature (RT) for 5 weeks in ventilated vials, variations of EtG concentrations ranged from a 30% decrease to an 80% increase, with an average of 37.5% increase. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue of three corpses with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BAC; ranging from 0.106 to 0.183 g%) were stored for 4 weeks and analysed periodically. EtG concentrations decreased 27.7% on average in 4 weeks storage at RT but EtG was still detectable in all samples with initial EtG concentrations higher than 1 mug/g. Blood and liver samples of four corpses with negative BACs were stored at RT after addition of 0.1 g% ethanol, and no new formation of EtG was observed.

  12. Automatic method for quantitation of mercury in blood, plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Vesterberg, O

    1991-01-01

    Here we report our experience of quantification of mercury in blood, plasma and urine by using modifications of a procedure for cold vapour atomic absorption. We have tried: (1) modifications of the instrumentation including the tower, the cell and apparatus for measurement; (2) to increase the volume of sample, avoiding problems caused by foaming and background to arrive at a reliable method with low detection limit. Blood and plasma samples were digested overnight in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid (1:5). Recovery of known additions of mercury was close to 100%. Coefficients of variation (CV) within runs and between runs was for B-Hg 4.7 and 9.5, respectively at 20 nmol/l, and for U-Hg 1.8 and 5.2, respectively at 57 nmol/l. The same detection limit of 5 nmol/l was obtained with blood, plasma and urine. This is in the lower range of non-occupationally exposed normal subjects. The results, including those obtained in sample exchange with other laboratories and with reference materials, indicate that the accuracy of this method for quantification of mercury is good.

  13. Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1-108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313

  14. Evaluation for secondary causes of headache: the role of blood and urine testing.

    PubMed

    Loder, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luzma

    2011-02-01

    Most patients presenting for evaluation of headache meet diagnostic criteria for a benign, primary headache disorder based on history and physical examination findings alone. No further testing is needed in such cases. Additional diagnostic evaluation is needed in cases that do not meet criteria for a primary headache disorder or which are associated with unusual or worrisome features. This article will review secondary causes of headache listed in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II in which blood and urine testing might aid in diagnosis. We offer recommendations for diagnostic evaluation when these disorders are suspected causes of headache.

  15. Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2005-05-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

  16. Pharmacokinetic properties of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in whole blood, serum, and urine.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-butyrolactone have become increasingly popular "club drugs", but they have also gained attention as potential agents of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Several studies have attempted to characterize GHB's pharmacokinetic properties in humans, and the aim of this paper is to build on this research with an emphasis on DFSA cases. A 25 mg/kg dose of GHB was given to 12 GHB-naïve volunteers (6 men and 6 women). Urine and blood samples (serum and whole blood) were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. The urinary T(max) was 1 h in 11 volunteers with a mean C(max) of 67.6 mg/L (32.6-161.3 mg/L). Urinary concentrations rapidly decreased to < 10 mg/L (interpretive limit) for 11 volunteers after just 4 h. Data derived from whole blood (mean C(max) = 48.0 mg/L, T(max) = 24.6 min) closely matched that from serum (mean C(max) = 59.4 mg/L, T(max) = 23.3 min), suggesting GHB is distributed into erythrocytes. All 12 volunteers had GHB concentrations of less than 5 mg/L in both whole blood and serum after 3 h. Results verify the rapid elimination of GHB and the limited retrospective power of a concentration-based approach to prove GHB administration in blood and urine and confirm that, in DFSA cases, samples should be collected as soon as possible.

  17. Partition coefficients for the trihalomethanes among blood, urine, water, milk and air.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Shugin; Franzblau, Alfred

    2002-02-04

    Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, and bromoform comprise the trihalomethanes, a group of widespread and mildly lipophilic compounds that result from water chlorination and other sources. Many animal studies show the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds, and recent work has demonstrated the importance of both ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. This study presents partition coefficients describing the equilibrium among biological compartments (air, water, blood, milk, urine) for the four THMs based on results of headspace gas chromatographic analyses performed under equilibrium conditions and at 37 degrees C. The calculated partition coefficients ranged from 2.92 to 4.14 for blood/water, 1.54-2.85 for milk/blood, and 3.41-4.93 for blood/urine, with the lowest being chloroform and the highest being bromoform. Both human and cow milk were tested, with similar results. The available samples of human milk may not fully account for differences in lipid content and possibly other factors that affect estimates of partition coefficients. Simultaneous measurements of milk and blood in exposed individuals are suggested to confirm laboratory results. Partition coefficients are predicted using the octanol-air partition coefficient, also measured in this study, and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Results are similar to literature estimates for liquid/air partitioning of chloroform and chlorodibromomethane, but they differ from predictions based on hydrophobicity and lipid content. High correlations between the derived partitioned coefficients and the molecular structure (number of Br atoms) and physical properties (molecular weight and boiling point) are found for these analogous chemicals. In humans, THMs are both stored and metabolized with relatively rapid clearance rates. The derived partition coefficients can help to interpret results of biological monitoring and predict the potential for the accumulation and

  18. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer called multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM nephropathy White blood cell cancer ... 19. Read More Cancer Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Multiple myeloma Protein urine test ...

  19. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  20. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine.

    PubMed

    Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (Pblood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples.

  1. Assessment of blood and urine lead levels of some pregnant women residing in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Iheoma M; Ogundele, Joseph A; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Akinloye, Oluseyi A

    2010-11-01

    Assessment of lead in blood (BLL) and lead in urine (ULL) of some non-occupationally exposed, nonsmoking 214 pregnant Nigerian women, aged 17 to 49 years, and resident in Lagos was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with control subjects consisting of 113 nonpregnant women. From results, the mean BLL and ULL (μg/dL) for pregnant women (59.5±2.1; 29.4±1.1) were significantly (p<0.01) higher than the values obtained for nonpregnant women (27.7±1.1; 9.2±0.6). BLL found in women in the first, second, and third trimesters were 57.2±2.3, 61.6±2.2, and 63.1±1.8, respectively. ULL could not serve to predict BLL due to weak correlations (r=-0.06 to +0.15; p>0.10). Study is a contribution to blood and urine lead status of Nigerian pregnant women, being relevant for healthcare management purposes, public health decision making, and possible primary prevention activities.

  2. Tentative reference values for environmental pollutants in blood or urine from the children of Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, J; Kabamba, M; Mata, H; Mbuyi, F

    2015-11-01

    The DRC, as most of African nations, does not have a national biomonitoring programme and there is a lack of information on background levels of environmental pollutants in the general DRC population, particularly in children. The focus of the data presented in this report aims to establish the background levels of a range of environmental pollutants in urine or blood from the children population of Kinshasa. Based on the representative data collection of the Kinshasa population, the survey selected 125 children aged 1-14years and living in Kinshasa (6years on average, 56% of girls, 100% of non-smokers, without amalgam fillings and consumers of fish 3 times per week). Biomarkers of a range of metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb), pyrene (PAH) and benzene were analyzed in the blood or urine samples. Globally, the results indicate that the exposure levels of children living in Kinshasa are 10 times higher than those published by the American, Canadian and German children surveys. This study provides the first Reference Values of environmental pollutants [As, Cd, Hg, Pb, pyrene (PAH) and benzene] in the Kinshasa children population and reveals elevated levels of all biomarkers studied. The data set of this study may allow environmental and health authorities of DRC to undertake a national biomonitoring programme, especially with four insights for the protection of human heath.

  3. Analysis of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product in blood and their metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz; Sekuła, Karolina

    2013-12-10

    UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] is a synthetic cannabinoid, which has been detected in many herbal blends, resinous samples and powders seized from the Polish drug market since the beginning of 2012. This paper presents the case of intoxication by this substance. A complete picture of the symptoms observed by a witness, paramedics and medical doctors are given. In the analysis of powder residues from the plastic bag seized from the intoxicated person by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), UR-144 and its major pyrolysis product [1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)but-3-en-1-one] were detected. Both substances were also identified in a blood sample collected on admission of the patient to hospital using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS). Blood concentration of UR-144 was 6.1 ng/mL. A urine sample collected at the same time was analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The parent substance and its pyrolysis products were not detected in urine, while their five metabolites were found. The experiments allowed the location of derivative groups to be established, and thus elucidate rough structures of the metabolites; a dihydroxylated metabolite of UR-144 and mono-, dihydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites of its pyrolysis product were identified.

  4. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  5. Saliva between normal and pathological. Important factors in determining systemic and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Iorgulescu, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    There is a tendency in current medical research to explore the importance and symptomatology of saliva. The question to which increasingly more researchers from the medico-legal, systemic and dental fields tried to answer and bring together arguments for a greater emphasis is referring to the role of saliva in the health of the patient. Up until our time, people have looked at the importance of saliva from another perspective: saliva helped in pasting envelopes or stamps, or mostly in reported cases of public speakers faced with the impossibility of having a coherent speech due to sensations of dry mouth. This ‘dry mouth’ condition, named xerostomia in medical terms, has been used since antiquity as a test in detecting lies, knowing since then that the inhibition of emotional salivary glands, the feeling of ‘dry mouth’ is caused by anxiety, thus being a potential incrimination. Although hundreds of publications have insisted on the etiology and complications of the salivary gland hypofunction, only a few health professionals used to harvest saliva tests. As in the case of urine and blood, saliva quality and quantity are affected by a multitude of medical conditions and treatments, as well as the patient's psychological state. A review of the formation, function and dysfunction of salivary glands may convey the significant role played by saliva in health and disease, especially in detection and recognition of salivary gland hypofunction, systemic disease, and the psychological states, and thus prevent complications caused by these conditions. PMID:20112475

  6. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guixia; Chen, Xiaoxin; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Xingdong; Zeng, Guozhang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. PMID:25419876

  7. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 μg/dl (0.28±0.02 μmol/l) to 76.0±2.2 μg/dl (3.67±0.11 μmol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 μg/l (0.47±0.02 μmol/l) to 641±36 μg/l (3.09±0.17 μmol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 μg/l (2.90 μmol/l).

  8. Relationship between blood and urine concentrations of intact human chorionic gonadotropin and its free subunits in early pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.J.; Menabawey, M.; Lowings, C.; Buck, R.H.; Chard, T.

    1987-04-01

    Paired blood and urine samples were obtained from patients between the sixth and 14th weeks of normal pregnancy. The levels of intact human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and of the free alpha and beta subunits, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. There was a close association between blood and urine levels of intact hCG and of the alpha subunit of hCG, but no relation between the levels of beta subunit in these sites. These findings suggest that the use of beta subunit assays may give discrepant results according to the fluid examined. By contrast, measurement of intact hCG appears to give similar results in blood and urine.

  9. Kinins produced from bovine colostrum by kallikrein and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Guth, Paul S.

    1959-01-01

    Substances capable of stimulating smooth muscle are produced on the incubation of bovine colostrum with urinary kallikrein or calf saliva. These substances, called urine- and saliva-colostrokinin, have been differentiated from kallidin, substance A and similar smooth muscle activating agents. Saliva-colostrokinin is likely to be formed in the suckling calf. Further, as colostrum became milk, the ability to form colostrokinin diminished. A function for saliva-colostrokinin in the newborn is suggested. PMID:13830444

  10. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    PubMed

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity.

  11. Significance of cadmium levels in blood and urine during long-term exposure of rats to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, A.; Goret, A.; Buchet, J.P.; Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations in blood, urine, kidney cortex, and liver were followed in female rats injected ip with 1 mg/kg Cd 5 times a week for 3 months or receiving CdCl/sub 2/ in drinking water at 2 and 20 ppM Cd for 11 months and 200 ppM Cd for 8 months. Control rats were given deionized water or injected with physiological saline. At low exposures (0, 2, and 20 ppM Cd po) the rate of Cd accumulation in liver was lower than that in kidney cortex, whereas at higher exposures it equaled (200 ppM Cd po) or even exceeded (1 mg/kg Cd ip) that in kidney cortex. In groups receiving 2, 20, and 200 ppM Cd, the Cd concentration in blood increased to a plateau value, which was reached after about 3 months of treatment and was proportional to the Cd concentration in drinking water; this suggests that, at equilibrium, the blood Cd level mainly reflects current exposure. In rats injected with 1 mg/kg Cd ip no plateau level of Cd in blood was reached, although a tendency to level off seemed to occur after 2.5 mo. The Cd concentration in urine fluctuated more than that in blood. However, at all doses and before renal damage occurred, the amount of Cd excreted in urine tended to increase with duration of treatment. The significant correlation between the Cd level in renal cortex and that in urine confirms that the latter is mainly a reflection of the body burden. When renal dysfunction occurs, excretion of Cd in urine increases sharply.The results of these experiments confirm previous conclusions derived from clinical investigations, that in the absence of Cd-induced renal damage, Cd in blood mainly reflects recent exposure whereas Cd in urine is a satisfactory indicator of the amount of Cd stored in the kidney.

  12. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  13. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  14. Poppy seed consumption and toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Manfred R; Hammer, Karin; Engel, Oliver

    2004-07-16

    Poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts. Reported concentrations are up to 294 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds. Since penalties based on Street Traffic Law (parapgraph 24a StVG) in Germany (administrative offence) require definitive proof of morphine in blood samples, and the "Grenzwertkommission" in consultation with the Ministry of Transportation recommended a threshold of free morphine of 10 ng/mL, the question arose whether the consumption of poppy seeds can lead to a blood concentrations equal or higher than 10 ng/mL of free morphine. Therefore, five volunteers ate poppy seed products (50 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds). In urine, all on-site tests were enzyme immunologically positive for opiates and were positive to morphine by GC/MS. All the blood samples were negative to morphine by EIA and to free morphine by GC/MS. However, after hydrolysis, morphine was detected by GC/MS in all cases. Accordingly, in Germany, penalties based on parapgraph 24a StVG are not likely to cause road users any concerns should they have consumed poppy seeds. Driver Licensing Authorities, however, should be advised of this problem to avoid unjustified legal measures.

  15. Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 μM, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

  16. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of

  17. Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb and Tl than Re. An empirically derived equation relating the measurement of 16O 35Cl to the 40Ar 35Cl contribution to the arsenic signal at mass 75 is refined by measuring the responses at mass 51 and 75 for urines with added hydrochloric acid. Overall, ICP-MS results for blood and urine are within 6% of Zeeman GFAAS results for patient samples. For surveys, the overall average of ICP-MS results is within 3% of target.

  18. Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

  19. Accumulation and Depletion of Cadmium in the Blood, Milk, Hair, Feces, and Urine of Cows During and After Treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Chuanyou; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Zhentian; Zhao, Qingyu; Liu, Kaidong; Sun, Youde; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accumulation and depletion of cadmium in the blood, milk, hair, feces, and urine of Holstein cows during and after treatment. Three Holstein cows received daily oral cadmium administrations (as cadmium chloride) of 0.182 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days followed by a 63-day withdrawal period. Blood, milk, hair, feces, and urine were collected during treatment and withdrawal periods. Cadmium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium concentrations in blood (0.61-1.12 μg/L), milk (0.39-1.04 μg/L), and urine (0.41-2.05 μg/L) were low. Comparatively, cadmium concentrations in feces were higher, especially on treatment day 14 (20.11 mg/kg dry matter). Fecal cadmium concentrations decreased to baseline levels (0.12 mg/kg dry matter) on withdrawal day 21. Hair cadmium concentrations increased with treatment, reaching the highest levels on withdrawal day 7 (24.33 μg/kg). Most of the cadmium was excreted via the feces and very little was present in urine or milk. Cadmium residues were detected in blood and milk more than 63 days after cadmium withdrawal. Hair cadmium concentrations may reflect exposure to the metal.

  20. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  1. On-line sample preparation for the automated sequential determination of HG in blood, urine and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Schlemmer, G.; Erler, W.

    1995-12-31

    The accurate determination of mercury in environmental and clinical samples such as waste water, urine or blood with the cold vapour technique requires a complete oxidation and stabilization of mercury in the liquid phase prior to its reduction. It has been shown that the oxidation of all relevant organo-mercury compounds in this type of matrix can be achieved on-line by an appropriate oxidizing agent used in an open microwave system coupled to a flow injection cold vapour system. The various matrices, however, are handled individually. Blood samples, for example are diluted and injected into a neutral carrier. The acid to start the reaction is added on-line only shortly before the sample enters the heating zone of the microwave oven. Urine and waste water on the other hand are acidified already in the autosampler vessel and the microwave digestion is used for completion of the oxidation only. In this application, blood, urine and waste water, three most commonly encountered matrices, were analyzed using the same FIAS and microwave parameters in an automated run. The time for one individual measurement including the on-line deposition is about 90s. The detection limits obtained with a mercury specific detector is about 20 nm/L for urine and waste water and 100 ng/L for blood.

  2. [Sports and measurement of components in urine--responses of renal blood flow, electrolytes and hormones and of excretion of proteins into urine to exercise].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Machida, K

    1996-07-01

    Renal blood flow decreased depending on the increase in exercise intensity. The kidneys may have roles to conserve the electrolytes and body fluid, and maintenance of acid-base balance during and after severe exercise. Increases in plasma hormones involved in the regulation of electrolyte-water balance, and decreases in urine flow, Na, Cl and K excretions into urine were observed following moderate exercise under a warm environment. Inhibition of electrolytes and water excretion into urine following exercise in water was less than that following exercise on land. Exercise in water is good for patients with hypertension, obesity and a mild renal disease who have tendency to conserve sodium and/or water. Increase in urinary albumin excretion, glomerular-type proteinuria was observed after moderate exercise (50 approximately 75%HRmax) in the obese individuals who had higher levels of hematocrit, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cho, apoprotein B, CIII, and fasting insulin. The findings suggest that moderate exercise causes a latent abnormality of renal glomerular basement membrane in the obese individuals who had an early disturbance of glucose-fatty metabolism.

  3. Topical application of THC containing products is not able to cause positive cannabinoid finding in blood or urine.

    PubMed

    Hess, C; Krämer, M; Madea, B

    2017-03-01

    A male driver was checked during a traffic stop. A blood sample was collected 35min later and contained 7.3ng/mL THC, 3.5ng/mL 11-hydroxy-THC and 44.6ng/mL 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. The subject claimed to have used two commercially produced products topically that contained 1.7ng and 102ng THC per mg, respectively. In an experiment, three volunteers (25, 26 and 34 years) applied both types of salves over a period of 3days every 2-4h. The application was extensive (50-100cm(2)). Each volunteer applied the products to different parts of the body (neck, arm/leg and trunk, respectively). After the first application blood and urine samples of the participants were taken every 2-4h until 15h after the last application (overall n=10 urine and n=10 blood samples, respectively, for each participant). All of these blood and urine samples were tested negative for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC by a GC-MS method (LoD (THC)=0.40ng/mL; LoD (11-hydroxy-THC)=0.28ng/mL; LoD (THC-COOH)=1.6ng/mL;. LoD (THC-COOH in urine)=1.2ng/mL). According to our studies and further literature research on in vitro testing of transdermal uptake of THC, the exclusive application of (these two) topically applied products did not produce cannabinoid findings in blood or urine.

  4. Detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A in human urine and blood serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julia; Kempf, Juergen; Mahler, Hellmut; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) in hemp plants. During smoking, the non-psychoactive Delta9-THCA-A is converted to Delta9-THC, the main psychoactive component of marihuana and hashish. Although the decarboxylation of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was assumed to be complete--which means that no Delta9-THCA-A should be detectable in urine and blood serum of cannabis consumers--we found Delta9-THCA-A in the urine and blood serum samples collected from police controls of drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). For LC-MS/MS analysis, urine and blood serum samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. Analysis was performed with a phenylhexyl column using gradient elution with acetonitrile. For detection of Delta9-THCA-A, the mass spectrometer (MS) (SCIEX API 365 triple-quadrupole MS with TurboIonSpray source) was operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions: m/z357 --> 313, m/z357 --> 245 and m/z357 --> 191. Delta9-THCA-A could be detected in the urine and blood serum samples of several cannabis consumers in concentrations of up to 10.8 ng/ml in urine and 14.8 ng/ml in serum. The concentration of Delta9-THCA-A was below the Delta9-THC concentration in most serum samples, resulting in molar ratios of Delta9-THCA-A/Delta9-THC of approximately 5.0-18.6%. Only in one case, where a short elapsed time between the last intake and blood sampling is assumed, the molar ratio was 18.6% in the serum. This indicates differences in elimination kinetics, which need to be investigated in detail.

  5. Morphine to codeine concentration ratio in blood and urine as a marker of illicit heroin use in forensic autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Normann, Per T; Arnestad, Marianne; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2012-04-10

    A morphine to codeine ratio greater than unity (M/C>1) has been suggested as an indicator of heroin use in living individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the morphine to codeine ratio in a large population (N=2438) of forensically examined autopsy cases positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and/or morphine in blood and/or urine. Blood and urine concentrations of 6-MAM, morphine and codeine were examined using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. In 6-MAM positive samples, the M/C ratio was greater than unity in 98% (N=917) of the blood samples and 96% (N=665) of the urine samples. Stratification of 6-MAM negative cases by M/C above or below unity revealed similarities in morphine and codeine concentrations in cases where M/C>1 and 6-MAM positive cases. Median blood and urine morphine concentrations were 8-10 times greater than codeine for both groups. Similarly to 6-MAM positive cases, 25-44 year-old men prevailed in the M/C>1 group. In comparison to cases where M/C ≤ 1, the M/C ratio was a hundred times higher in both 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The range of morphine concentration between the lowest and the highest quintile of codeine in M/C>1 cases was similar to that in 6-MAM positive cases. This range was much higher than for M/C ≤ 1 cases. Moreover, linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, revealed a strong positive association between morphine and codeine in 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The M/C ratio appeared to be a good marker of heroin use in post-mortem cases. Both blood and urine M/C>1 can be used to separate heroin users from other cases positive for morphine and codeine.

  6. Blood versus urine ketone monitoring in a pediatric cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, Line; Barrea, Thierry; Beauloye, Véronique; Lysy, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to determine the influence of routine ketone monitoring on hyperglycemic events (HE) and ketosis in youngsters with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: Our single-site, controlled and randomized study was conducted on children and adolescents with T1D outside of remission phase. During two crossover periods of 6 months, patients (n = 22) experiencing HE tested ketones alternatively with a blood ketone meter or urine ketone test strips and gave their opinion on screening methods after completion of clinical trial. Moreover, we evaluated levels of awareness of ketone production in a series of 58 patients and sometimes parents via a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results: Based on self-monitoring data, patients experienced a mean of 4.8 HE/month (range 0–9.3). Patients performed accurate ketone tests more frequently during urine (46%) than during blood-testing (29%) periods (p < 0.05); while globally, 50% of ketone tests were inaccurate (i.e. without HE). Ketosis occurred significantly more often during urine (46.4%) than during blood (14.8%) monitoring (p = 0.01), although no episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were noticed. Duration of hyperglycemia was not different whether patients measured ketones or not, suggesting that ketone monitoring did not affect correction of glycemia. Patients evaluated blood monitoring more frequently as being practical, reliable, and useful compared with urine testing. Scores in the awareness questionnaire were globally low (36.8%) without difference between patients and their parents. Conclusions: Although our study shows differences in outcomes (e.g. accurate use, detection of ketosis) of urine versus blood ketone monitoring, these did not affect the occurrence of HE. Whereas ketone monitoring is part of standardized diabetes education, its implementation in daily routine remains difficult, partly because patient awareness about mechanisms of ketosis is lacking. PMID:28203360

  7. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  8. Catecholamines - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)

  9. [Direct proteomic profiling of human urine and blood serum in an experiment with 5-day dry immersion].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Changes in proteome of urine and blood serum obtained from 14 healthy humans (age 21-29 yrs) medically certified for an experiment with dry immersion were analyzed. Urine and serum samples were pre-fractionated and enriched with magnetic particles MB-WCX and MB-HIC, respectively, on robot ClinProt (Bruker Daltonics) for direct mass-spectrometry profiling by MALDI-TOF. As a result, 143 protein peaks on the average were identified in urine samples. It was shown that a high variation coefficient in 23.7% of protein peaks, i.e. double technical, points to the most plastic fraction of the urine proteome. In blood serum, 175 peaks were identified in a sample on the average. Comparison of baseline and immersion mass-spectra of the blood proteome revealed significant differences. Increased peak areas of several protein fragments--C3 and C4 fragments of complement system, high-molecular kininogen and fibrinogen--can be ascribed to human body adaptation to the experimental conditions.

  10. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-04-01

    (1)H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  11. Review of biologic matrices (urine, blood, hair) as indicators of recent or ongoing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2006-04-01

    Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 compared with previous specimen ratio). For an assessment of the extent of cannabis use, the determination of free and bound THC-COOH and especially of THC and 11-OH-THC glucuronides are suggested as useful but need further confirmation. Blood analysis is preferred for the interpretation of acute effects after cannabis abuse. The cannabis influence factor (CIF) was demonstrated as a better tool to interpret the concentrations of THC and its metabolites in blood in forensic cases and therefore it was proposed to assume absolute driving inability because of cannabis intoxication from a CIF > or = 10. Additionally, a higher CIF is indicative of a recent cannabis abuse. Also discrimination between occasional use of cannabis and regular drug consumption is possible by analysis of THC-COOH in blood samples because of the long plasma half-life of THC-COOH and its accumulation in the blood of frequent cannabis consumers. In routine tests, blood samples have to be taken within a prescribed 8-day-period, and a THC-COOH concentration >75 ng/mL is assumed to be associated with regular consumption of cannabis products, whereas plasma THC-COOH concentrations <5 ng/mL are associated with occasional consumption. In contrast to other illicit drugs, hair analysis lacks the sensitivity to act as a detector for cannabinoids. THC and especially the main metabolite THC-COOH have a very low incorporation rate into hair and THC is not highly bound to melanin, resulting in much lower concentrations in hair compared with other drugs. Additionally, THC is present

  12. Saliva in the diagnosis of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen-Zi; Cheng, Xing-Qun; Li, Ji-Yao; Zhang, Ping; Yi, Ping; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands and has multiple functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial effects and digestion. With the rapid advancement in salivaomics, saliva is well recognized as a pool of biological markers. Saliva, as a non-invasive and safe source, could be a substitute for blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancements in saliva-related studies and addresses the potential value of saliva in the early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease, as well as cancer, diabetes and other systemic disorders. Saliva biomarkers range from changes in the biochemical indices of DNA, RNA and proteins to the diversification of microbiota structures. This study integrates data reported in the recent literature and discusses the clinical significance and prospects for the application of saliva in the early diagnosis of diseases, translational medicine and precision medicine. PMID:27585820

  13. Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and growth of bacteria. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which the composition of the oral microflora is modulated by saliva. Saliva covers the oral hard and soft tissues with a conditioning film which governs the initial attachment of microorganisms, a crucial step in the setup of the oral microflora. It furthermore contains proteins which in the soluble phase bind to bacteria, blocking their adherence to surfaces. When the supply of nutrients is diminished, bacteria use salivary glycoproteins, especially high-molecular-weight mucins, as a source of complex carbohydrates, requiring a consortium of microorganisms for breakdown. In this way saliva promotes the complexity of the oral microflora, which in itself protects against overgrowth by few pathogenic species. Finally, saliva harbors a large panel of antimicrobial proteins which directly and indirectly inhibit uncontrolled outgrowth of bacteria. These include lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides. Under pathological conditions serum leakage occurs, and saliva mobilizes the humoral and cellular defense mechanisms in the blood. In sum, saliva favors the establishment of a highly diverse microflora, rather than a semisterile environment.

  14. Diagnosis of liver cancer and cirrhosis by the fluorescence spectra of blood and urine.

    PubMed

    AlSalhi, M; Al Mehmadi, A M; Abdo, Ayman Assad; Prasad, S; Masilamani, V

    2012-08-01

    Liver cancer or hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate and is fatal next only to pancreatic cancer. This disease is conventionally detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC, by these imaging techniques, is poor. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper we have obtained fluorescence emission spectra with excitation at 400 nm and the synchronous emission spectra (Δλ = 10 nm) for a set of blood and urine samples (Normal control N = 25, Liver Malfunction N = 58). Based on the ratio fluorometric parameters, all the three liver maladies (minor inflammation like Hepatitis C, serious diseases like Cirrhosis and hepatoma) could be detected and discriminated with an accuracy of about 80%. Hence this inexpensive, non invasive, optical technique may have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  15. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  16. Optimized siRNA-PEG conjugates for extended blood circulation and reduced urine excretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H; Kjems, Jørgen; Gao, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications.

  17. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children.

  18. Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2014-01-01

    Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227 μg/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55 μg/l); plasma 78% (0.57 μg/l; GSD: 1.84 μg/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7 μg/l; GSD: 2.48 μg/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7 μg/l; GSD: 8.6 μg/l), 15% for plasma (0.09 μg/l; GSD: 0.04 μg/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8 μg/l; GSD: 6.7 μg/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure.

  19. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Cerumen - Correlation of Postmortem Analysis Results with Those for Blood, Urine and Hair.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sylvia I; Koelzer, Sarah C; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-02-27

    The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive. In 3 cases, where drugs could only be detected in urine, cerumen was also found to be positive. Even in cases where only hair was positive cerumen still contained analytes in some instances (52.5 %). However, cannabis use was only detected in 31.6 % of cerumen samples of the deceased cannabis users. Unexpectedly, not tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was detected but its oxidized form, cannabinol. The present results suggest that cerumen is a promising alternative for drugs of abuse testing. The detection time window of cerumen is obviously in excess of that of urine but not as long as with hair. However, current problems with the detection of cannabinoids require further research.

  20. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  1. Saliva and the clinical pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Michael A; Spitalnik, Steven L

    2007-03-01

    There have been increasing numbers of applications using oral fluids, saliva in particular, as the target substrate for performing clinical diagnostic tests. These have focused primarily on point-of-care (POC) testing. These POC testing approaches range from, for example, currently available, highly specialized screening tests for the presence of antibodies recognizing HIV to the potential development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Broad claims have been made that the latter will revolutionize clinical laboratory testing. From the perspective of large centralized clinical laboratories, multiple issues must be considered before implementing individual tests using saliva as the target fluid in a POC format or using saliva as a universal test fluid for measuring multiple analytes in a centralized laboratory format. The current scope of laboratory testing is large and comprehensive, involving both POC and centralized testing. Current academic laboratory programs have the ability to qualitatively identify and/or quantitatively measure several thousand analytes in various target matrices including blood, plasma, serum, urine, joint fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue. These tests fall into multiple clinical pathology disciplines, including clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, transfusion medicine, microbiology, cytogenetics, molecular diagnosis, and immunology. In addition, before implementing a given test, multiple issues need to be evaluated to ensure the validity of the reported result; these include considerations involving the three major phases of testing: preanalytical (e.g., patient identification and specimen collection, stability, and transport), analytical (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision), and postanalytical (e.g., reporting results, quality improvement, and turn-around-time).

  2. Critical Review Upon the Role and Potential of Fluorescence and Near-Infrared Imaging and Absorption Spectroscopy in Cancer Related Cells, Serum, Saliva, Urine and Tissue Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huck, Christian W; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Huck-Pezzei, Verena A

    2016-01-01

    During the last years, non-invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic tools in cancer diagnostics have become more important. Many fluorescence spectroscopic methodologies have been established for nearly all different kinds of cancer. The reason therefore is its high sensitivity, low amount of sample required, short testing time, and the suitability for in situ testing. The potential influence factors for cancer diagnostics and the subsequent suitability of the method to different applications are well described. Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is based on differences of endogenous chromophores between cancer and normal tissues using either oxyhaemoglobin or deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid or water bands, or a combination of two or more of these diagnostic markers. These marker bands are known to provide the fundamental for the diagnosis of several cancers and the spectroscopic setup can be applied for the analysis of cells, urine and tissue. For the preparation of this review the literature published during the last fifteen years has been taken into consideration. It will provide an overview on the importance of the fluorescence and NIRS tools in cancer analysis giving hints about how these techniques can play a crucial role in cancer diagnosis, treatment decisions and therapy. The two techniques, fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are faced to each other and individual advantages and/or drawbacks are discussed. Finally, it will be taken into consideration; how the synergistic combination of different approaches can give additional information related to development and progression stages of cancer.

  3. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  4. Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.

    PubMed

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M

    1983-11-01

    Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

  5. Blood, breast milk and urine: potential biomarkers of exposure and estimated daily intake of ochratoxin A: a review.

    PubMed

    Soto, Julia Bellver; Ruiz, María-José; Manyes, Lara; Juan-García, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to study potential biomarkers of exposure for ochratoxin A (OTA) in biological fluids (blood, urine and breast milk) for the period 2005-14, calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OTA by using database consumption for the Spanish population, and, finally, to correlate OTA levels detected in blood and EDI values calculated from food products. The values of OTA detected in potential biomarkers of exposure for blood, breast milk and urine ranged from 0.15 to 18.0, from 0.002 to 13.1, and from 0.013 to 0.2 ng ml(-1), respectively. The calculated EDI for OTA in plasma ranged from 0.15 to 26 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), higher than that obtained in urine (0.017-0.4 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)). All these values are correlated with the range of EDI for OTA calculated from food products: 0.0001-25.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1).

  6. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host.

  7. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen G.; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Νikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography–tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples. PMID:28241477

  8. [Ionic calcium in blood and urine. Methods of determination and methodological difficulties].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P

    1979-04-01

    The present paper reports about the individual fractions of the plasma and urine calcium, further about the analytical methods for the determination of the ionic Ca, as well as about the methodical difficulties of the described analytical techniques. Considerations about the real informative value of the Ca2+ -determination in the urine led us to the conclusion that only the additional knowledge of the actual concentration of the stone-forming anions, the oxalate resp. the phosphate may mediate a more complete picture about the calculogenetic "aggressivity" of the urine under investigation.

  9. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  10. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  11. Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Vahter, M; Akesson, A; Lind, B; Björs, U; Schütz, A; Berglund, M

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization/reduction and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. T-Hg in urine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. About 72% of the Hg in blood (n = 148) in early pregnancy was MeHg (median 0.94 microg/L, maximum 6.8 microg/L). Blood MeHg decreased during pregnancy, partly due to decreased intake of fish in accordance with recommendations to not eat certain predatory fish during pregnancy. Cord blood MeHg (median 1.4 microg/L, maximum 4.8 microg/L) was almost twice that in maternal blood in late pregnancy and was probably influenced by maternal MeHg exposure earlier and before pregnancy. Blood I-Hg (median 0.37 microg/L, maximum 4.2 microg/L) and urine T-Hg (median 1.6 microg/L, maximum 12 microg/L) in early pregnancy were highly correlated, and both were associated with the number of amalgam fillings. The concentrations decreased during lactation, probably due to excretion in milk. Cord blood I-Hg was correlated with that in maternal blood. The results show the importance of speciation of Hg in blood for evaluation of exposure and health risks.

  12. Comparison of urine analysis and dried blood spot analysis for the detection of ephedrine and methylephedrine in doping control.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Asami; Nishitani, Yasunori; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Kageyama, Shinji; Dohi, Michiko; Okano, Masato

    2016-02-01

    When the misuse of stimulants is determined in doping control tests conducted during the in-competition period, athletes are asked to account for the violation of the rules. This study was designed to evaluate whether the urinary threshold values (10 µg/mL) for ephedrine and methylephedrine set by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) can be exceeded after the oral administration of each substance (25 mg). In addition, the study describes the validity of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using dried blood spot testing to detect ephedrine and methylephedrine by comparing it to a quantitative laboratory urine assay. After administration of ephedrine, the urinary concentration of ephedrine did not exceed the threshold at 4-10 h in two subjects, whereas the threshold was exceeded in both the subjects at 12 h after administration. For methylephedrine, the urinary concentrations of all the subjects failed to reach the threshold for up to 10 h after administration. The concentrations reached the threshold at 12-24 h after administration in some volunteers. In contrast, the blood concentrations of ephedrine and methylephedrine reached their maximum levels at 2-8 h after administration. The blood concentrations showed a low inter-individual variability, and the results suggested that the urinary excretion of ephedrine and methylephedrine can be strongly affected by urine pH and/or urine volume. These facts suggest that urinary concentrations cannot reflect the psychoactive level of ephedrines in circulation. Thus, dried blood analysis might be suitable for the adequate detection of stimulants during in-competition testing.

  13. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. PMID:28244280

  14. In vivo analysis of cadmium in battery workers versus measurements of blood, urine, and workplace air.

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, J; Bellander, T; Järup, L; Elinder, C G; Mattsson, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure in vivo the cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex (kidney-Cd) and in superficial liver tissue (liver-Cd) of nickel cadmium battery workers, and to compare the results with other commonly used estimates of cadmium exposure (current concentrations of cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd)) or repeated measurements of cadmium in workplace air (CumAir-Cd). METHODS: The study comprised 30 workers with a range of duration of exposure of 11-51 years. 13 subjects were currently employed, whereas the other 17 had a median period without occupational exposure of eight years before the measurements. The in vivo measurements were made with an x ray fluorescence technique permitting average detection limits of 30 and 3 micrograms cadmium per g tissue in kidney and liver, respectively. RESULTS: 19 of 30 (63%) people had kidney-Cd and 13 of 27 (48%) had liver-Cd above the detection limits. Kidney-Cd ranged from non-detectable to 350 micrograms/g and liver-Cd from non-detectable to 80 micrograms/g. The median kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were 55 micrograms/g and 3 micrograms/g, respectively. Kidney-Cd correlated significantly with B-Cd (r, 0.49) and U-Cd (r, 0.70), whereas liver-Cd correlated significantly with U-Cd (r, 0.58). Neither kidney-Cd nor liver-Cd correlated with the CumAir-Cd. The prevalence of beta 2-microglobulinurea increased with increased liver-Cd. CONCLUSIONS: Current U-Cd can be used to predict the kidney-Cd and liver-Cd measured in vivo. In vivo measurements of kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were not shown to correlate with the individual cadmium exposure estimates, obtained by integration of the cadmium concentration in workplace air. There may be several reasons for this, including uncertainties in the estimate of the individual cumulative exposures as well as in the in vivo measurements. There was a suggestion of a relation between liver-Cd and tubular proteinuria. PMID:9245949

  15. Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.

    1989-02-01

    Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

  16. Evaluation of the One-Step ELISA kit for the detection of buprenorphine in urine, blood, and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Etienne, S; Villain, M; Ludes, B; Kintz, P

    2004-07-16

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was recently proposed by International Diagnostic Systems corporation (IDS) to screen for buprenorphine in human serum. The performance of the kit led us to investigate its applicability in other biological matrices such as urine or blood, and also hair specimens. Low concentrations of buprenorphine were detected with the ELISA test and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations measured by HPLC/MS: 0.3 ng/mL in urine, 0.2 ng/mL in blood, and 40 pg/mg in hair). The intra-assay precision values were 8.7% at 1 ng/mL of urine (n = 8), 11.5% at 2 ng/mL in serum (n = 8), and 11.5% at 250 pg/mg of hair (n = 8), respectively. The immunoassay had no cross-reactivity with dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, dextrometorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L, or codeine, morphine, methadone, and its metabolite EDDP. A 1% cross-reactivity was measured for a norbuprenorphine concentration of 50 ng/mL. Finally, the immunoassay was validated by comparing authentic specimens results with those of a validated HPLC/MS method. From the 136 urine samples tested, 93 were positive (68.4%) after the ELISA screening test (cutoff: 0.5 ng/mL) and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.3-2036 ng/mL). From the 108 blood or serum samples screened, 27 were positive (25%) after the ELISA test with a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mL (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.2-13.3 ng/mL). Eighteen hair specimens were positive (72%) after the screening (cutoff: 10 pg/mg) and confirmed by LC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 40-360 pg/mg). The ELISA method produced false positive results in less than 21% of the cases, but no false negative results were observed with the immunological test. Four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that were added to 10 positive urine specimens (buprenorphine concentrations in

  17. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  18. Identification of prostate cancer mRNA markers by averaged differential expression and their detection in biopsies, blood, and urine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, V. Uma; Kaseb, Ahmed; Tejwani, Sheela; Divine, George W.; Barrack, Evelyn R.; Menon, Mani; Pardee, Arthur B.; Reddy, G. Prem-Veer

    2007-01-01

    The advent of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker has enabled early detection of prostate cancer and, hence, improved clinical outcome. However, a low PSA is not a guarantee of disease-free status, and an elevated PSA is frequently associated with a negative biopsy. Therefore, our goal is to identify molecular markers that can detect prostate cancer with greater specificity in body fluids such as urine or blood. We used the RT-PCR differential display method to first identify mRNA transcripts differentially expressed in tumor vs. patient-matched nontumor prostate tissue. This analysis led to the identification of 44 mRNA transcripts that were expressed differentially in some but not all tumor specimens examined. To identify mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in most tumor specimens, we turned to differential display of pooled tissue samples, a technique we name averaged differential expression (ADE). We performed differential display of mRNA from patient-matched nontumor vs. tumor tissue, each pooled from 10 patients with various Gleason scores. Differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE were fewer in number, but were expressed in a greater percentage of tumors (>75%) than those identified by differential display of mRNA from individual patient samples. Differential expression of these mRNA transcripts was also detected by RT-PCR in mRNA isolated from urine and blood samples of prostate cancer patients. Our findings demonstrate the principle that specific cDNA probes of frequently differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE can be used for the detection of prostate cancer in urine and blood samples. PMID:17283334

  19. Simple decomposition procedure for determination of selenium in whole blood, serum and urine by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tiran, B; Tiran, A; Rossipal, E; Lorenz, O

    1993-12-01

    A digestion procedure for selenium determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in whole blood, serum and urine is described, it employs sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide and vanadium (V) sulfuric acid reagent solution. The method is rapid, uses no explosive reagents and can be performed at a constant temperature of 100 degrees C. Therefore, it is easily applicable in a routine clinical laboratory for a large amount of samples. The coefficient of intra-assay variation was 4.3-5.6%, the coefficient for inter-assay variation was 5-5.9% in the medium and high concentration range, and 5.8-8.6% in the low range. In analyzing several commercial reference materials our results showed good agreement with the target values. Analytical recovery by addition of sodium selenite and seleno-DL-methionine to samples ranged between 97 and 104%. The correlation between the described digestion procedure and the nitric, sulfuric and perchloric acid digestion procedure recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry showed good agreement for whole blood, serum and for urine. We determined selenium in serum (n = 58) and whole blood (n = 50) in a collective of healthy children from 1 to 5 years living in Styria, Austria. The low values in serum (35 +/- 11 micrograms/L) and whole blood (42 +/- 6 micrograms/L) at one year of life increased significantly to 48 +/- 13 mu/L (p = 0.033) and 55 +/- 6 micrograms/L (p = 0.004) at three years of life in serum and whole blood, respectively. The selenium concentration showed no further increase up to five years of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Hair analysis for the biomonitoring of pesticide exposure: comparison with blood and urine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Hardy, Emilie M; Grova, Nathalie; Chata, Caroline; Faÿs, François; Briand, Olivier; Schroeder, Henri; Duca, Radu-Corneliu

    2016-12-23

    Urine and plasma have been used to date for the biomonitoring of exposure to pollutants and are still the preferred fluids for this purpose; however, these fluids mainly provide information on the short term and may present a high level of variability regarding pesticide concentrations, especially for nonpersistent compounds. Hair analysis may provide information about chronic exposure that is averaged over several months; therefore, this method has been proposed as an alternative to solely relying on these fluids. Although the possibility of detecting pesticides in hair has been demonstrated over the past few years, the unknown linkage between exposure and pesticides concentration in hair has limited the recognition of this matrix as a relevant tool for assessing human exposure. Based on a rat model in which there was controlled exposure to a mixture of pesticides composed of lindane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, pentachlorophenol, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, propiconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, diflufenican, trifluralin, carbofuran, and propoxur, the current work demonstrates the association between exposure intensity and resulting pesticide concentration in hair. We also compared the results obtained from a hair analysis to urine and plasma collected from the same rats. Hair, blood, and urine were collected from rats submitted to 90-day exposure by gavage to the aforementioned mixture of common pesticides at different levels. We observed a linear relationship between exposure intensity and the concentration of pesticides in the rats' hair (R Pearson 0.453-0.978, p < 0.01). A comparison with results from urine and plasma samples demonstrated the relevance of hair analysis and, for many chemicals, its superiority over using fluids for differentiating animals from different groups and for re-attributing animals to their correct groups of exposure based on pesticide concentrations in the

  1. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood

  2. Optical protein sensor for detecting cancer markers in saliva.

    PubMed

    Tan, Winny; Sabet, Leyla; Li, Yang; Yu, Tianwei; Klokkevold, Perry R; Wong, David T; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2008-10-15

    A surface immobilized optical protein sensor has been utilized to detect Interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein, an oral cancer marker, and can reach limit of detection (LOD) at 1.1 pM in buffer without using enzymatic amplification. Only after applying enzymatic amplification to increase the signal level by a few orders of magnitude, ELISA can reach the LOD of 1 pM level. We then develop the confocal optics based sensor for further reducing the optical noise and can extend the LOD of the surface immobilized optical protein sensor two orders in magnitude. These improvements have allowed us to detect IL-8 protein at 4.0 fM in buffer. In addition, these sensitive LODs were achieved without the use of enzymatic signal amplification, such that the simplified protocol can further facilitate the development of point-of-care devices. The ultra sensitive optical protein sensor presented in this paper has a wide number of applications in disease diagnoses. Measurements for detecting biomarkers in clinical sample are much more challenging than the measurements in buffer, due to high background noise contributed by large collections of non-target molecules. We used clinical saliva samples to validate the functionality of the optical protein sensor. Clinical detection of disease-specific biomarkers in saliva offers a non-invasive, alternative approach to using blood or urine. Currently, the main challenge of using saliva as a diagnostic fluid is its inherently low concentration of biomarkers. We compare the measurements of 40 saliva samples; half from oral cancer patients and half from a control group. The data measured by the optical protein sensor is compared with the traditional Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) values to validate the accuracy of our system. These positive results enable us to proceed to using confocal optical protein sensor to detect other biomarkers, which have much lower concentrations.

  3. Determination of platinum in blood and urine as a tool for the biological monitoring of internal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Karl H.; Angerer, Juergen; Alt, Friedrich; Messerschmidt, Juergen; Weber, Andreas

    1993-03-01

    The increased industrial use of platinum has led to a growing need for the determination of platinum levels in biological materials. Concern about the release of toxic material from catalytic converters in motor vehicles in the environment and about occupational platinum exposure of employees working in the assembly of motor vehicle catalyzers and recycling led us to establish background and internal exposure levels in human body fluids. The development of an analytical procedure, based on adsorptive voltammetry with an extremely high power of detection (2 pg Pt absolute) for the determination in body fluids made population studies reliable and practicable. The methods are described and the reliability criteria are presented. For 13 not occupationally exposed persons the platinum levels ranged in urine from blood from urine, 2 - 180 ng/l blood and 4 - 280 ng/l plasma. This was in agreement with the external exposure levels, which exceeded the German MAK value of 2 (mu) g/m3. Platinum concentrations in human biological materials seem to be suitable as internal exposure indicators.

  4. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Liukkonen, Raija; Ariniemi, Kari

    2007-08-06

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body. Here we describe an assay for GHB, GBL and BD in blood and/or urine samples. GHB and BD were extracted from diluted 200 microL aliquots of samples with t-butylmethylether (plus internal standard benzyl alcohol) in test tubes preloaded with NaCl. After acidification and centrifugation the solvent phase was transferred to a test tube preloaded with Na(2)SO(4), incubated for 30 min, centrifuged again, and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was mixed with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) in acetonitrile, and injected into a GC-MS. When analyzing GBL, the salting-out step was omitted, and analysis was performed with a GC-FID apparatus. As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples.

  5. Highly specific quantification of ergotamine in urine, blood, and hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Vogliardi, Susanna; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2007-06-01

    Ergotamine has been used for therapeutic purposes since the 1950s, usually to treat vascular headache. It is highly toxic and in large, repeated doses can produce all the symptoms of ergot poisoning. A selective and sensitive method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2), has been developed for quantifying ergotamine in biological fluids with use of a quick and easy sample preparation. Ergotamine and the internal standard, trideuterated lysergic acid diethylamide, were extracted from human urine, blood, and hair by means of liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH. Gradient elution on a cyanopropyl column was used for chromatographic separation. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method was validated and successfully applied to a case of iatrogenic ergotism resulting from the intake of ergotamine tartrate for treating headache. For the first time, ergotamine was identified and quantified in hair. The ergotamine concentrations measured were 320 pg/mL in blood, 100 pg/mL in urine, 24 pg/mg in proximal hair, and 15 pg/mg in distal hair.

  6. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay and ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    plasma from hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie . The assay has shown high sensitivity and specificity and good reproducibility. In this...long term, “limiting dilution” titration of untreated, whole urine from scrapie infected hamsters, we have now conclusively shown that urine from...the 263K stain of scrapie . Great efforts have been directed towards the development of a pre- mortem preclinical diagnostic test using blood as the

  7. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    PubMed Central

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  8. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  9. Considering the effect of stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis of blood and saliva specific microRNA markers upon mixed body fluid stains.

    PubMed

    Uchimoto, Mari L; Beasley, Emma; Coult, Natalie; Omelia, Emma J; World, Damian; Williams, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Forensic RNA analysis is gathering pace with reports of messenger RNA analysis being used in case work, and with microRNA being increasingly researched. Such techniques address a fundamental issue in body fluid identification, namely increased specificity over existing chemical tests, and the incorporation of additional body fluids such as vaginal material. The use of RNA analysis will be of particular value to sex offences, where there can be a mixture of multiple body fluids from different people. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA based body fluid identification tests can be applied to mixed body fluid samples. Blood and saliva were acquired from volunteers and underwent total RNA extraction. Mixed samples were prepared using a range of ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Each mixed sample then underwent a blood-saliva differentiation test developed in-house, which includes stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Aliquots following mixture preparation also underwent standard STR analysis, utilising Quantiplex and Next Generation Multiplex kits. Data relating to the development of an in-house blood-saliva differentiation test is presented, in which it has been demonstrated that such a test has a lower limit of detection than the enzymatic equivalent. It has been shown that not only is it possible to determine the presence of more than one body fluid, it is also possible to determine the major body fluid contributor as well as the minor contributor.

  10. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  11. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.

  12. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of six amphetamines and analogues in hair, blood and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Application to the determination of MDMA after low ecstasy intake.

    PubMed

    Chèze, Marjorie; Deveaux, Marc; Martin, Claire; Lhermitte, Michel; Pépin, Gilbert

    2007-08-06

    A rapid and sensitive method using LC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole for the determination of traces of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB) in hair, blood and urine has been developed and validated. Chromatography was carried out on an Uptisphere ODB C(18) 5 microm, 2.1 mm x 150 mm column (Interchim, France) with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate 2 mM pH 3.0 buffer. Urine and blood were extracted with Toxitube A (Varian, France). Segmented scalp hair was treated by incubation 15 min at 80 degrees C in NaOH 1M before liquid-liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate (2/1, v/v). The limits of quantification (LOQ) in blood and urine were at 0.1 ng/mL for all analytes. In hair, LOQ was <5 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, at 14.7 pg/mg for AP and 15.7 pg/mg for MDA. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.1-50 ng/mL in blood and urine; in the range 5-500 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, and 20-500 pg/mg for AP and MDA. Inter-day precisions were <13% for all analytes in all matrices. Accuracy was <20% in blood and urine at 1 and 50 ng/mL and <10% in hair at 20 and 250 pg/mg. This method was applied to the determination of MDMA in a forensic case of single administration of ecstasy to a 16-year-old female without her knowledge during a party. She suffered from hyperactivity, sweating and agitation. A first sample of urine was collected a few hours after (T+12h) and tested positive to amphetamines by immunoassay by a clinical laboratory. Blood and urine were sampled for forensic purposes at day 8 (D+8) and scalp hair at day 60 (D+60). No MDMA was detected in blood, but urine and hair were tested positive, respectively at 0.42 ng/mL and at 22 pg/mg in hair only in the segment corresponding to the period of the offence, while no MDA was detectable. This method allows

  14. Evaluation of fibronectin 1 in one dried blood spot and in urine after rhGH treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferro, P; Ventura, R; Pérez-Mañá, C; Farré, M; Segura, J

    2016-10-07

    Since the appearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the 1980s, its expansion and acquisition through the black market has increased, so the detection of its abuse continues to be a challenge. New biomarkers that are more reliable and sensitive, allowing a larger detection window, are still needed. In this line, Fibronectin 1 (FN1) has been proposed as a potential genetic and protein biomarker of rhGH abuse in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum, and plasma. However, logistic problems associated with current blood collection in sports drug testing point towards potential new alternative matrices that could be good candidates to be evaluated. Results obtained in this study showed high ELISA FN1 levels in one dried blood spot and in urine samples in ten healthy male volunteers treated with rhGH. Results showed that especially dried blood spots appear as a potential good matrix to detect rhGH abuse by means of FN1 biomarker. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke.

  16. Increased blood and urine copper after residential exposure to copper naphthenate

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, R.E.; Welch, L.; Branch, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Despite widespread industrial use of copper naphthenate, there are no reports of the relationship of copper naphthenate and copper absorption in humans or animals. We report a family of three individuals who lived in a home where copper naphthenate was sprayed on the inner foundation. Subsequently, these individuals developed non-specific complaints. In two of these individuals, serum copper levels were elevated when first measured months after copper naphthenate was sprayed in the home. A gradual decline over several years in urine and serum copper levels was observed in the individual who maintained follow-up. It is not known if symptoms reflected exposure to naphthenate, the solvent vehicle, volatilized copper, or the stress of exposure to a malodorous compound perceived as toxic. Exposure to copper naphthenate may be another cause of an elevated serum and urine copper level but the interpretation of these levels as normal' or toxic' requires additional study for clarification. This report suggests the need for further study of the absorption and relative toxicity of copper naphthenate.

  17. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  18. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person.

  19. Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (δ(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer.

  20. Detection of recombinant EPO in blood and urine samples with EPO WGA MAIIA, IEF and SAR-PAGE after microdose injections.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shalina, Alexandra; Myrvold, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The misuse of microdoses of performance enhancing drugs like erythropoietin (EPO) constitutes a major challenge in doping analysis. When injected intravenously, the half-life of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) like epoetin alfa, beta, and zeta is only a few hours and hence, the window for direct detection of rhEPO in urine is small. In order to investigate the detection window for rhEPO directly in blood and urine with a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay (EPO WGA MAIIA), we recruited nine healthy people who each received six intravenously injected microdoses (7.5 IU/kg) of NeoRecormon (epoetin beta) over a period of three weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected in the days following the injections and analyzed with EPO WGA MAIIA as well as the current validated methods for rhEPO; isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE). For samples collected 18 h after a microdose, the sensitivity of the EPO WGA MAIIA assay was 100% in plasma and 87.5% in urine samples at the respective 98% specificity threshold levels. In comparison, the sensitivity in plasma and urine was 75% and 100%, respectively, with IEF, and 87.5% in plasma and 100% in urine when analyzed with SAR-PAGE. We conclude that EPO WGA MAIIA is a sensitive assay for the detection of rhEPO, with the potential of being a fast, supplemental screening assay for use in doping analysis.

  1. Validation and application of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the estimation of cortisone in saliva, urine and in vitro cell-culture media by using a novel antibody.

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Baghdadi, Hussam H S; Howie, Forbes; Mason, J Ian

    2012-05-01

    It is generally acknowledged that local tissue concentrations of cortisol and cortisone are modulated by site-specific actions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) isoenzymes 1 and 2. Cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol is produced by 11βHSD type 2. To assess 11β-HSD types 1 and 2 activities, the cortisol/cortisone ratio has to be accurately determined. Immunoassays to measure cortisone levels are not widely available and tend to lack specificity. The aim of this project was to develop a highly specific and sensitive ELISA method for the estimation of free cortisone levels in urine, saliva and in vitro media samples without chromatographic separation. Antibodies against cortisone were raised in rabbits using cortisone-3-CMO-KLH as immunogen. HRP-goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugate was used as enzyme tracer. Cross-reactivities of the untreated cortisone antiserum with major interfering steroids were minimal except for cortisol (3.15%). However, following an immune-affinity purification of the antibodies using CNBr-activated sepharose-cortisol-3-CMO-BSA, cross-reactivity of the purified cortisone antibody with cortisol was reduced to 0.27%. The minimum detection limit of cortisone ELISA was 28 pg/mL (77.7 pM). The validity of the cortisone ELISA was confirmed by the excellent correlation obtained before and after an HPLC fractionation step (Y=1.09X-0.21, R2=0.98). Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision were 5.5-11.7% and 8.7-12.8% CV, respectively. Using this assay, salivary cortisone levels showed a circadian rhythm in men and women (11.2±7.3 nM at 08.00 h and 5.1±3.6 nM at 18.00 h), and the levels were reduced following liquorice ingestion. In media of adrenocortical H295 cell line incubations, basal cortisone levels were 4.24±0.22 nM that increased to 8.6±1.2 nM post forskolin treatment. Urinary free cortisone excretion levels in healthy subjects were 56.66±36.9 nmol/day. In human volunteers following ingestion of green coffee bean extract

  2. [Screening saliva].

    PubMed

    Deutsch, O; Palmon, A; Aframian, D J

    2013-04-01

    Oral Fluids (OF) are a complex mixture including components deriving from, salivary glands, blood, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosal lining cells and microbiota. Therefore, OF as a mirror of the body, were suggested as an important diagnostic fluid for the detection of both, oral and systemic diseases. OF as diagnostic fluids have several advantages; their collection is easy, inexpensive and noninvasive, they are suitable for home use and for epidemiology researches, they are easy to store and ship, do not clot and enable fast detection. OF based diagnostics research accomplished a great advance during the last decade. This is mainly due to biotechnology improvements such as 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis, quantitative Mass Spectrometry and bioinformatics systems. These technologies enabled the detection of more than 3000 proteins in oral fluids, as well as the establishment of a panel of biomarkers to different human pathological conditions (i.e. periodontitis, Sjögren's Syndrome, oral cancer, pancreatic cancer etc). However, this diagnostic field has several drawbacks, mainly due to oral fluids variance composition, blood contamination as a result of gingivitis or mucosal injuries, the lack of a single established collection protocol and the presence of high abundant components in OF. This article summarizes the current research, and provides an outlook toward the foundation of this unique body fluid as a major player in the diagnostic field.

  3. Speciation of platinum in blood plasma and urine by micelle-mediated extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohammed M; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2013-10-01

    A highly sensitive and selective technique for the speciation of platinum by cloud point extraction prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was described. The separation of Pt(II) from Pt(IV) was performed in the presence of 4-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)thiosemicarbazide (HCPTS) as chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The extraction of Pt(II)-HCPTS complex needs temperature higher than the cloud point temperature of Triton X-114 and pH = 7, while Pt(IV) remains in the aqueous phase. The Pt(II) in the surfactant phase was analyzed by GFAAS, and the concentration of Pt(IV) was calculated by subtraction of Pt(II) from total platinum which was directly determined by GFAAS. The effect of pH, concentration of chelating agent, surfactant, and equilibration temperature were investigated. An enrichment factor of 42 was obtained for the preconcentration of Pt(II) with 50 mL solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear up to 30 μgL(-1) with detection limit of 0.08 μgL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.8%. No considerable interference was observed due to the presence of coexisting anions and cations. The accuracy of the results was verified by analyzing different spiked samples (tap water, blood plasma and urine). The proposed method was applied to the speciation analysis of Pt in blood plasma and urine with satisfactory results.

  4. Determination of boron in blood, urine and bone by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using zirconium and citric acid as modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguera, Marcela; Burguera, José Luis; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo

    2001-10-01

    A comparative study of various potential chemical modifiers (Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Ir, La, Lu, Mg, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Sr, V, W, and Zr), and different 'coating' treatments (Zr, W, and W+Rh) of the pyrolytic graphite platform of a longitudinally heated graphite tube atomizer for thermal stabilization and determination of boron was undertaken. The use of Au, Ba, Be, Cr, Ir, Pt, Rh, Ru, Sr and V as modifiers, and of W+Rh coating produced erratic, and noisy signals, while the addition of La, Ni and Pd as modifiers, and the W coating had positive effects, but with too high background absorption signals, rendering their use unsuitable for boron determination even in aqueous solutions. The atomic absorption signal for boron was increased and stabilized when the platform was coated with Zr, and by the addition of Ca, Mg, Lu, W or Zr as modifiers. Only the addition of 10 μg of Zr as a modifier onto Zr-treated platforms allowed the use of a higher pyrolysis temperature without analyte losses. The memory effect was minimized by incorporating a cleaning step with 10 μl of 50 g l -1 NH 4F HF after every three boron measurements. The addition of 10 μl of 15 g l -1 citric acid together with Zr onto Zr-treated platforms significantly improved the characteristic mass to m0=282 pg, which is adequate for biological samples such as urine and bone, although the sensitivity was still inadequate for the determination of boron in blood of subjects without supplementary diet. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit (3σ) was 60 μg l -1. The amount of boron found in whole blood, urine and femur head samples from patients with osteoporosis was in agreement with values previously reported in the literature.

  5. Levels of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in oral fluid, blood, and urine after use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid and both EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in blood and urine following intense use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine, which are proven to contain 3 mg/L EtG, 1.5 mg/L EtS, and 0.2 g/L ethanol. Twelve subjects participated in a controlled experiment. All subjects ingesting nonalcoholic wine showed urine samples negative for EtG but positive for EtS (Cmax 2.15 mg/L). All four subjects using mouthwash were negative for EtG and EtS in urine. All samples of oral fluid were negative for EtG and all samples of blood were negative for EtG and EtS. This study showed that ingestion of EtG and EtS as components of nonalcoholic wine lead to detection of urine EtS only, suggesting superior bioavailability of orally ingested EtS compared to EtG. This possibility of false-positive EtS results in urine after ingestion of nonalcoholic wine is important to remember when using EtG and EtS as relapse markers for alcohol. Finally, the study showed that a positive EtG or EtS result after accidental alcohol exposure is unlikely in blood and oral fluid.

  6. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (∼500 μg/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 μg h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood

  7. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL.

  8. Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine and 6-acetyl morphine in human urine and blood samples using direct aqueous derivatisation: validation and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, S; Stefanelli, F; Iannella, V; Giusiani, M

    2014-02-15

    Opiates play a relevant role in forensic toxicology and their assay in urine or blood is usually performed for example in workplace drug-testing or toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving. The present work describes two new methods for detecting morphine, codeine and 6-monoacethyl morphine in human urine or blood using a single step derivatisation in aqueous phase. Propyl chloroformate is used as the dramatizing agent followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy to detect the derivatives. The methods have been validated both for hydrolysed and unhydrolysed urine. For hydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 2.5ng/ml and 8.5ng/ml for codeine, and 5.2ng/ml and 15.1ng/ml for morphine, respectively. For unhydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 3.0ng/ml and 10.1ng/ml for codeine, 2.7ng/ml and 8.1ng/ml for morphine, 0.8ng/ml and 1.5ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.44ng/ml and 1.46ng/ml for codeine, 0.29ng/ml and 0.98ng/ml for morphine, 0.15ng/ml and 0.51ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. The validated methods have been applied to 50 urine samples and 40 blood samples (both positive and negative) and they can be used in routine analyses.

  9. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  10. Identification and quantification of 34 drugs and toxic compounds in blood, urine, and gastric content using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Ye, Haiying; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-01

    A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous screening of 34 drugs and poisons in forensic cases. Blood (0.5 mL, diluted 1:1 with water) or 1.0 mL of urine was purified by solid-phase extraction. Gastric contents (diluted 1:1 with water) were treated with acetonitrile, centrifuged, and supernatant injected. Detection was achieved using a Waters Alliance 2695/Quattro Premier XE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with electrospray ionization, operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in blood was greater than 51% with the limit of detection in the range of 0.02-20 ng/mL. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was greater than 61% with limit of detection in the range of 0.01-10 ng/mL. The matrix effect of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was 65-117% and 67-121% in blood. The limit of detection of drugs and toxic compounds in gastric content samples were in the range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. This method was applied to the routine analysis of drugs and toxic compounds in postmortem blood, urine, and gastric content samples. The method was applied to actual forensic cases with examples given.

  11. High-throughput analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine with online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Wood, Michelle; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; De Boeck, Gert

    2009-01-01

    An automated online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleodur Sphinx RP column with an LC gradient (a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile), ensuring the elution of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, PMA, and ephedrine within 11 min. The method was fully validated, according to international guidelines, using only 100 and 50 microL of blood and urine, respectively. The method showed an excellent intra- and interassay precision (relative standard deviation < 11.2% and bias < 13%) for two external quality control samples (QC) for both matrices and three and two 'in house' QCs for blood and urine, respectively. Responses were linear over the investigated range (r(2) > 0.99, 2.5-400 microg/L for blood and 25-1000 microg/L for urine). Limits of quantification were determined to be 2.5 and 25 microg/L for blood and urine, respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 microg/L for blood and 0.25 to 2.5 microg/L for urine, depending on the compound. Furthermore, the analytes and the processed samples were demonstrated to be stable (in the autosampler for at least 72 h and after three freeze/thaw cycles), and no disturbing matrix effects were observed for all compounds. Moreover, no carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentration samples (15,000 microg/L). The method was subsequently applied to authentic blood and urine samples obtained from forensic cases, which covered a broad range of concentrations. The validation results and actual sample analyses demonstrated that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well-suited for routine analysis as more than 72 samples are analyzed non-stop in 24 h with minimum sample handling. The combination of the high-throughput online SPE and the well-known sensitivity and selectivity

  12. Degradation and elimination of succinylcholine and succinylmonocholine and definition of their respective detection windows in blood and urine for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Uta; Herbstreit, Frank; Peters, Jürgen; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The muscle relaxant succinylcholine (SUX) evokes respiratory paralysis, and numerous cases of fatal SUX intoxication have been reported. Detection of SUX and its metabolite succinylmonocholine (SMC) is difficult, both due to their (bis-) quaternary structure and the extreme hydrolytic susceptibility of SUX, and data on degradation kinetics of SUX and SMC is scarce. The present study investigates the in vivo and in vitro degradation as well as elimination of both target analytes using authentic blood and urine samples from anesthetized patients. With a special focus on the urinary data and stabilization issues, this work intends to considerably enhance the forensic knowledge concerning SUX intoxications and to present the reader with practical analytical strategies to cope with such difficult cases. Eighteen subjects undergoing surgery and requiring arterial as well as bladder catheters were included in this study. Muscle relaxation was initialized with a bolus injection of 80-100 mg SUX. Blood and urine samples were either collected using paraoxonized (n = 15) or non-modified (n = 3) tubes. Sampling was performed within 6 h after SUX application following a pre-assigned schedule. Samples were processed according to a validated isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS method using ion-pair solid-phase extraction. In blood, SUX was usually detectable for up to 10 min post-injection, while detection of SMC was possible over the whole observation period of 6 h. Effectiveness of organophosphate stabilization was proven for both analytes and is therefore recommended. In freshly secreted urine, detection windows of a minimum of 2 h as opposed to 6 h have been determined for SUX versus SMC, respectively. Considering SMC plasma kinetics, detection of the metabolite in blood and freshly secreted urine appears to be possible over a period of at least 8-24 h. Paraoxon did not enhance the stability of either target substance in urine, stabilization of urine samples is nonetheless

  13. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  14. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05).

  15. Development of a method for the determination of total bisphenol a at trace levels in human blood and urine and elucidation of factors influencing method accuracy and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Markham, Dan; Waechter, John; Budinsky, Robert; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Snyder, Stephanie; Dimond, Stephen; Rajesh, V N; Rao, Narayana; Connolly, Paul; Neeley, Mark; Hentges, Steven

    2014-05-01

    This publication describes a method for the determination of total bisphenol A (BPA and conjugated BPA) following enzyme hydrolysis and is intended as a companion to our previously developed analytical method for the determination of free BPA (the aglycone) in human blood and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( 1). That free BPA method provided a means to account for and/or eliminate background contamination and demonstrated accuracy and reproducibility in both matrices fortified with BPA or a surrogate analyte ((13)C BPA) at a low method quantitation limit (MQL) of 0.1-0.2 ng/mL. In contrast to the free BPA method results and based on stringent accuracy, precision and confirmation criteria set for the MQLs of the method developed for total BPA, the MQL achieved in blood was 1.020-2.550 and 0.510-1.020 ng/mL in urine. These data showed higher MQLs than the desired MQLs of 0.5 ng/mL (blood) and 0.2 ng/mL (urine) with increased variability between analyses which demonstrates the importance of generating method validation data with each analysis. In contrast, the MQL achieved for (13)C BPA-G (monoglucuronide as a surrogate analyte in blood was 0.2-0.5 and 0.2 ng/mL in urine illustrating that the method is capable of meeting lower MQL requirements if the contribution from exogenous BPA can be well controlled. This method for the determination total BPA in human blood and urine is intended to be used in conjunction with the free BPA method ( 1) to obtain accurate and complete BPA biomonitoring data to support human exposure assessments.

  16. Science behind human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side effects on the oral cavity including the loss of salivary gland function and a persistent complaint of a dry mouth (xerostomia). Thus, saliva has a myriad of beneficial functions that are essential to our well-being. Although saliva has been extensively investigated as a medium, few laboratories have studied saliva in the context of its role in maintaining oral and general health. PMID:22470235

  17. Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings.

    PubMed

    Björkman, L; Sandborgh-Englund, G; Ekstrand, J

    1997-05-01

    The toxicological consequences of exposure to mercury (Hg) from dental amalgam fillings is a matter of debate in several countries. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on Hg concentrations in saliva and feces before and after removal of dental amalgam fillings. In addition Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and plasma were determined. Ten subjects had all amalgam fillings removed at one dental session. Before removal, the median Hg concentration in feces was more than 10 times higher than in samples from an amalgam free reference group consisting of 10 individuals (2.7 vs 0.23 mumol Hg/kg dry weight, p < 0.001). A considerable increase of the Hg concentration in feces 2 days after amalgam removal (median 280 mumol Hg/kg dry weight) was followed by a significant decrease. Sixty days after removal the median Hg concentration was still slightly higher than in samples from the reference group. In plasma, the median Hg concentration was 4 nmol/liter at baseline. Two days after removal the median Hg concentration in plasma was increased to 5 nmol/liter and declined subsequently to 1.3 nmol/liter by Day 60. In saliva, there was an exponential decline in the Hg concentration during the first 2 weeks after amalgam removal (t 1/2 = 1.8 days). It was concluded that amalgam fillings are a significant source of Hg in saliva and feces. Hg levels in all media decrease considerably after amalgam removal. The uptake of amalgam mercury in the GI tract in conjunction with removal of amalgam fillings seems to be low.

  18. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. You may have problems with urination if you have Kidney failure Urinary tract infections An enlarged prostate Bladder control problems like ...

  19. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    PubMed

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined.

  20. Iridium as permanent modifier in the determination of lead in whole blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto

    2001-10-01

    The behavior of Iridium as a thermally deposited permanent modifier for the determination of lead by GFAAS was studied. The iridium coating procedure was optimized using a two-level factorial design. Using the optimized coating procedure, up to 1100 firings were possible with the same coating without sensitivity losses. The system was used in the determination of lead in whole blood and urine. A mixture of 0.1% Triton X-100 and 0.2% nitric acid was used as diluent. Pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for both matrices. Spiked, low-level samples were used for calibration. Under these conditions, no significant difference was found in comparison to the results obtained using a validated conventional modification procedure employing phosphate as modifier. Also, good agreement between found and certified/reference values were observed in the analysis of certified and commercial quality control materials, respectively. Such agreement was observed even using a 1100 times fired Ir coated platform-graphite tube assembly.

  1. DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio; Ruvalcaba-Aranda, Selene; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico. The study communities were Lacanja and Victoria in Chiapas state and Ventanilla in Oaxaca state. Children living in Lacanja had total blood DDT levels (mean ± SD, 29,039.6 ± 11,261.4 ng/g lipid) that were significantly higher than those of children in Victoria (10,220.5 ± 7,893.1 ng/g lipid) and Ventanilla (11,659.7 ± 6,683.7 ng/g lipid). With respect to the 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine samples, the levels in Lacanja (4.8 ± 4.1 μg/L or 4.5 ± 3.9 μmol/mol creatinine) and Victoria (4.6 ± 3.8 μg/L or 3.9 ± 3.0 μmol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than levels found in Ventanilla (3.6 ± 1.4 μg/L or 2.5 ± 0.5 μmol/mol Cr). In conclusion, our data indicate high levels of exposure in children living in the communities studied in this work. The evidence found in this study could be further used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures.

  2. Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

  3. Differential distribution of cobalt, chromium, and nickel between whole blood, plasma and urine in patients after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ashley W; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; Armstrong, Catherine; Peter, Viju; Roberts, Norman B

    2012-10-01

    Evidence shows that raised cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) whole blood concentrations correlate with poor device outcome in patients following metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. To understand the local and systemic pathological effects of these raised metal concentrations it is important to define their distribution between whole blood, plasma, and urine. The metals were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). Two hundred and five plasma, 199 whole blood, and 24 sets of urine samples were analyzed from 202 patients with Co-Cr alloy MoM hip prostheses implanted between 8 months to 12 years (mean 6.0 years) prior to analysis. Plasma Co (median 39.1 nmol/L) showed significantly positive 1:1 correlation with whole blood Co (median 45.9 nmol/L; R(2)  = 0.98, p < 0.001, slope = 1.0). Plasma Cr (median 53.8 nmol/L) and whole blood Cr (median 40.3 nmol/L) were also correlated; however, concentrations were significantly higher in plasma indicating relatively little blood cell uptake (R(2)  = 0.96, p < 0.001, slope = 1.6). Urinary Co was up to threefold higher than Cr (median 334.0 vs. 97.3 nmol/L respectively). Nickel concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were low relative to Co and Cr. The analysis shows fundamental differences in the physiological handling of these metals: Co is distributed approximately equally between blood cells and plasma, whereas Cr is mainly in plasma, despite which, Cr had far less renal excretion than Co.

  4. Predictors, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, of all-cause mortality among institutionalized individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were examined among institutionalized people with ID. This retrospective cohort study involved 316 participants (191 males, 125 females; mean age, 36.5 ± 10.5 years) at a public facility for people with ID in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. During the follow-up from the examination day in 1984-1992 through December 31, 2007 (mean follow-up, 18.6 years), 44 deaths occurred. Mean age at death was 47.1 ± 10.0 years (range, 22.3-65.3 years). Early deaths within three years (n = 4) were treated as censored cases. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Sex- and age-adjusted analysis (p<0.15) revealed positive associations with mortality for high serum cholesterol, high thymol turbidity test (TTT), and glucosuria and negative associations with mortality for high serum albumin, high uric acid, high potassium, high calcium, and high systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (HR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.59-10.59), high serum cholesterol (1.01; 1.00-1.02), high serum TTT (1.21; 1.03-1.41), and epilepsy significantly increased the mortality risk. The results indicate that the predictors of life expectancy for people with ID included both factors that are shared with healthy people (male sex, high serum cholesterol) and factors specific to people with disabilities (high serum TTT and epilepsy).

  5. Quantification of trace elements by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocca, B.; Alimonti, A.; Petrucci, F.; Violante, N.; Sancesario, G.; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.

    2004-04-01

    To assess whether levels of trace metals and oxidative species are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and V were measured in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum peroxides and antioxidant capacity were determined in 26 patients with PD and 13 control subjects. The quantification of metals was based on the 1+4 water dilution of CSF, serum and urine, the acid-assisted microwave digestion under atmospheric pressure of blood and final determination by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results indicated a significant increase of Pb and V concentrations in blood and urine ( P≤0.03, in both cases) related to the disease. Parkinson disease also seemed to be closely associated ( P≤0.003) with a reduction in levels of Al, Cd, Hg and Pb in serum and of Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb in CSF. As regards Mn, a lower mean concentration was found in the CSF and whole blood of PD patients than in control group, although this trend was not statistically significant. Levels of peroxides were also increased ( P≤0.001), while antioxidant capacity was lower ( P≤0.002) in PD patients than in controls.

  6. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  7. Relationship between 24-h urine sodium/potassium ratio and central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Byong-Kyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-11-24

    Studies evaluating the relationship between measured 24-h urine sodium (24HUNa), potassium (24HUK) and aortic blood pressure (BP) are rare, and no such study has been performed with an Asian population. We evaluated the relationship between 24HUNa, 24HUK, casual BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic BP by analyzing data from 524 participants with valid 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory BP and central BP measurements (mean age 48.1±9.8 years, 193 men). Hypertension was defined as a 24-h ambulatory BP ⩾130/80 mm Hg or current treatment for hypertension (n=219). The participants with hypertension and high 24HUNa (mean 210.5±52.0 mmol  per day, range 151.0-432.0) showed higher 24-h systolic (P=0.037) and diastolic BP (P=0.037) and aortic systolic BP (AoSBP, P=0.038) than the participants with hypertension and low 24HUNa (mean 115.7±25.0 mmol per day, range 45.6-150.0), adjusted for confounders. The participants with hypertension and a high ratio of 24HUNa and 24HUK (24HUNa/24HUK, mean 4.03±1.00, range 2.93-7.96) had higher AoSBP than the participants with hypertension and a low 24HUNa/24HUK ratio (mean 2.13±0.54, range 0.53-2.91), adjusted for confounders (P=0.026). The participants with hypertension demonstrated a significant linear relationship between AoSBP and 24HUNa/24HUK ratio that was independent of 24HUNa, according to the multiple regression analysis (P=0.047). In hypertensive patients, 24HUNa/24HUK was positively and more strongly related to AoSBP compared with 24HUNa alone. The result indicates that high sodium and low potassium intake may increase the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease by elevating AoSBP.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.161.

  8. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  9. Detection of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in the blood, urine and hair samples of the victim of a drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-01-01

    A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she was asleep, the others left her at the house alone and returned to the bar. Later, the girl woke up to witness the adult male having intercourse with her, but she was not able to resist the attack. She fell asleep again and slept through the next day and a half, after which she left the house. Forty-three hours after the suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), blood and urine samples were collected and the initial toxicological screening detected quetiapine. Confirmation and quantification by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) revealed a concentration of 0.007mg/kg quetiapine in blood and 0.19mg/l in urine. Six months after the DFSA, a hair sample was collected and segmental hair analysis was performed on four washed segments (0-3cm, 3-5cm, 5-7cm, and 7-9cm). The last segment contained 0.011ng/mg of quetiapine, whereas the other segments were negative. The low level of quetiapine in the hair segment and its absence in the other segments indicate that the victim had only consumed one or a few doses of quetiapine within that period and was not a regular user. This study describes the first drug-facilitated assault involving a single dose of quetiapine that was detected by hair, blood and urine analysis. This case illustrates the importance of having very sensitive analytical methods for measurement of a single dose in blood and urine and how the extended detection window for hair analysis can reveal more information in such cases.

  10. Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhagavan, S V B K; Raghu, V

    2005-02-01

    High levels of fluoride (beyond 1.5 ppm) in ground water as source of drinking water are common in many parts of Andhra Pradesh, India, causing fluorosis. The study carried out in endemic Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, has indicated that the fluoride-rich ground water present in the wells located down stream and close to the surface water bodies is getting diluted by the low-fluoride surface water. Encouraged by this result, check dams were constructed upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride bearing ground water zones in Anantapur District to reduce fluoride levels as an alternate solution for safe drinking water. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the utility and effect of these check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in drinking water and its resultant impact on the health aspects of certain villagers of Anantapur District through the analysis of their blood serum and urine. Ground water samples from three fluoride-affected villages, blood and urine of males and females from the same villages were collected and analyzed for fluoride using ion selective electrode method. The results indicated that the fluoride levels in blood serum and urine of males in the age group of 5-11 years are found to be the highest. The concentration of fluoride in ground water is directly proportional to the concentration of fluoride in blood serum and urine. The concentration of fluoride in ground water with depth of the aquifer is a function of lithology, amount and duration of rainfall, rate of infiltration, level of ground water exploitation in the area etc. The construction of check dams upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride waters will not only cause additional recharge of ground water but also reduces the fluoride concentration eventually improving the health of the villagers.

  11. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  12. Urine Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Urine Culture and Sensitivity; Urine C and S Formal name: Culture, ...

  13. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... rare disease of metabolism. Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine. Some conditions that ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Metabolic Disorders Urinalysis Urinary Tract Infections Urine and Urination Browse ...

  14. Analysis of blood and urine samples for hydroxychloroquine and three major metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Patchen, L C; Churchill, F C

    1988-12-09

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using fluorescence detection is described for the quantification of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and three of its metabolites in blood and urine samples. The method is selective, permitting quantification of analytes without interferences from chloroquine or quinine in the sample. Detection limits for HCQ, desethylhydroxychloroquine, desethylchloroquine, and bisdesethylchloroquine are 10, 30, 5, and 5 ppb, respectively, for a 100-microliters blood or urine sample. The internally standardized method requires only one extraction step and utilizes normal-phase HPLC conditions including an amine modifier in the mobile phase. These conditions facilitate fluorescence detection, selective separation, and acceptable peak shapes. A mobile phase of 0.5% n-butylamine in methanol-hexane-methyl tert. butyl ether (1:1:1) is used in the analysis. Analysis of blood and urine samples from two healthy volunteers given 400 mg of Plaquenil (310 mg of HCQ base) weekly for four weeks provided data on HCQ metabolism for the two persons during the recommended chemoprophylactic regimen for malaria.

  15. Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.

    PubMed

    Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H

    1995-01-21

    The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen.

  16. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity.

  17. Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

    2015-02-05

    A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL(-1) of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL(-1) of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%.

  18. Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

    2015-02-01

    A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL-1 of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL-1 of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%.

  19. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  20. Copper, zinc, and selenium in human blood and urine after injection of sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate: a study on subjects with dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Høl, Paul Johan; Vamnes, Jan Sverre; Gjerdet, Nils Roar; Eide, Rune; Isrenn, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single dose of intravenously administered sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) on the essential elements copper, zinc, and selenium in human blood and urine. The possible role of dental amalgam was also addressed. Eighty individuals, divided in four groups according to the presence or absence of dental amalgam fillings and symptoms self-related to such fillings, were given DMPS (2 mg/kg body wt) and 500 mL Ringer's acetate intravenously. Urine and blood were collected prior to the injection, and thereafter at intervals over a 24-h period. Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry methods. A statistically significant increase in the concentrations of Cu and Zn in urine was observed 30 and 120 min after the DMPS injection compared to the preinjection concentrations. The concentrations of Se were not affected. The cumulated excretion over 24 h after DMPS injection constitutes only from 0.1% to 0.7% of the body content of these elements. There was no effect of different amalgam statuses on Cu and Zn excretion. We found a temporary decrease (4-7%) in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Se in blood 15 and 30 min after DMPS, but this seems to be the result of dilution factors. Administration of a single dose of DMPS does not affect the body stores of the essential elements Cu, Zn, and Se.

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate in Human Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti*, Markku; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari

    1999-09-01

    The equilibrium constant between iron(III) ion and thiocyanate ion to form a thiocyanatoiron(III) ion can be conveniently measured with visible spectrophotometry because the FeSCN+2 solutions are deep blood-red. Hence this reaction is often used when teaching chemical equilibrium to students of general chemistry. The same reaction can be exploited in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCN- ions in solution. The experiment can be easily made more attractive to students when the thiocyanate ion concentration measured is from human saliva. Here is described how qualitative and quantitative analysis of human saliva thiocyanate ion can be performed as a part of the laboratory exercise for the determination of chemical equilibrium between Fe+3 and SCN- ions. For qualitative analysis a few drops of saliva (each student is using his or her own saliva) is treated with a drop of acidic Fe(NO3)3 solution. The deep blood-red color of FeSCN+2 complex is clearly demonstrated. Then each student measures his or her saliva thiocyanate ion concentration with visible spectrophotometry.

  2. Urine Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine odor. Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. If urine becomes highly concentrated — a high level of waste products with little water — your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. ...

  3. Nonenzymatic antioxidants in saliva of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Moori, M; Ghafoori, H; Sariri, R

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-directed self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulation, resulting in damage to essentially all the organs. SLE is associated with the increased production of free radicals. Increase in free radicals or impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Considering that saliva could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was to evaluate some antioxidants in the saliva and serum of patients with SLE and compare these with healthy individuals. This could help us in obtaining a possible marker in saliva in the future. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were investigated. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva and blood samples, they were examined using spectrophotometric methods and the results were analyzed by statistical software. According to the results, concentrations of malondialdehyde, uric acid and total antioxidants were significantly increased but the level of reduced glutathion was reduced significantly in the saliva and serum of SLE patients as compared to controls. It is therefore suggested that antioxidant power is impaired in saliva and serum of SLE patients. As there was a positive correlation between the antioxidant level of saliva and blood serum, the antioxidant status of saliva could be an indicator of serum antioxidants.

  4. Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction.

  5. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows.

  6. The role of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to test blood and urine samples for the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated crimes.

    PubMed

    Deveaux, Marc; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert

    2008-04-01

    The authors present an overview of the drug-facilitated crime (DFC) phenomenon, especially in France. Recently, there has been an increase in reports of incidents (mainly sexual assaults and robbery) as well as in scientific publications and congress presentations on the topic. From enquiries conducted nationally, a list of drugs reportedly associated with DFC was established and includes benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like drugs (zolpidem, zopiclone), minor tranquilizers and neuroleptics, barbiturates, narcotics, hallucinogens, and anaesthetics. Some of these molecules are specific to France in DFC cases. A study using healthy volunteers who had taken benzodiazepines (lorazepam, bromazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam), zolpidem and zopiclone, showed that the only way to increase the duration of detection of these drugs is to use liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to test blood and urine samples. The very high sensitivity of this method appears to be an essential condition to document the cases, because the drugs tested were still detectable in urine at least 6 days after the ingestion of one therapeutic dose. Limits of detection were always lower than 0.5 ng/mL in urine. The actual list of molecules and metabolites the authors screened for in urine and blood by LC-MS/MS, in every DFC, is given in detail: 25 benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like drugs, 11 minor tranquilizers and neuroleptics, 2 barbiturates, 12 narcotics, 4 hallucinogens, and 1 anaesthetic. However, the distinction between continual therapeutic use of a psychotropic drug or illegal narcotic and a single ingestion has to be documented by sequential analysis of hair, again with LC-MS/MS.

  7. Bisphenol A, Bisphenol S, and 4-Hydro​xyphenyl 4-Isopro​oxyphenyl​sulfone (BPSIP) in Urine and Blood of Cashiers

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Kristina A.; Taylor, Kyla W.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Schurman, Shepherd H.; Kissling, Grace E.; Hunt, Dawn; Herbert, Brenda; Church, Rebecca; Jankowich, Rachael; Churchwell, Mona I.; Scheri, Richard C.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.

    2015-01-01

    , Churchwell MI, Scheri RC, Birnbaum LS, Bucher JR. 2016. Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and 4-hydro​xyphenyl 4-isopro​oxyphenyl​sulfone (BPSIP) in urine and blood of cashiers. Environ Health Perspect 124:437–444; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409427 PMID:26309242

  8. Biomonitoring of 20 trace elements in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solovyev, N D; Zeimal', A E; Navolotskii, D V; Drobyshev, E J

    2013-11-15

    A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 μg/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 μg/L. Method detection limits (3σ): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation.

  9. Human saliva proteome and transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Li, Y; Wang, J; Xie, Y; Tjon, K; Wolinsky, L; Loo, R R O; Loo, J A; Wong, D T

    2006-12-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that salivary proteins and their counterpart mRNAs co-exist in human whole saliva. Global profiling of human saliva proteomes and transcriptomes by mass spectrometry (MS) and expression microarray technologies, respectively, revealed many similarities between saliva proteins and mRNAs. Of the function-known proteins identified in saliva, from 61 to 70% were also found present as mRNA transcripts. For genes not detected at both protein and mRNA levels, we made further efforts to determine if the counterpart is present. Of 19 selected genes detected only at the protein level, the mRNAs of 13 (68%) genes were found in saliva by RT-PCR. In contrast, of many mRNAs detected only by microarrays, their protein products were found in saliva, as reported previously by other investigators. The saliva transcriptome may provide preliminary insights into the boundary of the saliva proteome.

  10. HCG in urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine α1 -Microglobulin as a Marker of Hypertension-Induced Renal Impairment and Its Response on Different Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Markou, Maria I; Kafkas, Nikolaos V; Toutouzas, Konstantinos P; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of urine α1 -microglobulin as a marker of hypertension-induced renal damage compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate, (eGFR), urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Its response on different blood pressure (BP)-lowering drugs was also studied. Sixty never-treated hypertensive patients (65.0% men, 46.9 years, BP 141.4/94.0 mm Hg) were randomized to an irbesartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) or a diltiazem (a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker [CCB])-based regimen. Patients with diabetes or established cardiovascular, renal, or liver disease were excluded. Blood samples and 24-hour urine were analyzed at baseline and 6 months after pharmaceutical BP normalization. Serum creatinine was measured and eGFR was calculated. Urine albumin, creatinine, and α1 -microglobulin were measured and ACR was calculated. Minor changes (P=not significant [NS]) in eGFR were noted during follow-up in both groups (from 111.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 108.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the ARB group and from 111.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 114.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the CCB group). Twenty-four-hour urine indices were all significantly improved (P<.01) in the ARB group (albumin from 19.4 mg/L to 8.2 mg/L, ACR from 21.5 mg/g to 10.0 mg/g, α1 -microglobulin from 5.06 mg/L to 3.64 mg/L) but not (P=NS) in the CCB group (albumin from 15.6 mg/L to 13.9 mg/L, ACR from 17.6 mg/g to 17.1 mg/g, α1 -microglobulin from 4.94 mg/L to 4.79 mg/L). These differences between groups remained significant (P<.05) after adjusting for office heart rate and BP. α1 -Microglobulin was significantly correlated (P<.05) with albumin and ACR both at baseline (r=0.283 and 0.299, respectively) and at the end of follow-up (r=0.432 and 0.465, respectively) but not (P=NS) with eGFR. It was also significantly related (P<.05) to cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and HeartScore) both at baseline (r=0.264 and 0.436, respectively) and at the

  12. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Conditions Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine Tests Bedwetting Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine ...

  13. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003607.htm Amylase - urine To use the sharing features on this ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps ...

  14. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores.

  15. Saliva and dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D

    2000-12-01

    Dental plaque is being redefined as oral biofilm. Diverse overlapping microbial consortia are present on all oral tissues. Biofilms are structured, displaying features like channels and projections. Constituent species switch back and forth between sessile and planktonic phases. Saliva is the medium for planktonic suspension. Several major functions can be defined for saliva in relation to oral biofilm. It serves as a medium for transporting planktonic bacteria within and between mouths. Bacteria in transit may be vulnerable to negative selection. Salivary agglutinins may prevent reattachment to surfaces. Killing by antimicrobial proteins may lead to attachment of dead cells. Salivary proteins form conditioning films on all oral surfaces. This contributes to positive selection for microbial adherence. Saliva carries chemical messengers which allow live adherent cells to sense a critical density of conspecifics. Growth begins, and thick biofilms may become resistant to antimicrobial substances. Salivary macromolecules may be catabolized, but salivary flow also may clear dietary substrates. Salivary proteins act in ways that benefit both host and microbe. All have multiple functions, and many do the same job. They form heterotypic complexes, which may exist in large micelle-like structures. These issues make it useful to compare subjects whose saliva functions differently. We have developed a simultaneous assay for aggregation, killing, live adherence, and dead adherence of oral species. Screening of 149 subjects has defined high killing/low adherence, low killing/high adherence, high killing/high adherence, and low killing/low adherence groups. These will be evaluated for differences in their flora.

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized.

  17. The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.

    1991-12-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

  18. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10 years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study.

  19. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of narcotic analgesics in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-02-10

    Narcotic analgesics are widely (ab) used and sometimes only occur in low concentrations in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of 9 narcotic analgesics and metabolites (buprenorphine, O-desmethyltramadol, fentanyl, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, pethidine, piritramide, tilidine and tramadol) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization with electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). Selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability were validated in urine and whole blood. All parameters were successfully evaluated and the method showed very high sensitivity, which was the major aim of this study. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of several forensic cases involving narcotic analgesics.

  20. Preparation of selective and sensitive electrochemically treated pencil graphite electrodes for the determination of uric acid in urine and blood serum.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ali; Sahin, Yücel

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the preparation of electrochemically treated pencil graphite (ETPG) electrodes in the mixture of lithium perchlorate and sodium carbonate solutions was investigated for the first time in the literature. The prepared ETPG electrodes showed high selectivity and sensitivity for uric acid (UA) oxidation over ascorbic acid and dopamine. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used as electrochemical method. The parameters affecting the UA oxidation were investigated. The optimal pH for UA oxidation was determined as 2. The adsorption of UA on ETPG surface reached saturation in 180s. The oxidation peak current values versus UA concentration at the ETPG electrode showed linearity in the range from 0.05 microM to 10.0 microM (R(2)=0.9962) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM (S/N=3). The oxidation peak of UA on the ETPG electrode did not show any significant change in the presence of certain interferents except bovine serum albumin. The prepared electrodes showed good fabrication reproducibility. The analytical applications of the prepared electrodes were tested by using human urine and blood serum samples. The recovery results of different amounts of UA in urine were varied between 98.6% and 106.4% implying no matrix effect. It was observed that the standard addition method was more satisfactory in the case of blood serum samples.

  1. The Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Urine and Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Cloud-Point Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling; Lu, Yunhui

    2015-08-01

    A simple efficient and practical separation/preconcentration coupled with HPLC method for the determination nitrate and low concentrations of nitrite in human urine and blood was investigated. The method is based on precolumn derivatization using the Griess reaction and cloud-point extraction (CPE) of nitrite anion and direct determination of nitrate using its UV absorbance by ion-pair HPLC. The chromatographic process with detection at two wavelengths (510 and 220 nm) allows the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Decolorization and protein precipitation of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of nitrite from 10 to 1,000 ng/mL and nitrate from 0.1 to 10 µg/mL. Product recoveries ranged from 92.4 to 99.9%. The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL and 0.1 µg/mL for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Therefore, the technique was simple and reliable, with potential application in biological sample analysis of nitrate and nitrite.

  2. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis – much the same as blood analysis – aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren’s syndrome and cɶliac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing’s syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis. PMID:24558562

  3. The analysis of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolite in whole blood and 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine using disposable pipette extraction with confirmation and quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jennifer L; Marinetti, Laureen J; Smith, Roy K; Brewer, William E; Clelland, Brandi L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2008-10-01

    Essential to forensic laboratories is the desire to find a more sensitive, rapid method of analyzing Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and metabolite in biological specimens. Disposable pipette extraction (DPX) is a valuable method in extracting THC and 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCc) in blood and THCc in urine. Less waste and solvent usage; smaller specimen volume; clean chromatograms; and utilization of lowcost equipment and consumables were achieved using this method. Differing from traditional solid-phase extraction devices, DPX uses loosely packed sorbent allowing thorough mixing with the specimen without requiring vacuum for elution. Prior to extraction, urine specimens were hydrolyzed and proteins precipitated from blood. Specimen volume requirements were 1 mL of blood and 0.2 mL of urine. The limits of quantitation for THC and THCc in blood were 1 and 2 ng/mL, respectively, and 3 ng/mL for THCc in urine. With R2 values > or = 0.99, blood calibration curves were linear from 1 to 200 ng/mL and 2 to 500 ng/mL for THC and THCc, respectively, with urine THCc linear from 3 to 2000 ng/mL.

  4. Use of Saliva for Early Dengue Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Background The necessity of a venous blood collection in all dengue diagnostic assays and the high cost of tests that are available for testing during the viraemic period hinder early detection of dengue cases and thus could delay cluster management. This study reports the utility of saliva in an assay that detects dengue virus (DENV)–specific immunoglobulin A (Ig A) early in the phase of a dengue infection. Methods and Findings Using an antigen capture anti-DENV IgA (ACA) ELISA technique, we tested saliva samples collected from dengue-confirmed patients. The sensitivity within 3 days from fever onset was over 36% in primary dengue infections. The performance is markedly better in secondary infections, with 100% sensitivity reported in saliva samples from day 1 after fever onset. Serum and salivary IgA levels showed good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.69, p<0.001). Specificity was found to be 97%. Conclusion Our findings suggest that this technique would be very useful in dengue endemic regions, where the majority of dengue cases are secondary. The ACA-ELISA is easy to perform, cost effective, and especially useful in laboratories without sophisticated equipment. Our findings established the usefulness and reliability of saliva for early dengue diagnosis. PMID:21572982

  5. Comparison of tunable bandpass reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with conventional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of heavy metals in whole blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Neubauer, Kenneth R.; Eckdahl, Steven J.; Butz, John A.; Burritt, Mary F.

    2004-09-01

    A Dynamic Reaction Cell™ inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (DRC-ICP-MS) was evaluated for the determination of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and thallium in urine and whole blood. Reaction cell conditions were evaluated for suppression of ArCl + and CaCl + polyatomic interferences. The reaction gas was 5% hydrogen in argon. Lead, cadmium, mercury, and thallium were determined with the reaction cell vented. Mixture of 2.5% t-butanol, 0.5% HCl, and 2 mg Au/l plus Ga, Rh, and Bi internal standards was used to dilute whole blood and urine. Calibration was achieved using aqueous acidic standards spiked into urine matrix. Urine and whole blood addition calibration curves were nearly identical for all five elements. DRC-ICP-MS detection limits were equivalent or better than conventional ICP-MS. Within run coefficients of variation (CV's) were nearly the same for DRC-ICP-MS and conventional ICP-MS for National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SRM 2670 and BioRad Lyphochek Urine Metals Control. DRC-ICP-MS within run CV's for As, Pb, Cd, and Hg were 1.9%, 4%, 1.7%, and 1.7%, respectively, for NIST 2670 and 2.9%, 1.8%, 3.4%, 1.7%, and 1.0% for BioRad urine. BioRad Lyphochek Whole Blood control concentrations and CV's were: 78 μg/l (3.8%), 284 μg/l (0.52%), and 544 μg/l (0.9%). With the exception of mercury day-to-day CV's for certified whole blood and urine controls were less than 4% on both the DRC-ICP-MS and conventional ICP-MS.

  6. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Baumann, T; Kozik, J; Lussi, A; Carvalho, T S

    2016-10-05

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle.

  7. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, T.; Kozik, J.; Lussi, A.; Carvalho, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle. PMID:27703230

  8. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.; Kozik, J.; Lussi, A.; Carvalho, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle.

  9. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Slowey, Paul D.; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics. PMID:27275816

  10. Dried saliva spot as a sampling technique for saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, dried saliva spot (DSS) was used as a sampling technique for saliva samples. In the DSS technique 50 μL of saliva was collected on filter paper and the saliva was then extracted with an organic solvent. The local anesthetic lidocaine was used as a model compound, which was determined in the DSS using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained for the determination of lidocaine in saliva using DSS were compared with those from a previous study using a microextraction by packed sorbent syringe as the sampling method for saliva. This study shows that DSS can be used for the analysis of saliva samples. The method is promising and very easy in terms of sampling and extraction procedures. The results from this study are in good agreement with those from our previous work on the determination of lidocaine in saliva. DSS can open a new dimension in the saliva handling process in terms of sampling, storing and transport.

  11. Quantitation of total 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Frazee, C Clinton; Kiscoan, Michael; Garg, Uttam

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana, which is made from crushing the leaves, flowers, and sometimes the stems of the plant Cannabis sativa, contains more than 30 cannabinoids. The major psychoactive cannabinoid is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The major metabolite of THC, 11-nor-delta 9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabionol (THC-COOH), is excreted in the urine primarily as a glucuronide conjugate and is commonly analyzed in biological specimens for detecting marijuana usage. The procedure described here involves the addition of deuterated internal standard THC-COOH-d9 into the sample followed by hydrolysis of conjugated THC-COOH by alkali. THC-COOH is extracted from urine or blood using liquid-liquid extraction followed by preparation of its trimethylsilyl derivatives. The analysis of derivatized THC-COOH is performed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Quantification of the drug in a sample is achieved by comparing the responses of the unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring.

  12. Application of fast atom bombardment with tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to the analysis of acylcarnitines in human urine, blood, and tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Millington, D.S.; Norwood, D.L.; Kodo, N.; Roe, C.R.; Inoue, F. )

    1989-08-01

    Using a precursor-ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, acylcarnitines were detected in the target matrices at or below concentrations of 1 nmol per gram by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Acylcarnitine profiles from patients with known metabolic disorders were consistent with previously acquired data. Putative acylcarnitine signals were confirmed in one case by administration of stable isotope-labeled carnitine, which equilibrated rapidly with the endogenous pool. The addition of a continuous flow system enabled rapid sequential analysis without operator intervention, indicating the potential for automation of the analytical procedure. Incorporation of a micro-LC column enabled on-line liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of selected patient samples. Large-scale screening and quantitative analysis of urine or blood for diagnostic acylcarnitines are now practicable.

  13. Extraction and analysis of flunitrazepam/7-aminoflunitrazepam in blood and urine by LC-PDA and GC-MS using butyl SPE columns.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jeffery; Elian, Albert A

    2006-03-10

    The forensic toxicology community has recognized flunitrazepam and its metabolite (7-aminoflunitrazepam) as compounds of concern for several years. In this procedure, the analytes were extracted from whole blood and urine onto single mode solid phase cartridges (butyl) using nitrazepam as an internal standard. The columns were washed with distilled water and hexane. All three compounds were eluted from the sorbent using an ethyl acetate-methanol solvent mixture. After collection and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was dissolved in A, 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid for HPLC-PDA analysis or B, ethyl acetate for derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) for analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring, SIM). A limit of quantitation for this method using HPLC-PDA was found to be 5 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) by SIM.

  14. Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. )

    1992-01-01

    The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

  15. Effects of angiotensin type 2 receptor overexpression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla on blood pressure and urine excretion in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lie; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Wei; Li, Hongwei; Sumners, Colin; Zucker, Irving H

    2008-02-01

    Central angiotensin II plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiovascular function and autonomic activity, in part, via angiotensin type 1 receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Increasing evidence indicates that angiotensin II can also act on angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT(2)Rs) to exert antagonistic effects. In the current study we determined the effects of overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM on sodium and water excretion and on blood pressure in conscious rats. The overexpression of AT(2)R was induced by bilateral microinjection of the AT(2)R adenovirus (Ad5-SYN-AT2R-IRES-EGFP, 2.5 x 10(6) infection units in 0.5 microL; Ad5-SYN-EGFP as the control, 2.5 x 10(6) infection units in 0.5 microL) into the RVLM of rats. Immunofluorescence staining showed that microinjection of AT(2)R adenovirus into the RVLM evoked local overexpression. Significant overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM began at 24 hours and was sustained up to 12 days after microinjection. Overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM significantly decreased the nocturnal arterial blood pressure and increased the 24-hour urine excretion at days 2, 3, and 4 after gene delivery compared with the control rats. These alterations were abolished by the microinfusion of captopril into the RVLM and were enhanced by angiotensin II infusion. Overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM also significantly decreased the urine concentration of noradrenaline and 24-hour noradrenaline excretion (1.1+/-0.5 microg in control rats and 2.4+/-0.5 microg in AT(2)R rats; P<0.05). These results suggest that overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM induced a diuresis that may be mediated, in part, by sympathoinhibition.

  16. A capillary gas chromatographic assay with nitrogen phosphorus detection for the quantification of topiramate in human plasma, urine and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Riffitts, J M; Gisclon, L G; Stubbs, R J; Palmer, M E

    1999-03-01

    An accurate and robust method involving liquid liquid extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) assay with nitrogen phosphorus detection (NPD) was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of topiramate [2,3:4,5-bis-O-(-1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate], Topamax, an anticonvulsant drug, in human plasma, urine, and whole blood. The galactopyranose analog of topiramate was used as the internal standard. A DB-5, fused silica capillary column (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA) was used, yielding typical retention times of 4.95 min for topiramate and 5.32 min for the internal standard in human plasma. The assay involved organic extraction with methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from base, a back extraction into acid and a second extraction in MTBE. The organic solvent was evaporated, and the residue was redissolved and injected for analysis. The standard curve was validated from 0.5 to 50 microg/ml(-1) for human plasma and whole blood, and from 1.0 to 50 microg/ml(-1) for urine. Peak area ratios of drug to internal standard were determined and used to construct a standard curve. The resulting chromatograms showed no endogenous interfering peaks with the respective blank human fluids. Chromatograms corresponding to topiramate and the internal standard produced sharp peaks that were well resolved. This assay showed precision and accuracy of < or = 5%. Two minor human metabolites of topiramate did not interfere with the assay. This assay was successfully applied to determine the pharmacokinetics of topiramate during the development of this drug.

  17. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bladder. Examining the urine sample in the laboratory Your urine sample is sent to a laboratory for testing by a doctor who specializes in ... can expect to wait for your results. Each laboratory has its own way of describing the results ...

  18. Biomarkers of oral exposure to 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in blood and urine of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Nathan; Brunell, Marla; Kroeck, Karl; Hable, Mike; Crouse, Lee; O'Neill, Art; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense is using the chemicals 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1, 2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in new munitions development. In a screen for biomarkers of exposure, these compounds were measured in urine and blood of male rhesus monkeys after oral doses. NTO peaked at 4 h, with urinary concentrations at least 100-fold higher than that of blood or serum while 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a metabolite of DNAN, appeared in blood at concentrations 10- to 20-fold higher than the parent compound. For human exposure monitoring, urine is optimal for NTO while the metabolite DNP in blood is best for DNAN.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of mitotane and its main metabolites in human blood and urine samples by SPE-HPLC technique.

    PubMed

    Mornar, Ana; Sertić, Miranda; Turk, Nikša; Nigović, Biljana; Koršić, Mirko

    2012-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with an incompletely understood pathogenesis and a poor prognosis. The adrenalytic activity of mitotane has made it the most important single drug in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism of mitotane action is still unknown. It is believed that mitotane belongs to the class of drugs that require metabolic transformation by cytochrome P450 for therapeutic action; therefore determination of plasma levels of not only mitotane but also its metabolites would help in carrying out the treatment. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an SPE-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of mitotane and its metabolites in different biological fluids. The sample preparation consisted of a solid-phase extraction on a Discovery DSC(18) cartridge, while analysis of extracts was performed on a Symmetry C(18) column. The usefulness of the proposed method was confirmed by analysis of plasma, red cell and urine samples from patient chronically treated with 1.5 g of mitotane. The patient involved in this study had a high plasma concentration of mitotane and none of the investigated metabolites were found. In order to investigate whether the polymorphism of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 enzymes could be related to the metabolism of mitotane, RT-PCR analysis was performed.

  20. Simultaneous determination of parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human urine, blood and breast milk by continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Rascón, Andrés J; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2016-02-05

    A highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human breast milk, blood and urine samples is proposed. Blood and milk require a pretreatment to remove proteins and other substances potentially interfering with the continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) system used; on the other hand, urine samples can be directly introduced into the system after filtering. Analytes are retained on a LiChrolut EN column and derivatized by silylation following elution with acetonitrile. The resulting trimethylsilyl derivatives are determined by GC-MS. The proposed method exhibited good linearity (r(2)>0.995) for all target EDCs over the concentration range 0.7-10,000ng/l in urine, and 3.3-50,000ng/l in blood and milk. Also, it provided low limits of detection (0.2-1.8ng/l in urine, and 1.0-9.0ng/l in blood and milk), good precision (relative standard deviations less than 7%) and recoveries from 86 to 104%. A total of 24 human fluid samples were analyzed and most found to contain some target EDC at concentrations from 0.10 to 14μg/l.

  1. Estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion is correlated with blood pressure in Korean population: 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jieun; Lee, Jeonghwan; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    No large-scale studies have investigated the association between salt intake and hypertension in Korean population. To investigate the relationship of blood pressure to salt consumption, we analyzed data from 19,476 participants in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES). Urinary sodium excretion over 24-hr (24HUNa) was estimated from spot urine tests using Tanaka's equation. The study subjects were stratified into hypertensive and normotensive groups. Hypertensive participants (n=6,552, 33.6%) had higher estimated 24HUNa, 150.4±38.8 mEq/day, than normotensive participants, 140.5±34.6 mEq/day (P<0.001). The association between 24HUNa and blood pressure outcomes was not affected by adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension (odds ratio 0.001; 95% confidence interval 0.001-0.003; P<0.001). Increases in 24HUNa of 100 mEq/day were associated with a 6.1±0.3/2.9±0.2 mmHg increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure in all participants. This effect was stronger in hypertensive participants (increase of 8.1±0.5/3.4±0.3 mmHg per 100 mEq/day) and smaller in normotensive participants (2.9±0.3/1.3±0.2 mmHg). These results support recommendations for low salt intake in Korean population to prevent and control adverse blood pressure levels.

  2. Headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of hydroxylic methyl-derivatized and volatile organic compounds in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Ilpo; Viinamäki, Jenni; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2010-04-01

    A novel headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ITEX-GC-MS) approach was developed for broad-scale analysis of low molecular weight organic compounds in blood and/or urine. One sample was analyzed following in-vial derivatization with dimethyl sulfate for ethylene glycol (EG), glycolic acid (GA), formic acid (FA), other hydroxylic compounds, and another sample for underivatized volatile organic compounds. Tenax adsorbent resin was used in the microtrap, and a porous layer, open tubular GC capillary column was used for separation. MS was operated in the full-scan mode, identification was based on the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System, and quantification was based on extracted ions. The limits of quantification for EG, GA, and FA in blood were 10, 50, and 30 mg/L, respectively, and the expanded uncertainties of measurement were 20%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The procedure allowed for the first time the inclusion of EG and GA as their methyl derivatives within a quantitative HS analysis. The ITEX method described here was more sensitive for analysis of volatile organic compounds than the corresponding static headspace analysis as demonstrated for 11 representative compounds.

  3. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Aliarabi, H; Tabatabaei, M M; Saki, A A; Valizadeh, R; Zamani, P

    2012-04-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing -100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed -100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.

  4. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing −100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed −100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

  5. Urination - painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: Interstitial cystitis Prostate infection ( prostatitis ) Radiation cystitis - damage to the ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bladder ... Cystitis Prostate Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Urinary Tract Infections ...

  6. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  7. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  8. Urine melanin

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  9. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of low levels of dichloroacetic acid and its metabolites in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, L; Moghaddam, A P; Taylor, A G; Sudberry, G L; Fisher, J W

    1999-06-11

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a contaminant found in treated drinking water due to chlorination. DCA has been shown to be a complete hepatocarcinogen in both mice and rats. In this study we developed a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to simultaneously detect DCA and its metabolites, oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid and glycolic acid in blood and urine samples of animals sub-chronically administered with DCA (2 g/l) in drinking water. Both urine and plasma samples were treated minimally before HPLC analysis. Separation and detection of DCA and its metabolites were achieved using an anion-exchange column and a conductivity detector. The mobile phase consisted of an initial concentration of 0.01 mM sodium hydroxide in 40% methanol followed by a linear gradient from 0.01 mM to 60 mM sodium hydroxide in 40% methanol for 30 min. The lower detection limit for DCA and each of its three major metabolites was 0.05 microg/ml. DCA and its metabolites gave a linear response range from 0.05 to 100 microg/ml. Plasma DCA was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and the results obtained correlated with those from the HPLC method (correlation coefficient=0.999). While available HPLC techniques offer sensitive procedures to detect either glycolic acid or oxalic acid, the described HPLC method has the unique advantage of determining simultaneously the parent compound (DCA) and its three major metabolites (oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid and glycolic acid) in biological samples, without complex sample preparation.

  10. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  11. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Enhanced by Vector Saliva through Immunosuppressant Mechanisms Mediated by Lysophosphatidylcholine▿

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Bafica, André; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Takiya, Christina M.; Souto-Padron, Thaís; Vieira, Danielle P.; Ferreira-Pereira, Antônio; Almeida, Igor C.; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Porto, Bárbara N.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Graça-Souza, Aurélio V.; Lopes, Angela H. C. S.; Atella, Geórgia C.; Silva-Neto, Mário A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by bug feces deposited on human skin during a blood meal. However, parasite infection occurs through the wound produced by insect mouthparts. Saliva of the Triatominae bug Rhodnius prolixus is a source of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Here, we tested the role of both triatomine saliva and LPC on parasite transmission. We show that vector saliva is a powerful inducer of cell chemotaxis. A massive number of inflammatory cells were found at the sites where LPC or saliva was inoculated into the skin of mice. LPC is a known chemoattractant for monocytes, but neutrophil recruitment induced by saliva is LPC independent. The preincubation of peritoneal macrophages with saliva or LPC increased fivefold the association of T. cruzi with these cells. Moreover, saliva and LPC block nitric oxide production by T. cruzi-exposed macrophages. The injection of saliva or LPC into mouse skin in the presence of the parasite induces an up-to-sixfold increase in blood parasitemia. Together, our data suggest that saliva of the Triatominae enhances T. cruzi transmission and that some of its biological effects are attributed to LPC. This is a demonstration that a vector-derived lysophospholipid may act as an enhancing factor of Chagas disease. PMID:18794282

  13. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Jones, Alan W

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  14. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  15. LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Maietti, Sergio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2007-07-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its epimer iso-LSD, and its main metabolites nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in blood, urine, and, for the first time, vitreous humor samples. The method is based on liquid/liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry detection in an ion trap mass spectrometer, in positive ion electrospray ionization conditions. Five microliter of sample are injected and analysis time is 12 min. The method is specific, selective and sensitive, and achieves limits of quantification of 20 pg/ml for both LSD and nor-LSD in blood, urine, and vitreous humor. No significant interfering substance or ion suppression was identified for LSD, iso-LSD, and nor-LSD. The interassay reproducibilities for LSD at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml in urine were 8.3 and 5.6%, respectively. Within-run precision using control samples at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml was 6.9 and 3.9%. Mean recoveries of two concentrations spiked into drug free samples were in the range 60-107% in blood, 50-105% in urine, and 65-105% in vitreous humor. The method was successfully applied to the forensic determination of postmortem LSD levels in the biological fluids of a multi drug abuser; for the first time, LSD could be detected in vitreous humor.

  16. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  17. Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

  18. Relationship between blood and urine alcohol concentrations in apprehended drivers who claimed consumption of alcohol after driving with and without supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2010-01-30

    For various reasons, many people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) are not apprehended sitting behind the wheel, but some time after the driving. This gives them the opportunity to claim they drank alcohol after the time of driving or after they were involved in a road-traffic crash. Alleged post-offence drinking is not easy for the prosecution to disprove, which often means that the DUIA charge is dropped or the person is acquitted if the case goes to trial. The routine practice of sampling and measuring the concentration of alcohol in blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and calculating urine/blood ratios (UAC/BAC) and the changes in UAC between two successive voids furnishes useful information to support or challenge alleged drinking after driving. We present here a retrospective case series of DUIA offenders (N=40) in half of which there was supporting evidence of an after-drink (eye witness or police reports) and in the other half no such evidence existed apart from the suspect's admission. When there was supporting evidence of an after-drink, the UAC/BAC ratio for the first void was close to or less than unity (mean 1.04, median 1.08, range 0.54-1.21) and the UAC increased by 0.21 g/L (range 0.02-0.57) between the two voids. Without any supporting evidence of post-offence drinking the mean UAC/BAC ratio was 1.46 (range 1.35-1.93) for the first void, verifying that absorption and distribution of alcohol in all body fluids and tissues was complete. In these cases, the UAC between successive voids decreased by 0.25 g/L on average (range 0.10-0.49), indicating the post-absorptive phase of the BAC curve. Long experience from investigating claims of post-offence drinking leads us to conclude that in the vast majority of cases this lacks any substance and is simply a last resort by DUIA offenders to evade justice. Unless supporting evidence exists (eye witness, police reports, etc.) of post-offence drinking the courts are encouraged to ignore this

  19. Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G

    2011-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

  20. Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Thomadaki, K.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Tian, N.; Sun, X.; Siqueira, W.L.; Walt, D.R.; Oppenheim, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21917601

  1. Correlation between propranolol in plasma and urine, renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, O L; Andreasen, F; Bjerregaard, P

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension, and a fixed elevation of diastolic blood pressure, were randomly allocated to three groups and treated with propranolol 40 mg x 4 (Group 1), 80 mg x 4 (group 2) and 160 mg x 4 (Group 3). Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), total plasma propranolol (tPP), free plasma propranolol (fPP), and 24 h urinary propranolol excretion (UP) were determined at the end of four consecutive periods: (A) after four weeks without any treatment; (B) after two to three weeks during which the propranolol dose was gradually increased to the intended level; (C) after four weeks, and (D) after eight weeks of unchanged treatment. The maximum reduction in diastolic BP occurred after period B, and in systolic BP after Period C, for Groups 2 and 3, and for all groups together; for Group 1, however, the maximum diastolic BP reduction was first seen after period C. PR was reduced to the same level in all groups after period B. After period B, PRA an PAC fell in all groups, and remained reduced during C and D Group 1. After periods C and D, PRA and PAC in Groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly from the levels after period A; tPP, fPP and UP were significantly correlated with the propranolol dose, and were lowest in Group 1 and highest in Group 3; UP was negatively correlated with systolic but not diastolic BP in Periods B, C and D. In contrast neither fPP nor tPP were correlated with systolic or diastolic BP. There was no significant correlation between PRA, PAC and changes in PRA or PAC on the one hand and tPP, fPP, UP, BP or changes in BP on the other. It was concluded that propranolol effectively reduced BP, but diastolic BP reduction was most rapidly obtained at 320 and 640 mg daily, that the activity of the renin -aldosterone system was initially suppressed in all group, but for unknown reasons it increased towards the control level after seven to eleven

  2. Application of a new nanocarbonaceous sorbent in electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction for analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine in human urine and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-05-29

    Application of a new carbon-based sorbent was studied for the first time for extraction and quantification of amphetamine and methamphetamine as model analytes by means of electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction (EM-SPME). Since the basis of this microextraction method is adsorption of target analytes on the sorbent surface (after transferring across a supported liquid membrane) in an electrical field, the sorbent, which also performs the electrical potential, should have a conductive nature. On the other hand, using a synthesized fiber is a suitable solution to eliminate the interfering compounds existing in the fiber. To extract the model analytes from acidic sample solution through a thin layer of organic phase and into the aqueous acceptor phase and their final adsorption, 150V electrical potential was applied for 15min. Regardless of the high sample cleanup ability of the proposed method, which makes the analysis of complicated biological fluids possible, admissible extraction recoveries (9.0-18.8%) and suitable detection limits (less than 2.0ngmL(-1)) were obtained. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were studied and intra- and inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.0-7.3% and 7.5-12.5%, respectively. Coefficients of determination larger than 0.9964 were achieved by scrutinizing of the linearity up to 500ngmL(-1) and calibration curves were utilized for quantification of analytes of interest in human urine and whole blood samples.

  3. A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

    2006-04-01

    This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective determination of pyrazinamide at poly-L-methionine/reduced graphene oxide modified electrode by differential pulse voltammetry in human blood plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Devadas, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-03-15

    In this current study we used electrochemically active film which contains poly-L-methionine (PMET) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for pyrazinamide (PZM) detection. The electrocatalytic response of analyte at PMET/ERGO/GCE film was measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In addition, electrochemical impedance studies revealed that the smaller R(ct) value observed at PMET/ERGO film modified GCE which authenticates its good conductivity and faster electron transfer rate. The prepared PMET/ERGO/GCE film exhibits excellent DPV response towards PZM and the reduction peak current increased linearly with respect to PZM concentration in the linear range between 0.4 μM to 1129 μM with a sensitivity of 0.266 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood plasma and urine samples, which offered good recovery and revealed the promising practicality of the sensor for PZM detection. The proposed sensor displayed a good selectivity, repeatability, sensitivity with appreciable consistency and good reproducibility. In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensor showed good results towards the commercial pharmaceutical PZM samples.

  5. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is present in high concentrations in the blood. Virtually no albumin is present in the urine when the kidneys ... on trying to determine if increased levels of albumin in the urine are also indicative of CVD risk in those who do not have diabetes or high blood pressure. ^ Back to ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  6. Validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analyzing LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD, and O-H-LSD in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Chung, Angela; Hudson, John; McKay, Gordon

    2009-06-01

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Forensic Science and Identification Services was looking for a confirmatory method for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). As a result, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was validated for the confirmation and quantitation of LSD, iso-LSD, N-demethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD). Relative retention time and ion ratios were used as identification parameters. Limits of detection (LOD) in blood were 5 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 10 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. In urine, the LOD was 10 pg/mL for all analytes. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) in blood and urine were 20 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 50 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. The method was linear, accurate, and precise from 10 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 20 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for LSD and iso-LSD and from 20 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 50 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) > or = 0.99. The method was applied to blinded biological control samples and biological samples taken from a suspected LSD user. This is the first reported detection of O-H-LSD in blood from a suspected LSD user.

  7. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  8. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Quanjun; Jiang Ying; Wu Chunqi; Zhao Jianyu; Yu Shouzhong; Yuan Benli; Yan Xianzhong . E-mail: yanxz@nic.bmi.ac.cn; Liao Mingyang . E-mail: liaomingy@hotmail.com

    2006-08-15

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[({sup 1} H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function

  9. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feb. 9, 2015. Wald R. Urinalysis in the diagnosis of kidney disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015. McPherson RA, et al. Basic examination of urine. In: Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia. ...

  10. Evaluation of viral load in saliva from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Xavier Santos, Renata L; de Deus, Dayse M V; de Almeida Lopes, Edmundo P; Duarte Coêlho, Maria R C; de Castro, Jurema F L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the HCV-RNA in saliva and plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis C infections, as well as check the level of viral load in sex groups (age, ethnicity and virus subtypes). Whole saliva and blood from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections attended at the department of gastroenterology from University Hospital. The HCV-RNA load was performed by qRT-PCR using Sybr Green I master mix. HCV-RNA was detected in 80% (56/70) of patients in saliva and 92.85% (65/70) in plasma. The median of the viral load in the plasma was of 4.87 log10, and in saliva, it was 3.32log10, (p = 0.0005). Female patients and black patients exhibited a negative correlation between the HCV-RNA load in saliva vs. the HCV-RNA load in plasma (r = -0.3172, CI95% -0.6240 to -0.03736, p = 0.0491) and (r = -0.3141; IC95% -0.6069 to -0.05926; p = 0.0209), respectively. HCV-RNA was detected and quantified in saliva samples, and according to the quantification levels, saliva may be a possible transmission source of HCV, particularly in women and people of black ethnicity who develop chronic HCV infections.

  11. Free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva: advantages or disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Masoudi Rad, H; Rabiei, M; Sobhani, A; Sadegh Khanjani, M; Rahbar Taramsar, M; Kazemnezhad Leili, E

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the mean concentrations of free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults. Standardised salivary amino acids as a substitute for their counterpart in blood, searched for the source of free amino acids in saliva, the probable correlation between particular amino acids with caries experience. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva were collected by the draining method in 31 dental students. Saliva was purified, and amino acids were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. DMFT scores were recorded, and the relation of amino acids to caries experience was explored by generalised linear model. Almost all amino acids had higher concentration in unstimulated whole saliva than in stimulated saliva. The normal range of amino acids (95% CI) and their natural logarithm were defined. There was a significant relationship between caries experience and threonine (P < 0·008), citrulline (P < 0·023) and ornithine (P < 0·001) as a detrimental factor, whereas serin (P < 0·026), glutamine (P < 0·015) and phenylalanine (P < 0·014) had an inhibiting effect on caries. However, in comparison, salivary flow rate (P < 0·013) was a more preventive factor than amino acids. Amino acids in saliva contribute as a marker, instead of their counterpart in blood. Unstimulated saliva had higher concentration of amino acids. Amino acids have different impact on caries and may be one of underlying risk factors for caries experience.

  12. Plasmonic Hepatitis B Biosensor for the Analysis of Clinical Saliva

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A biosensor for the detection of hepatitis B antibodies in clinical saliva was developed. Compared to conventional analysis of blood serum, it offers the advantage of noninvasive collection of samples. Detection of biomarkers in saliva imposes two major challenges associated with the low analyte concentration and increased surface fouling. The detection of minute amounts of hepatitis B antibodies was performed by plasmonically amplified fluorescence sandwich immunoassay. To have access to specific detection, we prevented the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules present in saliva by brushes of poly[(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide)-co-(carboxybetaine methacrylamide)] grafted from the gold sensor surface and post modified with hepatitis B surface antigen. Obtained results were validated against the response measured with ELISA at a certified laboratory using serum from the same patients. PMID:28192973

  13. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine for comparing pharmacokinetic data.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Kettner, Mattias; Laschke, Matthias W; Schlote, Julia; Peters, Benjamin; Bregel, Dietmar; Menger, Michael D; Maurer, Hans H; Ewald, Andreas H; Schmidt, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    A series of new synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been consumed without any toxicological testing. For example, pharmacokinetic data have to be collected from forensic toxicological case work and/or animal studies. To develop a corresponding model for assessing such data, samples of controlled pig studies with two selected SC (JWH-210, RCS-4) and, as reference, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) should be analyzed as well as those of human cases. Therefore, a method for determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, THC, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine samples is presented. Specimens were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring with three transitions per compound. Full validation was carried out for the pig specimens and cross-validation for the human specimens concerning precision and bias. For the pig studies, the limits of detection were between 0.05 and 0.50 ng/mL in serum and whole blood and between 0.05 and 1.0 ng/mL in urine, the lower limits of quantification between 0.25 and 1.0 ng/mL in serum and 0.50 and 2.0 ng/mL in whole blood and urine, and the intra- and interday precision values lower than 15% and bias values within ±15%. The applicability was tested with samples taken from a pharmacokinetic pilot study with pigs following intravenous administration of a mixture of 200 μg/kg body mass dose each of JWH-210, RCS-4, and THC. The cross-validation data for human serum, whole blood, and urine showed that this approach should also be suitable for human specimens, e.g., of clinical or forensic cases.

  14. [Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples using on-line solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kejian; Lu, Minping; Zhou, Zhe; Lin, Cuiwu; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Dingji; Liang, Ping; Qiao, Wentao; Li, Hongsen; Li, Lu; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2015-07-01

    A new and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-LIT/MS) with on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE). The samples were treated with acetonitrile, followed by dilution, centrifugation, and filtration. The resulting solution was injected into the LC system directly and processed by on-line SPE column for enrichment and purification. Separation was performed on a C18 column with mixed mobile phases of methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution for gradient elution. The analytes were detected by the mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS2 full scan signals of the target parent ions within the locked retention time window were recorded. Self-built database searching was performed for qualitative confirmation, and MS2 fragment ions with high sensitivity and specificity were selected for quantification. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the seven rodenticides were achieved in this way. Good linearities were obtained within the investigated mass concentration ranges of the seven rodenticides, with r2 ≥ 0.9958 in blood and r2 ≥ 0.9946 in urine. The LODs varied from 0.02 ng/mL to 1.00 ng/mL, and the LOQs varied from 0.10 ng/mL to 4.00 ng/mL. The recoveries at three spiked levels in blood and urine samples ranged from 81.0% to 113.9%, with RSDs of 0.1%-6.2% (n = 6). The developed method is simple, sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection and accurate quantification of the seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples.

  15. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed For this test, the specific gravity of urine , urine electrolytes , and/or urine osmolality ... it is tested right away. For urine specific gravity, the health care provider uses a dipstick made ...

  16. Certification of Total Arsenic in Blood and Urine Standard Reference Materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L; Davis, W Clay; Yu, Lee; Murphy, Karen E; Guthrie, William F; Leber, Dennis D; Bryan, Colleen E; Vetter, Thomas W; Shakirova, Gulchekhra; Mitchell, Graylin; Kyle, David J; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Eckdahl, Steven; Wermers, Michelle; Maras, Melissa; Palmer, C D; Verostek, M F; Geraghty, C M; Steuerwald, Amy J; Parsons, Patrick J

    2014-03-01

    A newly developed procedure for determination of arsenic by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in SRM 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 1×10(14)cm(-2)s(-1). After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform, and (76)As quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a (77)As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) values from NIST and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of (10.81 ± 0.54) μg/kg and (213.1 ± 0.73) μg/kg for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of (21.66 ± 0.73) μg/kg, (52.7 ± 1.1) μg/kg, and (78.8 ± 4.9) μg/kg for SRM 955c Levels 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level 1, an information value of < 5 μg/kg was assigned for this material.

  17. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications.

  18. Effect of saliva collection method on the concentration of protein components in saliva.

    PubMed

    Michishige, Fumiko; Kanno, Kyoko; Yoshinaga, Sumiko; Hinode, Daisuke; Takehisa, Yozo; Yasuoka, Susumu

    2006-02-01

    In order to clarify how we collect saliva for analyzing salivary protein in aged subjects who can not eat well, we compared the effects of suction, spitting and the swab saliva collection method on the yield of protein components in saliva samples from normal volunteers. The saliva collected by suction, spitting and the swab method were designated as, Saliva I, II and III, respectively. The saliva volume collected by Saliva I was about 2-fold greater than that by of Saliva II and III. This is mainly due to the fact that saliva secretion was stimulated by the suction itself. The content of total protein, S-IgA, trypsin-like activity and human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) were almost the same in Saliva I and II, and significantly lower in Saliva III than in Saliva I and II. Kallikrein activity was almost the same in Saliva I, II and III. The concentration of each total protein, S-IgA, kallikrein activity, trypsin activity and HAT in Saliva I were significantly positively correlated with that in Saliva II. These results indicate that we can obtain information of change of salivary protein by analyzing saliva collected by suction method, although this method caused the stimulation of saliva to some extent.

  19. A magnetic nanoparticles-based method for DNA extraction from the saliva of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Huang, Ying; Wu, Ting; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for stroke, suggesting that widespread detection could help to prevent stroke. DNA from 70 stroke patients and 70 healthy controls was extracted from saliva using a magnetic nanoparticles-based method and from blood using conventional methods. Real-time PCR results revealed that the C677T polymorphism was genotyped by PCR using DNA extracted from both saliva and blood samples. The genotype results were confirmed by gene sequencing, and results for saliva and blood samples were consistent. The mutation TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the stroke group than in controls. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher than controls in both TT genotype groups. Therefore, this noninvasive magnetic nanoparticles-based method using saliva samples could be used to screen for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in target populations. PMID:25206624

  20. DNA extracted from saliva for methylation studies of psychiatric traits: evidence tissue specificity and relatedness to brain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alicia K; Kilaru, Varun; Klengel, Torsten; Mercer, Kristina B; Bradley, Bekh; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has become increasingly recognized in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Because brain tissue is not accessible in living humans, epigenetic studies are most often conducted in blood. Saliva is often collected for genotyping studies but is rarely used to examine DNA methylation because the proportion of epithelial cells and leukocytes varies extensively between individuals. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether saliva DNA is informative for studies of psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) was assessed in saliva and blood samples from 64 adult African Americans. Analyses were conducted using linear regression adjusted for appropriate covariates, including estimated cellular proportions. DNA methylation from brain tissues (cerebellum, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus) was obtained from a publically available dataset. Saliva and blood methylation was clearly distinguishable though there was positive correlation overall. There was little correlation in CpG sites within relevant candidate genes. Correlated CpG sites were more likely to occur in areas of low CpG density (i.e., CpG shores and open seas). There was more variability in CpG sites from saliva than blood, which may reflect its heterogeneity. Finally, DNA methylation in saliva appeared more similar to patterns from each of the brain regions examined overall than methylation in blood. Thus, this study provides a framework for using DNA methylation from saliva and suggests that DNA methylation of saliva may offer distinct opportunities for epidemiological and longitudinal studies of psychiatric traits.

  1. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay and ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    based TSE diagnostic assay. This is the final report for this project. The assay was developed with plasma from hamsters infected with scrapie (263K...236K hamster strain11. The second report indicated that only mice with kidney infection and infected with scrapie excreted infectivity in urine. Mice...with scrapie alone did not have infectivity in their urine12. The third study was in deer infected with chronic wasting disease and showed no

  2. [The acoustic indicator of saliva under stress].

    PubMed

    Shalenkova, M A; Mikhaĭlova, Z D; Klemin, V A; Korkotashvili, L V; Abanin, A M; Klemina, A V; Dolgov, V V

    2014-03-01

    The situation of stress affects various organs and systems that results in development of functional disorders and/or somatic diseases. As a result, different noninvasive, including salivary, techniques of diagnostic of stress conditions are in the process of development. The dynamics of acoustic indicator of saliva is studied during the period of passing the exams. The relationship of indicator with levels of potassium, sodium, glucose and protein of saliva was analyzed. The sampling consisted of 102 students of 5 and 6 academic years of medical university. To detect the acoustic indicator of saliva acoustic analyzer AKBa-01- "BIOM" was applied. The level of potassium and sodium in saliva was detected using method of flame photometry. The level of glucose in saliva was detected by glucose oxydase technique using analyzer "EXAN-G". The protein in saliva was detected by biuretic technique. The correlation between acoustic indicator of saliva and analyzed indicators of saliva was established.

  3. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine.

    PubMed

    Sechi, Deidre; Greer, Brady; Johnson, Jesse; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-11-19

    The first step in curing a disease is being able to detect the disease effectively. Paper-based microfluidic devices are biodegradable and can make diagnosing diseases cost-effective and easy in almost all environments. We created a three-dimesnional (3D) paper device using wax printing fabrication technique and basic principles of origami. This design allows for a versatile fabrication technique over previously reported patterning of SU-8 photoresist on chromatography paper by employing a readily available wax printer. The design also utilizes multiple colorimetric assays that can accommodate one or more analytes including urine, blood, and saliva. In this case to demonstrate the functionality of the 3D paper-based microfluidic system, a urinalysis of protein and glucose assays is conducted. The amounts of glucose and protein introduced to the device are found to be proportional to the color change of each assay. This color change was quantified by use of Adobe Photoshop. Urine samples from participants with no pre-existing health conditions and one person with diabetes were collected and compared against synthetic urine samples with predetermined glucose and protein levels. Utilizing this method, we were able to confirm that both protein and glucose levels were in fact within healthy ranges for healthy participants. For the participant with diabetes, glucose was found to be above the healthy range while the protein level was in the healthy range.

  5. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  6. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  7. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  8. Proteomics of saliva: personal experience.

    PubMed

    Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, P M; Passali, G C; Calò, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G

    2010-06-01

    The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.

  9. The proteome of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  10. Reference intervals for orotic acid in urine, plasma and dried blood spot using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Oceania; Garofalo, Daniela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Dello Russo, Antonio; Corso, Gaetano

    2012-02-01

    Orotic acid (OA), a marker of hereditary orotic aciduria, is usually used for the differential diagnosis of some hyperammonemic inherited defects of urea cycle and of basic amino acid transporters. This study was aimed to establish age related reference intervals of OA in urine, and for the first time in plasma, and dried blood spot (DBS) from 229 apparently healthy subjects aged from three days to 40 years. The quantification of OA was performed by a previously implemented method, using a stable isotope dilution with 1,3-[(15)N(2)]-orotic acid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The method has proved to be sensitive and accurate for a quantitative analysis of OA also in DBS and plasma. According to previous studies, urinary OA levels (mmol/mol of creatinine) decrease significantly with age. The upper limits (as 99th %ile) were of 3.44 and 1.30 in groups aged from three days to 1 year (group 1) and from 1 year to 12 years (group 2), respectively; in teenagers (from 13 to 19 years; group 3) and adults (from 20 to 40 years; group 4) urinary levels became more stable and the upper limits were of 0.64 and 1.21, respectively. Furthermore, OA levels in DBS (μM) also resulted significantly higher in subjects of group 1 (upper limit of 0.89) than in subjects of groups 2, 3 and 4 (upper limits of 0.24, 0.21, and 0.29, respectively). OA levels in plasma (μM) were significantly lower in subjects of group 3 (upper limit of 0.30) than in subjects of groups 1, 2, and 4 (upper limits of 0.59, 0.48, and 0.77, respectively). This method was also employed for OA quantification in plasma and DBS of 17 newborns affected by urea cycle defects, resulting sensitive and specific enough to screen these disorders.

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  12. Dehydration decreases saliva antimicrobial proteins important for mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Diment, Bethany C; Di Felice, Umberto; Walsh, Neil P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exercise-induced dehydration and subsequent overnight fluid restriction on saliva antimicrobial proteins important for host defence (secretory IgA (SIgA), α-amylase, and lysozyme). On two randomized occasions, 13 participants exercised in the heat, either without fluid intake to evoke progressive body mass losses (BML) of 1%, 2%, and 3% with subsequent overnight fluid restriction until 0800 h in the following morning (DEH) or with fluids to offset losses (CON). Participants in the DEH trial rehydrated from 0800 h until 1100 h on day 2. BML, plasma osmolality (Posm), and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed as hydration indices. Unstimulated saliva samples were assessed for flow rate (SFR), SIgA, α-amylase, and lysozyme concentrations. Posm and USG increased during dehydration and remained elevated after overnight fluid restriction (BML = 3.5% ± 0.3%, Posm = 297 ± 6 mosmol·kg⁻¹, and USG = 1.026 ± 0.002; P < 0.001). Dehydration decreased SFR (67% at 3% BML, 70% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and increased SIgA concentration, with no effect on SIgA secretion rate. SFR and SIgA responses remained unchanged in the CON trial. Dehydration did not affect α-amylase or lysozyme concentration but decreased secretion rates of α-amylase (44% at 3% BML, 78% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and lysozyme (46% at 3% BML, 61% at 0800 h; P < 0.01), which were lower than in CON at these time points (P < 0.05). Rehydration returned all saliva variables to baseline. In conclusion, modest dehydration (~3% BML) decreased SFR, α-amylase, and lysozyme secretion rates. Whether the observed magnitude of decrease in saliva AMPs during dehydration compromises host defence remains to be shown.

  13. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  14. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes.

  15. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease Tumors ... duct stricture Biliary system Bilirubin blood test Cirrhosis Gallstones Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Review Date 5/ ...

  16. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in the major rivers and in residents' blood in Zhenjiang City, China, and assessment of heavy metal elimination via urine and sweat in humans.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jianguo; Qiu, Wenhui; Xu, Bentuo; Xu, Hui; Tang, Chong

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas of China face great challenges, owing to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the levels of heavy metals in the major rivers of Zhenjiang, one of the most important cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China. In addition, we measured heavy metal levels in the blood of 76 residents of Zhenjiang. The results suggest that the presence of heavy metals in the blood may threaten human health and the distribution appeared to correspond to most highly populated areas and/or areas with high traffic. We also found that the concentration of heavy metals in human blood showed an accumulation effect with increase in age. Moreover, the levels of most heavy metals were lower in participants who regularly exercised than in those who did not. We studied heavy metal levels in the urine and sweat of another 17 volunteers to monitor the elimination of bioaccumulated heavy metal. Heavy metals were found in the urine and sweat of all the 17 participants and were more concentrated in sweat. Induced micturition and sweating appear to be potential methods for the elimination of heavy metals from the human body.

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine is collected. In this "clean-catch" method, the patient (or parent) cleans the skin, the child then urinates, stops momentarily (if the child is old enough to cooperate), then urinates again into the ...

  19. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  20. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  1. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  2. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. GC-MS analysis of the designer drug α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and its metabolites in urine and blood in an acute poisoning case.

    PubMed

    Grapp, Marcel; Sauer, Christoph; Vidal, Christian; Müller, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the group of "second generation" pyrrolidinophenones that becomes more and more popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here we provide toxicological analytical support for a severe poisoning with α-PVP. Serum and urine samples that were sent to our laboratory were subjected to a general unknown screening procedure. The procedure includes immunoassay-based screening of drugs of abuse in serum and systematic toxicological analysis of urine and serum after neutral and basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Whereas the immunoassay delivered negative results, analyzing the urine sample by GC-MS in full scan mode disclosed the presence of α-PVP and its metabolites α-(2″-oxo-pyrrolidino)valerophenone (2″-oxo-α-PVP) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-α-PVP). In the acetylated urine sample we found additionally N,N-bis-dealkyl-PVP. In serum, α-PVP could be detected after solid phase extraction and a concentration of 29ng/mL was determined. Other forensic relevant substances were not detected. The presented data can explain the psychotic symptoms and behavioural pattern of the subject after abuse of α-PVP, leading to a clinical condition similar to excited delirium syndrome.

  4. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  5. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  6. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim; Csanády, György A.; Pütz, Christian; and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  7. Anti-cysticercus antibody detection in saliva as a potential diagnostic tool for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404

  8. SDH Subunit Mutation Status in Saliva: Genetic Testing in Patients with Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Osinga, T E; Xekouki, P; Nambuba, J; Faucz, F R; de la Luz Sierra, M; Links, T P; Kema, I P; Adams, K; Stratakis, C A; van der Horst-Schrivers, A N A; Pacak, K

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations occur in up to 30-40% of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) being the most common. Blood samples are favored for obtaining high quality DNA, however, leukocytes can also be obtained by collecting saliva. The aim of this study was to determine whether SDHB and SDHD gene mutations in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma could be determined using a salivary sample. Paired blood and salivary samples were collected from 30 patients: 9 SDHB mutation positive, 13 with a SDHD mutation, and 8 without any SDHx mutations. The Oragene DISCOVER kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. Blood DNA was extracted from EDTA blood samples. The DNA purification and concentration were measured by spectrophotometry. The 8 exons of SDHB and the 4 exons of SDHD were amplified and sequenced by PCR-based bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Total DNA yields from blood DNA were similar to those obtained from saliva DNA [mean (±SD) saliva vs. blood DNA concentration 514.6 (±580.8) ng/µl vs. 360.9 (±262.7) ng/µl; p=0.2)]. The purity of the saliva DNA samples was lower than that of blood [mean OD260/OD280 ratio 1.78 (±0.13) vs. 1.87 (±0.04); p=0.001, respectively], indicating more protein contamination in the saliva-extracted DNA. This study shows that salivary DNA collected from patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is a good alternative for extraction of genomic DNA for its high DNA concentration and acceptable purity and can be used as an alternative to blood derived DNA in screening for SDHB and SDHD mutations.

  9. An insight into the proteome of the saliva of the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata reveals important differences in saliva protein composition between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Valero, Luz; Oleaga, Ana; Encinas-Grandes, Antonio; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2013-03-27

    Tick saliva contains pharmacologically active molecules that allow these parasites to obtain a blood meal from the host and facilitate host infection by tick-borne pathogens. Recent transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the salivary glands of several tick species have provided data sets that are invaluable for a better understanding of tick sialomes and tick-host-pathogen relationships. Here we performed a proteomic study of the saliva from the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata. Saliva samples from female and male specimens were analyzed separately by LC-MS/MS before and after their equalization to facilitate the identification of the less abundant proteins. We report the array of 193 proteins identified in the saliva of O. moubata showing: (i) the broad and complex composition of the saliva of this tick, in good agreement with the complexity of the argasid and ixodid sialomes described previously; (ii) a notable difference in the saliva proteomes of females and males, since only 10 of the proteins identified appeared to be shared by both sexes; and (iii) the presence in the salivary fluid of a wide range of proteins known to be housekeeping/intracellular, which could be secreted in unconventional ways, including exosome secretion.

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  11. Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed.

  12. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Maurice D; Herebian, Diran; Meissner, Thomas; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2010-12-01

    Inborn errors of urea metabolism result in hyperammonemia. Treatment of urea cycle disorders can effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and results in survival in the majority of patients. Available medications for treating urea cycle disorders include sodium benzoate (BA), sodium phenylacetate (PAA), and sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) and are given to provide alternate routes for disposition of waste nitrogen excretion. In this study, we develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippuric acid in plasma and urine from children with inborn errors of urea synthesis. Plasma extracts and diluted urine samples were injected on a reverse-phase column and identified and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in negative ion mode. Deuterated analogues served as internal standards. Analysis time was 7 min. Assay precision, accuracy, and linearity and sample stability were determined using enriched samples. Quantification limits of the method were 100 ng/ml (0.3-0.8 μmol/L) for all analytes, and recoveries were >90%. Inter- and intraday relative standard deviations were <10%. Our newly developed LC-MS/MS represents a robust, sensitive, and rapid method that allows simultaneous determination of the five compounds in plasma and urine.

  13. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  14. Comprehensive Metabolomic Analysis in Blood, Urine, Fat, and Muscle in Men with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effects of Resveratrol after Four Months’ Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Kjær, Thomas Nordstrøm; Ornstrup, Marie Juul; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either resveratrol or placebo treatment for four months. Changes in steroid hormones across all four matrices were the most pronounced changes observed. Resveratrol treatment reduced sulfated androgen precursors in blood, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue, and increased these metabolites in urine. Furthermore, markers of muscle turnover were increased and lipid metabolism was affected, with increased intracellular glycerol and accumulation of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n3 and n6) free fatty acids in resveratrol-treated men. Finally, urinary derivatives of aromatic amino acids, which mainly reflect the composition of the gut microbiota, were altered upon resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the non-targeted metabolomics approach applied to four different matrices provided evidence of subtle but robust effects on several metabolic pathways following resveratrol treatment for four months in men with metabolic syndrome—effects that, for the most part, would not have been detected by routine analyses. The affected pathways should be the focus of future clinical trials on resveratrol’s effects, and perhaps particularly the areas of steroid metabolism and the gut microbiome. PMID:28273841

  15. Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

  16. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  17. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Fiona; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Chen, Mei-Hua; Walker, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    Semiquantitative immunoassay technology, in the form of rapid test strips, offers a less time-consuming and less costly alternative to other methods of verifying self-reported smoking status, such as gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC). Unfortunately, information on the validity and reliability of some test strips in urine and saliva samples is not always available. This paper describes the diagnostic accuracy of one type of test strip currently available (NicAlert cotinine test strips; NCTS). GC was used as the reference standard and saliva as the sample medium. The study involved 86 people (41 smokers and 45 nonsmokers) aged 18 years or over, who were able to understand written English and provide written consent. Pregnant women, women with infants less than 6 weeks old, and people who had eaten 30 min prior to sample collection were excluded. Two saliva samples were collected simultaneously from each participant, with one sample tested using NCTS and the other by GC analysis. People with at least 10 ng/ml cotinine (in both tests) in their saliva were considered smokers. NCTS were found to have a specificity of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 85%-100%), a positive predictive value of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI 86%-100%). The use of NCTS is a valid and reliable method, compared with GC, to test saliva samples for verification of smoking status.

  19. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood.

  20. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute

    PubMed Central

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  1. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Michael J.; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV) types 1–4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs) enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions. PMID:27632170

  2. Shedding of feline leukemia virus RNA in saliva is a consistent feature in viremic cats.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Keller, M A; Tandon, R; Gönczi, E; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2006-01-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the shedding pattern of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) RNA in saliva, and to correlate it with the proviral load in whole blood, viral load in plasma, levels of p27 in saliva and plasma, the isolation of infectious FeLV from saliva, and the titers of FeLV-specific antibodies of the IgG and IgA isotypes. We evaluated 24 experimentally FeLV-infected cats for these parameters using real-time RT-PCR and PCR, cell culture assay and sandwich ELISA. We observed that shedding of viral RNA in saliva was a consistent feature in viremic cats. Latently FeLV-infected cats, displaying a very low proviral load, did not shed infectious virus in saliva, but occasionally shed viral RNA. Consequently, salivary shedding of FeLV RNA may not necessarily indicate a transmission potential for susceptible cats. This study also confirmed previous results from our laboratory, showing that a negative result for p27 in plasma, or for viral RNA in plasma or saliva does not exclude FeLV infection, considering that blood cells from those cats contained provirus. We also showed that FeLV RNA and DNA were stable for more than 64 days in saliva samples stored at room temperature. We conclude that the detection of FeLV RNA in saliva may be a useful indicator of viremia, and that the detection of salivary viral RNA by RT-PCR could become a reliable tool for the diagnosis of FeLV infection, which is facilitated by the low invasive method of collection of the samples.

  3. Bismuth toxicity in man II. Review of bismuth blood and urine levels in patients after administration of therapeutic bismuth formulations in relation to the problem of bismuth toxicity in man.

    PubMed

    Serfontein, W J; Mekel, R

    1979-11-01

    A survey of the leterature on bismuth toxicity in man in relation to blood level data, has revealed the necessity of distinguishing between lipid soluble and water soluble organic complexes of bismuth on the one hand and the simple inorganic salts of bismuth on the other hand. A characteristic feature of the former, illustrated by the water soluble bismuth complex triglycollamate, is the high bismuth levels (due to absorption of the complex as such) and the nephrotoxic properties of the compound in man. Bismuth absorption after administration of the simple inorganic salts of bismuth is postulated to occur in the form of ionic bismuth as such, low bismuth levels being characteristic features of such compounds. Bismuth blood and urine levels obtained from patients after administration of a new anti-ulcer drug (Bicitropeptide) in a well controlled clinical trial are discussed and suggest that that this bismuth containing drug behaves pharmacologically in a manner similar to the inorganic bismuth salts in man, low bismuth blood levels and the absence of toxic side effects being conspicuous features of the drug. Based on these considerations, it is proposed that the pharmacologically active bismuth compounds be divided into four different groups depending on structure, stability and solubility. The question as to what constitutes a "toxic bismuth blood level" can only be discussed in relation to the new proposed sub-division of bismuth compounds and is only meaningful if the term is defined to relate only to ionic bismuth (presumably bound to a large extent to blood proteins). Based on information gleaned from the literature and blood level values reported in the clinical trial referred to, it is suggested that bismuth blood level values below 50 micrograms/ml are highly unlikely to be associated with meaningful toxicity in man. Finally, attention is drawn to the reversibility of bismuth toxicity in man as reported by many authors irrespective of the type of bismuth

  4. Silk-based blood stabilization for diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Jonathan A.; Li, Adrian B.; Kahn, Brooke T.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced personalized medical diagnostics depend on the availability of high-quality biological samples. These are typically biofluids, such as blood, saliva, or urine; and their collection and storage is critical to obtain reliable results. Without proper temperature regulation, protein biomarkers in particular can degrade rapidly in blood samples, an effect that ultimately compromises the quality and reliability of laboratory tests. Here, we present the use of silk fibroin as a solid matrix to encapsulate blood analytes, protecting them from thermally induced damage that could be encountered during nonrefrigerated transportation or freeze–thaw cycles. Blood samples are recovered by simple dissolution of the silk matrix in water. This process is demonstrated to be compatible with a number of immunoassays and provides enhanced sample preservation in comparison with traditional air-drying paper approaches. Additional processing can remediate interactions with conformational structures of the silk protein to further enhance blood stabilization and recovery. This approach can provide expanded utility for remote collection of blood and other biospecimens empowering new modalities of temperature-independent remote diagnostics. PMID:27162330

  5. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  6. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  9. The Activation Effects of Low Level Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressures Are Associated with Decreased 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xinxia; Xing, Xiumei; Lu, Yao; Sun, Yi; Ou, Xiaoyan; Su, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Yarui; Chen, Jingli; Shen, Biling; He, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purposes The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between arterial blood pressures and low level isopropyl alcohol exposure. We used mediation method to explore possible mediated roles of neurogenic factors. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, 123±10 vs. 118±11), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 79±7 vs. 74±7) and mean blood pressure (MBP, 93±8 vs. 89±9) were different between the exposed group and the control group (p < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the difference was still significant. Besides, isopropyl alcohol and smoking had an interactive effect on DBP and MBP (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a mediated effect of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) on isopropyl alcohol exposure induced arterial blood pressure increase, which accounted for about 25%. Conclusions Our results suggest that low level isopropyl alcohol exposure is a potential risk factor for the increased arterial blood pressure and 5-HIAA partly mediates the association between low level isopropyl alcohol exposure and arterial blood pressures. PMID:27622502

  10. Estimation of vitamin B1 excretion in 24-hr urine by assay of first-morning urine.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kakinoki, Takashi; Shino, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Reiko; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2008-01-01

    Urinary B1 (vitamin B1) excretion is commonly determined in 24-hr urine specimens to obtain an estimate of nutritional status. The aim of our study was to investigate whether B1 in random urine specimens, corrected for the urine creatinine (Cr), can be substituted for B1 in 24-hr urines. Collection of such hour urines is often fraught with errors; an alternative method is described here. All urine specimens voided over 24 hr were collected from 32 healthy adults as were the first-morning urines from 30 healthy Japanese women. The B1 excretion was expressed as the ratio of B1 to Cr. Although the B1 excretion was expressed as the B1/Cr ratio, the B1 excretion varied with the urine volume and the time of urine collection. The B1/Cr ratio in random urine specimens not collected at a fixed time may mislead the evaluation of the nutritional status. We found that the B1/Cr ratio in the first-morning urine correlated significantly with the ratio in 24-hr urines (r=0.970, P<0.001) and also with the concentration of total B1 (B1 plus its phosphate esters) in whole blood (r=0.733, P<0.001). We conclude that the B1/Cr ratio in 24-hr urines could be estimated by measuring the ratio in the first-morning urine.

  11. On the saliva proteome of the Eastern European house mouse (Mus musculus musculus) focusing on sexual signalling and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Stopka, Pavel; Kuntová, Barbora; Klempt, Petr; Havrdová, Leona; Černá, Martina; Stopková, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Chemical communication is mediated by sex-biased signals abundantly present in the urine, saliva and tears. Because most studies concentrated on the urinary signals, we aimed to determine the saliva proteome in wild Mus musculus musculus, to extend the knowledge on potential roles of saliva in chemical communication. We performed the gel-free quantitative LC-MS/MS analyses of saliva and identified 633 proteins with 134 (21%) of them being sexually dimorphic. They include proteins that protect and transport volatile organic compounds in their beta barrel including LCN lipocalins, major urinary proteins (MUPs), and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). To our surprise, the saliva proteome contains one MUP that is female biased (MUP8) and the two protein pheromones MUP20 (or ‘Darcin’) and ESP1 in individuals of both sex. Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, our findings reveal that these proteins cannot function as male-unique signals. Our study also demonstrates that many olfactory proteins (e.g. LCNs, and OBPs) are not expressed by submandibular glands but are produced elsewhere–in nasal and lacrimal tissues, and potentially also in other oro-facial glands. We have also detected abundant proteins that are involved in wound healing, immune and non-immune responses to pathogens, thus corroborating that saliva has important protective roles. PMID:27577013

  12. Plasma and saliva miR-21 expression in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sazanov, A A; Kiselyova, E V; Zakharenko, A A; Romanov, M N; Zaraysky, M I

    2016-12-02

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression was quantified by real-time qRT-PCR in peripheral blood and saliva samples obtained from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) of varying degrees of malignancy and healthy volunteers. All patients had adenocarcinoma located in the distal colon at different stages. Significant differences were detected between the control group and the total experimental group of CRC patients (plasma, P = 0.0001; saliva, P = 5e-12). MiR-21 expression was also significantly different in certain subgroups of patients with CRC disease stages II-IV as compared to the control group. No correlation of miR-21 expression was found with regard to gender and age of patents. Also, there were no significant individual correlations and linear regression of miR-21 expression in the plasma and saliva. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of miR-21 expression were respectively 65 and 85% in the plasma, and 97 and 91% in the saliva. Our data suggest that miR-21 in both the saliva and plasma could be a proper biomarker for CRC screening, although the saliva miR-21 expression test looks preferable due to its higher sensitivity, specificity, and technical simplicity.

  13. Low hepatitis B prevalence among pre-school children in Denmark: saliva anti-HBc screening in day care centres.

    PubMed

    Fisker, Niels; Georgsen, Jørgen; Stolborg, Torsten; Khalil, Mohammed Rohi; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2002-12-01

    Although Denmark has a low hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, HBV transmission has been reported in Danish day-care centres. The aim of this study was to validate saliva anti-HBc testing as a method for HBV screening, the applicability of saliva sampling to pre-school children, and to determine the HBV prevalence in Danish day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrants. For validation, paired saliva and plasma samples were obtained from blood donors and injecting drug users. Employees and children in day-care centres with a high proportion of immigrant children were offered saliva screening followed by blood test if positive. The specificity and sensitivity of anti-HBc tests on saliva was 100% (102 blood donors and four injecting drug users) and 85.9% (61 of 71 anti-HBc-positive injecting drug users), respectively. In all samples from HBsAg (n = 7) or anti-HBc IgM-positives (n = 9), anti-HBc was detected in saliva. Adequate saliva samples were obtained from 93% (588/634) of children and 100% (166/166) of employees participating in the day-care centre survey. Among children 55% were of non-Scandinavian origin and only one (0.2%, 95% CI [0.0; 1.0]) was HBV positive. Among employees the corresponding values were 22% and 7 (4.2%). The positive predictive value of the saliva test was 25% (1/4) among children and 88% (7/8) among adults. In conclusion, saliva testing is feasible for HBV screening among children in low prevalence populations, but any anti-HBc reactivity should be confirmed by plasma analysis. The HBV prevalence in pre-school children in Denmark is low even among immigrants from endemic areas.

  14. Effects of dietary copper supplementation of rats on the occurrence of metallothionein-I in liver and its secretion into blood, bile and urine.

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, I; Mehra, R K; Morrison, J N; Wood, A M

    1986-01-01

    The appearance and excretion of metallothionein-I (MT-I) was studied in rats given a diet containing 1000 mg of Cu/kg for several weeks. No significant increase in MT-I concentrations in liver, plasma or bile was detected in rats with liver copper concentrations less than 600 micrograms of Cu/g fresh wt. Above this concentration, liver MT-I concentrations increased in proportion to the increase in hepatic copper content. Plasma and bile MT-I concentrations were directly related to those in the liver and were about 10 times those in normal rats. Urinary MT-I concentration also increased 10-fold within 1 week. Fractionation of bile and urine on Sephadex G-50 revealed the presence of monomeric MT-I and a range of possible degradation products of the isoprotein. PMID:3753441

  15. Distinct cellular migration induced by Leishmania infantum chagasi and saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis in a hemorrhagic pool model.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  17. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  18. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  19. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  20. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay an ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    animal models: the hamster infected with the 263K strain of scrapie and the sheep either naturally or experimentally infected with scrapie . Using hamster...prototype assay can be developed using blood from animal models, in our case: hamsters infected with the 263K stain of scrapie and sheep naturally and...experimentally infected with scrapie . In addition to the usual assay diagnostic requirements of reproducibly, reliability and robustness, the TSE blood

  1. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePlus

    ... of urination for an adult is more than 2.5 liters of urine per day. However, this can vary depending on how much water you drink and what your total body water is. This problem is different from needing to urinate often. Polyuria ...

  2. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  3. Obestatin is present in saliva: alterations in obestatin and ghrelin levels of saliva and serum in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Yilmaz; Aydin, Suleyman; Dagli, A Ferda; Akbulut, Mehmet; Dagli, Necati; Kilic, Nermin; Rahman, Ali; Sahin, Ibrahim; Polat, Veli; Ozercan, H Ibrahim; Arslan, Nadi; Sensoy, Dogan

    2008-01-31

    Ghrelin and obestatin are a single gene products and are a multiple functional peptides that regulates energy homeostasis, and food intake. In the present work, we studied the secretion of ghrelin and its co-secreted peptide obestatin in 44 patients with ischemic heart disease with that of 27 healthy matched controls. Here we first conducted using an immunohistochemistry assay to screen whether human salivary glands have any obestatin immunoreactivity. Then, serum and saliva obestatin and acylated ghrelin levels were determined by using Radioimmunoassay. Our immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that obestatin was localized in the striated and excretory duct of human salivary gland. We also report for the first time that obestatin, like ghrelin, is present in human salivary gland and saliva. No evidence of the role of obestatin or ghrelin saliva levels in the context of ischemic heart disease was found. Salivary ghrelin and obestatin levels are correlated in controls with the blood levels. Determination of salivary values could represent a non-invasive alternative to serum ones that can be useful in clinical practice.

  4. Application of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring chemicals in saliva of synthetic leather workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ven-Shing; Lu, Ming-Yen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is of interest as a diagnostic aid for oral and systemic diseases, to monitor therapeutic drugs, and detect illicit drug abuse. It is also attractive for biological monitoring of exposure to hazardous solvents. The major advantage of this indicator over other biological monitoring targets is that the saliva is noninvasive and less confidential in comparison with blood and urine. Salivary analysis is generally acceptable by study subjects and can be applied to investigation of a wide variety of compounds. However, very few studies have been conducted on the saliva matrix to monitor exposure to hazardous solvents. The aim of this study is to establish an analytical method, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), by which the saliva matrix can be monitored for multiple compounds with various polarities, such as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) (common solvents used in synthetic leather manufacture), as well as acetone (ACE) and N-methyl formamide (NMF) (metabolites of IPA and DMF, respectively). We studied this technique as an alternative biological monitoring method for investigating exposure to hazardous solvents. A Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS 75 microm) fiber coating was employed for this study, and various extraction and desorption parameters were evaluated. The extraction efficiency and reproducibility of analyses was improved by pre-incubation. The limits of detection were 0.004, 0.003, 0.006, 0.05, and 0.10 microg/mL for ACE, MEK, IPA, DMF, and NMF, respectively. Method validation was performed on standards spiked in blank saliva, and a correlation was made between HS-SPME and traditional solvent pretreatment methods. It was found that correlation coefficients (r) were greater than 0.996 for each analyte, with no significant differences (p>0.05) between two methods. However, the SPME method achieved lower limits of detection

  5. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  6. Saliva parameters and erosive wear in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zwier, N; Huysmans, M C D N J M; Jager, D H J; Ruben, J; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between several parameters of saliva and erosive wear in adolescents. (Un-)stimulated saliva was collected from 88 adolescents with erosion and 49 controls (age 16 ± 1 years). Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were determined immediately. Total protein content, carbonic anhydrase VI, amylase, albumin, calcium, phosphate, urea, sodium, chloride and potassium were measured at a later time. Unstimulated flow rate was found to be significantly lower in subjects with erosive wear (p = 0.016). The chloride concentration in unstimulated saliva was found to be significantly higher in the erosion group (p = 0.019).

  7. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard C; Soelberg, Scott D; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E

    2008-09-01

    Saliva provides a useful and noninvasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a six-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/mL (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrixes.

  8. Saliva diagnostics - Current views and directions.

    PubMed

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Aro, Katri; Tu, Michael; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Wong, David Tw

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. In the last few years, researchers have developed new technologies and validated a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva a clinical reality. However, a great need still exists for convenient and accurate point-of-care devices that can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In addition, there is an urgent need to decipher the scientific rationale and mechanisms that convey systemic diseases to saliva. Another promising technology called liquid biopsy enables detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and fragments of tumor DNA in saliva, thus enabling non-invasive early detection of various cancers. The newly developed technology-electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) provides near perfect detection of actionable mutations in lung cancer patients. These recent advances widened the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system, and thus point towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized individual medicine applications including clinical decisions and post-treatment outcome predictions. Impact statement The purpose of this mini-review is to make an update about the present and future applications of saliva as a diagnostic biofluid in many fields of science such as dentistry

  9. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry. PMID:25206116

  10. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin can also be measured in the urine . How ... Results Mean A lower-than-normal level of blood albumin may be a sign of: Kidney diseases Liver ...

  12. Tick saliva inhibits the chemotactic function of MIP-1alpha and selectively impairs chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells by down-regulating cell-surface CCR5.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carlo José F; Cavassani, Karen A; Moré, Daniela D; Garlet, Gustavo P; Aliberti, Julio C; Silva, João S; Ferreira, Beatriz R

    2008-05-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that secrete immunomodulatory molecules through their saliva to antagonize host inflammatory and immune responses. As dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in host immune responses, we studied the effects of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva on DC migration and function. Bone marrow-derived immature DCs pre-exposed to tick saliva showed reduced migration towards macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) chemokines in a Boyden microchamber assay. This inhibition was mediated by saliva which significantly reduced the percentage and the average cell-surface expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR5. In contrast, saliva did not alter migration of DCs towards MIP-3beta, not even if the cells were induced for maturation. Next, we evaluated the effect of tick saliva on the activity of chemokines related to DC migration and showed that tick saliva per se inhibits the chemotactic function of MIP-1alpha, while it did not affect RANTES, MIP-1beta and MIP-3beta. These data suggest that saliva possibly reduces immature DC migration, while mature DC chemotaxis remains unaffected. In support of this, we have analyzed the percentage of DCs on mice 48h after intradermal inoculation with saliva and found that the DC turnover in the skin was reduced compared with controls. Finally, to test the biological activity of the saliva-exposed DCs, we transferred DCs pre-cultured with saliva and loaded with the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen to mice and measured their capacity to induce specific T cell cytokines. Data showed that saliva reduced the synthesis of both T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines, suggesting the induction of a non-polarised T cell response. These findings propose that the inhibition of DCs migratory ability and function may be a relevant mechanism used by ticks to subvert the immune response of the host.

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  14. [Influence of saliva components on periodontal disease in insulin-dependent diabetics].

    PubMed

    Willershausen-Zönnchen, B; Lemmen, C; Hamm, G

    1991-04-01

    In diabetic patients an increased incidence of periodontal disease has been demonstrated. This study was to elucidate the influence of saliva constituents on periodontal alterations. 31 insulin-dependent type-I diabetics and a control group were submitted to oral examination. During daytime salivary samples were collected at regular intervals for analysis of glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium and the pH values. Additional information on relevant blood values and organic complications were obtained from the diabetic group. The results revealed a significant correlation between the degree of diabetes control and periodontal disease. The saliva concentrations of glucose and potassium were significantly elevated as against the controls. However, no correlation was found between the saliva components and periodontal disease.

  15. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  16. Determination of ecgonine and seven other cocaine metabolites in human urine and whole blood by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lingjuan; Wang, Rong; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Rao, Yulan; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Libo; Ni, Chunfang; Ye, Haiying; Zhang, Yurong

    2013-12-01

    Ecgonine is suggested to be a promising marker of cocaine (COC) ingestion. A combined mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine ecgonine and seven other metabolites of cocaine in human urine and whole blood with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The compounds were extracted from as little as 100 μL of sample by solid-phase extraction with a 96-well μElution solid-phase extraction plate. The protonated molecules or fragment ions at accurate mass acquired in MS mode were used to quantify specific analytes, following by dedicated MS/MS identification. The assay was linear in the range from 5 to 50-100 ng/mL for urine samples, except for ecgonine methyl ester (10-200 ng/mL) and ecgonine (40-400 ng/mL), and was linear from 1-2 to 50 ng/mL for whole blood samples, except for ecgonine methyl ester (20-1,000 ng/mL) and ecgonine (40-2,000 ng/mL). The correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.99. The limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 16 ng/mL, and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 1 to 40 ng/mL. The repeatability and intermediate precision were 18.1% or less. The accuracy was in the range from 80.0 to 122.9%, process efficiencies were in the range from 8.6 to 177.4%, matrix effects were in the range from 28.7 to 171.0%, and extraction recoveries were in the range from 41.0 to 114.3%, except for ecgonine (12.8% and 9.3% at low and high concentrations, respectively). This method was highly sensitive in comparison with previously published methods. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of real samples derived from forensic cases, and the results verified that, on the basis of data from four positive samples, ecgonine is a promising marker of cocaine ingestion.

  17. Acute one-cigarette smoking decreases ghrelin hormone in saliva: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, Yahia A; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers.

  18. Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaabi, Yahia A.; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers. PMID:24808912

  19. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  20. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Levi W.; Omaye, Stanley T.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article. PMID:28085082

  1. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog’s mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  2. Tissue/fluid correlation study for the depletion of sulfadimethoxine in bovine kidney, liver, plasma, urine, and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O A; Li, H; Kijak, P J; Li, J X; Lancaster, V; Smith, M L; Heller, D N; Thomas, M H; Von Bredow, J

    2012-06-01

    Sulfonamides are among the oldest, but still effective, antimicrobial veterinary medicines. In steers and dairy cows, the sulfonamides are effective in the treatment of respiratory disease and general infections. Sulfadimethoxine (SDM) has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in steers and dairy cows with a tolerance of 100 ng/g (ppb) in edible tissues and 10 ppb in milk. The detection of SDM residue above tolerance in the animal slaughtered for food process will result in the whole carcass being discarded. This report describes a comprehensive depletion study of SDM (and its main metabolite) in plasma, urine, oral fluid, kidney, and liver. In this study, nine steers were injected intravenously with the approved dose of SDM; the loading dose was 55 mg/kg, followed by 27.5 mg/kg dose at 24 h and again at 48 h. Fluids (blood, urine, and saliva) and tissue (liver and kidney) samples were collected at intervals after the last dose of SMD. The combination of laparoscopic serial sampling technique with the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method provided the data to establish the tissue/fluid correlation in the depletion of SMD. A strong correlation and linearity of the log-scale concentration over time in the depletion stage has been confirmed for kidney, liver, and plasma.

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  4. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for cadmium using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis of concentrations in blood, urine, and kidney cortex from living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Martin Niclas; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    The health effects of low-level chronic exposure to cadmium are increasingly recognized. To improve the risk assessment, it is essential to know the relation between cadmium intake, body burden, and biomarker levels of cadmium. We combined a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for cadmium with a data set from healthy kidney donors to re-estimate the model parameters and to test the effects of gender and serum ferritin on systemic uptake. Cadmium levels in whole blood, blood plasma, kidney cortex, and urinary excretion from 82 men and women were used to calculate posterior distributions for model parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis. For never- and ever-smokers combined, the daily systemic uptake was estimated at 0.0063 μg cadmium/kg body weight in men, with 35% increased uptake in women and a daily uptake of 1.2 μg for each pack-year per calendar year of smoking. The rate of urinary excretion from cadmium accumulated in the kidney was estimated at 0.000042 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 45 years in the kidneys. We have provided an improved model of cadmium kinetics. As the new parameter estimates derive from a single study with measurements in several compartments in each individual, these new estimates are likely to be more accurate than the previous ones where the data used originated from unrelated data sets. The estimated urinary excretion of cadmium accumulated in the kidneys was much lower than previous estimates, neglecting this finding may result in a marked under-prediction of the true kidney burden.

  5. Case Report: Red Urine After Day Care Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Caroline, Pregardien; Marie-Cécile, Nassogne; Demet, Yuksel; Francis, Veyckemans

    2017-02-15

    In the absence of surgery on the urinary tract, the emission of red urine after anesthesia should be considered as a diagnostic emergency because it can be a sign of hematuria, hemoglobinuria, blood transfusion reaction, significant myoglobinuria, or porphyria.This case describes the management of a 12-year-old boy who presented red urine at the day care unit after strabismus surgery.

  6. Automated extraction of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and N-demethyl-LSD from blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples using the Zymark RapidTrace with LC/MS/MS confirmation.

    PubMed

    de Kanel, J; Vickery, W E; Waldner, B; Monahan, R M; Diamond, F X

    1998-05-01

    A forensic procedure for the quantitative confirmation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the qualitative confirmation of its metabolite, N-demethyl-LSD, in blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples is presented. The Zymark RapidTrace was used to perform fully automated solid-phase extractions of all specimen types. After extract evaporation, confirmations were performed using liquid chromatography (LC) followed by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) without derivatization. Quantitation of LSD was accomplished using LSD-d3 as an internal standard. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for LSD was 0.05 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) for both LSD and N-demethyl-LSD was 0.025 ng/mL. The recovery of LSD was greater than 95% at levels of 0.1 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL. For LSD at 1.0 ng/mL, the within-run and between-run (different day) relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.2% and 4.4%, respectively.

  7. The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-08-03

    A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated.

  8. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  9. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  10. A device for the collection of submandibular saliva.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Sara; Motoi, Lidia; Medlicott, Natalie; Swindells, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the construction of a non-invasive device for the collection of submandibular saliva. Preliminary tests were carried out on saliva collected from a single donor in order to determine whether the rheological properties of submandibular saliva collected using the device were comparable to whole saliva collected using the expectoration (or 'spit') method. The device collected a lower quantity of saliva than that collected using the expectoration method. Stimulated saliva collected using the device had a pH close to that of unstimulated saliva because the sealed collection unit in the device minimised contamination. Saliva exhibited shear-thinning behaviour regardless of the method of collection, although that collected using the device was more viscous. The viscoelasticity of saliva collected using the two methods was different, probably as a result of differences in composition. This difference was greater with stimulated saliva. Despite the discrepancies between whole saliva and submandibular saliva, the device provides a non-invasive method for the collection of high-quality saliva over extended periods.

  11. Quantitative assessment of IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children.

    PubMed

    Shifa, S; Muthu, M S; Amarlal, D; Rathna Prabhu, V

    2008-12-01

    Saliva is commonly referred to as the blood stream of the oral cavity. It has many functions, one of the major functions being protection of teeth against dental caries. There are many components in saliva, each one having a specific role in the prevention of dental caries. The composition of saliva varies from individual to individual and in the same individual it varies between the glands. The composition of whole saliva, especially when unstimulated, has gained much interest, because it is this which constantly bathes the teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children aged 3-6 years and to correlate its role in protection of the tooth against dental caries.

  12. The secretion, components, and properties of saliva.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.

  13. Analysis of the human saliva proteome.

    PubMed

    Amado, Francisco Manuel Lemos; Vitorino, Rui Miguel Pinheiro; Domingues, Pedro Miguel Dimas Neves; Lobo, Maria João Calheiros; Duarte, José Alberto Ramos

    2005-08-01

    Interest in the characterization of the salivary proteome has increased in the last few years. This review discusses the different techniques and methodologies applied to the separation and identification of salivary proteins. Nowadays, proteomic techniques are the state of the art for the analysis of biologic materials and saliva is no exception. 2D electrophoresis and tryptic digest analysis by mass spectrometry are the typical methodology, but new approaches using 2D liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods have already been introduced for saliva analysis. Due to their important physiologic role in the oral cavity, low-molecular-weight proteins and peptides are also included in this article and the methodologies discussed.

  14. THE LIPID CONSTITUENTS OF WHOLE AND PAROTID SALIVA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloroform: methanol extracts of whole and parotid saliva were subjected to paper chromatography to further characterize their lipid components. The...the sample materials. Whole and parotid saliva had similar nonphosphatides, but differed in their phospholipid composition. (Author)

  15. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively

  16. Human Cellular Immune Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi Is Mediated by IL-10-Producing CD8+ T Cells and Th1-Polarized CD4+ Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marzouki, Soumaya; Belhadj Hmida, Nadia; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Belhaj Hamida, Nabil; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi

    2011-01-01

    Background The saliva of sand flies strongly enhances the infectivity of Leishmania in mice. Additionally, pre-exposure to saliva can protect mice from disease progression probably through the induction of a cellular immune response. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the cellular immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans and defined the phenotypic characteristics and cytokine production pattern of specific lymphocytes by flow cytometry. Additionally, proliferation and IFN-γ production of activated cells were analysed in magnetically separated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi was demonstrated in nearly 30% of naturally exposed individuals. Salivary extracts did not induce any secretion of IFN-γ but triggered the production of IL-10 primarily by CD8+ lymphocytes. In magnetically separated lymphocytes, the saliva induced the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells which was further enhanced after IL-10 blockage. Interestingly, when activated CD4+ lymphocytes were separated from CD8+ cells, they produced high amounts of IFN-γ. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrated that the overall effect of Phlebotomus papatasi saliva was dominated by the activation of IL-10-producing CD8+ cells suggesting a possible detrimental effect of pre-exposure to saliva on human leishmaniasis outcome. However, the activation of Th1 lymphocytes by the saliva provides the rationale to better define the nature of the salivary antigens that could be used for vaccine development. PMID:21991402

  17. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  18. Urination and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    1994-01-01

    "Urination and Its Discontents" is an attempt to answer why various twentieth-century artists have made works that use or are about urination. Andy Warhol's act of "pissing" onto a canvas in his Oxidation Paintings is related to homosexual "sex clubs," but also to the iconoclasm of Mapplethorpe, Serrano, Duchamp, and Pollock. Freud's idea that civilization began with the renunciation of the "homosexual competition" of urinating on the fire is discussed and compared to Ellis's idealization of the erotics of bodily functions. Weinberg suggests that artists follow Ellis instead of Freud in undermining the boundaries society places on what is clean and dirty and what is sexually permissible.

  19. Influence of human saliva on the development of artificial erosions.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A; Goetz, F

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that saliva from patients with erosion exhibits lower protective efficacy compared to saliva from patients without erosion, based on in vitro enamel softening studies. A total of 645 enamel specimens were distributed among seven experimental groups. Saliva was gathered from each of 10 volunteers without clinical signs of dental erosion and from 10 patients exhibiting severe erosive defects. Aliquots of 50 ml of saliva from each patient were mixed with sour drops or citric acid, respectively. Pooled saliva, sour drops and citric acid mixed with water served as controls. The enamel specimens were soaked in the respective mixture for 5 min and were subsequently incubated in pure saliva for 2 min. This cycle was repeated three times, then the specimens were kept in 100 ml of saliva for 8 h. Surface microhardness was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and after each cycle. During the experiments, microhardness decreased significantly in all groups except for the pure saliva group. For sour drops and citric acid mixed with saliva from patients without erosion, the final microhardness was higher compared to the mixture of the two erosive compounds with saliva from patients with erosion. The storage of saliva for 8 h resulted in a certain amount of rehardening, with the highest level of rehardening being observed in the group that was least demineralized (sour drops plus saliva from patients without erosion). It is concluded that salivary components play a crucial role in the development of dental erosion.

  20. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  1. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  2. Toward a standardized saliva proteome analysis methodology.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Rui; Guedes, Sofia; Manadas, Bruno; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco

    2012-09-18

    The present study aimed the evaluation of saliva sample pre-treatment, in particular the sample clearance usually performed by centrifugation, to the contribution of salivary proteome and peptidome. Using in-gel and off-gel approaches, a large content of salivary proteins was detected in the pellet fraction that is usually discarded. In addition, chaotropic/detergent treatment in combination with sonication, before the centrifugation step, resulted in salivary complex disruption and consequently in the extraction of high amounts of proteins. Based on this data, we suggest the use of urea/detergent with sonication as a standard saliva sample pre-treatment procedure. We also described a procedure to extract salivary peptides which can be performed even after saliva sample treatment with chaotropic/detergents. In overall, we reported for the first time the contribution of the pellet fraction to the whole saliva proteome. iTRAQ analysis highlighted a higher number of different peptides as well as distinct quantities of each protein class when after sample treatment with urea and sonication, acetone precipitation followed by solubilization with acetonitrile/HCl was performed.

  3. Saliva: a fluid of study for OMICS.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Córdoba, Betzaida; Santiago-García, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Saliva is a fluid that can be collected easily and noninvasively. Its functions in the oral cavity are well known. Advances in molecular biology and technology, as well as research conducted by the various disciplines of omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics) have contributed to the identification and characterization of salivary components, including DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microorganisms. These biomolecules enter the saliva through extracellular and intracellular routes, providing information from several organs and systems and raising the possibility of their use as disease biomarkers. In recent years, these factors have expanded the potential use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for oral and systemic diseases. This review integrates information regarding salivary biomolecules studied through omics and explores their utility as biomarkers for the diagnosis of several infectious and noninfectious diseases, and the opportunity they represent for the development of point of care devices for clinical application. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges to be overcome in order to establish saliva as a useful fluid for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of diseases.

  4. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20) and HIV positive (n=20) donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. PMID:22929306

  5. Artificial Saliva Formulations versus Human Saliva Pretreatment in Dental Erosion Experiments.

    PubMed

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosion-preventive effect of different artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro compared to human saliva in situ. In the in vitro experiment, bovine enamel and dentin specimens were stored in artificial saliva (4 different formulations, each n = 20), deionized water (n = 20) or human saliva (n = 6 enamel and dentin specimens/volunteer) for 120 min. In the in situ experiment, each of the 6 enamel and dentin specimens was worn intraorally by 10 volunteers for 120 min. The specimens were then eroded (HCl, pH 2.6, 60 s). Half of the specimens were subjected to microhardness analysis (enamel) and the determination of calcium release into the acid (enamel and dentin), while the other half were again placed in the respective medium or worn intraorally, respectively, for 120 min before a second erosion was performed. Knoop microhardness of enamel and the calcium release of enamel and dentin into the acid were again determined. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA or two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Enamel microhardness was not significantly different between all test groups after the first and the second erosive challenge, respectively. Enamel calcium loss was significantly lower in situ compared to the in vitro experiment, where there was no significant difference between all test groups. Dentin calcium loss was significantly lower than deionized water only after the first and than all except one artificial saliva after the second erosion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the use of artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro does not reflect the intraoral situation in dental erosion experiments adequately.

  6. Members of the salivary gland surface protein (SGS) family are major immunogenic components of mosquito saliva.

    PubMed

    King, Jonas G; Vernick, Kenneth D; Hillyer, Julián F

    2011-11-25

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies.

  7. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Leucine aminopeptidase - urine URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  8. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  9. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  10. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  11. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  12. 5-HIAA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... This test measures the level of 5-HIAA in the urine. It is often done to detect certain tumors in the digestive tract ( carcinoid tumors ) ...

  13. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    Urgent urination; Urinary frequency or urgency; Urgency-frequency syndrome; Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome; Urge syndrome ... Also call your provider if: You have urinary frequency or urgency, but you are not pregnant and ...

  14. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There will be signs ... GM, Cowan TM, Klein O, Packman S. Aminoacidemias and organic acidemias. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Ferriero ...

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  16. Diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats using saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that two immunochromatography point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) were able to correctly assign FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using whole blood as the diagnostic specimen. A third FIV antibody test kit, SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo (an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), was unable to differentiate antibodies produced in response to FIV vaccination from those incited by FIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if saliva is a suitable diagnostic specimen using the same well characterized feline cohort. FIV infection status of these cats had been determined previously using a combination of serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and virus isolation. This final assignment was then compared to results obtained using saliva as the diagnostic specimen utilizing the same three point-of-care FIV antibody test kits and commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR). In a population of cats where one third (117/356; 33%) were FIV-vaccinated, both immunochromatography test kits accurately diagnosed FIV infection using saliva via a centrifugation method, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. For FIV diagnosis using saliva, the specificity of Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness FeLV/FIV was 100%, while the sensitivity of these kits was 96% and 92% respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo had a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 44%, while FIV RealPCR testing had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 72% using saliva. A revised direct method of saliva testing was trialed on a subset of FIV-infected cats (n=14), resulting in 14, 7 and 0 FIV positive results using Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV, Witness FeLV/FIV and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, respectively. These results demonstrate that saliva can be used to diagnose FIV infection, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using either a centrifugation method (Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness

  17. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds.

  18. Primary meningococcal conjunctivitis: an unusual case of transmission by saliva

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Alexander W.S.; Rana, Mrinal; Pandey, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A 49-year-old diabetic man presented with a 2-day history of a painful right eye associated with a purulent discharge. Prior to becoming symptomatic, he reported that someone spat at him, resulting in direct contact between the saliva and his affected eye. Gram stain revealed numerous leucocytes with Gram-negative diplococci, and culture yielded Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C). There was no evidence of any systemic infection, and blood cultures were negative for any growth. He was treated for primary meningococcal conjunctivitis (PMC) with intensive topical antibiotic eyedrops as well as systemic antibiotics. One week after commencing treatment he remained systemically well and his symptoms had fully resolved. PMID:27330479

  19. Protein Quality Assessment on Saliva Samples for Biobanking Purposes.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Nuno; Marques, Jéssica; Esteves, Eduardo; Fernandes, Mónica; Mendes, Vera M; Afonso, Ângela; Dias, Sérgio; Pereira, Joaquim Polido; Manadas, Bruno; Correia, Maria José; Barros, Marlene

    2016-08-01

    Biobank saliva sample quality depends on specific criteria applied to collection, processing, and storage. In spite of the growing interest in saliva as a diagnostic fluid, few biobanks currently store large collections of such samples. The development of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for saliva collection and quality control is fundamental for the establishment of a new saliva biobank, which stores samples to be made available to the saliva research community. Different collection methods were tested regarding total volume of protein obtained, protein content, and protein profiles, and the results were used to choose the best method for protein studies. Furthermore, the impact of the circadian variability and inter- and intraindividual differences, as well as the saliva sample stability at room temperature, were also evaluated. Considering our results, a sublingual cotton roll method for saliva collection proved to produce saliva with the best characteristics and should be applied in the morning, whenever possible. In addition, there is more variability in salivary proteins between individuals than in the same individual for a 5-month period. According to the electrophoretic protein profile, protein stability is guaranteed for 24 hours at room temperature and the protein degradation profile and protein identification were characterized. All this information was used to establish an SOP for saliva collection, processing, and storage in a biobank. We conclude that it is possible to collect saliva using an easy and inexpensive protocol, resulting in saliva samples for protein analysis with sufficient quality for biobanking purposes.

  20. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  1. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  2. Human saliva proteome analysis and disease biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

    2007-08-01

    Human saliva is an attractive body fluid for disease diagnosis and prognosis because saliva testing is simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the proteomic content in human whole and ductal saliva will not only contribute to the understanding of oral health and disease pathogenesis, but also form a foundation for the discovery of saliva protein biomarkers for human disease detection. In this article, we have summarized the proteomic technologies for comprehensive identification of proteins in human whole and ductal saliva. We have also discussed potential quantitative proteomic approaches to the discovery of saliva protein biomarkers for human oral and systemic diseases. With the fast development of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies, we are enthusiastic that saliva protein biomarkers will be developed for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases in the future.

  3. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  4. A comparison of ghrelin, glucose, alpha-amylase and protein levels in saliva from diabetics.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2007-01-31

    During the past decade, many salivary parameters have been used to characterize disease states. Ghrelin (GAH) is recently-discovered peptide hormone secreted mainly from the stomach but also produced in a number of other tissues including salivary glands. The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between active (aGAH) and inactive (dGAH) ghrelin in the saliva and other salivary parameters in type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Salivary parameters were assessed in a single measurement of unstimulated whole saliva from 20 obese and 20 non-obese type II diabetes patients, and in 22 healthy controls. Total protein and alpha-amylase were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose by the glucose-oxidase method. Saliva aGAH and dGAH levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Salivary concentrations of aGAH and dGAH ghrelin were more markedly decreased in obese diabetic subjects than in the two other groups. Glucose and alpha-amylase levels were higher in diabetic subjects than in controls. Furthermore, there were correlations between GAH levels and BMI, and between GAH and blood pressure. However, there was no marked variability in saliva flow rates among the groups. These results indicate that measurement of salivary GAH and its relationship to other salivary parameters might help to provide insight into the role of ghrelin in diabetes.

  5. Anaerobic threshold in children: determination from saliva analysis in field tests.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Calvo, F; Alvarez, J; Vaquero, A F; Bandrés, F; Legido, J C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anaerobic threshold of children by the analysis of saliva collected during field tests. A group of 25 children (mean age, 10.5 years) performed an incremental exercise test on a track, consisting of 4-min stages at increasing running velocities. Before each test (at rest) and at the end of each stage, both blood (via finger pricks) and saliva samples (for measurement of salivary concentrations of Na+ and Cl-) were collected to determine lactate threshold (Thla-) and saliva threshold (Thsa), respectively. There were no significant differences between values of Thla- and Thsa when expressed either as running velocity [mean Thla-, 10.73 (SD 1.96) km.h-1; mean Thsa, 10.89 (SD 1.69) km.h-1)] or heart rate [Thla-, 182(SD 14) beats. min-1 Thsa 183 (SD 11) beats.min-1]. In addition, correlations between Thsa and Thla were high, when both values were expressed as running velocity in kilometres per hour (r = 0.89; P < 0.001), or heart rate in beats per minute (r = 0.90; p < 0.001). In conclusion, these findings suggested that saliva analysis would be a valid method for anaerobic threshold determination in field tests.

  6. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Reventós, Jaume; Wong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  7. Detection of feline immunodeficiency virus in saliva and plasma by cultivation and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, D; Baldinotti, F; Mazzetti, P; Pistello, M; Bandecchi, P; Ghilarducci, R; Poli, A; Tozzini, F; Bendinelli, M

    1993-03-01

    The rates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolation from saliva, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected cats were compared; isolation rates were 18, 14, and 81%, respectively, in naturally infected cats and 25, 57, and 100%, respectively, in experimentally infected animals. There was no obvious relationship between isolation rate and clinical stage or between isolation rate and the titer of neutralizing antibody in serum. Virus could be isolated from one salivary gland as early as 1 week postinfection and, on a more regular basis, starting at 3 weeks postinfection, when, however, most other tissues were also positive. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that FIV genomes are present in saliva and plasma more frequently than expected on the basis of isolation data. Saliva was also found to contain viral DNA, indicating that it may harbor virus-infected cells as well as free virus. The addition of plasma but not of saliva to PBMC cultures delayed FIV growth. Isolation from plasma may be hampered by FIV neutralizing antibody and by the cytotoxic activity of this fluid for the PBMC used as a cell substrate.

  8. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol.

  9. Different Host Complement Systems and Their Interactions with Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) and Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the vector of Leishmania infantum in the New World, and its saliva inhibits classical and alternative human complement system pathways. This inhibition is important in protecting the insect´s midgut from damage by the complement. L. longipalpis is a promiscuous blood feeder and must be protected against its host’s complement. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of salivary complement inhibitors on the sera of different host species, such as dogs, guinea pigs, rats and chickens, at a pH of 7.4 (normal blood pH) and 8.15 (the midgut pH immediately after a blood meal). We also investigated the role of the chicken complement system in Leishmania clearance in the presence and absence of vector saliva. Results The saliva was capable of inhibiting classical pathways in dogs, guinea pigs and rats at both pHs. The alternative pathway was not inhibited except in dogs at a pH of 8.15. The chicken classical pathway was inhibited only by high concentrations of saliva and it was better inhibited by the midgut contents of sand flies. Neither the saliva nor the midgut contents had any effect on the avian alternative pathway. Fowl sera killed L. infantum promastigotes, even at a low concentration (2%), and the addition of L. longipalpis saliva did not protect the parasites. The high body temperature of chickens (40°C) had no effect on Leishmania viability during our assays. Conclusion Salivary inhibitors act in a species-specific manner. It is important to determine their effects in the natural hosts of Leishmania infantum because they act on canid and rodent complements but not on chickens (which do not harbour the parasite). Moreover, we concluded that the avian complement system is the probable mechanism through which chickens eliminate Leishmania and that their high body temperature does not influence this parasite. PMID:24255715

  10. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... from one person to another through contact with saliva, semen, vaginal fluids, blood, urine, tears, feces, or ... diapers and after contact with urine, feces, or saliva. Also, clean toys, strollers, high chairs and other ...

  11. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases. PMID:22368352

  12. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  13. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    The WHR, an estimate of centralized obesity, was associated with the severity of inflammatory regions in prostate tissue and with LUTS severity among men with inflammation. Our results suggest centralized obesity advances prostate tissue inflammation to increase LUTS severity. Clinically targeting centralized fat deposition may reduce LUTS severity. Mechanistically, the lack of a clear relationship between systemic inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in blood or urine with prostate size or LUTS suggests pathways other than systemic inflammatory signaling may link body adiposity to BPH outcomes. PMID:27336586

  14. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)∑ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

  15. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Pettignano, Alberto; Sammartano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is c MX = (1/2)∑c i (c i = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/c MX)(1/2) = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered.

  16. Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis A Infection by Saliva Sampling: The Kinetics of HAV Markers in Saliva Revealed the Application of Saliva Tests for Hepatitis A Study.

    PubMed

    Amado Leon, Luciane Almeida; de Almeida, Adilson José; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Tourinho, Renata Santos; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of studies investigating hepatitis A diagnostic through saliva, the frequency and the pattern of hepatitis A virus (HAV) markers in this fluid still remains unknown. To address this issue, we carried on a longitudinal study to examine the kinetics of HAV markers in saliva, in comparison with serum samples. The present study followed-up ten patients with acute hepatitis A infection during 180 days post diagnosis (dpd). Total anti-HAV was detected in paired serum and saliva samples until the end of the follow-up, showing a peak titer at 90th. However, total anti-HAV level was higher in serum than in saliva samples. This HAV marker showed a probability of 100% to be detected in both serum and saliva during 180 dpd. The IgM anti-HAV could be detected in saliva up to 150 dpd, showing the highest frequency at 30th, when it was detected in all individuals. During the first month of HAV infection, this acute HAV marker showed a detection probability of 100% in paired samples. The detection of IgM anti-HAV in saliva was not dependent on its level in serum, HAV-RNA detection and/or viral load, since no association was found between IgM anti-HAV positivity in saliva and any of these parameter (p>0.05). Most of the patients (80%) were found to contain HAV-RNA in saliva, mainly at early acute phase (30th day). However, it was possible to demonstrate the HAV RNA presence in paired samples for more than 90 days, even after seroconversion. No significant relationship was observed between salivary HAV-RNA positivity and serum viral load, demonstrating that serum viral load is not predictive of HAV-RNA detection in saliva. Similar viral load was seen in paired samples (on average 104 copies/mL). These data demonstrate that the best diagnostic coverage can be achieved by salivary anti-HAV antibodies and HAV-RNA tests during 30-90 dpd. The long detection and high probability of specific-HAV antibodies positivity in saliva samples make the assessment of

  17. Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of