Sample records for blood viscosity

  1. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  2. Whole-blood viscosity and the insulin-resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høieggen, A; Fossum, E; Moan, A; Enger, E; Kjeldsen, S E

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we found that elevated blood viscosity was linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, and we proposed that high blood viscosity may increase insulin resistance. That study was based on calculated viscosity. To determine whether directly measured whole-blood viscosity was related to the insulin-resistance syndrome in the same way as calculated viscosity had been found to be. Healthy young men were examined with the hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp technique, and we related insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate) to other metabolic parameters and to blood viscosity. We established a technique for direct measurement of whole-blood viscosity. There were statistically significant negative correlations between glucose disposal rate and whole-blood viscosity at low and high shear rates (r = -0.41, P = 0.007 for both, n = 42). Whole-blood viscosity was correlated positively (n = 15) to serum triglyceride (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and total cholesterol (r = 0.52, P = 0.05), and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.53, P = 0.04) concentrations. Insulin sensitivity index was correlated positively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and negatively to serum triglyceride (r = -0.69, P = 0.005) and to total cholesterol (r = -0.81, P = 0.0003) concentrations. The present results demonstrate for the first time that there is a negative relationship between directly measured whole-blood viscosity and insulin sensitivity as a part of the insulin-resistance syndrome. Whole-blood viscosity contributes to the total peripheral resistance, and these results support the hypothesis that insulin resistance has a hemodynamic basis.

  3. Reducing the Viscosity of Blood by Pulsed Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2010-03-01

    Blood viscosity is a major player in heart disease. When blood is viscous, in addition to a high blood pressure required for the blood circulation, blood vessel walls are also easy to be damaged. While this issue is very important, currently the only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. Here we report our new finding that the blood viscosity can be reduced by pulsed magnetic field. Blood is a suspension of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets in plasma, a complex solution of gases, salts, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The base liquid, plasma, has low viscosity. The effective viscosity of whole blood increases mainly due to the red blood cells, which have a volume fraction about 40% or above. Red blood cells contain iron and are sensitive to magnetic field. Therefore, when we apply a strong magnetic field, the red cells make their diameters align in the field direction to form short chains. This change in rheology reduces the effective viscosity as high as 20-30%. While this reduction is not permanent, it lasts for several hours and repeatable. The reduction rate can be controlled by selecting suitable magnetic field and duration of field application to make blood viscosity within the normal range.

  4. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  5. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (P<0.01), Can significantly reduce Naoluotong qingnaopian group, high dose group (P<0.01), plasma viscosity decreased qingnaopian plasma viscosity in low dose group (P<0.05). Conclusion: qingnaopian could improve the blood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  6. Local viscosity distribution in bifurcating microfluidic blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) aggregation phenomenon is majorly responsible for the non-Newtonian nature of blood, influencing the blood flow characteristics in the microvasculature. Of considerable interest is the behaviour of the fluid at the bifurcating regions. In vitro experiments, using microchannels, have shown that RBC aggregation, at certain flow conditions, affects the bluntness and skewness of the velocity profile, the local RBC concentration, and the cell-depleted layer at the channel walls. In addition, the developed RBC aggregates appear unevenly distributed in the outlets of these channels depending on their spatial distribution in the feeding branch, and on the flow conditions in the outlet branches. In the present work, constitutive equations of blood viscosity, from earlier work of the authors, are applied to flows in a T-type bifurcating microchannel to examine the local viscosity characteristics. Viscosity maps are derived for various flow distributions in the outlet branches of the channel, and the location of maximum viscosity magnitude is obtained. The viscosity does not appear significantly elevated in the branches of lower flow rate as would be expected on the basis of the low shear therein, and the maximum magnitude appears in the vicinity of the junction, and towards the side of the outlet branch with the higher flow rate. The study demonstrates that in the branches of lower flow rate, the local viscosity is also low, helping us to explain why the effects of physiological red blood cell aggregation have no adverse effects in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  7. Variation of velocity profile according to blood viscosity in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-11-01

    The shear-thinning effect of blood flows is known to change blood viscosity. Since blood viscosity and motion of red blood cells (RBCs) are closely related, hemorheological variations have a strong influence on hemodynamic characteristics. Therefore, understanding on the relationship between the hemorheological and hemodynamic properties is importance for getting more detailed information on blood circulation in microvessels. In this study, the blood viscosity and velocity profiles in a microfluidic channel were systematically investigated. Rat blood was delivered in the microfluidic device which can measure blood viscosity by monitoring the flow-switching phenomenon. Velocity profiles of blood flows in the microchannel were measured by using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Shape of velocity profiles measured at different flow rates was quantified by using a curve-fitting equation. It was observed that the shape of velocity profiles is highly correlated with blood viscosity. The study on the relation between blood viscosity and velocity profile would be helpful to understand the roles of hemorheological and hemodynamic properties in cardiovascular diseases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  8. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Predicting human blood viscosity in silico

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Pan, Wenxiao; Caswell, Bruce

    2011-07-05

    Cellular suspensions such as blood are a part of living organisms and their rheological and flow characteristics determine and affect majority of vital functions. The rheological and flow properties of cell suspensions are determined by collective dynamics of cells, their structure or arrangement, cell properties and interactions. We study these relations for blood in silico using a mesoscopic particle-based method and two different models (multi-scale/low-dimensional) of red blood cells. The models yield accurate quantitative predictions of the dependence of blood viscosity on shear rate and hematocrit. We explicitly model cell aggregation interactions and demonstrate the formation of reversible rouleaux structuresmore » resulting in a tremendous increase of blood viscosity at low shear rates and yield stress, in agreement with experiments. The non-Newtonian behavior of such cell suspensions (e.g., shear thinning, yield stress) is analyzed and related to the suspension’s microstructure, deformation and dynamics of single cells. We provide the flrst quantitative estimates of normal stress differences and magnitude of aggregation forces in blood. Finally, the flexibility of the cell models allows them to be employed for quantitative analysis of a much wider class of complex fluids including cell, capsule, and vesicle suspensions.« less

  10. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    PubMed

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P < 0.001), plasma viscosity (P < 0.001) and plasma fibrinogen (P < 0.01), but the association with fibrinogen did not persist after adjusting for body mass index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P < 0.001) and plasma viscosity (P < 0.001) and haematocrit (P < 0.001) but not to fibrinogen. The only difference between the sexes was that the association between blood viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  11. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  12. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  13. Applying Magneto-rheology to Reduce Blood Viscosity and Suppress Turbulence to Prevent Heart Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    Heart attacks are the leading causes of death in USA. Research indicates one common thread, high blood viscosity, linking all cardiovascular diseases. Turbulence in blood circulation makes different regions of the vasculature vulnerable to development of atherosclerotic plaque. Turbulence is also responsible for systolic ejection murmurs and places heavier workload on heart, a possible trigger of heart attacks. Presently, neither medicine nor method is available to suppress turbulence. The only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. However, using medicine to reduce the blood viscosity does not help suppressing turbulence. In fact, the turbulence gets worse as the Reynolds number goes up with the viscosity reduction by the medicine. Here we report our new discovery: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red blood cells are polarized in the magnetic field and aggregated into short chains along the flow direction. The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions perpendicular to the flow the viscosity is considerably increased. In this way, the blood flow becomes laminar, turbulence is suppressed, the blood circulation is greatly improved, and the risk for heart attacks is reduced. While these effects are not permanent, they last for about 24 hours after one magnetic therapy treatment.

  14. Temperature dependence of blood viscosity in frogs and turtles: effect on heat exchange with environment.

    PubMed

    Langille, B L; Crisp, B

    1980-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of blood from frogs and turtles has been assessed for temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C. Viscosity of turtles' blood was, on average, reduced from 3.50 +/- 0.16 to 2.13 +/- 0.10 cP between 10 and 30 degrees C, a decline of 39%. Even larger changes in viscosity were observed for frogs' blood with viscosity falling from 4.55 +/- 0.32 to 2.55 +/- 0.25 cP over the same temperature range, a change of 44%. Blood viscosity was highly correlated with hematocrit in both species at all temperatures. Viscosity of blood from both frogs and turtles showed a large standard deviation at all temperatures and this was attributed to large individual-to-individual variations in hematocrit. Turtles heat faster than they cool, regardless of whether tests are performed at temperatures above or below the range of thermal preference. The effect of temperature dependence of blood viscosity on heating and cooling rates is demonstrated.

  15. Micro-Viscometer for Measuring Shear-Varying Blood Viscosity over a Wide-Ranging Shear Rate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Seung Yeob; Jee, Solkeun; Atajanov, Arslan; Yang, Sung

    2017-06-20

    In this study, a micro-viscometer is developed for measuring shear-varying blood viscosity over a wide-ranging shear rate. The micro-viscometer consists of 10 microfluidic channel arrays, each of which has a different micro-channel width. The proposed design enables the retrieval of 10 different shear rates from a single flow rate, thereby enabling the measurement of shear-varying blood viscosity with a fixed flow rate condition. For this purpose, an optimal design that guarantees accurate viscosity measurement is selected from a parametric study. The functionality of the micro-viscometer is verified by both numerical and experimental studies. The proposed micro-viscometer shows 6.8% (numerical) and 5.3% (experimental) in relative error when compared to the result from a standard rotational viscometer. Moreover, a reliability test is performed by repeated measurement (N = 7), and the result shows 2.69 ± 2.19% for the mean relative error. Accurate viscosity measurements are performed on blood samples with variations in the hematocrit (35%, 45%, and 55%), which significantly influences blood viscosity. Since the blood viscosity correlated with various physical parameters of the blood, the micro-viscometer is anticipated to be a significant advancement for realization of blood on a chip.

  16. Micro-Viscometer for Measuring Shear-Varying Blood Viscosity over a Wide-Ranging Shear Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Seung Yeob; Jee, Solkeun; Atajanov, Arslan; Yang, Sung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a micro-viscometer is developed for measuring shear-varying blood viscosity over a wide-ranging shear rate. The micro-viscometer consists of 10 microfluidic channel arrays, each of which has a different micro-channel width. The proposed design enables the retrieval of 10 different shear rates from a single flow rate, thereby enabling the measurement of shear-varying blood viscosity with a fixed flow rate condition. For this purpose, an optimal design that guarantees accurate viscosity measurement is selected from a parametric study. The functionality of the micro-viscometer is verified by both numerical and experimental studies. The proposed micro-viscometer shows 6.8% (numerical) and 5.3% (experimental) in relative error when compared to the result from a standard rotational viscometer. Moreover, a reliability test is performed by repeated measurement (N = 7), and the result shows 2.69 ± 2.19% for the mean relative error. Accurate viscosity measurements are performed on blood samples with variations in the hematocrit (35%, 45%, and 55%), which significantly influences blood viscosity. Since the blood viscosity correlated with various physical parameters of the blood, the micro-viscometer is anticipated to be a significant advancement for realization of blood on a chip. PMID:28632151

  17. Increases in core temperature counterbalance effects of haemoconcentration on blood viscosity during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Williams, Alexander T; Cabrales, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia on blood viscosity. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity and increased blood aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased red blood cell (RBC) deformability (e.g. RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and postexercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia and to determine their combined effects on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% relative humidity), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (from 37.11 ± 0.35 to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), haemoconcentration (haematocrit increased from 43.6 ± 3.6 to 45.6 ± 3.5%) and dehydration (change in body weight = -3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced haemoconcentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood viscosity by 9% (from 3.97 to 4.33 cP at 300 s(-1)), whereas exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (from 3.97 to 3.69 cP at 300 s(-1)). When both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (from 3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s(-1)). The effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration

  18. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  19. Are overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity separate or redundant determinants of blood viscosity?

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In line with recent literature showing that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are independently associated with the risk of death, we recently reported that body mass index (BMI) and waist-to hip ratio (WHR) were independent predictors of blood viscosity, related to different determinants of viscosity (for BMI: plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation; for WHR: hematocrit). Since this report was challenged by a study showing that abdominal adiposity (as measured with waist circumference WC and not WHR) is the only independent determinant of viscosity, we re-assessed on our previous database correlations among viscosity factors, BMI, WHR and WC. Blood viscosity was correlated to BMI (r = 0.155 p = 0.004), WHR (r = 0.364; p = 0.027) and WC (r = 0.094; p = 0.05). Hematocrit was correlated to WHR (r = 0.524) but neither to BMI (r =-0.021) nor waist circumference (r = 0.053). WC was correlated with plasma viscosity (r = 0.154; p = 0.002) while WHR was not (r =-0.0102 NS). A stepwise regression analysis selected two determinants of whole blood viscosity at high shear rate: BMI (p = 0.0167) and WC (p = 0.0003) excluding WHR. Therefore, in this sample, abdominal fatness expressed by WC and whole body adiposity remain independent determinants of blood viscosity. WHR and WC have not the same meaning, WC measuring the size of abdominal fat while WHR measuring the shape of body distribution regardless the degree of fat excess. Interestingly, hematocrit is rather related to shape (even within a normal range of body size) than the extent of abdominal fatness, and is not related to whole body adiposity.

  20. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network

    PubMed Central

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T < 10 s). For performance demonstrations, the proposed method was applied to evaluate blood viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a

  1. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network.

    PubMed

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T < 10 s). For performance demonstrations, the proposed method was applied to evaluate blood viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a

  2. Endothelial Dysfunction and Blood Viscosity Inpatients with Unstable Angina in Different Periods of a Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokaeva, L. K.; Dolgova, E. M.; Afanas'yeva, T. N.; Strelnikova, O. A.

    The origin of hemorheologic and endothelial defects in patients with unstable angina (comparing with healthy persons) is determined by a solar activity period: the blood viscosity increases in a period of high solar activity in the vessels of small, medium and macro diameters, a local decompensate dysfunction of small vessels endothelium had been fixed (microcirculation area). In the period of a low solar activity there is an increase of a blood viscosity in vessels of all diameters, generalized subcompensated endothelial dysfunction is developed (on the background of the III phase blood clotting activating). In the period of a high solar activity a higher blood viscosity had been fixed, comparing with the period of a low solar activity.

  3. Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Pais, Eszter; Alexy, Tamas; Holsworth, Ralph E; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2006-01-01

    The vegetable cheese-like food, natto, is extremely popular in Japan with a history extending back over 1000 years. A fibrinolytic enzyme, termed nattokinase, can be extracted from natto; the enzyme is a subtilisin-like serine protease composed of 275 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 27.7 kDa. In vitro and in vivo studies have consistently demonstrated the potent pro-fibrinolytic effect of the enzyme. However, no studies to date have evaluated the effects of nattokinase on various hemorheological parameters and thus we have begun to assess the effects of the enzyme on RBC aggregation and blood viscosity. Blood samples were incubated with nattokinase (final activities of 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5 and 125 units/ml) for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. RBC aggregation was measured using a Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer and blood viscosity assessed over 1-1000 s(-1) with a computer controlled scanning capillary rheometer (Rheolog). Our in vitro results showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease of RBC aggregation and low-shear viscosity, with these beneficial effects evident at concentrations similar to those achieved in previous in vivo animal trials. Our preliminary data thus indicate positive in vitro hemorheological effects of nattokinase, and suggest its potential value as a therapeutic agent and the need for additional studies and clinical trials.

  4. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-02-29

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of blood viscosity on oxygen transport in residual stenosed artery following angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohwon; Krishnamoorthy, Mahesh; Cho, Young I; Sankovic, John M; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2008-02-01

    The effect of blood viscosity on oxygen transport in a stenosed coronary artery during the postangioplasty scenario is studied. In addition to incorporating varying blood viscosity using different hematocrit (Hct) concentrations, oxygen consumption by the avascular wall and its supply from vasa vasorum, nonlinear oxygen binding capacity of the hemoglobin, and basal to hyperemic flow rate changes are included in the calculation of oxygen transport in both the lumen and the avascular wall. The results of this study show that oxygen transport in the postangioplasty residual stenosed artery is affected by non-Newtonian shear-thinning property of the blood viscosity having variable Hct concentration. As Hct increases from 25% to 65%, the diminished recirculation zone for the increased Hct causes the commencement of pO(2) decrease to shift radially outward by approximately 20% from the center of the artery for the basal flow, but by approximately 10% for the hyperemic flow at the end of the diverging section. Oxygen concentration increases from a minimum value at the core of the recirculation zone to over 90 mm Hg before the lumen-wall interface at the diverging section for the hyperemic flow, which is attributed to increased shear rate and thinner lumen boundary layer for the hyperemic flow, and below 90 mm Hg for the basal flow. As Hct increases from 25% to 65%, the average of pO(2,min) beyond the diverging section drops by approximately 25% for the basal flow, whereas it increases by approximately 15% for the hyperemic flow. Thus, current results with the moderate stenosed artery indicate that reducing Hct might be favorable in terms of increasing O(2) flux and pO(2,min), in the medial region of the wall for the basal flow, while higher Hct is advantageous for the hyperemic flow beyond the diverging section. The results of this study not only provide significant details of oxygen transport under varying pathophysiologic blood conditions such as unusually high blood

  6. Posttransfusion Increase of Hematocrit per se Does Not Improve Circulatory Oxygen Delivery due to Increased Blood Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Robert; Tsai, Amy G; Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Hofmann, Axel; Meier, Jens; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Friedman, Joel M; Tartakovsky, Daniel M; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Blood transfusion is used to treat acute anemia with the goal of increasing blood oxygen-carrying capacity as determined by hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen delivery (DO2). However, increasing Hct also increases blood viscosity, which may thus lower DO2 if the arterial circulation is a rigid hydraulic system as the resistance to blood flow will increase. The net effect of transfusion on DO2 in this system can be analyzed by using the relationship between Hct and systemic blood viscosity of circulating blood at the posttransfusion Hct to calculate DO2 and comparing this value with pretransfusion DO2. We hypothesized that increasing Hct would increase DO2 and tested our hypothesis by mathematically modeling DO2 in the circulation. Calculations were made assuming a normal cardiac output (5 L/min) with degrees of anemia ranging from 5% to 80% Hct deficit. We analyzed the effects of transfusing 0.5 or more units of 300 cc of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) at an Hct of 65% and calculated microcirculatory DO2 after accounting for increased blood viscosity and assuming no change in blood pressure. Our model accounts for O2 diffusion out of the circulation before blood arriving to the nutritional circulation and for changes in blood flow velocity. The immediate posttransfusion DO2 was also compared with DO2 after the transient increase in volume due to transfusion has subsided. Blood transfusion of up to 3 units of PRBCs increased DO2 when Hct (or hemoglobin) was 60% lower than normal, but did not increase DO2 when administered before this threshold. After accounting for the effect of increasing blood viscosity on blood flow owing to increasing Hct, we found in a mathematical simulation of DO2 that transfusion of up to 3 units of PRBCs does not increase DO2, unless anemia is the result of an Hct deficit greater than 60%. Observations that transfusions occasionally result in clinical improvement suggest that other mechanisms possibly related to increased blood viscosity may

  7. Plasma and blood viscosity in the prediction of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sanne Ae; Woodward, Mark; Rumley, Ann; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh D; Lowe, Gordon DO

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit and plasma viscosity) are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality; however, their predictive value for CVD and mortality is not clear. Methods We prospectively assessed the added predictive value of plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity and haematocrit in 3386 men and women aged 30-74 years participating in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort study. Results Over a median follow-up of 17 years, 819 CVD events and 778 deaths were recorded. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for a 1 SD increase in plasma viscosity, adjusted for major CVD risk factors, were 1.12 (1.04-1.20) for CVD and 1.20 (1.12-1.29) for mortality. These remained significant after further adjustment for plasma fibrinogen: 1.09 (1.01-1.18) and 1.13 (1.04-1.22). The corresponding results for blood viscosity were 0.99 (0.90, 1.09) for CVD, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) for total mortality after adjustment for major CVD risk factors; and 0.97 (0.88, 1.08) and 1.06 (0.96, 1.18) after further adjustment for fibrinogen. Haematocrit showed similar associations to blood viscosity. When added to classical CVD risk factors, plasma viscosity improved the discrimination of CVD and mortality by 2.4% (0.7-4.4%) and 4.1% (2.0-6.5%). Conclusions Although plasma and blood viscosity may have a role in the pathogenesis of CVD and mortality, much of their association with CVD and mortality is due to the mutual effects of major CVD risk factors. However, plasma viscosity adds to the discrimination of CVD and mortality and might be considered for inclusion in multivariable risk scores.

  8. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT-1 h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P < 0.0001) in a multivariate regression analysis model including several atherosclerosis risk factors. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between blood viscosity and 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  10. Which side of the balance determines the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia: Blood viscosity or microvascular dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Charlot, Keyne; Romana, Marc; Moeckesch, Berenike; Jumet, Stéphane; Waltz, Xavier; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Petras, Marie; Tressières, Benoît; Tarer, Vanessa; Hue, Olivier; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Vascular resistance and tissue perfusion may be both affected by impaired vascular function and increased blood viscosity. Little is known about the effects of vascular function on the occurrence of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The aim of the present study was to determine which side of the balance (blood viscosity or vascular function) is the most deleterious in SCA and increases the risk for frequent hospitalized VOC. Microvascular function, microcirculatory oxygenation and blood viscosity were determined in a group of 22 SCA children/adolescents at steady state and a group of 13 healthy children/adolescents. Univariate analyses demonstrated blunted microvascular reactivity during local thermal heating test and decreased microcirculatory oxygenation in SCA children compared to controls. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased blood viscosity and decreased microcirculatory oxygenation were independent risk factors of frequent VOC in SCA. In contrast, the level of microvascular dysfunction does not predict VOC rate. In conclusion, increased blood viscosity is usually well supported in healthy individuals where vascular function is not impaired. However, in the context of SCA, microvascular function is impaired and any increase of blood viscosity or decrease in microcirculatory oxygenation would increase the risks for frequent VOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between blood viscosity and infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Emanuele; Liotta, Agatina Alessandriello; Gori, Anna Maria; Valente, Serafina; Giglioli, Cristina; Lazzeri, Chiara; Sofi, Francesco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Abbate, Rosanna; Mannini, Lucia

    2009-05-15

    Previous studies explored the association between hemorheological alterations and acute myocardial infarction, pointing out the role of hematological components on microvascular flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood viscosity and infarct size, estimated by creatine kinase (CK) peak activity and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) peak concentration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study population included 197 patients with diagnosis of STEMI undergoing PCI. Hemorheological studies were performed by assessing whole blood viscosity (measured at shear rates of 0.512 s(-1) and 94.5 s(-1)) and plasma viscosity using the Rotational Viscosimeter LS 30 and erythrocyte deformability index by Myrenne filtrometer. Significant correlations between CK peak activity, cTnI peak concentration, left ventricular ejection fraction and hemorheological variables were observed. At linear regression analysis (adjusted for age, gender, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, renal dysfunction, timeliness of reperfusion, pre-PCI TIMI flow, infarct location, multivessel disease and previous coronary artery disease) leukocytes and whole blood viscosity at 0.512 s(-1) and 94.5 s(-1) were independently and positively associated with infarct size. These results demonstrate a significant and independent association between hemorheology and infarct size in STEMI patients after PCI suggesting that blood viscosity, in a condition of low flow, might worsen myocardial perfusion leading to an increased infarct size. The measurement of whole blood viscosity in STEMI patients could help to identify those who may benefit from new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based viscosity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jinming; Wang, Yi; Ye, Clark; Feng, Yinglong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome is triggered by high blood viscosity in the human body. This syndrome can result in retinopathy, vertigo, coma, and other unanticipated complications. Serum viscosity is one of the important factors affecting whole blood viscosity, which is regarded as an indicator of general health. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a Brownian relaxation-based mixing frequency method to test human serum viscosity. This method uses excitatory and detection coils and Brownian relaxation-dominated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are sensitive to variables of the liquid environment such as viscosity and temperature. We collect the harmonic signals produced by magnetic nanoparticles and estimate the viscosity of unknown solutions by comparison to the calibration curves. An in vitro human serum viscosity test is performed in less than 1.5 min.

  13. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of blood viscosity on dissipation as well as dispersion of small waves in arteries and veins by means of a parametric study. A linearized analysis of axisymmetric waves in a cylindrical membrane that contains a viscous fluid indicates that there are two families of waves: a family of slow waves and one of fast waves. The faster waves are shown to be more sensitive to variations in the elastic properties of the medium surrounding the blood vessels and at high values of the frequency parameter alpha. At low values of alpha the effects of viscosity on attenuation are reversed.

  14. A method for matching the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a blood analog for flow visualization in hydraulic cardiovascular models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F

    2004-08-01

    In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).

  15. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  16. The Contribution of Red Blood Cell Dynamics to Intrinsic Viscosity and Functional ATP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Alison; Abkarian, Manouk; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    In shear flow, red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit a variety of behaviors such as rouleaux formation, tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. The physiological consequences of these dynamic behaviors are not understood. In vivo, ATP is known to signal vasodilation; however, to our knowledge, no one has deciphered the relevance of RBC microrheology to the functional release of ATP. Previously, we correlated RBC deformation and ATP release in microfluidic constrictions (Wan et al., 2008). In this work, a cone-plate rheometer is used to shear a low hematocrit solution of RBCs at varying viscosity ratios (λ) between the inner cytoplasmic hemoglobin and the outer medium, to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension. Further, using a luciferin-luciferase enzymatic reaction, we report the relative ATP release at varying shear rates. Results indicate that for λ = 1.6, 3.8 and 11.1, ATP release is constant up to 500 s-1, which suggests that the tumbling-tanktreading transition does not alter ATP release in pure shear. For lower viscosity ratios, λ = 1.6 and 3.8, at 500 s-1 a change in slope occurs in the intrinsic viscosity data and is marked by an increase in ATP release. Based on microfluidic observations, this simultaneous change in viscosity and ATP release occurs within the tank-treading regime.

  17. [Effects of refined konjac meal on lipid metabolism and blood viscosity of rats fed by high fat forage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongxia; Yang, Lili; Liu, Hong; Tan, Xiutao

    2002-04-01

    Male SD rats are fed by high fat diet supplemented with refined konjac meal for 6 weeks and the effect of refined konjac meal on the serum lipid peroxides (LPO) and blood viscosity are observed. The results showed that the refined konjac meal can obviously decrease serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum LPO of rats in comparison with those of rats fed only by high fat forage, and can elevate, at the same time, the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol/triglyceride value. It is also shown that the refined konjac meal can decrease the blood viscosity, but has no effect on forage intake and weight gain of rats.

  18. Plasma volume and blood viscosity during 4 h sitting in a dry environment: effect of prehydration.

    PubMed

    Doi, Tatsuya; Sakurai, Masao; Hamada, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Yanagisawa, Kae; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Morimoto, Taketoshi; Greenleaf, John E

    2004-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism are potential problems for travelers, including those who fly. We hypothesized that prehydration with an electrolyte-glucose beverage (EGB) would be better than water for maintaining body fluid balance and preventing increased blood viscosity in immobilized men. There were 12 healthy men (24-38 yr) who participated in crossover trials of prehydration using EGB and H2O as well as a control condition (Con) with no prehydration. Fluid intake was set at 6 ml x kg(-1) body weight (mean 418 ml). For each trial, subjects sat for 4 h at a dry-bulb temperature of 23.0-23.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 18-36%. Plasma volume (PV) and whole blood viscosity (Bvis) were determined every hour; routine laboratory hematological tests, urine volume, and body weight were recorded at 2 h and 4 h. For Con, subjects lost approximately 110 ml h(-1); at 2 h, PV had decreased significantly by 3.4%, and Bvis had increased significantly by 9.3%, with no further change at 4 h. For prehydration, retention of the consumed fluid at 2 h was significantly higher for EGB (57%) than for H2O (38%), while both drinks prevented significant change in PV and Bvis. There were no significant differences between trials in coagulation variables, but Bvis measured at higher shear rates for EGB were significantly attenuated compared with Con. EGB and water prevented the increase of blood viscosity that occurred without prehydration. EGB was better than water for maintaining body fluid balance and preventing hypovolemia.

  19. Effect of long-term exercise training on blood viscosity during endurance exercise at an anaerobic threshold intensity.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Sakurai, S; Tanehata, M; Oshima, S; Taniguchi, K

    2000-11-01

    Blood viscosity (etaB) is low in athletes, but the effect of exercise training on etaB during endurance exercise at an anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity in non-athletes is not well known, although it is known that exercise training sometimes induces the hyperviscosity syndrome. Fourteen subjects were recruited and divided into 2 groups: those who trained at an AT intensity for 30 min/day, 3 times weekly for 1 year (Group T, n=8), and sedentary subjects (Group C, n=6). The test protocol consisted of a single 30-min treadmill exercise at each individual's AT intensity, which was determined in advance. The etaB, plasma viscosity (etaP), and hematocrit were measured just before and at the end of the treadmill exercise. The subjects were not allowed to drink any water before exercise. In the Group C subjects, the hematocrit and etaP increased significantly and the etaB tended to increase. However, in the Group T subjects, the hematocrit and etaP did not increase and the etaB decreased significantly. These data indicate that long-term exercise training attenuates the increase in blood viscosity during exercise.

  20. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-09-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

  1. Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Joseph; Holsworth, Ralph E; Brossman, Bradley; Cho, Daniel J; St Cyr, John; Fridman, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown fluid replacement beverages ingested after exercise can affect hydration biomarkers. No specific hydration marker is universally accepted as an ideal rehydration parameter following strenuous exercise. Currently, changes in body mass are used as a parameter during post-exercise hydration. Additional parameters are needed to fully appreciate and better understand rehydration following strenuous exercise. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial assessed the effect of high-pH water on four biomarkers after exercise-induced dehydration. One hundred healthy adults (50 M/50 F, 31 ± 6 years of age) were enrolled at a single clinical research center in Camden, NJ and completed this study with no adverse events. All individuals exercised in a warm environment (30 °C, 70% relative humidity) until their weight was reduced by a normally accepted level of 2.0 ± 0.2% due to perspiration, reflecting the effects of exercise in producing mild dehydration. Participants were randomized to rehydrate with an electrolyzed, high-pH (alkaline) water or standard water of equal volume (2% body weight) and assessed for an additional 2-h recovery period following exercise in order to assess any potential variations in measured parameters. The following biomarkers were assessed at baseline and during their recovery period: blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass, as well as monitoring vital signs. Furthermore, a mixed model analysis was performed for additional validation. After exercise-induced dehydration, consumption of the electrolyzed, high-pH water reduced high-shear viscosity by an average of 6.30% compared to 3.36% with standard purified water ( p  = 0.03). Other measured biomarkers (plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass change) revealed no significant difference between the two types of water for rehydration. However, a mixed model analysis validated the effect of high

  2. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2

  3. Effect of renal replacement therapy on viscosity in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Feriani, M; Kimmel, P L; Kurantsin-Mills, J; Bosch, J P

    1992-02-01

    Viscosity, an important determinant of microcirculatory hemodynamics, is related to hematocrit (HCT), and may be altered by renal failure or its treatment. To assess these factors, we studied the effect of dialysis on the viscosity of whole blood, plasma, and reconstituted 70% HCT blood of eight continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and nine hemodialysis (HD) patients under steady shear flow conditions at different shear rates, before and after dialysis, compared with nine normal subjects. The density of the red blood cells (RBCs), a marker of cell hydration, was measured in HD patients by a nonaqueous differential floatation technique. Whole blood viscosity was higher in controls than patients, and correlated with HCT before treatment (P less than 0.05) at shear rates of 11.5 to 230 s-1) in HD patients, and 23 to 230 s-1 in all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In contrast, whole blood viscosity correlated with HCT in CAPD patients only at the lowest shear rates (2.3 and 5.75 s-1, P less than 0.05). Plasma viscosity was higher in CAPD patients than both HD patients before treatment and controls (P less than 0.05, analysis of variance [ANOVA]), despite lower plasma total protein, albumin, and similar fibrinogen concentration compared with HD patients. When all samples were reconstituted to 70% HCT, CAPD patients had higher whole blood viscosity than control subjects'. The high HCT blood viscosity of the ESRD patients was higher than control subjects' at capillary shear rates, suggesting increased RBC aggregation and decreased RBC deformability in patients with renal disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Fahey, George C

    2006-01-01

    Viscosity is a physicochemical property associated with dietary fibers, particularly soluble dietary fibers. Viscous dietary fibers thicken when mixed with fluids and include polysaccharides such as gums, pectins, psyllium, and beta-glucans. Although insoluble fiber particles may affect viscosity measurement, viscosity is not an issue regards insoluble dietary fibers. Viscous fibers have been credited for beneficial physiological responses in human, animal, and animal-alternative in vitro models. The following article provides a review of viscosity as related to dietary fiber including definitions and instrumentation, factors affecting viscosity of solutions, and effects of viscous polysaccharides on glycemic response, blood lipid attenuation, intestinal enzymatic activity, digestibility, and laxation.

  5. Effects of early heat exposure on thermoregulatory responses and blood viscosity of broilers prior to marketing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W T; Fujita, M; Ito, T; Yamamoto, S

    1997-07-01

    1. This study was to determine the effects of heat load early in life on thermoregulatory responses and whole blood viscosity of broilers during a subsequent exposure to high environmental temperature later in life. 2. The birds, which had been subjected to exposure to 38 degrees C for 24 h at 5-d-old, served as prior exposure group (group A). Both group A and control group B were exposed to 33 degrees C for 3 h when near marketable weight. 3. On exposure to 33 degrees C, although there were no significant differences in the increases in heat production (HP) between the two groups, abdominal temperature (Ta), temperature of external ear tract (Tee), shank skin temperature (Tss), standing-lying frequency and lying time were lower in group A than in group B. Heart rate (HR) and comb surface temperature (Tcs) did not differ but increased in both groups during exposure to 33 degrees C. Respiration rate (RR) was greater in group A. 4. Blood viscosity decreased markedly in both groups after exposure to 33 degrees C; the decrease was greater in group A. 5. These results suggest that early exposure may promote broilers' ability to cope with the subsequent heat load by altering thermoregulatory physiological responses and behavioural patterns, resulting in an alleviation of heat stress.

  6. Experimental study on the viscosity and adhesive performance of exogenous liquid fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuro; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Inamasu, Joji; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hirose, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous fibrin glue (FG) is highly suitable for neurosurgical procedures, because of its viscosity and adhesive properties. Several FGs are commercially available, but only few reports detail their differences. In the present study, we investigated the viscosity and adhesive performance of two types of FG: one is derived from blood donated in Europe and the United States (CSL Behring's Beriplast(®), BP) and the other is derived from blood donated in Japan (the Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute's Bolheal(®), BH). The viscosity test that measured fibrinogen viscosity revealed that BP had significantly higher viscosity than BH. Similarly, the dripping test showed that BP traveled a significantly shorter drip distance in the vertical direction than BH, although the transverse diameter of the coagulated FG did not differ statistically significantly. In the tensile strength test, BP showed superior adhesion performance over BH. The histological study of the hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens in both groups showed favorable adhesion. Although further studies are required on its manufacturing and usage methods, FG shows differences in viscosity and adhesive performance according to the blood from which it is derived. We conclude that it is desirable to select the type and usage method of FG according to the characteristics of the surgical operation in question. Our findings suggest that FG produced from the blood donated in Europe and the United States might be more suitable for use in surgical procedures that demand an especially high degree of viscosity and rapid adhesive performance.

  7. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high.

  8. Experimental Study on the Viscosity and Adhesive Performance of Exogenous Liquid Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Takuro; HASEGAWA, Mitsuhiro; INAMASU, Joji; ADACHI, Kazuhide; NAGAHISA, Shinya; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous fibrin glue (FG) is highly suitable for neurosurgical procedures, because of its viscosity and adhesive properties. Several FGs are commercially available, but only few reports detail their differences. In the present study, we investigated the viscosity and adhesive performance of two types of FG: one is derived from blood donated in Europe and the United States (CSL Behring's Beriplast®, BP) and the other is derived from blood donated in Japan (the Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute's Bolheal®, BH). The viscosity test that measured fibrinogen viscosity revealed that BP had significantly higher viscosity than BH. Similarly, the dripping test showed that BP traveled a significantly shorter drip distance in the vertical direction than BH, although the transverse diameter of the coagulated FG did not differ statistically significantly. In the tensile strength test, BP showed superior adhesion performance over BH. The histological study of the hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens in both groups showed favorable adhesion. Although further studies are required on its manufacturing and usage methods, FG shows differences in viscosity and adhesive performance according to the blood from which it is derived. We conclude that it is desirable to select the type and usage method of FG according to the characteristics of the surgical operation in question. Our findings suggest that FG produced from the blood donated in Europe and the United States might be more suitable for use in surgical procedures that demand an especially high degree of viscosity and rapid adhesive performance. PMID:25367586

  9. The effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the deformation of red blood cells in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesay, Juldeh

    2005-11-01

    The analyses of the effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the membrane of red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in a shear flow are presented. The specific objective is to investigate the mechanical deformation on the surfaces of an ellipsoidal particle model. The hydrodynamic stresses and other forces on the surface of the particle are used to determine the cell deformation. We extended previous works, which were based on the Newtonian fluid models, to the non-Newtonian case, and focus on imposed shear rate values between 1 and 100 per second. Two viscosity models are investigated, which respectively correspond to a normal person and a patient with cerebrovascular accident (CVA). The results are compared with those obtained assuming a Newtonian model. We observed that the orientation of the cell influences the deformation and the imposed shear rate drives the local shear rate distribution along the particle surface. The integral particle deformation for the non-Newtonian models in the given shear rate regime is higher than that for the Newtonian reference model. Finally, the deformation of the cell surface decreases as the dissipation ratio increases.

  10. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  11. Earthing (grounding) the human body reduces blood viscosity-a major factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Delany, Richard M

    2013-02-01

    Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. SUBJECTS were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events.

  12. Heat transfer analysis on peristaltically induced motion of particle-fluid suspension with variable viscosity: Clot blood model.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M M; Zeeshan, A; Ellahi, R

    2016-12-01

    In this article, heat transfer analysis on clot blood model of the particle-fluid suspension through a non-uniform annulus has been investigated. The blood propagating along the whole length of the annulus was induced by peristaltic motion. The effects of variable viscosity and slip condition are also taken into account. The governing flow problem is modeled using lubrication approach by taking the assumption of long wavelength and creeping flow regime. The resulting equation for fluid phase and particle phase is solved analytically and closed form solutions are obtained. The physical impact of all the emerging parameters is discussed mathematically and graphically. Particularly, we considered the effects of particle volume fraction, slip parameter, the maximum height of clot, viscosity parameter, average volume flow rate, Prandtl number, Eckert number and fluid parameter on temperature profile, pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Numerical computations have been used to determine the behavior of pressure rise and friction along the whole length of the annulus. The present study is also presented for an endoscope as a special case of our study. It is observed that greater influence of clot tends to rise the pressure rise significantly. It is also found that temperature profile increases due to the enhancement in Prandtl number, Eckert number, and fluid parameter. The present study reveals that friction forces for outer tube have higher magnitude as compared to the friction forces for an inner tube. In fact, the results for present study can also be reduced to the Newtonian fluid by taking ζ → ∞. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  14. Possible benefits of catheters with lateral holes in coronary thrombus aspiration: a computational study for different clot viscosities and vacuum pressures.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sajjad; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2014-10-01

    According to a number of clinical studies, coronary aspiration catheters are useful tools to remove a thrombus (blood clot) blocking a coronary artery. However, these thrombectomy devices may fail to remove the blood clot entirely. Few studies have been devoted to a systematic analysis of factors affecting clot aspiration. The geometric characteristics of the aspiration catheter, the physical properties of the thrombus, and the applied vacuum pressure are crucial parameters. In this study, the aspiration of a blood clot blocking a coronary bifurcation is computationally simulated. The clot is modeled as a highly viscous fluid, and a two-phase (blood and clot) problem is solved. The effects of geometric variations in the tip of the coronary catheter, including lateral hole size and location, are investigated considering different aspiration pressures and clot viscosities. A Bird-Carreau model is adopted for blood viscosity, while a power law model is used to describe the clot rheology. Computational results for blood clot aspiration show that the presence of holes in the lateral part of the tip of the catheter can be beneficial depending on clot viscosity, hole features, and applied aspiration pressure. In general, the holes are beneficial when the clot viscosity is low, while aspiration catheters without any extra lateral holes exhibit better performance for higher clot viscosity. However, when higher aspiration pressures are applied, the catheters tend to behave relatively similarly in removing clots with various viscosities, reducing the role of the clot viscosity. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The performance of bioinspired valveless piezoelectric micropump with respect to viscosity change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Chul; Hur, Sunghoon; Kang, Dooho; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-04-29

    This study investigated the effect of the serial connection of two pumping chambers on transport of liquid with increased viscosity. A serially connected valveless piezoelectric micropump was fabricated inspired by the liquid-feeding strategy of a female mosquito drinking liquid with a wide range of viscosities, from nectar to blood. The performance of the micropump was investigated by varying the viscosity of working liquid. Results showed that the optimal phase difference between the two chambers was 180° out-of-phase for all viscosity conditions. The two chambers operating at 180° out-of-phase exhibited higher pumping performance compared with the sum of each single chamber solely actuated, when viscosity increased. The flow patterns in the micropump showed that the rectification efficiency improved with the increase in viscosity. Results indicated that the serially connected valveless piezoelectric micropump is more robust to the increase of viscosity than a single-chamber piezoelectric micropump. This study would be helpful in the design of microfluidic devices for transporting liquids with a wide range of viscosities.

  16. Label-free viscosity measurement of complex fluids using reversal flow switching manipulation in a microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Jun Kang, Yang; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    The accurate viscosity measurement of complex fluids is essential for characterizing fluidic behaviors in blood vessels and in microfluidic channels of lab-on-a-chip devices. A microfluidic platform that accurately identifies biophysical properties of blood can be used as a promising tool for the early detections of cardiovascular and microcirculation diseases. In this study, a flow-switching phenomenon depending on hydrodynamic balancing in a microfluidic channel was adopted to conduct viscosity measurement of complex fluids with label-free operation. A microfluidic device for demonstrating this proposed method was designed to have two inlets for supplying the test and reference fluids, two side channels in parallel, and a junction channel connected to the midpoint of the two side channels. According to this proposed method, viscosities of various fluids with different phases (aqueous, oil, and blood) in relation to that of reference fluid were accurately determined by measuring the switching flow-rate ratio between the test and reference fluids, when a reverse flow of the test or reference fluid occurs in the junction channel. An analytical viscosity formula was derived to measure the viscosity of a test fluid in relation to that of the corresponding reference fluid using a discrete circuit model for the microfluidic device. The experimental analysis for evaluating the effects of various parameters on the performance of the proposed method revealed that the fluidic resistance ratio (RJL/RL, fluidic resistance in the junction channel (RJL) to fluidic resistance in the side channel (RL)) strongly affects the measurement accuracy. The microfluidic device with smaller RJL/RL values is helpful to measure accurately the viscosity of the test fluid. The proposed method accurately measured the viscosities of various fluids, including single-phase (Glycerin and plasma) and oil-water phase (oil vs. deionized water) fluids, compared with conventional methods. The proposed

  17. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was performed before and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ECC commencement. To eliminate bias induced by hematocrit and plasma, all blood samples were adjusted to a hematocrit of 45% using baseline plasma. Blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, arterial blood gas analysis, central venous O2 saturation, and lactate were measured. Results The blood viscosity and aggregation index decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC and then remained low during ECC in both groups, but blood elasticity did not change during ECC. Blood viscosity, blood elasticity, plasma viscosity, and the aggregation index were not significantly different in the groups at any time. Hematocrit decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC in both groups due to dilution by the priming solution used. Conclusion After ECC, blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation were not different in the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups in the adult dog model. Furthermore, pulsatile flow did not have a more harmful effect on blood viscoelasticity or RBC aggregation than nonpulsatile flow. PMID:27298790

  18. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was performed before and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ECC commencement. To eliminate bias induced by hematocrit and plasma, all blood samples were adjusted to a hematocrit of 45% using baseline plasma. Blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, arterial blood gas analysis, central venous O2 saturation, and lactate were measured. The blood viscosity and aggregation index decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC and then remained low during ECC in both groups, but blood elasticity did not change during ECC. Blood viscosity, blood elasticity, plasma viscosity, and the aggregation index were not significantly different in the groups at any time. Hematocrit decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC in both groups due to dilution by the priming solution used. After ECC, blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation were not different in the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups in the adult dog model. Furthermore, pulsatile flow did not have a more harmful effect on blood viscoelasticity or RBC aggregation than nonpulsatile flow.

  19. Effects of Momordica charantia L. on the blood rheological properties in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    França, Eduardo Luzía; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Pessôa, Rafael Souza; França, Fernando Luzía; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the rheological properties and the effects of Momordica. charantia L. (M. charantia) nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres adsorbed with M. charantia nanoparticles on the blood of hyperglycemic patients is presented. Blood samples were collected according to glycemic status: normoglycemic (N = 56) and hyperglycemic (N = 26). General and hematological characteristics were determined. Blood rheological parameters were determined at room temperature and under a temperature scan. We determined the effects on whole blood viscosity of treatment with an extract of M. charantia, PEG, or PEG microspheres adsorbed with plant extract. The viscosity of the blood of hyperglycemic patients is greater than that of normoglycemic patients. Nanoparticles of M. charantia extracts lowered blood viscosity at equivalent rates in normo- and hyperglycemic individuals. PEG microspheres did not reduce blood viscosity in hyperglycemic individuals. However, PEG microspheres adsorbed with nanofraction extracts of M. charantia reduced blood viscosity. These data suggest that the effects of diabetes on the viscosity of the blood should be considered. The use of a nanoparticles extract of M. charantia and its adsorption on PEG microspheres may represent an alternative for the control and treatment of blood disorders in diabetic patients.

  20. Effects of Momordica charantia L. on the Blood Rheological Properties in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    França, Eduardo Luzía; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Pessôa, Rafael Souza; França, Fernando Luzía; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the rheological properties and the effects of Momordica. charantia L. (M. charantia) nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres adsorbed with M. charantia nanoparticles on the blood of hyperglycemic patients is presented. Blood samples were collected according to glycemic status: normoglycemic (N = 56) and hyperglycemic (N = 26). General and hematological characteristics were determined. Blood rheological parameters were determined at room temperature and under a temperature scan. We determined the effects on whole blood viscosity of treatment with an extract of M. charantia, PEG, or PEG microspheres adsorbed with plant extract. The viscosity of the blood of hyperglycemic patients is greater than that of normoglycemic patients. Nanoparticles of M. charantia extracts lowered blood viscosity at equivalent rates in normo- and hyperglycemic individuals. PEG microspheres did not reduce blood viscosity in hyperglycemic individuals. However, PEG microspheres adsorbed with nanofraction extracts of M. charantia reduced blood viscosity. These data suggest that the effects of diabetes on the viscosity of the blood should be considered. The use of a nanoparticles extract of M. charantia and its adsorption on PEG microspheres may represent an alternative for the control and treatment of blood disorders in diabetic patients. PMID:24672797

  1. An accurate estimation method of kinematic viscosity for standard viscosity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurano, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Yoshida, K.; Imai, H.

    1992-07-01

    Deming's method of least squares is introduced to make an accurate kinematic viscosity estimation for a series of 13 standard-viscosity liquids at any desired temperature. The empirical ASTM kinematic viscosity-temperature equation is represented in the form loglog( v+c)=a-b log T, where v (in mm2. s-1) is the kinematic viscosity at temperature T (in K), a and b are the constants for a given liquid, and c has a variable value. In the present application, however, c is assumed to have a constant value for each standard-viscosity liquid, as do a and b in the ASTM equation. This assumption has since been verified experimentally for all standard-viscosity liquids. The kinematic viscosities for the 13 standard-viscosity liquids have been measured with a high accuracy in the temperature range of 20 40°C using a series of the NRLM capillary master viscometers with an automatic flow time detection system. The deviations between measured and estimated kinematic viscosities were less than ±0.04% for the 10 standard-viscosity liquids JS2.5 to JS2000 and ±0.11% for the 3 standard-viscosity liquids JS15H to JS200H, respectively. From the above investigation, it was revealed that the uncertainty in the present estimation method is less than one-third that in the usual ASTM method.

  2. Vinpocetine and pyritinol: a new model for blood rheological modulation in cerebrovascular disorders—a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alkuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I; Albuhadilly, Ali K

    2014-01-01

    Blood and plasma viscosity are the major factors affecting blood flow and normal circulation. Whole blood viscosity is mainly affected by plasma viscosity, red blood cell deformability/aggregation and hematocrit, and other physiological factors. Thirty patients (twenty males + ten females) with age range 50-65 years, normotensive with history of cerebrovascular disorders, were selected according to the American Heart Stroke Association. Blood viscosity and other rheological parameters were measured after two-day abstinence from any medications. Dual effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol exhibit significant effects on all hemorheological parameters (P < 0.05), especially on low shear whole blood viscosity (P < 0.01), but they produced insignificant effects on total serum protein and high shear whole blood viscosity (P > 0.05). Therefore, joint effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol improve blood and plasma viscosity in patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

  3. Vinpocetine and Pyritinol: A New Model for Blood Rheological Modulation in Cerebrovascular Disorders—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Albuhadilly, Ali K.

    2014-01-01

    Blood and plasma viscosity are the major factors affecting blood flow and normal circulation. Whole blood viscosity is mainly affected by plasma viscosity, red blood cell deformability/aggregation and hematocrit, and other physiological factors. Thirty patients (twenty males + ten females) with age range 50–65 years, normotensive with history of cerebrovascular disorders, were selected according to the American Heart Stroke Association. Blood viscosity and other rheological parameters were measured after two-day abstinence from any medications. Dual effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol exhibit significant effects on all hemorheological parameters (P < 0.05), especially on low shear whole blood viscosity (P < 0.01), but they produced insignificant effects on total serum protein and high shear whole blood viscosity (P > 0.05). Therefore, joint effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol improve blood and plasma viscosity in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:25548768

  4. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or immune system proteins can cause increased blood viscosity (thickening of the blood). Increased platelets or blood ... by anemia Pica (eating of ice, dirt, or clay) suggests iron deficiency anemia Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  5. Measurement of rheologic property of blood by a falling-ball blood viscometer.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Yoko; Karino, Takeshi

    2008-04-01

    The viscosity of blood obtained by using a rotational viscometer decreases with the time elapsed from the beginning of measurement until it reaches a constant value determined by the magnitude of shear rate. It is not possible to obtain an initial value of viscosity at time t = 0 that is considered to exhibit an intrinsic property of the fluid by this method. Therefore, we devised a new method by which one can obtain the viscosity of various fluids that are not affected by both the time elapsed from the beginning of measurement and the magnitude of shear rate by considering the balance of the forces acting on a solid spherical particle freely falling in a quiescent viscous fluid. By using the new method, we studied the rheologic behavior of corn syrups, carboxy-methyl cellulose, and human blood; and compared the results with those obtained with a cone-and-plate viscometer. It was found that in the case of corn syrups and washed red cell suspensions in which no red cell aggregate (rouleau) was formed, the viscosity obtained with the two different methods were almost the same. In contrast to this, in the case of the whole blood in which massive aggregates were formed, the viscosity obtained with a falling-ball viscometer was much larger than that obtained with a cone-plate viscometer.

  6. Variability of hemodynamic parameters using the common viscosity assumption in a computational fluid dynamics analysis of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Takao, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takamasa; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Masuda, Shunsuke; Dahmani, Chihebeddine; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Mamori, Hiroya; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Hideki; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murayama, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In most simulations of intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics, blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. However, it is a non-Newtonian fluid, and its viscosity profile differs among individuals. Therefore, the common viscosity assumption may not be valid for all patients. This study aims to test the suitability of the common viscosity assumption. Blood viscosity datasets were obtained from two healthy volunteers. Three simulations were performed for three different-sized aneurysms, two using measured value-based non-Newtonian models and one using a Newtonian model. The parameters proposed to predict an aneurysmal rupture obtained using the non-Newtonian models were compared with those obtained using the Newtonian model. The largest difference (25%) in the normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) was observed in the smallest aneurysm. Comparing the difference ratio to the NWSS with the Newtonian model between the two Non-Newtonian models, the difference of the ratio was 17.3%. Irrespective of the aneurysmal size, computational fluid dynamics simulations with either the common Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity assumption could lead to values different from those of the patient-specific viscosity model for hemodynamic parameters such as NWSS.

  7. Blood rheology effect of submaximal exercise on young subjects.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Aranda, Rafael; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays cardiac and metabolic diseases are a matter of concern. Exercise is a valid treatment and method of prevention for not only adults, but also young subjects. Physical activity causes transient blood rheology impairment in adults. However little is known about the effects of exercise on blood flow characteristics in young subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a light aerobic exercise session on blood rheology in young subjects. Ten young subjects (aged 12-16 years) performed 1 hour of submaximal aerobic exercise (70% HRmax). Blood samples were drawn just before and after exercise. We determined blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte deformability and aggregability. No changes in blood viscosity (p > 0.05), erythrocyte aggregation (p > 0.05) and fibrinogen (p > 0.05) were observed. Hematocrit (p = 0.025) and plasma viscosity (p = 0.018) rose with exercise, while erythrocyte elongation index lowered (p < 0.001). Plasma volume slightly reduced which may explain the lack of changes in blood viscosity. The results of the present study indicate a similar hemorheological response to submaximal exercise in both young people and adults.

  8. Microfluidic method for measuring viscosity using images from smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyeong; Kim, Kyung Chun; Yeom, Eunseop

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of a fluid is the most important characteristic in fluid rheology. Many microfluidic devices have been proposed for easily measuring the fluid viscosity of small samples. A hybrid system consisting of a smartphone and microfluidic device can offer a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of detection and analysis functions related to healthcare. In this study, a new mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device was proposed for fluid viscosity measurements. By separately delivering sample and reference fluids into the two inlets of a Y-shaped microfluidic device, an interfacial line is induced at downstream of the device. Because the interfacial width (W) between the sample and reference fluid flows was determined by their pressure ratio, the viscosity (μ) of the sample could be estimated by measuring the interfacial width. To distinguish the interfacial width of a sample, optical images of the flows at downstream of the Y-shaped microfluidic device were acquired using a smartphone. To check the measurement accuracy of the proposed method, the viscosities of glycerol mixtures were compared with those measured by a conventional viscometer. The proposed technique was applied to monitor the variations in blood and oil samples depending on storage or rancidity. We expect that this mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device could be utilized as a viscometer with significant advantages in terms of mobility, ease-of-operation, and data management.

  9. Blood rheology adjustments in rats after a program of intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Esteva, Santiago; Panisello, Pere; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagés, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure induces a rise in hemoglobin concentration and an increase in erythrocyte mass in both rats and humans. Although this response increases blood oxygen transport capacity, paradoxically, it could impair blood flow and gas exchange because of the blood viscosity alterations associated with the rising hematocrit. In the present study, male rats were subjected to an IHH program consisting of a daily 4-h session for 5 days/week until they had completed 22 days of hypoxia exposure in a hypobaric chamber at a simulated altitude of 5000 m. Blood samples were taken at the end of the exposure period (H) and at 20 (P20) and 40 (P40) days after the end of the program and were compared to control (C) maintained at sea- level pressure. Apparent blood viscosity (eta(a)) and plasma viscosity (eta(p)) were measured in a cone-plate microviscometer. Although the hematocrit significantly increased in the H group, blood apparent viscosity did not differ among groups, ranging from 7.67 to 6.57 mPa*sec at a shear rate of 90 sec(-1). Relative blood viscosity showed a clear increase (about 27%) in H rats, mainly due to the significant decrease in plasma viscosity. This finding could be interpreted as a compensatory response, which reduced the effect of increased erythrocyte mass volume on whole-blood viscosity. Oxygen delivery index and blood oxygen potential transport capacity remained unchanged in all groups. These data indicate that the IHH program has a deep but transitory effect on red cell parameters and a moderate effect on blood rheological behavior.

  10. Supra-plasma expanders: the future of treating blood loss and anemia without red cell transfusions?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Amy G; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Hofmann, Axel; Acharya, Seetharama A; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen delivery capacity during profoundly anemic conditions depends on blood's oxygen-carrying capacity and cardiac output. Oxygen-carrying blood substitutes and blood transfusion augment oxygen-carrying capacity, but both have given rise to safety concerns, and their efficacy remains unresolved. Anemia decreases oxygen-carrying capacity and blood viscosity. Present studies show that correcting the decrease of blood viscosity by increasing plasma viscosity with newly developed plasma expanders significantly improves tissue perfusion. These new plasma expanders promote tissue perfusion, increasing oxygen delivery capacity without increasing blood oxygen-carrying capacity, thus treating the effects of anemia while avoiding the transfusion of blood.

  11. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A

    2011-07-05

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold.

  12. Nonequilibrium viscosity of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, John C.; Allan, Douglas C.; Potuzak, Marcel

    2009-09-01

    Since glass is a nonequilibrium material, its properties depend on both composition and thermal history. While most prior studies have focused on equilibrium liquid viscosity, an accurate description of nonequilibrium viscosity is essential for understanding the low temperature dynamics of glass. Departure from equilibrium occurs as a glass-forming system is cooled through the glass transition range. The glass transition involves a continuous breakdown of ergodicity as the system gradually becomes trapped in a subset of the available configurational phase space. At very low temperatures a glass is perfectly nonergodic (or “isostructural”), and the viscosity is described well by an Arrhenius form. However, the behavior of viscosity during the glass transition range itself is not yet understood. In this paper, we address the problem of glass viscosity using the enthalpy landscape model of Mauro and Loucks [Phys. Rev. B 76, 174202 (2007)] for selenium, an elemental glass former. To study a wide range of thermal histories, we compute nonequilibrium viscosity with cooling rates from 10-12 to 1012K/s . Based on these detailed landscape calculations, we propose a simplified phenomenological model capturing the essential physics of glass viscosity. The phenomenological model incorporates an ergodicity parameter that accounts for the continuous breakdown of ergodicity at the glass transition. We show a direct relationship between the nonequilibrium viscosity parameters and the fragility of the supercooled liquid. The nonequilibrium viscosity model is validated against experimental measurements of Corning EAGLE XG™ glass. The measurements are performed using a specially designed beam-bending apparatus capable of accurate nonequilibrium viscosity measurements up to 1016Pas . Using a common set of parameters, the phenomenological model provides an accurate description of EAGLE XG™ viscosity over the full range of measured temperatures and fictive temperatures.

  13. [Blood fluidity and omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    1991-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are highly unsaturated fatty acids with a first (counted from the methyl end) double bound at the third carbon atom. Their biological effects--mainly changes of blood lipids and of the eicosanoid pattern--are due to a competitive inhibition of omega-6 fatty acids within the prostaglandin metabolism. Hemorheological effects have also been described repeatedly. A placebo-controlled, double blind study shows that red cell deformability is raised and blood viscosity decreased by omega-3 fatty acids in stepwise increasing doses. When the dose is further increased there is a drop of plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation. An open study with hyperlipoproteinemic patients confirms these effects: After 21 days of 8 capsules Ameu per day there is a significant reduction of plasma viscosity. After 56 days treatment (same dosage) blood viscosity drops and red cell deformability increases significantly. At present the evidence is growing to suggest that omega-3 fatty acids can delay atherogenesis. The above data allow the hypothesis that hemorheology may be involved in this.

  14. Imaging aerosol viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Francis; Athanasiadis, Thanos; Botchway, Stan; Davdison, Nicholas; Fitzgerald, Clare; Gallimore, Peter; Hosny, Neveen; Kalberer, Markus; Kuimova, Marina; Vysniauskas, Aurimas; Ward, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Organic aerosol particles play major roles in atmospheric chemistry, climate, and public health. Aerosol particle viscosity is important since it can determine the ability of chemical species such as oxidants, organics or water to diffuse into the particle bulk. Recent measurements indicate that OA may be present in highly viscous states; however, diffusion rates of small molecules such as water appear not to be limited by these high viscosities. We have developed a technique for measuring viscosity that allows for the imaging of aerosol viscosity in micron sized aerosols through use of fluorescence lifetime imaging of viscosity sensitive dyes which are also known as 'molecular rotors'. These rotors can be introduced into laboratory generated aerosol by adding minute quantities of the rotor to aerosol precursor prior to aerosolization. Real world aerosols can also be studied by doping them in situ with the rotors. The doping is achieved through generation of ultrafine aerosol particles that contain the rotors; the ultrafine aerosol particles deliver the rotors to the aerosol of interest via impaction and coagulation. This work has been conducted both on aerosols deposited on microscope coverslips and on particles that are levitated in their true aerosol phase through the use of a bespoke optical trap developed at the Central Laser Facility. The technique allows for the direct observation of kinetic barriers caused by high viscosity and low diffusivity in aerosol particles. The technique is non-destructive thereby allowing for multiple experiments to be carried out on the same sample. It can dynamically quantify and track viscosity changes during atmospherically relevant processes such oxidation and hygroscopic growth (1). This presentation will focus on the oxidation of aerosol particles composed of unsaturated and saturated organic species. It will discuss how the type of oxidant, oxidation rate and the composition of the oxidized products affect the time

  15. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  16. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-08-31

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM).

  17. Red blood cell aggregation, aggregate strength and oxygen transport potential of blood are abnormal in both homozygous sickle cell anemia and sickle-hemoglobin C disease.

    PubMed

    Tripette, Julien; Alexy, Tamas; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Mougenel, Daniele; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Chout, Roger; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hue, Olivier; Meiselman, Herbert J; Connes, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that red blood cell aggregation and the ratio of hematocrit to blood viscosity (HVR), an index of the oxygen transport potential of blood, might considerably modulate blood flow dynamics in the microcirculation. It thus seems likely that these factors could play a role in sickle cell disease. We compared red blood cell aggregation characteristics, blood viscosity and HVR at different shear rates between sickle cell anemia and sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SCC) patients, sickle cell trait carriers (AS) and control individuals (AA). Blood viscosity determined at high shear rate was lower in sickle cell anemia (n=21) than in AA (n=52), AS (n=33) or SCC (n=21), and was markedly increased in both SCC and AS. Despite differences in blood viscosity, both sickle cell anemia and SCC had similar low HVR values compared to both AA and AS. Sickle cell anemia (n=21) and SCC (n=19) subjects had a lower red blood cell aggregation index and longer time for red blood cell aggregates formation than AA (n=16) and AS (n=15), and a 2 to 3 fold greater shear rate required to disperse red blood cell aggregates. The low HVR levels found in sickle cell anemia and SCC indicates a comparable low oxygen transport potential of blood in both genotypes. Red blood cell aggregation properties are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease: the increased shear forces needed to disperse red blood cell aggregates may disturb blood flow, especially at the microcirculatory level, since red blood cell are only able to pass through narrow capillaries as single cells rather than as aggregates.

  18. Effect of thrombus composition and viscosity on sonoreperfusion efficacy in a model of microvascular obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Black, John J.; Yu, Francois T. H.; Schnatz, Rick G.; Flordeliza, Xucai Chen; Villanueva, S.; Pacella, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Distal embolization of microthrombi during stenting for myocardial infarction (MI) causes microvascular obstruction (MVO). We have previously shown that sonoreperfusion (SRP), a microbubble (MB)-mediated ultrasonic (US) therapy, resolves MVO from venous microthrombi in vitro in saline. However, blood is more viscous than saline and arterial thrombi that embolize during stenting are mechanically distinct from venous clot. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MVO created with arterial microthrombi are more resistant to SRP therapy compared with venous microthrombi and higher viscosity further increases the US requirement for effective SRP in an in vitro model of MVO. Lipid MB suspended in plasma with adjusted viscosity (1.1 or 4.0 cP) were passed through tubing bearing a mesh with 40 μm pores to simulate a microvascular cross-section; upstream pressure reflected thrombus burden. To simulate MVO, the mesh was occluded with either arterial or venous microthrombi to increase upstream pressure to 40±5 mmHg. Therapeutic long-tone-burst US was delivered to the occluded area for 20 min. MB activity was recorded with a passive cavitation detector (PCD). MVO caused by arterial microthrombi at either blood or plasma viscosity resulted in less effective SRP therapy, compared to venous thrombi. Higher viscosity further reduced the effectiveness of SRP therapy. PCD showed a decrease in inertial cavitation when viscosity was increased while stable cavitation was affected in a more complex manner. Overall, these data suggest that arterial thrombi may require higher acoustic pressure US than venous thrombi to achieve similar SRP efficacy, increased viscosity decreases SRP efficacy, and both inertial and stable cavitation are implicated in observed SRP efficacy. PMID:27207018

  19. Impact of plasma viscosity on microcirculatory flow after traumatic haemorrhagic shock: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Naumann, David N; Hazeldine, Jon; Bishop, Jon; Midwinter, Mark J; Harrison, Paul; Nash, Gerard; Hutchings, Sam D

    2018-05-19

    Preclinical studies report that higher plasma viscosity improves microcirculatory flow after haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, but no clinical study has tested this hypothesis. We investigated the relationship between plasma viscosity and sublingual microcirculatory flow in patients during resuscitation for traumatic haemorrhagic shock (THS). Sublingual video-microscopy was performed for 20 trauma patients with THS as soon as feasible in hospital, and then at 24 h and 48 h. Values were obtained for total vessel density, perfused vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels, microcirculatory flow index (MFI), microcirculatory heterogeneity index (MHI), and Point of Care Microcirculation (POEM) scores. Plasma viscosity was measured using a Wells-Brookfield cone and plate micro-viscometer. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between microcirculatory parameters and plasma viscosity, adjusting for covariates (systolic blood pressure, heart rate, haematocrit, rate and volume of fluids, and rate of noradrenaline). Higher plasma viscosity was not associated with improved microcirculatory parameters. Instead, there were weakly significant associations between higher plasma viscosity and lower (poorer) MFI (p = 0.040), higher (worse) MHI (p = 0.033), and lower (worse) POEM scores (p = 0.039). The current study did not confirm the hypothesis that higher plasma viscosity improves microcirculatory flow dynamics in patients with THS. Further clinical investigations are warranted to determine whether viscosity is a physical parameter of importance during resuscitation of these patients.

  20. Blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of blood flow in the heart and the aorta together with some of the main branches considers the effects of fluid viscosity and vessel elasticity as well as pressure distribution in the typical pulsating flow.

  1. Effect of Qing Nao tablet on blood stasis model of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xuejun; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Xiaobin; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qing Nao tablet on mouse model of blood stasis syndrome, 60 mice, male and female, were randomly divided into 6 groups, were fed with large, small doses of Qing Nao tablet suspension, Naoluotong saline suspension and the same volume (group 2, 0.1ml/10g), administer 1 times daily, orally for 15 days. Intragastric administration for first days, in addition to the 1 group saline group every day in the hind leg intramuscular saline, the other 5 groups each rat day hind leg muscle injection of dexamethasone 0.8mg/kg intramuscular injection every day, 1 times, 15 days. 1 hour continuous intramuscular injection and intramuscular drug perfusion on the sixteenth day after mice. The eyeball blood, heparin after whole blood viscosity test. Compared with the control group, model group, high and low shear viscosity were significantly increased (P<0.01), indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, high dose group and Qing Nao tablet Naoluotong group can significantly reduce the viscosity at high shear and (P<0.01), middle dose Qing Nao tablet group can significantly reduce high shear and shear viscosity (P<0.05); large, middle dose Qing Nao tablet group can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (P<0.05), Naoluotong group can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (P<0.01); low dose Qing Nao tablet group were lower high cut, low shear viscosity and trend The potential (P>0.05). The Qing Nao tablet has a good effect on the model of blood stasis in mice.

  2. Effect of non-Newtonian viscosity on the fluid-dynamic characteristics in stenotic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Hyung Kyu; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-08-01

    Although blood is known to have shear-thinning and viscoelastic properties, the effects of such properties on the hemodynamic characteristics in various vascular environments are not fully understood yet. For a quantitative hemodynamic analysis, the refractive index of a transparent blood analogue needs to be matched with that of the flowing conduit in order to minimize the errors according to the distortion of the light. In this study, three refractive index-matched blood analogue fluids with different viscosities are prepared—one Newtonian and two non-Newtonian analogues—which correspond to healthy blood with 45 % hematocrit (i.e., normal non-Newtonian) and obese blood with higher viscosity (i.e., abnormal non-Newtonian). The effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the blood analogues on the hemodynamic characteristics in the post-stenosis region of an axisymmetric stenosis model are experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry velocity field measurement technique and pathline flow visualization. As a result, the centerline jet flow from the stenosis apex is suppressed by the shear-thinning feature of the blood analogues when the Reynolds number is smaller than 500. The lengths of the recirculation zone for abnormal and normal non-Newtonian blood analogues are 3.67 and 1.72 times shorter than that for the Newtonian analogue at Reynolds numbers smaller than 200. The Reynolds number of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow for all blood analogues increases as the shear-thinning feature increases, and the maximum wall shear stresses in non-Newtonian fluids are five times greater than those in Newtonian fluids. However, the shear-thinning effect on the hemodynamic characteristics is not significant at Reynolds numbers higher than 1000. The findings of this study on refractive index-matched non-Newtonian blood analogues can be utilized in other in vitro experiments, where non-Newtonian features dominantly affect the flow

  3. A Rapid Capillary-Pressure Driven Micro-Channel to Demonstrate Newtonian Fluid Behavior of Zebrafish Blood at High Shear Rates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhyun; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Kang, Dongyang; Kang, Hanul; Chen, Junjie; Baek, Kyung In; Wang, Wei; Ding, Yichen; Carlo, Dino Di; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2017-05-16

    Blood viscosity provides the rheological basis to elucidate shear stress underlying developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. Zebrafish is a high throughput model for developmental biology, forward-genetics, and drug discovery. The micro-scale posed an experimental challenge to measure blood viscosity. To address this challenge, a microfluidic viscometer driven by surface tension was developed to reduce the sample volume required (3μL) for rapid (<2 min) and continuous viscosity measurement. By fitting the power-law fluid model to the travel distance of blood through the micro-channel as a function of time and channel configuration, the experimentally acquired blood viscosity was compared with a vacuum-driven capillary viscometer at high shear rates (>500 s -1 ), at which the power law exponent (n) of zebrafish blood was nearly 1 behaving as a Newtonian fluid. The measured values of whole blood from the micro-channel (4.17cP) and the vacuum method (4.22cP) at 500 s -1 were closely correlated at 27 °C. A calibration curve was established for viscosity as a function of hematocrits to predict a rise and fall in viscosity during embryonic development. Thus, our rapid capillary pressure-driven micro-channel revealed the Newtonian fluid behavior of zebrafish blood at high shear rates and the dynamic viscosity during development.

  4. Viscosity and Solvation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying the phenomena of solution viscosities, involving the Jones and Dole equation, B-coefficient determination, and flickering cluster model. Indicates that viscosity measurements provide a basis for the study of the structural effects of ions in aqueous solutions and are applicable in teaching high school chemistry. (CC)

  5. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  6. Temperature-viscosity models reassessed.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha

    2017-05-04

    The temperature effect on viscosity of liquid and semi-liquid foods has been traditionally described by the Arrhenius equation, a few other mathematical models, and more recently by the WLF and VTF (or VFT) equations. The essence of the Arrhenius equation is that the viscosity is proportional to the absolute temperature's reciprocal and governed by a single parameter, namely, the energy of activation. However, if the absolute temperature in K in the Arrhenius equation is replaced by T + b where both T and the adjustable b are in °C, the result is a two-parameter model, which has superior fit to experimental viscosity-temperature data. This modified version of the Arrhenius equation is also mathematically equal to the WLF and VTF equations, which are known to be equal to each other. Thus, despite their dissimilar appearances all three equations are essentially the same model, and when used to fit experimental temperature-viscosity data render exactly the same very high regression coefficient. It is shown that three new hybrid two-parameter mathematical models, whose formulation bears little resemblance to any of the conventional models, can also have excellent fit with r 2 ∼ 1. This is demonstrated by comparing the various models' regression coefficients to published viscosity-temperature relationships of 40% sucrose solution, soybean oil, and 70°Bx pear juice concentrate at different temperature ranges. Also compared are reconstructed temperature-viscosity curves using parameters calculated directly from 2 or 3 data points and fitted curves obtained by nonlinear regression using a larger number of experimental viscosity measurements.

  7. Elevated whole blood viscosity is associated with insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Li, Jing; Xu, Min; Wang, Tian-ge; Sun, Wan-wan; Chen, Ying; Bi, Yu-fang; Wang, Wei-qing; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrate that abnormalities in whole blood viscosity (WBV) have been implicated in insulin resistance which may lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, epidemiological studies exploring the association between WBV and NAFLD were not available. Our objective was to evaluate the association between WBV levels and risk of prevalent NAFLD. This was a cross-sectional population-based study performed in Shanghai, China. A total of 8673 participants aged 40 years or older were included. WBV was calculated from haematocrit and plasma protein concentration, at a shear rate of 208(-1) s, by a validated equation. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 30·2% in this population. With the increase of WBV level, participants have larger waist circumference (WC), more severe insulin resistance and the prevalence of NAFLD increased significantly with elevated WBV quartiles. Compared with those in the lowest quartiles, adults in the highest quartile of WBV levels have higher prevalence of NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio 1·77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·48-2·13) and IR (2·72, 95% CI 2·26-3·27). Elevated WBV is associated with prevalence of NAFLD and IR in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  9. Effect of Thrombus Composition and Viscosity on Sonoreperfusion Efficacy in a Model of Micro-Vascular Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Black, John J; Yu, Francois T H; Schnatz, Rick G; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S; Pacella, John J

    2016-09-01

    Distal embolization of micro-thrombi during stenting for myocardial infarction causes micro-vascular obstruction (MVO). We have previously shown that sonoreperfusion (SRP), a microbubble (MB)-mediated ultrasound (US) therapy, resolves MVO from venous micro-thrombi in vitro in saline. However, blood is more viscous than saline, and arterial thrombi that embolize during stenting are mechanically distinct from venous clot. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MVO created with arterial micro-thrombi are more resistant to SRP therapy compared with venous micro-thrombi, and higher viscosity further increases the US requirement for effective SRP in an in vitro model of MVO. Lipid MBs suspended in plasma with adjusted viscosity (1.1 cP or 4.0 cP) were passed through tubing bearing a mesh with 40-μm pores to simulate a micro-vascular cross-section; upstream pressure reflected thrombus burden. To simulate MVO, the mesh was occluded with either arterial or venous micro-thrombi to increase upstream pressure to 40 mmHg ± 5 mmHg. Therapeutic long-tone-burst US was delivered to the occluded area for 20 min. MB activity was recorded with a passive cavitation detector. MVO caused by arterial micro-thrombi at either blood or plasma viscosity resulted in less effective SRP therapy compared to venous thrombi. Higher viscosity further reduced the effectiveness of SRP therapy. The passive cavitation detector showed a decrease in inertial cavitation when viscosity was increased, while stable cavitation was affected in a more complex manner. Overall, these data suggest that arterial thrombi may require higher acoustic pressure US than venous thrombi to achieve similar SRP efficacy; increased viscosity decreases SRP efficacy; and both inertial and stable cavitation are implicated in observed SRP efficacy. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of pulsed IR-light on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata; Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to assess the effect of light of 855 nm wavelength (IR-light) on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro. As an anticoagulant, heparin was used. The source of IR-light was an applicator connected to the special generator--Viofor JPS®. The blood samples were irradiated for 30 min. During the irradiation the energy density was growing at twelve-second intervals starting from 1.06 J/cm2 to 8.46 J/cm2, then the energy density dropped to the initial value; the process was repeated cyclically. The study of blood viscosity was carried out with a Contraves LS40 oscillatory-rotational rheometer, with a decreasing shearing rate from 100 to 0.01 s⁻¹ over 5 min (flow curve) and applying constant frequency oscillations f=0.5 Hz with decreasing shear amplitude ˙γ0 (viscoelasticity measurements). The analysis of the results of rotational measurements was based on the assessment of hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at four selected shear rates and on the basis of the numerical values of parameters from Quemada's rheological model: k0 (indicating red cell aggregability), k∞ (indicating red cell rigidity) and ˙γc (the value of the shear rate for which the rouleaux formation begins). In oscillatory experiments we estimated viscous and elastic components of the complex blood viscosity in the same groups of patients. We observed a decrease of the viscous component of complex viscosity (η') at ˙γ0=0.2 s⁻¹, while other rheological parameters, k0, k∞, and relative blood viscosity at selected shear rates showed only a weak tendency towards smaller values after irradiation. The IR-light effect on the rheological properties of blood in vitro turned out to be rather neutral in the studied group of patients.

  11. HEMORHEOLOGY INDEX CHANGES IN A RAT ACUTE BLOOD STASIS MODEL: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Xiu; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Yi; Li, Shao-Dan; Yang, Ming-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood stasis has received increasing attention in research related to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and integrative Chinese and Western medicine. More than 90% of research studies use hemorheology indexes to evaluate the establishment of animal blood stasis models rather than pathological methods, as hemorheology index evaluations of blood stasis were short of the consolidated standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hemorheology indexes in rat models of acute blood stasis (ABS) based on studies in which the ABS model had been confirmed by pathological methods. Materials and Methods: We searched the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese Medical Journal Database (CMJD), Chinese Biology Medicine disc (CBM), Wanfang database, and PubMed for studies of rat blood stasis models; the search identified 18 studies of rat ABS models induced by subcutaneous injection of epinephrine combined with an ice bath. Each included study received a modified Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) score list and methodological quality assessment, then data related to whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, platelet aggregation rate, erythrocyte aggregation index, and fibrinogen concentration were extracted. Extracted data were analyzed using Revman 5.3; heterogeneity was tested using Egger’s test. Results: A total of 343 studies of rat blood stasis were reviewed. Eighteen studies were included in this meta-analysis; the mean CAMARADES score was 3.5. The rat ABS model revealed a significant increase in whole blood viscosity (medium shear rate), whole blood viscosity (high shear rate), plasma viscosity, platelet aggregation rate, erythrocyte aggregation index, and fibrinogen concentration compared to controls, with weighted mean differences (WMD) of 2.42 mPa/s (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.73 - 3.10); 1.76 mPa/s (95% CI = 1.28 - 2.24); 0.39 mPa/s (95

  12. Two-phase model for prediction of cell-free layer width in blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Namgung, Bumseok; Ju, Meongkeun; Cabrales, Pedro; Kim, Sangho

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a numerical model capable of predicting changes in the cell-free layer (CFL) width in narrow tubes with consideration of red blood cell aggregation effects. The model development integrates to empirical relations for relative viscosity (ratio of apparent viscosity to medium viscosity) and core viscosity measured on independent blood samples to create a continuum model that includes these two regions. The constitutive relations were derived from in vitro experiments performed with three different glass-capillary tubes (inner diameter = 30, 50 and 100 μm) over a wide range of pseudoshear rates (5-300 s−1). The aggregation tendency of the blood samples was also varied by adding Dextran 500 kDa. Our model predicted that the CFL width was strongly modulated by the relative viscosity function. Aggregation increased the width of CFL, and this effect became more pronounced at low shear rates. The CFL widths predicted in the present study at high shear conditions were in agreement with those reported in previous studies. However, unlike previous multi-particle models, our model did not require a high computing cost, and it was capable of reproducing results for a thicker CFL width at low shear conditions, depending on aggregating tendency of the blood. PMID:23116701

  13. Fluid viscosity affects the fragmentation and inertial cavitation threshold of lipid encapsulated microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Helfield, Brandon; Black, John J.; Qin, Bin; Pacella, John; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound and microbubble optimization studies for therapeutic applications are often conducted in water/saline, with a fluid viscosity of 1 cP. In an in vivo context, microbubbles are situated in blood, a more viscous fluid (~4 cP). In this study, ultra-high speed microscopy and passive cavitation approaches were employed to investigate the effect of fluid viscosity on microbubble behavior at 1 MHz subject to high pressures (0.25 – 2 MPa). The propensity for individual microbubble (n=220) fragmentation was shown to significantly decrease in 4 cP fluid as compared to 1 cP fluid, despite achieving similar maximum radial excursions. Microbubble populations diluted in 4 cP fluid exhibited decreased wideband emissions (up to 10.2 times), and increasingly distinct harmonic emission peaks (e.g. ultraharmonic) with increasing pressure as compared to 1 cP fluid. These results suggest that in vitro studies should consider an evaluation using physiologic viscosity perfusate before transitioning to in vivo evaluations. PMID:26674676

  14. The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in the differential diagnosis of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Gokturk, Huseyin Savas; Demir, Mehmet; Ozturk, Nevin Akcaer; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Kulaksizoglu, Sevsen; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Serin, Ender; Yilmaz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascites is defined as the pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, which is also the most common cause of ascites. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. Plasma viscosity is influenced by the concentration of plasma proteins and lipoproteins, with the major contribution from fibrinogen. To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid viscosity in discriminating between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes, and to compare results with the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). METHODS: The present study involved 142 patients with ascites presenting with diverse medical problems. Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and complete blood count were obtained for all subjects. Paracentesis was performed routinely on admission and all ascitic fluid samples were evaluated by manual cell count with differential, ascitic fluid culture and biochemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose and LDH). Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. Ascitic fluid viscosity was measured in a commercially available cone and plate viscometer. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients studied, 34 (24%) had an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, whereas 108 (76%) had an SAAG of greater than 11 g/L. Sex and mean age did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, LDH levels, leukocyte count, ascitic fluid glucose levels and ascitic fluid leukocyte counts were similar in both groups, with no statistically significant relationship detected (P>0.05). However, the mean (±SD) ascitic fluid total protein (0.0172±0.1104 g/L versus 0.043±0.011 g/L), albumin (0.0104±0.0064 g/L versus 0.0276±0.0069 g/L) and LDH (102.76±80.95 U/L versus 885

  15. Paper diagnostic for instantaneous blood typing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Thouas, George; Shen, Wei; Whyte, Gordon; Garnier, Gil

    2010-05-15

    Agglutinated blood transports differently onto paper than stable blood with well dispersed red cells. This difference was investigated to develop instantaneous blood typing tests using specific antibody-antigen interactions to trigger blood agglutination. Two series of experiments were performed. The first related the level of agglutination and the fluidic properties of blood on its transport in paper. Blood samples were mixed at different ratios with specific and nonspecific antibodies; a droplet of each mixture was deposited onto a filter paper strip, and the kinetics of wicking and red cell separation were measured. Agglutinated blood phase separated, with the red blood cells (RBC) forming a distinct spot upon contact with paper while the plasma wicked; in contrast, stable blood suspensions wicked uniformly. The second study analyzed the wicking and the chromatographic separation of droplets of blood deposited onto paper strips pretreated with specific and nonspecific antibodies. Drastic differences in transport occurred. Blood agglutinated by interaction with one of its specific antibodies phase separated, causing a chromatographic separation. The red cells wicked very little while the plasma wicked at a faster rate than the original blood sample. Blood agglutination and wicking in paper followed the concepts of colloids chemistry. The immunoglobin M antibodies agglutinated the red blood cells by polymer bridging, upon selective adsorption on the specific antigen at their surface. The transport kinetics was viscosity controlled, with the viscosity of red cells drastically increasing upon blood agglutination. Three arm prototypes were investigated for single-step blood typing.

  16. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  17. Scientific Objectives of the Critical Viscosity Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Moldover, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    In microgravity, the Critical Viscosity Experiment will measure the viscosity of xenon 15 times closer to the critical point than is possible on earth. The results are expected to include the first direct observation of the predicted power-law divergence of viscosity in a pure fluid and they will test calculations of the value of the exponent associated with the divergence. The results, when combined with Zeno's decay-rate data, will strengthen the test of mode coupling theory. Without microgravity viscosity data, the Zeno test will require an extrapolation of existing 1-g viscosity data by as much as factor of 100 in reduced temperature. By necessity, the extrapolation would use an incompletely verified theory of viscosity crossover. With the microgravity viscosity data, the reliance on crossover models will be negligible allowing a more reliable extrapolation. During the past year, new theoretical calculations for the viscosity exponent finally achieved consistency with the best experimental data for pure fluids. This report gives the justification for the proposed microgravity Critical Viscosity Experiment in this new context. This report also combines for the first time the best available light scattering data with our recent viscosity data to demonstrate the current status of tests of mode coupling theory.

  18. [Sputum viscosity and pulmonary function measurements during a one-week parenteral treatment with a standardized oxidation product of oil of turpentine and terpin hydrate].

    PubMed

    Löllgen-Horres, I; Löllgen, H

    1976-01-01

    In 23 patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases, viscosity, airway resistance, arterial blood gases and acid-base balance, and sputum aspect were measured before and after one-week treatment with Ozothin, a substance from oxidation products of ol. terebinth. and terpinum hydratum. Within this time, viscosity of the sputum was reduced, airway resistance decreased, and arterial oxygen pressure slightly increased, whereas arterial carbon dioxide tension obvious change of sputum aspect could be observed. Correlation calculations revealed no significant relations between viscosity and the above cited lung function values. The results indicate that administration of Ozothin may liquefy viscous secretion and reduce sputum viscosity.

  19. Compositional dependence of lower crustal viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinevar, William J.; Behn, Mark D.; Hirth, Greg

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust as a function of its bulk composition using multiphase mixing theory. We use the Gibbs free-energy minimization routine Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for the lower continental crust. The effective aggregate viscosities are then calculated using a rheologic mixing model and flow laws for the major crust-forming minerals. We investigate the viscosity of two lower crustal compositions: (i) basaltic (53 wt % SiO2) and (ii) andesitic (64 wt % SiO2). The andesitic model predicts aggregate viscosities similar to feldspar and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than that of wet quartz. The viscosity range calculated for the andesitic crustal composition (particularly when hydrous phases are stable) is most similar to independent estimates of lower crust viscosity in actively deforming regions based on postglacial isostatic rebound, postseismic relaxation, and paleolake shoreline deflection.

  20. Viscosity of the earth's core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gans, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the viscosity of the core at the boundary of the inner and outer core. It is assumed that this boundary is a melting transition and the viscosity limits of the Andrade (1934,1952) hypothesis (3.7 to 18.5 cp) are adopted. The corresponding kinematic viscosities are such that the precessional system explored by Malkus (1968) would be unstable. Whether it would be sufficiently unstable to overcome a severely subadiabatic temperature gradient cannot be determined.

  1. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Buerger's disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger's disease. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger's disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger's disease. The blood properties are the same as the actual blood properties of the patient. The blood flow rate is taken from the available experimental data in the literature. The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered.

  2. Viscosities of aqueous blended amines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia industries for the removal of acidic components like CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The viscosities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation for the viscosity deviation was applied to represent the viscosity. On the basis of the available viscosity data for five ternary systems, MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEAmore » + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. For the viscosity calculation of the systems tested, the overall average absolute percent deviation is about 1.0% for a total of 499 data points.« less

  3. A blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry with silicone vascular models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Majid Y.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.

    2011-03-01

    For accurate particle image velocimetry measurements in hemodynamics studies, it is important to use a fluid with a refractive index ( n) matching that of the vascular models (phantoms) and ideally a dynamic viscosity matching human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) composed of water, glycerol, and sodium iodide was formulated for a range of refractive indices to match most common silicone elastomers ( n = 1.40-1.43) and with corresponding dynamic viscosity within the average cited range of healthy human blood (4.4 ± 0.5 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at room temperature (22.2 ± 0.2°C), which eliminates the need for a temperature-control system. An optimally matched BMF, suitable for use in a vascular phantom ( n = 1.4140 ± 0.0008, Sylgard 184), was demonstrated with composition (by weight) of 47.38% water, 36.94% glycerol (44:56 glycerol-water ratio), and 15.68% sodium iodide salt, resulting in a dynamic viscosity of 4 .31 ± 0 .03 cP.

  4. Viscosity of meson matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2004-06-01

    We report a calculation of the shear viscosity in a relativistic multicomponent meson gas as a function of temperature and chemical potentials. We approximately solve the Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation of kinetic theory, appropriate for a boson gas, with relativistic kinematics. Since at low temperatures the gas can be taken as mostly composed of pions, with a fraction of kaons and etas, we explore the region where binary elastic collisions with at least one pion are the dominant scattering processes. Our input meson scattering phase shifts are fits to the experimental data obtained from chiral perturbation theory and the inverse amplitude method. Our results take the correct nonrelativistic limit (viscosity proportional to the square root of the temperature), show a viscosity of the order of the cube of the pion mass up to temperatures somewhat below that mass, and then a large increase due to kaons and etas. Our approximation may break down at even higher temperatures, where the viscosity follows a temperature power law with an exponent near 3.

  5. Physical Properties of Blood Are Altered in Young and Lean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Michael J; Milne, Nikki; Ong, Kee; Brotherton, Emily; McNamee, Antony P; Horobin, Jarod; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2016-01-01

    Classic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) include derangement of metabolic and cardiovascular health, and vascular dysfunction is commonly reported. These comorbidities indicate impaired blood flow; however, other than limited reports of increased plasma viscosity, surprisingly little is known regarding the physical properties of blood in PCOS. We aimed to investigate whether haemorheology was impaired in women with PCOS. We thus measured a comprehensive haemorheological profile, in a case-control design, of lean women with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls. A clinical examination determined similar cardiovascular risk for the two groups. Whole blood and plasma viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. The magnitude and rate of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was determined using a light-transmission aggregometer, and the degree of RBC deformability was measured via laser-diffraction ektacytometry. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased in women with PCOS. Blood viscosity was also increased for PCOS at lower-to-moderate shear rates in both native and standardised haematocrit samples. The magnitude of RBC aggregation-a primary determinant of low-shear blood viscosity-was significantly increased in PCOS at native and 0.4 L·L-1 haematocrit. No difference was detected between PCOS and CON groups for RBC deformability measurements. A novel measure indicating the effectiveness of oxygen transport by RBC (i.e., the haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio; HVR) was decreased at all shear rates in women with PCOS. In a group of young and lean women with PCOS with an unremarkable cardiovascular risk profile based on clinical data, significant haemorheological impairment was observed. The degree of haemorheological derangement observed in the present study reflects that of overt chronic disease, and provides an avenue for future therapeutic intervention in PCOS.

  6. Optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidekker, Mark A.; Akers, Walter J.; Fischer, Derek; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2006-09-01

    Molecular rotors are a unique group of viscosity-sensitive fluorescent probes. Several recent studies have shown their applicability as nonmechanical fluid viscosity sensors, particularly in biofluids containing proteins. To date, molecular rotors have had to be dissolved in the fluid for the measurement to be taken. We now show that molecular rotors may be covalently bound to a fiber-optic tip without loss of viscosity sensitivity. The optical fiber itself may be used as a light guide for emission light (external illumination of the tip) as well as for both emission and excitation light. Covalently bound molecular rotors exhibit a viscosity-dependent intensity increase similar to molecular rotors in solution. An optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor may be used in real-time measurement applications ranging from biomedical applications to the food industry.

  7. Optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor.

    PubMed

    Haidekker, Mark A; Akers, Walter J; Fischer, Derek; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2006-09-01

    Molecular rotors are a unique group of viscosity-sensitive fluorescent probes. Several recent studies have shown their applicability as nonmechanical fluid viscosity sensors, particularly in biofluids containing proteins. To date, molecular rotors have had to be dissolved in the fluid for the measurement to be taken. We now show that molecular rotors may be covalently bound to a fiber-optic tip without loss of viscosity sensitivity. The optical fiber itself may be used as a light guide for emission light (external illumination of the tip) as well as for both emission and excitation light. Covalently bound molecular rotors exhibit a viscosity-dependent intensity increase similar to molecular rotors in solution. An optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor may be used in real-time measurement applications ranging from biomedical applications to the food industry.

  8. Fluid Viscosity Affects the Fragmentation and Inertial Cavitation Threshold of Lipid-Encapsulated Microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Helfield, Brandon; Black, John J; Qin, Bin; Pacella, John; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound and microbubble optimization studies for therapeutic applications are often conducted in water/saline, with a fluid viscosity of 1 cP. In an in vivo context, microbubbles are situated in blood, a more viscous fluid (∼4 cP). In this study, ultrahigh-speed microscopy and passive cavitation approaches were employed to investigate the effect of fluid viscosity on microbubble behavior at 1 MHz subject to high pressures (0.25-2 MPa). The propensity for individual microbubble (n = 220) fragmentation was found to significantly decrease in 4-cP fluid compared with 1-cP fluid, despite achieving similar maximum radial excursions. Microbubble populations diluted in 4-cP fluid exhibited decreased wideband emissions (up to 10.2 times), and increasingly distinct harmonic emission peaks (e.g., ultraharmonic) with increasing pressure, compared with those in 1-cP fluid. These results suggest that in vitro studies should consider an evaluation using physiologic viscosity perfusate before transitioning to in vivo evaluations. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru

    1995-04-01

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as a type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature.

  10. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  11. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger’s disease. The blood properties are the same as the actual blood properties of the patient. The blood flow rate is taken from the available experimental data in the literature. Results: The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. Conclusion: It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered. PMID:27340623

  12. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Influence on the Rheological Properties of Healthy Persons Blood

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement) and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found. PMID:24078918

  13. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P < 0.0001). The aqueous humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Comparison the clinical outcomes and complications of high-viscosity versus low-viscosity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Wen-Shan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity bone cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF).From September 2009 to September 2015, 100 patients with OVCF were randomly divided into 2 groups: group H, using high viscosity cement (n = 50) or group L, using low viscosity cement (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, vertebral height, and complications.Significant improvements in the VAS, ODI, kyphosis Cobb angle, and vertebral height were noted in both groups, and the VAS score in the H group showed greater benefit than in the L group. Cement leakage was observed less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 27 of 98 (27.6%) vertebrae in group H and in 63 of 86 (73.3%) vertebrae in group L (P = .025).Compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement, PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcomes with fewer complications and is recommended for routine clinical use.

  15. Comparison the clinical outcomes and complications of high-viscosity versus low-viscosity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Wen-shan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity bone cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF). From September 2009 to September 2015, 100 patients with OVCF were randomly divided into 2 groups: group H, using high viscosity cement (n = 50) or group L, using low viscosity cement (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvements in the VAS, ODI, kyphosis Cobb angle, and vertebral height were noted in both groups, and the VAS score in the H group showed greater benefit than in the L group. Cement leakage was observed less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 27 of 98 (27.6%) vertebrae in group H and in 63 of 86 (73.3%) vertebrae in group L (P = .025). Compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement, PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcomes with fewer complications and is recommended for routine clinical use. PMID:29310386

  16. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  17. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-06-01

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.

  18. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P; Moore, Joel E

    2017-06-02

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.

  19. Viscosity of particle laden films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  20. The fluidity of blood in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Windberger, U; Plasenzotti, R; Voracek, Th

    2005-01-01

    The large cellular volume of erythrocytes and the increased plasma concentration of proteins in elephants are factors which potentially affect blood rheology adversely. To verify blood rheology, routine hemorheologic variables were analyzed in four African elephants (Loxodonta africana), housed in the zoo of Vienna. Whole blood viscosity at three different shear rates (WBV at low shear rate: WBV 0.7 s(-1) and WBV 2.4 s(-1); WBV at high shear rate: WBV 94 s(-1) done by LS30, Contraves) and erythrocyte aggregation (aggregation indices AI by LS30; aggregation indices M0, M1 by Myrenne aggregometer) were high (WBV 94 s(-1): 5.368 (5.246/5.648); WBV 2.4 s(-1): 16.291 (15.605/17.629); WBV 0.7 s(-1): 28.28 (25.537/32.173) mPa s; AI 2.4 s(-1): 0.25 (0.23/0.30); AI 0.7 s(-1): 0.24 (0.23/0.28); M0: 7.8 (6.4/8.4); M1: 30.2 (25/31)). Plasma viscosity (PV) was increased as well (1.865 (1.857/1.912) mPa s) compared to other mammalian species. These parameters would indicate a decrease in blood fluidity in elephants. However, erythrocyte rigidity (LORCA, Mechatronics) was decreased, which in contrast, has a promotive effect on peripheral perfusion. Blood rheology of the elephants was determined by a high whole blood and plasma viscosity as the result of pronounced erythrocyte aggregation and high plasma protein concentration. Thus, in the terminal vessels the resistance to flow will be increased. The large erythrocytes, which might impede blood flow further due to geometrical reasons, however, had a pronounced flexibility. We conclude that the effect of the increased inner resistance to peripheral blood flow was counteracted by the decreased rigidity of the erythrocytes to enable an adequate blood flow in African elephants.

  1. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hrma, Pavel R; See, Clem A; Lam, Oanh P

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa∙s to 750 Pa∙s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, andmore » Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pas.« less

  2. Simultaneous effects of single wall carbon nanotube and effective variable viscosity for peristaltic flow through annulus having permeable walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzadi, Iqra; Nadeem, S.; Rabiei, Faranak

    The current article deals with the combine effects of single wall carbon nanotubes and effective viscosity for the peristaltic flow of nanofluid through annulus. The nature of the walls is assumed to be permeable. The present theoretical model can be considered as mathematical representation to the motion of conductive physiological fluids in the existence of the endoscope tube which has many biomedical applications such as drug delivery system. The outer tube has a wave of sinusoidal nature that is travelling along its walls while the inner tube is rigid and uniform. Lubrication approach is used for the considered analysis. An empirical relation for the effective variable viscosity of nanofluid is proposed here interestingly. The viscosity of nanofluid is the function of radial distance and the concentration of nanoparticles. Exact solution for the resulting system of equations is displayed for various quantities of interest. The outcomes show that the maximum velocity of SWCNT-blood nanofluid enhances for larger values of viscosity parameter. The pressure gradient in the more extensive part of the annulus is likewise found to increase as a function of variable viscosity parameter. The size of the trapped bolus is also influenced by variable viscosity parameter. The present examination also revealed that the carbon nanotubes have many applications related to biomedicine.

  3. The Contribution of Whole Blood Viscosity to the Process of Aortic Valve Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sercelik, Alper; Besnili, Abbas Fikret

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether increased whole blood viscosity (WBV) could be an important factor for the occurrence of aortic valve sclerosis (AVS). A total of 209 patients were enrolled in the study. WBV was calculated using the hematocrit and total plasma protein at a low shear rate (LSR) and a high shear rate (HSR). AVS was defined as irregular valve thickening and calcification (without evidence of outflow obstruction) documented by a peak transvalvular velocity < 2.5 m/s on echocardiographic examination. The patient group consisted of 109 patients with AVS (77 females, 32 males), and 100 subjects without AVS (65 females, 35 males) were assigned to the control group. In the AVS group, WBV values were significantly higher for HSR (17.4 ± 0.5 vs. 17.1 ± 0.7 208 s-1, p < 0.001) and LSR (65.9 ± 12.5 vs. 59.7 ± 16.7 0.5 s-1, p = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, WBV at HSR and LSR were independent predictors of AVS (odds ratio, OR: 2.24, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.38-3.64, p = 0.001; OR: 1.026, 95% CI: 1.006-1.046, p = 0.01, respectively). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that a WBV cutoff value of 65.4 at LSR had a sensitivity of 46.8% and a specificity of 60.0% (area under the ROC curve, AUC: 0.615, 95% CI: 0.535-0.696, p = 0.004), and a WBV cutoff value of 17.1 at HSR had a sensitivity of 61.5% and specificity of 53% (AUC: 0.648, 95% CI: 0.571-0.725, p < 0.001) for the prediction of AVS. This study demonstrated that WBV was independently associated with AVS. WBV could be an indicator of inflammation and vessel remodeling without evidence of outflow obstruction. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  5. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  6. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  7. Density and viscosity of lipids under pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a lack of data for the viscosity of lipids under pressure. The current report is a part of the effort to fill this gap. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of vegetable oil (HOSuO) were investigated. Pressure–viscosity coefficients (PVC) of HOSuO at different tem...

  8. Cancer resistance, carcinogenesis and ground substance viscosity.

    PubMed

    Stone, O J

    1986-05-01

    Tumor host resistance and promotion are multiple complex simultaneous phenomena. This paper relates only to the effect of ground substance viscosity on tumor host interaction. Tar, anthralin, ultraviolet light, x-ray and arsenic have been widely used to treat inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis. They are also well known carcinogens. It is proposed that both the anti-inflammatory effect and part of the carcinogenic effect could occur by decreasing ground substance viscosity and suppressing fibroblasts. Streptococcal infections, chloroquine and pyridoxine deficiency increase inflammatory skin disorders and are known to be beneficial to tumor resistance. It is proposed that both effects could occur because of their effect of increasing ground substance viscosity and, at least with streptococcal infections, by stimulating fibroblasts. Within certain limits, vitamin C has a stimulant effect on fibroblast and ground substance viscosity. Beta carotene is active in stimulating wound healing. Localized edema of the dermal papillae precedes granulocytic inflammation in disorders like psoriasis. Anything that decreases ground substance viscosity will prevent dilution of tissue fluids by decreasing localized edema and thus decrease formation of some mediators of inflammation. Anything that increases ground substance and its viscosity will promote local dilution of tissue fluid. Increasing dilution of tissue fluids promotes the formation of some mediators of inflammation. Tumors commonly secrete hyaluronidase. It is proposed that substances that decrease ground substance viscosity (hyaluronidase-like activity) encourage tumors and substances that increase ground substance viscosity (anti-hyaluronidase-like effect) increase resistance to tumors.

  9. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  10. A Study of Oil Viscosity Mental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaiti; Liliasari; Sumarna, Omay; Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    There is no study regarding on how to learn viscosity of the liquid (e.g. oil) by interconnecting macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the mental model of the oil viscosity. Intermolecular attractive force of oil constituent on the sub-microscopic level is depicted in the form of mental models. In this research, the viscosity data for some types of oil was measured by using Hoppler method. Viscosity of mineral oil SAE 20W-50, mineral oil SAE 15W-40 and synthetic oil SAE 10W-40 were 1.75, 1.31, and 1.03 Pa s, and the densities of these oils were 908.64, 885.04, and 877.02 kg/m3, respectively. The results showed that the greater density of the mineral oil that is assumed to be composed of linear chains of hydrocarbons, the longer the chain of hydrocarbon linear. Consequently, there are stronger the London force and greater the oil viscosity. The density and viscosity of synthetic oil are lower than that of both mineral oils. Synthetic oil structurally forms polymers with large branching. This structure affects a lower synthetic oil viscosity. This study contributes to construct a mental model of pre-service chemistry teachers.

  11. Viscosity of Xenon Examined in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Why does water flow faster than honey? The short answer, that honey has a greater viscosity, merely rephrases the question. The fundamental answer is that viscosity originates in the interactions between a fluid s molecules. These interactions are so complicated that, except for low-density gases, the viscosity of a fluid cannot be accurately predicted. Progress in understanding viscosity has been made by studying moderately dense gases and, more recently, fluids near the critical point. Modern theories predict a universal behavior for all pure fluids near the liquid-vapor critical point, and they relate the increase in viscosity to spontaneous fluctuations in density near this point. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX) experiment tested these theories with unprecedented precision when it flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-85) in August 1997. Near the critical point, xenon is a billion times more compressible than water, yet it has about the same density. Because the fluid is so "soft," it collapses under its own weight when exposed to the force of Earth s gravity - much like a very soft spring. Because the CVX experiment is conducted in microgravity, it achieves a very uniform fluid density even very close to the critical point. At the heart of the CVX experiment is a novel viscometer built around a small nickel screen. An oscillating electric field forces the screen to oscillate between pairs of electrodes. Viscosity, which dampens the oscillations, can be calculated by measuring the screen motion and the force applied to the screen. So that the fluid s delicate state near the critical point will not be disrupted, the screen oscillations are set to be both slow and small.

  12. Decorrelation-based viscosity measurement using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Brecken J.; Gu, Shi; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    A robust method to measure viscosity of microquantities of biological samples, such as blood and mucus, could lead to a better understanding and diagnosis of diseases. Microsamples have presented persistent challenges to conventional rheology, which requires bulk quantities of a sample. Alternatively, fluid viscosity can be probed by monitoring microscale motion of particles. Here, we present a decorrelation-based method using M-mode phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure particle Brownian motion. This is similar to previous methods using laser speckle decorrelation but with sensitivity to nanometer-scale displacement. This allows for the measurement of decorrelation in less than 1 millisecond and significantly decreases sensitivity to bulk motion, thereby potentially enabling in vivo and in situ applications. From first principles, an analytical method is established using M-mode images obtained from a 47 kHz spectral-domain OCT system. A g(1) first-order autocorrelation is calculated from windows containing several pixels over a time frame of 200-1000 microseconds. Total imaging time is 500 milliseconds for averaging purposes. The autocorrelation coefficient over this short time frame decreases linearly and at a rate proportional to the diffusion constant of the particles, allowing viscosity to be calculated. In verification experiments using phantoms of microbeads in 200 µL glycerol-water mixtures, this method showed insensitivity to 2 mm/s lateral bulk motion and accurate viscosity measurements over a depth of 400 µm. In addition, the method measured a significant decrease of the apparent diffusion constant of soft tissue after formalin fixation, suggesting potential applications in mapping tissue stiffness.

  13. Effect of heat stress on blood rheology in different pigs breeds.

    PubMed

    Waltz, Xavier; Baillot, Michelle; Connes, Philippe; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Philibert, Lucien; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Renaudeau, David

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of the present work were to test the effects of heat stress on blood rheology and to determine whether the responses can change according to the pig breeds. Thirty-six pigs from three pig's lines (n = 12 for each line) with assumed different tolerance to heat stress were compared: Large White (LW, little tolerance), Creole (CR, good tolerance) and LW × CR pigs (produced from a cross between LW and CR lines). In a first period, all pigs were exposed to a 9-d period of thermo-neutral environment (24°C; d-9 to d-1; P0). At the end of P0, six pigs from each line were slaughtered (n = 18). Then in a second period, the remaining pigs (6/breed; n = 18) were exposed to a 5-d period of heat stress (32°C; d + 1 -d + 5; P1) and thereafter slaughtered at d + 5. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory rate, were recorded on d-1 and d + 5. At slaughter, blood was sampled for hematological and hemorheological measurements. Heat stress caused a rise of the skin temperature and respiratory rate without any changes in the rectal temperature or on the hematological and hemorheological parameters when all pigs' lines were considered. We observed a pig line effect on blood viscosity at high shear rate (375 s-1) and red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa with CR pigs having lower blood viscosity and higher red blood cell deformability than LW pigs. While the changes of blood viscosity under heat stress did not reach statistical significance in LW and CR lines, blood viscosity (at 375 s-1) increased above the temperate values in the LW × CR line. Red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa was higher in CR pigs exposed to heat stress compared to LW pigs in the same condition. In conclusion, thermal loading caused physiological stress but did not widely change the hematological and hemorheological profiles. Although some blood rheological parameters seem to vary with the pig breeds, the responses to heat stress are very similar.

  14. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morris, Heidi E.; Bradley, Paul Andrew

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modifymore » viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.« less

  15. The hematocrit paradox--how does blood doping really work?

    PubMed

    Böning, D; Maassen, N; Pries, A

    2011-04-01

    The wide-spread assumption that doping with erythropoietin or blood transfusion is only effective by increasing arterial blood O2 content because of rising hematocrit is not self-evident. "Natural blood dopers" (horses, dogs) increase both hematocrit and circulating blood volume during exercise by releasing stored erythrocytes from the spleen. Improvement of aerobic performance by augmenting hemoglobin concentration may be expected until the optimal hematocrit is reached; above this value maximal cardiac output declines due to the steep increase of blood viscosity. Therefore an enlarged blood oxygen content might only be useful if the normal hematocrit of man during exercise is suboptimal. However, recent studies suggest that cardiac power rises after erythropoietin allowing an unchanged cardiac output in spite of increased viscosity. Other factors underlying improved performance after blood doping might be: augmented diffusion capacity for oxygen in lungs and tissues, increased percentage of young red cells with good functional properties (after erythropoietin), increased buffer capacity, increase of blood volume, vasoconstriction, reduced damage by radicals, mood improvement by cerebral effects of erythropoietin. Also the importance of placebo is unknown since double-blind studies are rare. It is suggested that blood doping has multifactorial effects not restricted to the increase in arterial oxygen content. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.

    2012-07-31

    A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch.more » Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measure viscosity at lower temperatures if their equipment was capable of measuring at the higher viscosities. Results were used to fit the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher and Arrhenius equations to viscosity as a function of temperature for the entire temperature range of 460 C through 1250 C as well as the limited temperature interval of approximately 950 C through 1250 C. The standard errors for confidence and prediction were determined for the fitted models.« less

  17. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Moll, Philip; Kushwaha, Pallavi; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; MacKenzie, Andrew; Moore, Joel

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong electron-electron scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory for which bounds on diffusion were conjectured based on an holographic correspondence. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry can lead to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity which has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  18. Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  19. [Effects and mechanisms of platycladi cacumen carbonisatum on rats with blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Li; Yao, Ying-Zhi; Ding, An-Wei; Yu, Bin; Shan, Ming-Qiu; Yao, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the effect and mechanism of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum (PCC) on rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndromes. Rats were fed with 15 g x kg(-1) water decoctions of Zingiberis Rhizoma and 5% alcohol for 15 days to establish the blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome model. Yunnan Baiyao was taken as the positive control drug, and PCC decoctions (5.0, 10.0 g x kg(-1)) were given simultaneously, in order to detect changes in general physical signs of rats, such as body weight, daily diet, volume of daily drinking and urine and stool, and rectal temperature. Automatic hematology analyzers was used to determine white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT), blood time by docking (BT). Blood rheometers was used to detect whole blood and plasma viscosities, thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen content (FIB). Indexes related to thyroid functions, such as triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radio-immunoassay, and changes in lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stain. After modeling, rats witnessed slow-down in weight growth rate, significant increase in daily diet, volume of daily drinking, urine and temperature, significant decrease in stools and their water content (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), rise in plasma T4 level, notable growth in T3 and rT3 concentrations (P < 0.05), decline in TSH concentration. Additionally, their WBC, RBC, HGB and HCT remarkably increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), with significant increase in high, middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity (P < 0.01); their BT, TT, APTT were notably prolonged (P < 0.01), with significant increase in FIB content (P < 0.01). After oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao or PCC, rats of all groups showed significant improvement in blood heat syndromes (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and their

  20. A comparative study of high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty vs. low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Liu, Yang; Peng, Hao; Tan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xian-Nian; Chen, Fang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effects of two different methods-high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) were investigated. From June 2010 to August 2013, 98 cases of OVCFs were included in our study. Forty-six patients underwent high-viscosity PVP and 52 patients underwent low-viscosity PKP. The occurrence of cement leakage was observed. Pain relief and functional activity were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Restoration of the vertebral body height and angle of kyphosis were assessed by comparing preoperative and postoperative measurements of the anterior heights, middle heights and the kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. Nine out of the 54 vertebra bodies and 11 out of the 60 vertebra bodies were observed to have cement leakage in the high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP groups, respectively. The rate of cement leakage, correction of anterior vertebral height and kyphotic angles showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). Low-viscosity PKP had significant advantage in terms of the restoration of middle vertebral height as compared with the high-viscosity PVP (P<0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in pain relief and functional capacity status after surgery (P<0.05). It was concluded that high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP have similar clinical effects in terms of the rate of cement leakage, restoration of the anterior vertebral body height, changes of kyphotic angles, functional activity, and pain relief. Low-viscosity PKP is better than high-viscosity PVP in restoring the height of the middle vertebra.

  1. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  2. Viscosity effects in wind wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquier, A.; Moisy, F.; Rabaud, M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate experimentally the influence of the liquid viscosity on the problem of the generation of waves by a turbulent wind at the surface of a liquid, extending the results of Paquier et al. [A. Paquier et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 122103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936395] over nearly three decades of viscosity. The surface deformations are measured with micrometer accuracy using the free-surface synthetic schlieren method. We recover the two regimes of surface deformations previously identified: the wrinkle regime at small wind velocity, resulting from the viscous imprint on the liquid surface of the turbulent fluctuations in the boundary layer, and the regular wave regime at large wind velocity. Below the wave threshold, we find that the characteristic amplitude of the wrinkles scales as ν-1 /2u*3 /2 over nearly the whole range of viscosities, whereas their size is essentially unchanged. We propose a simple model for this scaling, which compares well with the data. We show that the critical friction velocity u* for the onset of regular waves slowly increases with viscosity as ν0.2. Whereas the transition between wrinkles and waves is smooth at low viscosity, including for water, it becomes rather abrupt at high viscosity. A third wave regime is found at ν >(100 -200 ) ×10-6m2s-1 , characterized by a slow, nearly periodic emission of large-amplitude isolated fluid bumps.

  3. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  4. Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the

  5. A comparison of high viscosity bone cement and low viscosity bone cement vertebroplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shengfei; Cai, Jun; Huang, Jijun

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical outcome and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity poly-methyl methacrylate bone cement PVP for severe OVCFs. From December 2010 to December 2012, 32 patients with severe OVCFs were randomly assigned to either group H using high viscosity cement (n=14) or group L using low viscosity cement (n=18). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 General Health Survey (SF-36), kyphosis Cobb's angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvement in the VAS, ODI, SF-36 scores, kyphosis Cobb's angle, and vertebral height were noted in both the groups, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. Cement leakage was seen less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 5 of 17 (29.4%) vertebrae in group H and in 15 of 22 (68.2%) vertebrae in group L (P=0.025). The PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcome and fewer complications compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Surface functionalisation with viscosity-sensitive BODIPY molecular rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyšniauskas, Aurimas; Lopez-Duarte, Ismael; Thompson, Alex J.; Bull, James A.; Kuimova, Marina K.

    2018-07-01

    Surface functionalisation with viscosity sensitive dyes termed ‘molecular rotors’ can potentially open up new opportunities in sensing, for example for non-invasive biological viscosity imaging, in studying the effect of shear stress on lipid membranes and in cells, and in imaging contacts between surfaces upon applied pressure. We have functionalised microscope slides with BODIPY-based molecular rotor capable of viscosity sensing via its fluorescence lifetime. We have optimised functionalisation conditions and prepared the slides with the BODIPY rotor attached directly to the surface of glass slides and through polymer linkers of 5 kDa and 40 kDa in mass. The slides were characterised for their sensitivity to viscosity, and used to measure viscosity of supported lipid bilayers during photooxidation, and of giant unilamellar vesicles lying on the surface of the slide. We conclude that our functionalised slides show promise for a variety of viscosity sensing applications.

  7. Variation of the apparent viscosity of thickened drinks.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Mark; Hanson, Ben; Smith, Christina H

    2011-01-01

    In dysphagia care, thickening powders are widely added to drinks to slow their flow speed by increasing their viscosity. Current practice relies on subjective evaluation of viscosity using verbal descriptors. Several brands of thickener are available, with differences in constituent ingredients and instructions for use. Some thickened fluids have previously been shown to exhibit time-varying non-Newtonian flow behaviour, which may complicate attempts at subjective viscosity judgement. The aims were to quantify the apparent viscosity over time produced by thickeners having a range of constituent ingredients, and to relate the results to clinical practice. A comparative evaluation of currently available thickener products, including two which have recently been reformulated, was performed. Their subjective compliance to the National Descriptors standards was assessed, and their apparent viscosity was measured using a rheometer at shear rates representative of situations from slow tipping in a beaker (0.1 s⁻¹) to a fast swallow (100 s⁻¹). Testing was performed repeatedly up to 3 h from mixing. When mixed with water, it was found that most products compared well with subjective National Descriptors at three thickness levels. The fluids were all highly non-Newtonian; their apparent viscosity was strongly dependent on the rate of testing, typically decreasing by a factor of almost 100 as shear rate increased. All fluids showed some change in viscosity with time from mixing; this varied between products from -34% to 37% in the tests. This magnitude was less than the difference between thickness levels specified by the National Descriptors. The apparent viscosity of thickened fluids depends strongly on the shear rate at which it is examined. This inherent behaviour is likely to hinder subjective evaluation of viscosity. If quantitative measures of viscosity are required (for example, for standardization purposes), they must therefore be qualified with information of

  8. Inclusion of dietary β-mannanase improves performance and ileal digestibility and reduces ileal digesta viscosity of broilers fed corn-soybean meal based diet.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, B; Ingale, S L; Park, J Hong; Rathi, P C; Shanmugam, S; Kim, I H

    2018-05-16

    This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary β-mannanase inclusion on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, digesta viscosity, blood metabolites and excreta noxious gas emissions in broilers fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 600 conventional healthy 1-d-old ROSS 308 broilers with body weight 45 ± 0.50 g (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 10 replicates cages, with 15 broilers in each and fed basal diet supplemented to corn-SBM based diets with 0, 2400, 4800, and 7200 MNU β-mannanase/kg for 35 d feeding trial period. Significant results were observed on improved average daily gain and reduced feed conversion ratio during trial period and also reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy. However, no significant effects were found on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, excreta noxious gas emissions. In conclusion, the inclusion of dietary β-mannanase had potential to improve daily gain and feed efficiency and apparent ileal digestibility while decreasing digesta viscosity of broiler.

  9. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  10. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  11. Shock wave viscosity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celliers, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Several decades ago a method was proposed and demonstrated to measure the viscosity of fluids at high pressure by observing the oscillatory damping of sinusoidal perturbations on a shock front. A detailed mathematical analysis of the technique carried out subsequently by Miller and Ahrens revealed its potential, as well as a deep level of complexity in the analysis. We revisit the ideas behind this technique in the context of a recent experimental development: two-dimensional imaging velocimetry. The new technique allows one to capture a broad spectrum of perturbations down to few micron scale-lengths imposed on a shock front from an initial perturbation. The detailed evolution of the perturbation spectrum is sensitive to the viscosity in the fluid behind the shock front. Initial experiments are aimed at examining the viscosity of shock compressed SiO2 just above the shock melting transition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanowski, Aleksander; Rostocki, A. J.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Kościesza, R.; Tarakowski, R.; Ptasznik, S.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.

  13. Viscotaxis: Microswimmer Navigation in Viscosity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebchen, Benno; Monderkamp, Paul; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    The survival of many microorganisms, like Leptospira or Spiroplasma bacteria, can depend on their ability to navigate towards regions of favorable viscosity. While this ability, called viscotaxis, has been observed in several bacterial experiments, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We provide a framework to study viscotaxis of biological or synthetic self-propelled swimmers in slowly varying viscosity fields and show that suitable body shapes create viscotaxis based on a systematic asymmetry of viscous forces acting on a microswimmer. Our results shed new light on viscotaxis in Spiroplasma and Leptospira and suggest that dynamic body shape changes exhibited by both types of microorganisms may have an unrecognized functionality: to prevent them from drifting to low viscosity regions where they swim poorly. The present theory classifies microswimmers regarding their ability to show viscotaxis and can be used to design synthetic viscotactic swimmers, e.g., for delivering drugs to a target region distinguished by viscosity.

  14. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  15. Effects of nonuniform viscosity on ciliary locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Eastham, Patrick S.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of nonuniform viscosity on the swimming velocity of a free swimmer at zero Reynolds number is examined. Using the generalized reciprocal relation for Stokes flow with nonuniform viscosity, we formulate the locomotion problem in a fluid medium with spatially varying viscosity. Assuming the limit of small variation in the viscosity of the fluid as a result of nonuniform distribution of nutrients around a swimmer, we derive a perturbation model to calculate the changes in the swimming performance of a spherical swimmer as a result of position-dependent viscosity. The swimmer is chosen to be a spherical squirmer with a steady tangential motion on its surface modeling ciliary motion. The nutrient concentration around the body is described by an advection-diffusion equation. The roles of the surface stroke pattern, the specific relationship between the nutrient and viscosity, and the Péclet number of the nutrient in the locomotion velocity of the squirmer are investigated. Our results show that for a pure treadmill stroke, the velocity change is maximum at the limit of zero Péclet number and monotonically decreases toward zero at very high Péclet number. When higher surface stroke modes are present, larger modification in swimming velocity is captured at high Péclet number where two mechanisms of thinning the nutrient boundary layer and appearance of new stagnation points along the surface of squirmer are found to be the primary reasons behind the swimming velocity modifications. It is observed that the presence of nonuniform viscosity allows for optimal swimming speed to be achieved with stroke combinations other than pure treadmill.

  16. Estimating the Kinematic Viscosity of Petroleum Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMulla, Hessa A.; Albahri, Tareq A.

    2017-04-01

    Kinematic viscosity correlation has been developed for liquid petroleum fractions at 37.78°C and 98.89°C (100 and 210°F) standard temperatures using a large variety of experimental data. The only required inputs are the specific gravity and the average boiling point temperature. The accuracy of the correlation was compared with several other correlations available in the literature. The proposed correlations proved to be more accurate in predicting the viscosity at 37.78°C and 98.89°C with average absolute deviations of 0.39 and 0.72 mm2/s, respectively. Another objective was to develop a relation for the variation of viscosity with temperature to predict the viscosity of petroleum fraction at a certain temperature from the knowledge of the viscosity for the same liquid at two other temperatures. The newly developed correlation represents a wide array of temperatures from 20°C to 150°C and viscosities from 0.14 mm2/s to 343.64 mm2/s. The results have been validated with experimental data consisting of 9558 data points, yielding an overall deviation of 0.248 mm2/s and R2 of 0.998. In addition, new formulas were developed to interconvert the viscosity of petroleum fractions from one unit of measure to another based on finding the best fit for a set of experimental data from the literature with R2 as high as 1.0 for many cases. Detailed analysis showed good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data.

  17. The micromechanics model analysis of the viscosity regulation of ultra-high strength concrete with low viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, F. G.; Wang, F. Z.; Liu, Y. P.

    2017-02-01

    The plastic viscosity of mortar and concrete with different binder content, sand ratio, water-binder ratio, microbead dosage and different class and dosage of fly ash were tested and calculated according tomicromechanics model proposed by A. Ghanbari and B.L. Karihaloo, The correlations between these parameters and fresh concrete workability were also investigated, which showed i. high consistence with the objective reality. When binder content, microbead dosage, fly ash dosage or the water-binder ratio was increased or sand ratio was reduced, the fresh concrete viscosity would decrease correspondingly. However their effects were not that same. The relationships between T50 a, V-funnel and inverted slump time with fresh concrete viscosity were established, respectively.

  18. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ban, Heng; Kennedy, Rory

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, themore » most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.« less

  19. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  20. Imaging tumor microscopic viscosity in vivo using molecular rotors

    PubMed Central

    Shimolina, Lyubov’ E.; Izquierdo, Maria Angeles; López-Duarte, Ismael; Bull, James A.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Klapshina, Larisa G.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Kuimova, Marina K.

    2017-01-01

    The microscopic viscosity plays an essential role in cellular biophysics by controlling the rates of diffusion and bimolecular reactions within the cell interior. While several approaches have emerged that have allowed the measurement of viscosity and diffusion on a single cell level in vitro, the in vivo viscosity monitoring has not yet been realized. Here we report the use of fluorescent molecular rotors in combination with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to image microscopic viscosity in vivo, both on a single cell level and in connecting tissues of subcutaneous tumors in mice. We find that viscosities recorded from single tumor cells in vivo correlate well with the in vitro values from the same cancer cell line. Importantly, our new method allows both imaging and dynamic monitoring of viscosity changes in real time in live animals and thus it is particularly suitable for diagnostics and monitoring of the progress of treatments that might be accompanied by changes in microscopic viscosity. PMID:28134273

  1. Geometry of torn boudin-An indicator of relative viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Susanta Kumar; Basu Majumder, Debojyoti; Sarkar, Goutam

    2017-11-01

    The present study determines the role of viscosity on the development of rectangular torn boudin and its various types, defined by the curvature of their exterior and face margins. Numerical modeling was performed with the help of Finite Element Method considering Maxwell visco-elastic materials in commercial code ANSYS. Seven different viscosities were used and interchanged among the boudin, inter-boudin and matrix materials to understand the effect of viscosity ratios, specifically of relative viscosity of inter-boudin material. Results show that the viscosity of inter-boudin material has significant control on the shape of torn boudins apart from the viscosity ratio of boudin to matrix material. Bone-shaped boudin develops only when the inter-boudin is more competent than boudin and it becomes more prominent when matrix is also competent than boudin, but incompetent than inter-boudin. When boudins are stiffer than inter-boudin, barrel-shaped and fish-head boudins with concave faces develop. Exterior or face margins remain almost straight when boudin is relatively rigid compared to its surrounding matrix materials, or when there is no or very little viscosity contrast between boudin and inter-boudin material even in case of large boudin-matrix viscosity contrast. Therefore, the relative viscosity among the boudin, inter-boudin and matrix materials can be estimated qualitatively by studying the shape of boudin in the field.

  2. Inference of mantle viscosity for depth resolutions of GIA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi

    2016-11-01

    Inference of the mantle viscosity from observations for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process has usually been conducted through the analyses based on the simple three-layer viscosity model characterized by lithospheric thickness, upper- and lower-mantle viscosities. Here, we examine the viscosity structures for the simple three-layer viscosity model and also for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model defined by viscosities of η670,D (670-D km depth) and ηD,2891 (D-2891 km depth) with D-values of 1191, 1691 and 2191 km. The upper-mantle rheological parameters for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model are the same as those for the simple three-layer one. For the simple three-layer viscosity model, rate of change of degree-two zonal harmonics of geopotential due to GIA process (GIA-induced J˙2) of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 provides two permissible viscosity solutions for the lower mantle, (7-20) × 1021 and (5-9) × 1022 Pa s, and the analyses with observational constraints of the J˙2 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf indicate (5-9) × 1022 Pa s for the lower mantle. However, the analyses for the J˙2 based on the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model only require a viscosity layer higher than (5-10) × 1021 Pa s for a depth above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), in which the value of (5-10) × 1021 Pa s corresponds to the solution of (7-20) × 1021 Pa s for the simple three-layer one. Moreover, the analyses with the J˙2 and LGM sea level constraints for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model indicate two viscosity solutions: η670,1191 > 3 × 1021 and η1191,2891 ˜ (5-10) × 1022 Pa s, and η670,1691 > 1022 and η1691,2891 ˜ (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The inferred upper-mantle viscosity for such solutions is (1-4) × 1020 Pa s similar to the estimate for the simple three-layer viscosity model. That is, these analyses require a high viscosity layer of (5-10) × 1022 Pa s at least in the deep mantle, and suggest

  3. Quantitative characterization of the viscosity of a microemulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Huang, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The viscosity of the three-component microemulsion water/decane/AOT has been measured as a function of temperature and droplet volume fraction. At temperatures well below the phase-separation temperature the viscosity is described by treating the droplets as hard spheres suspended in decane. Upon approaching the two-phase region from low temperature, there is a large (as much as a factor of four) smooth increase of the viscosity which may be related to the percolation-like transition observed in the electrical conductivity. This increase in viscosity is not completely consistent with either a naive electroviscous model or a simple clustering model. The divergence of the viscosity near the critical point (39 C) is superimposed upon the smooth increase. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the critical divergence are similar to that seen near the critical points of binary liquid mixtures.

  4. Crustal Viscosity Structure Estimated from Multi-Phase Mixing Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinevar, W. J.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of lower crustal viscosity are typically constrained by analyses of isostatic rebound, post seismic creep, and laboratory-derived flow laws for crustal rocks and minerals. Here we follow a new approach for calculating the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust. We use Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions. Effective viscosity is then calculated using the rheologic mixing model of Huet et al. (2014) incorporating flow laws for each mineral phase. Calculations are performed along geotherms appropriate for the Basin and Range, Tibetan Plateau, Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault. To assess the role of crustal composition on viscosity, we examined two compositional gradients extending from an upper crust with ~67 wt% SiO2 to a lower crust that is either: (i) basaltic with ~53 wt% SiO2 (Rudnick and Gao, 2003), or (ii) andesitic with ~64% SiO2 (Hacker et al., 2011). In all cases, the middle continental crust has a viscosity that is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that inferred for wet quartz, a common proxy for mid-crustal viscosities. An andesitic lower crust results in viscosities of 1020-1021 Pa-s and 1021-1022 Pa-s for hotter and colder crustal geotherms, respectively. A mafic lower crust predicts viscosities that are an order of magnitude higher for the same geotherm. In all cases, the viscosity calculated from the mixing model decreases less with depth compared to single-phase estimates. Lastly, for anhydrous conditions in which alpha quartz is stable, we find that there is a strong correlation between Vp/Vs and bulk viscosity; in contrast, little to no correlation exists for hydrous conditions.

  5. Self-similarity criteria in anisotropic flows with viscosity stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaila, L.; Voivenel, L.; Varea, E.

    2017-02-01

    Variable-viscosity flows exhibit a faster trend towards a fully developed turbulent state since fluctuations are produced at a larger amount. A legitimate expectation is that self-similarity to be tenable earlier than in classical, single-viscosity flows. The question which begs to be answered is: which are the self-similarity criteria for variable-viscosity, density-matched, flows? The similarity assumption, i.e., all scales evolve in a similar fashion in space/time, is applied to the transport equation for one- and two-point statistics of anisotropic, variable-viscosity flows. It is shown that the similarity assumption is valid for regions of the flow where viscosity (mean values and the fluctuations root-mean-square) is uniform. In regions where viscosity gradients are important, such as the sheared region and jet boundaries, similarity is not tenable. Our claims are applicable to any decaying flow, isotropic or anisotropic. Support is provided by experimental data obtained in the near field region of a jet issuing into a more viscous environment. The viscosity ratio is 3.5.

  6. The role of viscosity in TATB hot spot ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Laurence E.; Zepeda-Ruis, Luis; Howard, W. Michael; Najjar, Fady; Reaugh, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.

  7. Measurement of the dynamic viscosity of hybrid engine oil -Cuo-MWCNT nanofluid, development of a practical viscosity correlation and utilizing the artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, Alireza; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein; Sheikhzadeh, Ghanbar Ali

    2018-01-01

    The main objectives of this study have been measurement of the dynamic viscosity of CuO-MWCNTs/SAE 5w-50 hybrid nanofluid, utilization of artificial neural networks (ANN) and development of a new viscosity model. The new nanofluid has been prepared by a two-stage procedure with volume fractions of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%. Then, utilizing a Brookfield viscometer, its dynamic viscosity has been measured for temperatures of 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 °C. The experimental results demonstrate that the viscosity increases by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction and decreases by increasing temperature. Based on the experimental data the maximum and minimum nanofluid viscosity enhancements, when the volume fraction increases from 0.05 to 1, are 35.52% and 12.92% for constant temperatures of 55 and 15 °C, respectively. The higher viscosity of oil engine in higher temperatures is an advantage, thus this result is important. The measured nanofluid viscosity magnitudes in various shear rates show that this hybrid nanofluid is Newtonian. An ANN model has been employed to predict the viscosity of the CuO-MWCNTs/SAE 5w-50 hybrid nanofluid and the results showed that the ANN can estimate the viscosity efficiently and accurately. Eventually, for viscosity estimation a new temperature and volume fraction based third-degree polynomial empirical model has been developed. The comparison shows that this model is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Temperature-viscosity relationships of selected asphalt cements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-06-01

    To gain information on the appropriate temperature to obtain a given desirable viscosity for the various asphalt cements commonly used in Oregon, viscosities were determined at three or more temperatures near the mixing temperature. From the values d...

  9. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Utkur, M; Muslu, Y; Saritas, E U

    2017-05-07

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where 'color MPI' techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  10. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkur, M.; Muslu, Y.; Saritas, E. U.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where ‘color MPI’ techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  11. Seismic Constraints on the Mantle Viscosity Structure beneath Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas; Heeszel, David; Aster, Richard; Nyblade, Andrew; Wilson, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Lateral variations in upper mantle viscosity structure can have first order effects on glacial isostatic adjustment. These variations are expected to be particularly large for the Antarctic continent because of the stark geological contrast between ancient cratonic and recent tectonically active terrains in East and West Antarctica, respectively. A large misfit between observed and predicted GPS rates for West Antarctica probably results in part from the use of a laterally uniform viscosity structure. Although not linked by a simple relationship, mantle seismic velocities can provide important constraints on mantle viscosity structure, as they are both largely controlled by temperature and water content. Recent higher resolution seismic models for the Antarctic mantle, derived from data acquired by new seismic stations deployed in the AGAP/GAMSEIS and ANET/POLENET projects, offer the opportunity to use the seismic velocity structure to place new constraints on the viscosity of the Antarctic upper mantle. We use an Antarctic shear wave velocity model derived from array analysis of Rayleigh wave phase velocities [Heeszel et al, in prep] and examine a variety of methodologies for relating seismic, thermal and rheological parameters to compute a suite of viscosity models for the Antarctic mantle. A wide variety of viscosity structures can be derived using various assumptions, but they share several robust common elements. There is a viscosity contrast of at least two orders of magnitude between East and West Antarctica at depths of 80-250 km, reflecting the boundary between cold cratonic lithosphere in East Antarctica and warm upper mantle in West Antarctica. The region beneath the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mtns and extending to the Pensacola Mtns. shows intermediate viscosity between the extremes of East and West Antarctica. There are also significant variations between different parts of West Antarctica, with the lowest viscosity occurring beneath the Marie Byrd Land (MBL

  12. The Role of Viscosity in TATB Hot Spot Ignition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fried, L E; Zepeda-Ruis, L; Howard, W M

    2011-08-02

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse ismore » closest to the viscous limit.« less

  13. Effects of fluid viscosity on a moving sonoluminescing bubble.

    PubMed

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Mirheydari, Mona; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa

    2011-08-01

    Based on the quasi-adiabatic model, the parameters of the bubble interior for a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in water, adiponitrile, and N-methylformamide are calculated for various fluid viscosities. By using a complete form of the hydrodynamic force, the bubble trajectory is calculated for a moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m-SBSL). It is found that as the fluid viscosity increases, the unique circular path changes to an ellipsoidal and then linear form and along this incrementally increase of viscosity the light intensity increases. By using the Bremsstrahlung model to describe the bubble radiation, gradual increase of the viscosity results in brighter emissions. It is found that in fluids with higher viscosity the light intensity decreases as time passes.

  14. Blood Viscosity Responses to Exercise and Conditioning in Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-20

    cope with the dis- comfort of exercise induced by acidosis then becomes a major determinant of the duration of exercise . Physiology of Aerobic...long term strenuous activity an increased loss of red blood cells may occur. ’ This has been termed "sports anemia." Exercise - induced loss of red cells...may be significant factors in some cases. ’ ’ With improved training regimens and improvements in running shoes, exercise induced "sports anemia" is

  15. Effect of viscosity on the wave propagation: Experimental determination of compression and expansion pulse wave velocity in fluid-fill elastic tube.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Rajković, Nemanja; Milošević, Nebojša; Lazović, Biljana; Žikić, Dejan

    2015-11-26

    The velocity by which the disturbance travels through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is one of the main parameters in hemodynamics. The study of wave propagation through the fluid-fill elastic tube is of great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through of cardiovascular system. The effect of viscosity on the pulse wave velocity is generally ignored. In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) of compression and expansion waves in elastic tube. The solutions with different density and viscosity were used in the experiment. Biophysical model of the circulatory flow is designed to perform measurements. Experimental results show that the PWV of the expansion waves is higher than the compression waves during the same experimental conditions. It was found that the change in viscosity causes a change of PWV for both waves. We found a relationship between PWV, fluid density and viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Larger the Viscosity, the Higher the Bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Menachem; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin; Peters, Ivo; Dodge, Kevin; Zhang, Wendy; Jaeger, Heinrich

    A low-viscosity liquid drop can bounce upon impact onto a solid. A high-viscosity drop typically just flattens, i.e., it splats. Surprisingly, our experiments with a droplet made of densely packed glass beads in silicone oil display the opposite behavior: the low-viscosity oil suspension drop splats. The high-viscosity oil suspension bounces. Increasing solvent viscosity increases the rebound energy. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, we model the suspension as densely packed elastic spheres experiencing viscous lubrication drag between neighbors. The model reproduces the observed trends. Plots of elastic compression and drag experienced by the particles show that rebounds are made possible by (1) a fraction of the impact energy being stored during initial contact via elastic compression, (2) a rapid broadening of local lubrication drag interactions at the initial impact site into a spatially uniform upward force throughout the drop. Including finite wall drag due to the presence of ambient air into the numerical model diminishes and eventually cuts off the rebound.

  17. Effect of viscosity on droplet-droplet collisional interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotello, Giulia; Padding, Johan T.; Deen, Niels G.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J. A. M.

    2017-06-01

    A complete knowledge of the effect of droplet viscosity on droplet-droplet collision outcomes is essential for industrial processes such as spray drying. When droplets with dispersed solids are dried, the apparent viscosity of the dispersed phase increases by many orders of magnitude, which drastically changes the outcome of a droplet-droplet collision. However, the effect of viscosity on the droplet collision regime boundaries demarcating coalescence and reflexive and stretching separation is still not entirely understood and a general model for collision outcome boundaries is not available. In this work, the effect of viscosity on the droplet-droplet collision outcome is studied using direct numerical simulations employing the volume of fluid method. The role of viscous energy dissipation is analysed in collisions of droplets with different sizes and different physical properties. From the simulations results, a general phenomenological model depending on the capillary number (Ca, accounting for viscosity), the impact parameter (B), the Weber number (We), and the size ratio (Δ) is proposed.

  18. Viscosity of a concentrated suspension of rigid monosized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper addresses the relative viscosity of concentrated suspensions loaded with unimodal hard particles. So far, exact equations have only been put forward in the dilute limit, e.g., by Einstein [A. Einstein, Ann. Phys. 19, 289 (1906) (in German); Ann. Phys. 34, 591 (1911) (in German)] for spheres. For larger concentrations, a number of phenomenological models for the relative viscosity was presented, which depend on particle concentration only. Here, an original and exact closed form expression is derived based on geometrical considerations that predicts the viscosity of a concentrated suspension of monosized particles. This master curve for the suspension viscosity is governed by the relative viscosity-concentration gradient in the dilute limit (for spheres the Einstein limit) and by random close packing of the unimodal particles in the concentrated limit. The analytical expression of the relative viscosity is thoroughly compared with experiments and simulations reported in the literature, concerning both dilute and concentrated suspensions of spheres, and good agreement is found.

  19. Frequency Analysis of Strain of Cylindrical Shell for Assessment of Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    For tissue characterization of atherosclerotic plaque, we have developed a method, namely, the phased tracking method, [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791] to measure the regional strain (change in wall thickness) and elasticity of the arterial wall. In addition to the regional elasticity, we are attempting to measure the regional viscosity for a more precise tissue characterization. Previously, we showed that the viscosity can be obtained by measuring the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus using remote actuation [H. Hasegawa et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 3197]. However, in this method, we need to apply external actuation to the subject. To simplify the measurement, we instead to obtain the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus from the change in arterial wall thickness spontaneously caused by the heartbeat because this change in thickness consists of frequency components up to 20-30 Hz. In this paper, the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus of a silicone rubber tube was investigated by applying frequency analysis to the change in wall thickness caused by the change in internal pressure simulating the actual arterial blood pressure.

  20. Increased viscosity of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers retards NO-binding when perfused through narrow gas-permeable tubes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromi; Okuda, Naoto; Takeoka, Shinji; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2011-03-01

    Increased fluid viscosity of a solution of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) reduces vasoconstrictive effects because increased shear stress on the vascular wall enhances the production of vasorelaxation factors such as NO. Nevertheless, on a microcirculatory level, it remains unclear how viscosity affects the reaction of HBOCs and NO. In this study, different HBOCs were perfused through narrow gas-permeable tubes (25 μm inner diameter at 1 mm/s centerline velocity; hemoglobin concentration [Hb]=5 g/dL). The reaction was examined microscopically based on the Hb visible-light absorption spectrum. When immersed in a NO atmosphere, the NO-binding of deoxygenated Hb solution (viscosity, 1.1 cP at 1000 s(-1)) in the tube occurred about twice as rapidly as that of red blood cells (RBCs): 1.6 cP. Binding was reduced by PEGylation (PEG-Hb, 7.7 cP), by addition of a high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (2.8 cP), and by encapsulation to form Hb-vesicles (HbVs, 1.5 cP; particle size 279 nm). However, the reduction was not as great as that shown for RBCs. A mixture of HbVs and HES (6.2 cP) showed almost identical NO-binding to that of RBCs. Higher viscosity and particle size might reduce lateral diffusion when particles are flowing. The HbVs with HES showed the slowest NO-binding. Furthermore, Hb encapsulation and PEGylation, but not HES-addition, tended to retard CO-binding. Increased viscosity reportedly enhances production of endothelium NO. In addition, our results show that the increased viscosity also inhibits the reaction with NO. Each effect might mitigate vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Bulk Viscosity on the Oscillating Screen Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Close to the critical temperature, the bulk viscosity of the xenon sample will exceed the shear viscosity by more than a factor of a billion. Nevertheless, the viscometer's low operating frequency ensures that the only significant force on the oscillating screen will be due to the shear viscosity.

  2. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laesecke, Arno; Muzny, Chris D.

    2017-03-01

    A comprehensive database of experimental and computed data for the viscosity of carbon dioxide (CO2) was compiled and a new reference correlation was developed. Literature results based on an ab initio potential energy surface were the foundation of the correlation of the viscosity in the limit of zero density in the temperature range from 100 to 2000 K. Guided symbolic regression was employed to obtain a new functional form that extrapolates correctly to 0 and to 10 000 K. Coordinated measurements at low density made it possible to implement the temperature dependence of the Rainwater-Friend theory in the linear-in-density viscosity term. The residual viscosity could be formulated with a scaling term ργ/T, the significance of which was confirmed by symbolic regression. The final viscosity correlation covers temperatures from 100 to 2000 K for gaseous CO2 and from 220 to 700 K with pressures along the melting line up to 8000 MPa for compressed and supercritical liquid states. The data representation is more accurate than with the previous correlations, and the covered pressure and temperature range is significantly extended. The critical enhancement of the viscosity of CO2 is included in the new correlation.

  3. Negative viscosity can enhance learning of inertial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Felix C; Patton, James L; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2009-06-01

    We investigated how learning of inertial load manipulation is influenced by movement amplification with negative viscosity. Using a force-feedback device, subjects trained on anisotropic loads (5 orientations) with free movements in one of three conditions (inertia only, negative viscosity only, or combined), prior to common evaluation conditions (prescribed circular pattern with inertia only). Training with Combined-Load resulted in lower error (6.89±3.25%) compared to Inertia-Only (8.40±4.32%) and Viscosity-Only (8.17±4.13%) according to radial deviation analysis (% of trial mean radius). Combined-Load and Inertia-Only groups exhibited similar unexpected no-load trials (8.38±4.31% versus 8.91±4.70% of trial mean radius), which suggests comparable low-impedance strategies. These findings are remarkable since negative viscosity, only available during training, evidently enhanced learning when combined with inertia. Modeling analysis suggests that a feedforward after-effect of negative viscosity cannot predict such performance gains. Instead, results from Combined-Load training are consistent with greater feedforward inertia compensation along with a small increase in impedance control. The capability of the nervous system to generalize learning from negative viscosity suggests an intriguing new method for enhancing sensorimotor adaptation.

  4. Viscosity studies of water based magnetite nanofluids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anu, K.; Hemalatha, J.

    2016-05-23

    Magnetite nanofluids of various concentrations have been synthesized through co-precipitation method. The structural and topographical studies made with the X-Ray Diffractometer and Atomic Force Microscope are presented in this paper. The density and viscosity studies for the ferrofluids of various concentrations have been made at room temperature. The experimental viscosities are compared with theoretical values obtained from Einstein, Batchelor and Wang models. An attempt to modify the Rosensweig model is made and the modified Rosensweig equation is reported. In addition, new empirical correlation is also proposed for predicting viscosity of ferrofluid at various concentrations.

  5. Motion of fluids with very little viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1928-01-01

    I have set myself the task to investigate systematically the laws of motion of a fluid whose viscosity is assumed to be very small. The viscosity is supposed to be so small that it can be disregarded wherever there are no great velocity differences nor accumulative effects.

  6. Ultrahigh-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blunts postprandial glucose after a breakfast meal in women.

    PubMed

    Dow, Shireen; Pritchett, Kelly L; Hawk, Susan; Herrington, Stefanie J; Gee, David L

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effects of two water-soluble dietary fibers, ultrahigh-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (UHV-HPMC, nonfermentable) and psyllium fiber (fermentable), on postprandial glucose and second meal effects. In a single-blind crossover design, 12 healthy adult subjects were given standardized, premeasured breakfast and lunch meals with either 4 g of the fiber supplements or a placebo. Blood glucose was measured with a continuous blood glucose monitoring system (DexCom Seven Plus, San Diego, CA). Subjects consuming UHV-HPMC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) 2 hours after breakfast than those receiving a placebo. Subjects consuming psyllium also tended to have lower glucose levels than the placebo group. Peak glucose concentration following breakfast was significantly (p < 0.01) less with UHV-HPMC when compared with the placebo. No significant differences in AUC or peak glucose concentration between treatments following the second meal (lunch) were detected, suggesting no residual effect from the fiber supplements. Supplementation with viscous water-soluble fibers may be an effective means of reducing the glycemic response of a meal in healthy adults.

  7. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  8. Challenges in Determining Intrinsic Viscosity Under Low Ionic Strength Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pindrus, Mariya A; Shire, Steven J; Yadav, Sandeep; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the intrinsic viscosity of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under varying pH and ionic strength solution conditions. An online viscosity detector attached to HPLC (Viscotek®) was used to determine the intrinsic viscosity of mAbs. The Ross and Minton equation was used for viscosity prediction at high protein concentrations. Bulk viscosity was determined by a Cambridge viscometer. At 15 mM ionic strength, intrinsic viscosity of the mAbs determined by the single-point approach varied from 5.6 to 6.4 mL/g with changes in pH. High ionic strength did not significantly alter intrinsic viscosity, while a significant increase (up to 24.0 mL/g) was observed near zero mM. No difference in bulk viscosity of mAb3 was observed around pH 6 as a function of ionic strength. Data analysis revealed that near zero mM ionic strength limitations of the single-point technique result in erroneously high intrinsic viscosity. Intrinsic viscosity is a valuable tool that can be used to model baseline viscosity at higher protein concentrations. However, it is not predictive of solution non-ideality at higher protein concentrations. Furthermore, breakdown of numerous assumptions limits the applicability of experimental techniques near zero mM ionic strength conditions. For molecules and conditions studied, the single-point approach produced reliable intrinsic viscosity results at 15 mM. However, this approach must be used with caution near zero mM ionic strength. Data analysis can be used to reveal whether determined intrinsic viscosity is reliable or erroneously high.

  9. Short Communication: Rheological properties of blood serum of rats after irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Moussa, Sherif Aa; Ms, Al-Ayed

    2016-01-01

    The blood serum rheological properties open the door to find suitable radio-protectors and convenient therapy for many cases of radiation exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of rat blood serum at wide range of shear rates after whole body irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo. Healthy male rats were divided into five groups; one control group and 4 irradiated groups. The irradiation process was carried out using Co60 source with dose rate of 0.883cG/sec. Several rheological parameters were measured using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. A significant increase in viscosity and shear stress was observed with 25 and 50Gy corresponding to each shear rate compared with the control; while a significant decrease observed with 75 and 100Gy. The viscosity exhibited a Non-Newtonian behaviour with the shear rate while shear stress values were linearly related with shear rate. The decrease in blood viscosity might be attributed to changes in molecular weight, pH sensitivity and protein structure. The changes in rheological properties of irradiated rats' blood serum might be attributed to destruction changes in the haematological and dimensional properties of rats' blood products.

  10. Hydrodynamic simulations of accretion flows with time-varying viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2017-12-01

    X-ray outbursts of stellar-mass black hole candidates are believed to be due to a sudden rise in viscosity, which transports angular momentum efficiently and increases the accretion rates, causing higher X-ray flux. After the viscosity is reduced, the outburst subsides and the object returns back to the pre-outburst quiescence stage. In the absence of a satisfactory understanding of the physical mechanism leading to such a sharp time dependence of viscous processes, we perform numerical simulations where we include the rise and fall of a viscosity parameter at an outer injection grid, assumed to be located at the accumulation radius where matter from the companion is piled up before being released by enhanced viscosity. We use a power-law radial dependence of the viscosity parameter (α ∼ rε), but the exponent (ε) is allowed to vary with time to mimic a fast rise and decay of the viscosity parameter. Since X-ray spectra of a black hole candidate can be explained by a Keplerian disc component in the presence of a post-shock region of an advective flow, our goal here is also to understand whether the flow configurations required to explain the spectral states of an outbursting source could be obtained by a time-varying viscosity. We present the results of our simulations to prove that low-angular-momentum (sub-Keplerian) advective flows do form a Keplerian disc in the pre-shock region when the viscosity is enhanced, which disappears on a much longer time-scale after the viscosity is withdrawn. From the variation of the Keplerian disc inside an advective halo, we believe that our result, for the first time, is able to simulate the two-component advective flow dynamics during an entire X-ray outburst and explain the observed hysteresis effects in the hardness-intensity diagram.

  11. Viscosity Relaxation in Molten HgZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Yeong Woo; Baird, James K.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rotating cup measurements of the viscosity of the pseudo-binary melt, HgZnTe have shown that the isothermal liquid with zinc mole fraction 0.16 requires tens of hours of equilibration time before a steady viscous state can be achieved. Over this relaxation period, the viscosity at 790 C increases by a factor of two, while the viscosity at 810 C increases by 40%. Noting that the Group VI elements tend to polymerize when molten, we suggest that the viscosity of the melt is enhanced by the slow formation of Te atom chains. To explain the build-up of linear Te n-mers, we propose a scheme, which contains formation reactions with second order kinetics that increase the molecular weight, and decomposition reactions with first order kinetics that inactivate the chains. The resulting rate equations can be solved for the time dependence of each molecular weight fraction. Using these molecular weight fractions, we calculate the time dependence of the average molecular weight. Using the standard semi-empirical relation between polymer average molecular weight and viscosity, we then calculate the viscosity relaxation curve. By curve fitting, we find that the data imply that the rate constant for n-mer formation is much smaller than the rate constant for n-mer deactivation, suggesting that Te atoms only weakly polymerize in molten HgZnTe. The steady state toward which the melt relaxes occurs as the rate of formation of an n-mer becomes exactly balanced by the sum of the rate for its deactivation and the rate for its polymerization to form an (n+1)-mer.

  12. Photoinduced aging and viscosity evolution in Se-rich Ge-Se glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, Yann; King, Ellyn A.; Keryvin, Vincent; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Rouxel, Tanguy; Bureau, Bruno; Lucas, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    We propose here to investigate the non-equilibrium viscosity of Ge-Se glasses under and after light irradiation. Ge10Se90 and Ge20Se80 fibers have been aged in the dark and under ambient light, over months. During aging, both the relaxation of enthalpy and the viscosity have been investigated. The viscosity was measured by shear relaxation-recovery tests allowing the measurement of non-equilibrium viscosity. When Ge10Se90 glass fibers are aged under irradiation, a relatively fast fictive temperature decrease is observed. Concomitantly, during aging under irradiation, the non-equilibrium viscosity increases and reaches an equilibrium after two months of aging. This viscosity increase is also observed in Ge20Se80 fibers. Nevertheless, this equilibrium viscosity is far below the viscosity expected at the configurational equilibrium. As soon as the irradiation ceases, the viscosity increases almost instantaneously by about one order of magnitude. Then, if the fibers are kept in the dark, their viscosity slowly increases over months. The analysis of the shear relaxation functions shows that the aging is thermorheologically simple. On the other side, there is no simple relaxation between the shear relaxation functions measured under irradiation and those measured in the dark. These results clearly suggest that a very specific photoinduced aging process occurs under irradiation. This aging is due to photorelaxation. Nevertheless, the viscosity changes are not solely correlated to photoaging and photorelaxation. A scenario is proposed to explain all the observed viscosity evolutions under and after irradiation, on the basis of photoinduced transient defects.

  13. Capillary pumping independent of the liquid surface energy and viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weijin; Hansson, Jonas; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Capillary pumping is an attractive means of liquid actuation because it is a passive mechanism, i.e., it does not rely on an external energy supply during operation. The capillary flow rate generally depends on the liquid sample viscosity and surface energy. This poses a problem for capillary-driven systems that rely on a predictable flow rate and for which the sample viscosity or surface energy are not precisely known. Here, we introduce the capillary pumping of sample liquids with a flow rate that is constant in time and independent of the sample viscosity and sample surface energy. These features are enabled by a design in which a well-characterized pump liquid is capillarily imbibed into the downstream section of the pump and thereby pulls the unknown sample liquid into the upstream pump section. The downstream pump geometry is designed to exert a Laplace pressure and fluidic resistance that are substantially larger than those exerted by the upstream pump geometry on the sample liquid. Hence, the influence of the unknown sample liquid on the flow rate is negligible. We experimentally tested pumps of the new design with a variety of sample liquids, including water, different samples of whole blood, different samples of urine, isopropanol, mineral oil, and glycerol. The capillary filling speeds of these liquids vary by more than a factor 1000 when imbibed to a standard constant cross-section glass capillary. In our new pump design, 20 filling tests involving these liquid samples with vastly different properties resulted in a constant volumetric flow rate in the range of 20.96-24.76 μL/min. We expect this novel capillary design to have immediate applications in lab-on-a-chip systems and diagnostic devices.

  14. Mesoscale Simulation of Blood Flow in Small Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2007-01-01

    Computational modeling of blood flow in microvessels with internal diameter 20–500 μm is a major challenge. It is because blood in such vessels behaves as a multiphase suspension of deformable particles. A continuum model of blood is not adequate if the motion of individual red blood cells in the suspension is of interest. At the same time, multiple cells, often a few thousands in number, must also be considered to account for cell-cell hydrodynamic interaction. Moreover, the red blood cells (RBCs) are highly deformable. Deformation of the cells must also be considered in the model, as it is a major determinant of many physiologically significant phenomena, such as formation of a cell-free layer, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. In this article, we present two-dimensional computational simulation of blood flow in vessels of size 20–300 μm at discharge hematocrit of 10–60%, taking into consideration the particulate nature of blood and cell deformation. The numerical model is based on the immersed boundary method, and the red blood cells are modeled as liquid capsules. A large RBC population comprising of as many as 2500 cells are simulated. Migration of the cells normal to the wall of the vessel and the formation of the cell-free layer are studied. Results on the trajectory and velocity traces of the RBCs, and their fluctuations are presented. Also presented are the results on the plug-flow velocity profile of blood, the apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The numerical results also allow us to investigate the variation of apparent blood viscosity along the cross-section of a vessel. The computational results are compared with the experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents the first simulation to simultaneously consider a large ensemble of red blood cells and the cell deformation. PMID:17208982

  15. Drag reduction by a linear viscosity profile.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Elisabetta; Casciola, Carlo M; L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Tiberkevich, Vasil

    2004-11-01

    Drag reduction by polymers in turbulent flows raises an apparent contradiction: the stretching of the polymers must increase the viscosity, so why is the drag reduced? A recent theory proposed that drag reduction, in agreement with experiments, is consistent with the effective viscosity growing linearly with the distance from the wall. With this self-consistent solution the reduction in the Reynolds stress overwhelms the increase in viscous drag. In this Rapid Communication we show, using direct numerical simulations, that a linear viscosity profile indeed reduces the drag in agreement with the theory and in close correspondence with direct simulations of the FENE-P model at the same flow conditions.

  16. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  17. Ras Diffusion Is Sensitive to Plasma Membrane Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J. Shawn; Drake, Kimberly R.; Remmert, Catha L.; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2005-01-01

    The cell surface contains a variety of barriers and obstacles that slow the lateral diffusion of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins below the theoretical limit imposed by membrane viscosity. How the diffusion of proteins residing exclusively on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane is regulated has been largely unexplored. We show here that the diffusion of the small GTPase Ras is sensitive to the viscosity of the plasma membrane. Using confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we examined the diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HRas, NRas, and KRas in COS-7 cells loaded with or depleted of cholesterol, a well-known modulator of membrane bilayer viscosity. In cells loaded with excess cholesterol, the diffusional mobilities of GFP-HRas, GFP-NRas, and GFP-KRas were significantly reduced, paralleling the behavior of the viscosity-sensitive lipid probes DiIC16 and DiIC18. However, the effects of cholesterol depletion on protein and lipid diffusion in cell membranes were highly dependent on the depletion method used. Cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin slowed Ras diffusion by a viscosity-independent mechanism, whereas overnight cholesterol depletion slightly increased both protein and lipid diffusion. The ability of Ras to sense membrane viscosity may represent a general feature of proteins residing on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. PMID:15923235

  18. Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt-sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization "nose" for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear-thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity.

  19. Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    PubMed Central

    Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B.; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt‐sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time‐Temperature‐Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization “nose” for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear‐thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity. PMID:27656114

  20. Viscosity of fiber preloads affects food intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vuksan, V; Panahi, S; Lyon, M; Rogovik, A L; Jenkins, A L; Leiter, L A

    2009-09-01

    Dietary fiber that develops viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract is capable of addressing various aspects of food intake control. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent food intake and appetite in relation to the level of viscosity following three liquid preloads each containing 5 g of either a high (novel viscous polysaccharide; NVP), medium (glucomannan; GLM), or low (cellulose; CE) viscosity fiber. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled and crossover trial, 31 healthy weight adolescents (25 F:6 M; age 16.1+/-0.6 years; BMI 22.2+/-3.7 kg/m(2)) consumed one of the three preloads 90 min prior to an ad libitum pizza meal. Preloads were identical in taste, appearance, nutrient content and quantity of fiber, but different in their viscosities (10, 410, and 700 poise for CE, GLM, and NVP, respectively). Pizza intake was significantly lower (p=0.008) after consumption of the high-viscosity NVP (278+/-111 g) compared to the medium-viscosity GLM (313+/-123 g) and low-viscosity CE (316+/-138 g) preloads, with no difference between the GLM and CE preloads. Appetite scores, physical symptoms and 24-h intake did not differ among treatment groups. A highly viscous NVP preload leads to reduced subsequent food intake, in terms of both gram weight and calories, in healthy weight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence of an independent contribution of viscosity on food intake and may form a basis for further studies on factors influencing food intake in adolescents.

  1. Effects of Metal Ions on Viscosity of Aqueous Sodium Carboxylmethylcellulose Solution and Development of Dropping Ball Method on Viscosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Set, Seng; Ford, David; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    This research revealed that metal ions with different charges could significantly affect the viscosity of aqueous sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) solution. On the basis of an Ostwald viscometer, an improvised apparatus using a dropping ball for examining the viscosity of liquids/solutions has been developed. The results indicate that the…

  2. Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

  3. Development of ocular viscosity characterization method.

    PubMed

    Shu-Hao Lu; Guo-Zhen Chen; Leung, Stanley Y Y; Lam, David C C

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness. Irreversible and progressive optic nerve damage results when the intraocular pressure (IOP) exceeds 21 mmHg. The elevated IOP is attributed to blocked fluid drainage from the eye. Methods to measure the IOP are widely available, but methods to measure the viscous response to blocked drainage has yet been developed. An indentation method to characterize the ocular flow is developed in this study. Analysis of the load-relaxation data from indentation tests on drainage-controlled porcine eyes showed that the blocked drainage is correlated with increases in ocular viscosity. Successful correlation of the ocular viscosity with drainage suggests that ocular viscosity maybe further developed as a new diagnostic parameter for assessment of normal tension glaucoma where nerve damage occurs without noticeable IOP elevation; and as a diagnostic parameter complimentary to conventional IOP in conventional diagnosis.

  4. Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian blood flow through a mechanical aortic valve. Non-Newtonian blood flow in the aortic root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, F.; de Tullio, M. D.; Verzicco, R.

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the comparison between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flows through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in the aortic root. The blood, in fact, is a concentrated suspension of cells, mainly red blood cells, in a Newtonian matrix, the plasma, and consequently its overall behavior is that of a non-Newtonian fluid owing to the action of the cells' membrane on the fluid part. The common practice, however, assumes the blood in large vessels as a Newtonian fluid since the shear rate is generally high and the effective viscosity becomes independent of the former. In this paper, we show that this is not always the case even in the aorta, the largest artery of the systemic circulation, owing to the pulsatile and transitional nature of the flow. Unexpectedly, for most of the pulsating cycle and in a large part of the fluid volume, the shear rate is smaller than the threshold level for the blood to display a constant effective viscosity and its shear thinning character might affect the system dynamics. A direct inspection of the various flow features has shown that the valve dynamics, the transvalvular pressure drop and the large-scale features of the flow are very similar for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models. On the other hand, the mechanical damage of the red blood cells (hemolysis), induced by the altered stress values in the flow, is larger for the non-Newtonian fluid model than for the Newtonian one.

  5. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  6. Maintenance of reference standards in the field of viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moşulică, E. A.; Cîrneanu, I.; Constantin, N.; Rucai, V.

    2018-01-01

    Participation in the work of comparison in the field of viscosity, within the program conducted under the jurisdiction of ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), D-2 Committee, Subcommittee "Flow Properties," Newtonian Fluids) was necessary to ensure traceability of measuring unit of kinematic viscosity. Results of the comparison of the specialized participating laboratories on 4 continents, has proved annual capability of INM in the transmission unit of kinematic viscosity. Cannon Position Company in the US organizes co-operation program in the field of kinematic viscosity ASTM D 02.07. The company distributes standard substances Cannon viscosity participating laboratories and consolidate the results of the measurements. Physical-chemical laboratory has fully accepted the proposed schedule of the company Cannon. Final report of the comparison showed that in the year 2015 a number of 25 laboratories and institutes of metrology attented to the program.

  7. Effect of Oils on Kinematic Viscosity of R134a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoaki; Takaishi, Yoshinori; Oguchi, Kosei

    The kinematic viscosity defined as a ratio of viscosity to density is one of the key properties in producing technically important dimensionless numbers such as Prandtl and Reynolds numbers. We measured both viscosity and density of R134a/POE and R134a/PAG mixtures at saturation in the range of relatively low oilconcentrations. The density measurements for oil-concentrations up to 50 mass% were conducted with a densimeter making use of glass buoys within overall uncertainty of ±1.0%, and the viscosity measurements for oil-concentrations up to 16 mass% were carried out with an oscillating-cup viscometer making use of polarizer with overall uncertainty less than ±3.5%. The kinematic viscosities obtained from the experimental viscosity and density data are presented for both R134a/POE and R134a/PAG mixtures in the range of temperatures from 278 K to 288 K for oil-concentrations up to 15 mass%. The oil-concentration dependence of the kinematic viscosity for both mixtures is also reported.

  8. Quetol 651: Not just a low viscosity resin.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quetol 651, a low viscosity epoxy resin, is miscible with alcohols, acetone, and water. It is versatile and can be used as a single epoxide or mixed with other epoxides and anhydrides. The most important characteristic is that the addition of Quetol 651 to a formulation results in a lower viscosity embedding medium and allows for good detection of antigenic activity. Properly formulated and mixed resins containing Quetol 651 have excellent sectioning properties and good beam stability. The decrease in viscosity lends to lower specific gravity of the embedding medium and less interfering electron density between specimen elements resulting in better spatial resolution. New formulations and viscosity data are presented and compared to long used, embedding formulations and the extensive uses of Quetol 651 are reviewed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Photoinduced aging and viscosity evolution in Se-rich Ge-Se glasses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gueguen, Yann; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Rouxel, Tanguy

    We propose here to investigate the non-equilibrium viscosity of Ge-Se glasses under and after light irradiation. Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} and Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers have been aged in the dark and under ambient light, over months. During aging, both the relaxation of enthalpy and the viscosity have been investigated. The viscosity was measured by shear relaxation-recovery tests allowing the measurement of non-equilibrium viscosity. When Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} glass fibers are aged under irradiation, a relatively fast fictive temperature decrease is observed. Concomitantly, during aging under irradiation, the non-equilibrium viscosity increases and reaches an equilibrium after two months of aging. Thismore » viscosity increase is also observed in Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers. Nevertheless, this equilibrium viscosity is far below the viscosity expected at the configurational equilibrium. As soon as the irradiation ceases, the viscosity increases almost instantaneously by about one order of magnitude. Then, if the fibers are kept in the dark, their viscosity slowly increases over months. The analysis of the shear relaxation functions shows that the aging is thermorheologically simple. On the other side, there is no simple relaxation between the shear relaxation functions measured under irradiation and those measured in the dark. These results clearly suggest that a very specific photoinduced aging process occurs under irradiation. This aging is due to photorelaxation. Nevertheless, the viscosity changes are not solely correlated to photoaging and photorelaxation. A scenario is proposed to explain all the observed viscosity evolutions under and after irradiation, on the basis of photoinduced transient defects.« less

  10. Subduction zone evolution and low viscosity wedges and channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Vlad; Gurnis, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Dehydration of subducting lithosphere likely transports fluid into the mantle wedge where the viscosity is decreased. Such a decrease in viscosity could form a low viscosity wedge (LVW) or a low viscosity channel (LVC) on top of the subducting slab. Using numerical models, we investigate the influence of low viscosity wedges and channels on subduction zone structure. Slab dip changes substantially with the viscosity reduction within the LVWs and LVCs. For models with or without trench rollback, overthickening of slabs is greatly reduced by LVWs or LVCs. Two divergent evolutionary pathways have been found depending on the maximum depth extent of the LVW and wedge viscosity. Assuming a viscosity contrast of 0.1 with background asthenosphere, models with a LVW that extends down to 400 km depth show a steeply dipping slab, while models with an LVW that extends to much shallower depth, such as 200 km, can produce slabs that are flat lying beneath the overriding plate. There is a narrow range of mantle viscosities that produces flat slabs (5 to10 × 10 19 Pa s) and the slab flattening process is enhanced by trench rollback. Slab can be decoupled from the overriding plate with a LVC if the thickness is at least a few 10 s of km, the viscosity reduction is at least a factor of two and the depth extent of the LVC is several hundred km. These models have important implications for the geochemical and spatial evolution of volcanic arcs and the state of stress within the overriding plate. The models explain the poor correlation between traditional geodynamic controls, subducting plate age and convergence rates, on slab dip. We predict that when volcanic arcs change their distance from the trench, they could be preceded by changes in arc chemistry. We predict that there could be a larger volatile input into the wedge when arcs migrate toward the trench and visa-versa. The transition of a subduction zone into the flat-lying regime could be preceded by changes in the volatile

  11. Low-shear red blood cell oxygen transport effectiveness is adversely affected by transfusion and further worsened by deoxygenation in sickle cell disease patients on chronic transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Detterich, Jon; Alexy, Tamas; Rabai, Miklos; Wenby, Rosalinda; Dongelyan, Ani; Coates, Thomas; Wood, John; Meiselman, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    Simple chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) is a mainstay for stroke prophylaxis in sickle cell anemia, but its effects on hemodynamics are poorly characterized. Transfusion improves oxygen-carrying capacity, reducing demands for high cardiac output. While transfusion decreases factors associated with vasoocclusion, including percent hemoglobin (Hb)S, reticulocyte count, and circulating cell-free Hb, it increases blood viscosity, which reduces microvascular flow. The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR) is an index of red blood cell oxygen transport effectiveness that varies with shear stress and balances the benefits of improved oxygen capacity to viscosity-mediated impairment of microvascular flow. We hypothesized that transfusion would improve HVR at high shear despite increased blood viscosity, but would decrease HVR at low shear. To test this hypothesis, we examined oxygenated and deoxygenated blood samples from 15 sickle cell patients on CTT immediately before transfusion and again 12 to 120 hours after transfusion. Comparable changes in Hb, hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count, and HbS with transfusion were observed in all subjects. Viscosity, Hct, and high-shear HVR increased with transfusion while low-shear HVR decreased significantly. Decreased low-shear HVR suggests impaired oxygen transport to low-flow regions and may explain why some complications of sickle cell anemia are ameliorated by CTT and others may be made worse. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  13. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  14. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Jackie; Chestnut, Amanda; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E. A.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pickler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity, five standard infant formulas, three barium products and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. Study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the NDD nectar-thick liquid range lower boundary. The study showed differences in viscosity between two 60% w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque® and E-Z-Paque® powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range, and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20kcal and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in consistency when mixed

  15. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  16. Influence of interfacial viscosity on the dielectrophoresis of drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-05-01

    The dielectrophoresis of a Newtonian uncharged drop in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform DC electric field is studied analytically. The present study is focused on the effects of interfacial viscosities on the dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of an isolated suspended drop. The interfacial viscosities generate surface-excess viscous stress which is modeled as a two-dimensional Newtonian fluid which obeys the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive law with constant values of interfacial tension, interfacial shear, and dilatational viscosities. In the regime of small drop deformation, we have obtained analytical solution for the drop velocity and deformed shape by neglecting surface charge convection and fluid inertia. Our study demonstrates that the drop velocity is independent of the interfacial shear viscosity, while the interfacial dilatational viscosity strongly affects the drop velocity. The interfacial viscous effects always retard the dielectrophoretic motion of a perfectly conducting/dielectric drop. Notably, the interfacial viscous effects can retard or augment the dielectrophoretic motion of a leaky dielectric drop depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties. The shape deformation of a leaky dielectric drop is found to decrease (or increase) due to interfacial shear (or dilatational) viscosity.

  17. Opposite effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb aqueous extracts on blood coagulation function

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wufeng; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Background Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (APL) has showed anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities in some studies, whereas its actual effects on blood coagulation are still unclear. This study was designed to observe the in vitro effects of APL aqueous extracts on blood coagulation, as well as to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Studies were divided into four groups: 0, 4, 20, and 80 g/L of APL aqueous extracts mixed with plasma or whole blood samples. Clotting time of whole blood, plasma coagulation tests, activities of plasma coagulation factors, plasma calcium ion, platelet aggregation test, and platelet fibrinogen receptor as well as the blood viscosity were measured. Results It was observed that the APL aqueous extracts in 4 g/L significantly prolonged the whole blood clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time, shortened prothrombin time, decreased activities of coagulation factor VIII, IX and XI, and levels of platelet aggregation and fibrinogen receptor expression. However, coagulation factor VII activity, and blood viscosity were increased after the extracts treatment. And the effects of APL extracts were in a concentration-dependent manner (0–80 g/L). Conclusions The results suggest that APL aqueous extracts have a total anticoagulant activity, whereas they exhibit opposite effects of greater anticoagulant activity than pro-coagulant activity. PMID:28480193

  18. Hot accretion flow with anisotropic viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Bu, De-Fu; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In extremely low accretion rate systems, the ion mean-free path can be much larger than the gyroradius. Therefore, gas pressure is anisotropic with respect to magnetic field lines. The effects of pressure anisotropy can be modeled by an anisotropic viscosity with respect to magnetic field lines. Angular momentum can be transferred by anisotropic viscosity. In this paper, we investigate hot accretion flow with anisotropic viscosity. We consider the case that anisotropic viscous stress is much larger than Maxwell stress. We find that the flow is convectively unstable. We also find that the mass inflow rate decreases towards a black hole. Wind is very weak; its mass flux is 10-15% of the mass inflow rate. The inward decrease of inflow rate is mainly due to convective motions. This result may be useful to understand the accretion flow in the Galactic Center Sgr A* and M 87 galaxy.

  19. High-Resolution Lithosphere Viscosity and Dynamics Revealed by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    An accurate viscosity structure is critical to truthfully modeling continental lithosphere dynamics, especially at spatial scales of <200 km where active tectonic deformation and volcanism occur. However, the effective viscosity structure of the lithosphere remains a key challenge in geodynamics due to the intimate involvement of viscosity with time and its dependence on many factors including strain rate, plastic failure, composition, and grain size. Current efforts on inferring the detailed lithosphere viscosity structure are sparse and large uncertainties and discrepancies still exist. Here we report an attempt to infer the effective lithospheric viscosity from a high-resolution magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the western United States. The high sensitivity of MT fields to the presence of electrically conductive fluids makes it a promising proxy for determining mechanical strength variations throughout the lithosphere. We demonstrate how a viscosity structure, approximated from electrical resistivity, results in a geodynamic model that successfully predicts short-wavelength surface topography, lithospheric deformation, and mantle upwelling beneath recent volcanism. The results indicate that lithosphere viscosity structure rather than the buoyancy structure is the dominant controlling factor for short-wavelength topography and intra-plate deformation in tectonically active regions. We further show that this viscosity is consistent with and more effective than that derived from laboratory-based rheology. We therefore propose that MT imaging provides a practical observational constraint for quantifying the dynamic evolution of the continental lithosphere.

  20. Phenomenological constraints on the bulk viscosity of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-11-01

    While small at very high temperature, the bulk viscosity of Quantum Chromodynamics is expected to grow in the confinement region. Although its precise magnitude and temperature-dependence in the cross-over region is not fully understood, recent theoretical and phenomenological studies provided evidence that the bulk viscosity can be sufficiently large to have measurable consequences on the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma. In this work, a Bayesian statistical analysis is used to establish probabilistic constraints on the temperature-dependence of bulk viscosity using hadronic measurements from RHIC and LHC.

  1. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Di-Lun; Müller, Berndt

    2016-07-18

    We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP) at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  2. Effects of viscosity on endothelial cell damage under acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Singh, Rahul; Li, David; Pitre, John; Putnam, Andrew; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a process by which stabilized superheated microdroplets are able to undergo phase transition with the aid of focused ultrasound. Gas bubbles resulting from ADV can provide local occlusion of the blood vessels supplying diseased tissue, such as tumors. The ADV process can also induce bioeffects that increase vessel permeability, which is beneficial for localized drug delivery. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at the endothelial layer will affect cell attachment and viability. Several hypotheses have been proposed to elucidate the mechanism of damage including the generation of normal and shear stresses during bubble expansion. A single 3.5 MHz ultrasound pulse consisting of 8 cycles (~2.3 μs) and a 6 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to induce ADV on endothelial cells in media of different viscosities. Carboxylmethyl cellulose was added to the cell media to increase the viscosity up to 300 cP to and aid in the reduction of stresses during bubble expansion. The likelihood of cell damage was decreased when compared to our control (~1 cP), but it was still present in some cases indicating that the mechanism of damage does not depend entirely on viscous stresses associated with bubble expansion. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  3. Chaos in an Eulerian Based Model of Sickle Cell Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apori, Akwasi; Harris, Wesley

    2001-11-01

    A novel Eulerian model describing the manifestation of sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries has been formulated to study the apparently chaotic onset of sickle cell crises. This Eulerian model was based on extending previous models of sickle cell blood flow which were limited due to their Lagrangian formulation. Oxygen concentration, red blood cell velocity, cell stiffness, and plasma viscosity were modeled as system state variables. The governing equations of the system were expressed in canonical form. The non-linear coupling of velocity-viscosity and viscosity- stiffness proved to be the origin of chaos in the system. The system was solved with respect to a control parameter representing the unique rheology of the sickle cell erythrocytes. Results of chaos tests proved positive for various ranges of the control parameter. The results included con-tinuous patterns found in the Poincare section, spectral broadening of the Fourier power spectrum, and positive Lyapunov exponent values. The onset of chaos predicted by this sickle cell flow model as the control parameter was varied appeared to coincide with the change from a healthy state to a crisis state in a sickle cell patient. This finding that sickle cell crises may be caused from the well understood change of a solution from a steady state to chaotic could point to new ways in preventing and treating crises and should be validated in clinical trials.

  4. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  5. The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: A model for calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottinga, Y.; Weill, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A simple model has been designed to allow reasonably accurate calculations of viscosity as a function of temperature and composition. The problem of predicting viscosities of anhydrous silicate liquids has been investigated since such viscosity numbers are applicable to many extrusive melts and to nearly dry magmatic liquids in general. The fluidizing action of water dissolved in silicate melts is well recognized and it is now possible to predict the effect of water content on viscosity in a semiquantitative way. Water was not incorporated directly into the model. Viscosities of anhydrous compositions were calculated, and, where necessary, the effect of added water and estimated. The model can be easily modified to incorporate the effect of water whenever sufficient additional data are accumulated.

  6. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  7. Peristalsis of nonconstant viscosity Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, N.; Latif, T.; Hussain, Q.; Asghar, S.

    Mixed convective peristaltic activity of variable viscosity nanofluids is addressed. Unlike the conventional consideration of constant viscosity; the viscosity is taken as temperature dependent. Constitutive relations for linear viscoelastic Jeffrey fluid are employed and uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction. For nanofluids, the formulation is completed in presence of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscous dissipation and Joule heating. Consideration of temperature dependence of viscosity is not a choice but the realistic requirement of the wall temperature and the heat generated due to the viscous dissipation. Well established large wavelength and small Reynolds number approximations are invoked. Non-linear coupled system is analytically solved for the convergent series solutions identifying the interval of convergence explicitly. A comparative study between analytical and numerical solution is made for certainty. Influence of the parameters undertaken for the description of the problem is pointed out and its physics explained.

  8. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide1

    PubMed Central

    Laesecke, Arno; Muzny, Chris D.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive database of experimental and computed data for the viscosity of carbon dioxide (CO2) was compiled and a new reference correlation was developed. Literature results based on an ab initio potential energy surface were the foundation of the correlation of the viscosity in the limit of zero density in the temperature range from 100 K to 2000 K. Guided symbolic regression was employed to obtain a new functional form that extrapolates correctly to T → 0 K and to 10 000 K. Coordinated measurements at low density made it possible to implement the temperature dependence of the Rainwater-Friend theory in the linear-in-density viscosity term. The residual viscosity could be formulated with a scaling term ργ/T the significance of which was confirmed by symbolic regression. The final viscosity correlation covers temperatures from 100 K to 2000 K for gaseous CO2, and from 220 K to 700 K with pressures along the melting line up to 8000 MPa for compressed and supercritical liquid states. The data representation is more accurate than with the previous correlations, and the covered pressure and temperature range is significantly extended. The critical enhancement of the viscosity of CO2 is included in the new correlation. PMID:28736460

  9. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K.

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of themore » nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)« less

  10. Effect of Viscosity on the Crystallization of Undercooled Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glasses indicating that low-gravity processing enhances glass formation. NASA PI s are investigating the effect of low-g processing on the nucleation and crystal growth rates. Dr. Ethridge is investigating a potential mechanism for glass crystallization involving shear thinning of liquids in 1-g. For shear thinning liquids, low-g (low convection) processing will enhance glass formation. The study of the viscosity of glass forming substances at low shear rates is important to understand these new crystallization mechanisms. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of undercooled liquids is also very important for NASA s containerless processing studies. In general, the viscosity of undercooled liquids is not known, yet knowledge of viscosity is required for crystallization calculations. Many researchers have used the Turnbull equation in error. Subsequent nucleation and crystallization calculations can be in error by many orders of magnitude. This demonstrates the requirement for better methods for interpolating and extrapolating the viscosity of undercooled liquids. This is also true for undercooled water. Since amorphous water ice is the predominant form of water in the universe, astrophysicists have modeled the crystallization of amorphous water ice with viscosity relations that may be in error by five orders-of-magnitude.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on di-pophyrin rotor as micro-viscosity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, H.; Raut, S.; Kimbal, J.; Gryczynski, Z.; Dzyuba, S.; Balaz, M.

    2015-03-01

    In typical biological systems the fluid compartment makes up more than 70% percent of the system weight. A variety of mass and signal transportation as well as intermolecular interactions are often governed by viscosity. It is important to be able to measure/estimate viscosity and detect the changes in viscosity upon various stimulations. Understanding the influence of changes in viscosity is crucial and development of the molecular systems that sensitive to micro-viscosity is a goal of many researches. Molecular rotors have been considered the potential target since they present enhanced sensitivity to local viscosity that can strongly restrict molecular rotation. To understand the mechanics of rotor interaction with the environment we have been studied conjugated pophyrin-dimer rotor (DP) that emit in the near IR. Our goal is to investigate the photo physical properties such as absorption, transition moment orientation, emission and excitation, polarization anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime in various mediums of different viscosities from ethanol to poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrices. The results imply the influences of the medium's viscosity on the two distinct confirmations: planar and twisted conformations of DP. Linear dichroism from polarized absorption in PVA matrices shows various orientations of transition moments. Excitation anisotropy shows similar transition splitting between two conformations. Time resolved intensity decay at two different observations confirms the two different emission states and furthermore the communication between the two states in the form of energy transfer upon excitation.

  12. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Joglekar, A. S.

    2015-11-15

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity andmore » to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.« less

  13. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  14. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, C., E-mail: cliu@pppl.gov; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through themore » generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.« less

  15. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  16. Effect of viscosity on tear drainage and ocular residence time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Chauhan, Anuj

    2008-08-01

    An increase in residence time of dry eye medications including artificial tears will likely enhance therapeutic benefits. The drainage rates and the residence time of eye drops depend on the viscosity of the instilled fluids. However, a quantitative understanding of the dependence of drainage rates and the residence time on viscosity is lacking. The current study aims to develop a mathematical model for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and also for power-law non-Newtonian fluids of different viscosities. This study is an extension of our previous study on the mathematical model of tear drainage. The tear drainage model is modified to describe the drainage of Newtonian fluids with viscosities higher than the tear viscosity and power-law non-Newtonian fluids with rheological parameters obtained from fitting experimental data in literature. The drainage rate through canaliculi was derived from the modified drainage model and was incorporated into a tear mass balance to calculate the transients of total solute quantity in ocular fluids and the bioavailability of instilled drugs. For Newtonian fluids, increasing the viscosity does not affect the drainage rate unless the viscosity exceeds a critical value of about 4.4 cp. The viscosity has a maximum impact on drainage rate around a value of about 100 cp. The trends are similar for shear thinning power law fluids. The transients of total solute quantity, and the residence time agrees at least qualitatively with experimental studies. A mathematical model has been developed for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids through canaliculi. The model can quantitatively explain different experimental observations on the effect of viscosity on the residence of instilled fluids on the ocular surface. The current study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of fluid drainage from the ocular surface and for improving the design of dry eye treatments.

  17. Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water models.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Sami; Boţan, Alexandru; Salanne, Mathieu; Marry, Virginie; Turq, Pierre; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2012-07-18

    We report the diffusion coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: two non-polarizable ones (SPC/E with three sites, and TIP4P/2005 with four sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, four sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size (Yeh and Hummer 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 15873) to obtain the size-independent value. This also provides an estimate of the viscosity of all water models, which we compare to the Green-Kubo result. In all cases, a good agreement is found. The TIP4P/2005 model is in better agreement with the experimental data for both diffusion and viscosity. The SPC/E and Dang-Chang models overestimate the diffusion coefficient and underestimate the viscosity.

  18. Viscosity-dependent diffusion of fluorescent particles using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanbae; Lee, Jaeran; Kang, Manil; Kim, Sok Won

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescent particles show the variety characteristics by the interaction with other particles and solvent. In order to investigate the relationship between the dynamic properties of fluorescent particles and solvent viscosity, particle diffusion in various solvents was evaluated using a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Upon analyzing the correlation functions of AF-647, Q-dot, and beads with different viscosity values, the diffusion time of all particles was observed to increase with increasing solvent viscosity, and the ratio of diffusion time to solvent viscosity, τ D /η, showed a linear dependence on particle size. The particle diffusion coefficients calculated from the diffusion time decreased with increasing solvent viscosity. Further, the hydrodynamic radii of AF-647, Q-dot, and beads were 0.98 ± 0.1 nm, 64.8 ± 3.23 nm, and 89.8 ± 4.91 nm, respectively, revealing a linear dependence on τ D /η, which suggests that the hydrodynamic radius of a particle strongly depends on both the physical size of the particle and solvent viscosity.

  19. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.; Martys, Nicos S.

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to “scientifically” improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis. PMID:27413607

  20. Intrinsic Viscosity of Dendrimers via Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Phil; Adolf, David

    2004-03-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of dendrimers in dilute solution have been performed using dl-poly. Analysis of the system stress tensor via the Green-Kubo formula produces the viscosity of the dendrimer solution which, when coupled with that of a solvent only system leads to the intrinsic viscosity of the dendrimer solute. Particular attention has been paid to error analysis as the auto-correlation of the stress tensor exhibits a long time tail, potentially leading to large uncertainties in the solution, and hence intrinsic, viscosities. In order to counter this effect and provide reliable statistical averaging, simulations have been run spanning very many times the longest system relaxation. Comparison is made to previous studies, using different techniques, which suggest a peak in the intrinsic viscosity of dendrimers at around generation four. Results are also presented from investigations in to the individual contributions to the system stress tensor from the solvent and the solute.

  1. Impact of Viscosity on Filling the Injection Mould Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Lukáš; Bílik, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to look closer at the rheological properties of plastics and their impact on technology in the plastics processing industry. The paper focuses on the influence of viscosity of the material on filling the mould cavity. Four materials were tested with the settings of process parameters with different viscosity. Using simulation software of Moldex3D, we can see the effect of change in viscosity in the material to be filled.

  2. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  3. Diffusion, Viscosity and Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The diffusivity of TriGlycine Sulfate (TGS), Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP), Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADF) and other compounds of interest to microgravity crystal growth, in supersaturated solutions as a function of solution concentration, 'age' and 'history was studied experimentally. The factors that affect the growth of crystals from water solutions in microgravity have been examined. Three non-linear optical materials have been studied, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and triglycine sulfate (TGC). The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of supersaturated water solutions were measured. Also theoretical model of diffusivity and viscosity in a metastable state, model of crystal growth from solution including non-linear time dependent diffusivity and viscosity effect and computer simulation of the crystal growth process which allows simulation of the microgravity crystal growth were developed.

  4. The reality of artificial viscosity

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, L. G.

    2018-02-24

    Artificial viscosity is used in the computer simulation of high Reynolds number flows and is one of the oldest numerical artifices. In this work, I will describe the origin and the interpretation of artificial viscosity as a physical phenomenon. The basis of this interpretation is the finite scale theory, which describes the evolution of integral averages of the fluid solution over finite (length) scales. I will outline the derivation of finite scale Navier–Stokes equations and highlight the particular properties of the equations that depend on the finite scales. Those properties include enslavement, inviscid dissipation, and a law concerning the partitionmore » of total flux of conserved quantities into advective and diffusive components.« less

  5. The reality of artificial viscosity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Margolin, L. G.

    Artificial viscosity is used in the computer simulation of high Reynolds number flows and is one of the oldest numerical artifices. In this work, I will describe the origin and the interpretation of artificial viscosity as a physical phenomenon. The basis of this interpretation is the finite scale theory, which describes the evolution of integral averages of the fluid solution over finite (length) scales. I will outline the derivation of finite scale Navier–Stokes equations and highlight the particular properties of the equations that depend on the finite scales. Those properties include enslavement, inviscid dissipation, and a law concerning the partitionmore » of total flux of conserved quantities into advective and diffusive components.« less

  6. Dairy-Based Emulsions: Viscosity Affects Fat Difference Thresholds and Sweetness Perception.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Susann; Hoppert, Karin; Ullrich, Franziska; Rohm, Harald

    2013-11-27

    In complex emulsions, viscosity or viscosity-associated sensory attributes such as creaminess are important for quality assessment and product differentiation. Two sets of emulsions with fat or locust bean gum content being varied at seven levels were developed; the two emulsions at each level had similar apparent viscosity. Additionally, sugar concentration was kept constant either with respect to total emulsion, or with respect to the aqueous phase. Series of two-alternative forced choice tests were performed with one constant stimulus, and just noticeable differences were calculated using probability regression. The results show that, when viscosity was not compensated, it was easy for the subjects to (a) distinguish emulsions with different fat content when the fat content was addressed in the question, and to (b) distinguish emulsions with different fat or locust bean gum content when creaminess was addressed. For the latter descriptor, it is of minor importance whether viscosity is altered by fat content or a thickener. Weber fractions that were calculated for viscosity were approximately 0.20. The quantitative effects of viscosity on sweetness, however, depend on how product rheology was modified.

  7. Live Cell Imaging of Viscosity in 3D Tumour Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Shirmanova, Marina V; Shimolina, Lubov' E; Lukina, Maria M; Zagaynova, Elena V; Kuimova, Marina K

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal levels of viscosity in tissues and cells are known to be associated with disease and malfunction. While methods to measure bulk macroscopic viscosity of bio-tissues are well developed, imaging viscosity at the microscopic scale remains a challenge, especially in vivo. Molecular rotors are small synthetic viscosity-sensitive fluorophores in which fluorescence parameters are strongly correlated to the microviscosity of their immediate environment. Hence, molecular rotors represent a promising instrument for mapping of viscosity in living cells and tissues at the microscopic level. Quantitative measurements of viscosity can be achieved by recording time-resolved fluorescence decays of molecular rotor using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), which is also suitable for dynamic viscosity mapping, both in cellulo and in vivo. Among tools of experimental oncology, 3D tumour cultures, or spheroids, are considered a more adequate in vitro model compared to a cellular monolayer, and represent a less labour-intensive and more unified approach compared to animal tumour models. This chapter describes a methodology for microviscosity imaging in tumour spheroids using BODIPY-based molecular rotors and two photon-excited FLIM.

  8. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  9. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  10. Radiating gravitational collapse with shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R.

    2000-08-01

    A model is proposed of a collapsing radiating star consisting of an isotropic fluid with shear viscosity undergoing radial heat flow with outgoing radiation. The pressure of the star, at the beginning of the collapse, is isotropic but owing to the presence of the shear viscosity the pressure becomes more and more anisotropic. The behaviour of the density, pressure, mass, luminosity and the effective adiabatic index is analysed. Our work is compared to the case of a collapsing shearing fluid of a previous model, for a star with 6Msolar.

  11. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  12. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.; Prajapati, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  13. Hall viscosity and electromagnetic response of electrons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mohammad; Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni

    The Hall viscosity is a dissipationless component of the viscosity tensor of an electron liquid with broken time- reversal symmetry, such as a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall state. Similar to the Hall conductivity, the Hall viscosity is an anomalous transport coefficient; however, while the former is connected with the current response, the latter stems from the stress response to a geometric deformation. For a Galilean-invariant system such as 2DEG, the current density is indeed the generator of the geometric deformation: therefore a connection between the Hall connectivity and viscosity is expected and by now well established. In the case of graphene, a non-Galilean-invariant system, the existence of such a connection is far from obvious, as the current operator is essentially different from the momentum operator. In this talk, I will first present our results of the geometric Hall viscosity of electrons in single-layer graphene. Then, from the expansion of the nonlocal Hall conductivity for small wave vectors, I demonstrate that, in spite of the lack of Galilean invariance, an effective mass can be defined such that the relationship between the Hall conductivity and the viscosity retains the form it has in Galilean-invariant systems, not only for a large number of occupied Landau levels, but also, with very high accuracy, for the undoped system.

  14. Evaluation of Lama glama semen viscosity with a cone-plate rotational viscometer.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, C; Martínez Sarrasague, M; Giuliano, S; Rubin de Celis, E; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M

    2012-05-01

    Llama semen is highly viscous. This characteristic is usually evaluated subjectively by measuring the thread formed when carefully pippeting a sample of semen. The aims of this study were (i) to objectively determine and analyse llama semen viscosity, (ii) to compare semen viscosity between ejaculates of the same male as well as between different males, (iii) to study the correlation between viscosity and other semen characteristics and (iv) to evaluate the effect of collagenase on semen viscosity. Semen viscosity was evaluated using a cone-plate Brookfield rotational viscometer. A non Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour was observed in the 45 semen samples evaluated. Rheological parameters were determined obtaining the following results (mean ± SD): apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1): 46.71 ± 26.8 cpoise and at 115 s(-1): 12.61 ± 4.1 cpoise; structural viscosity (K) (dyne s cm(-2)): 2.18 ± 1.4 and coefficient of consistency (n): 0.45 ± 0.1. Statistical differences were found between different ejaculates of the same male for structural viscosity and apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1) (P < 0.01). Correlation was found only between coefficient of consistency (n) and sperm concentration (P < 0.01). Significant differences for coefficient of consistency (n) and viscosity at 115 s(-1) were found between samples incubated with and without collagenase (P < 0.05). © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Torque Transient of Magnetically Drive Flow for Viscosity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lin, Bochuan; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2004-01-01

    Viscosity is a good indicator of structural changes for complex liquids, such as semiconductor melts with chain or ring structures. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental results of the transient torque technique for non-intrusive viscosity measurement. Such a technique is essential for the high temperature viscosity measurement of high pressure and toxic semiconductor melts. In this paper, our previous work on oscillating cup technique was expanded to the transient process of a magnetically driven melt flow in a damped oscillation system. Based on the analytical solution for the fluid flow and cup oscillation, a semi-empirical model was established to extract the fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results indicated that such a technique has the advantage of short measurement time and straight forward data analysis procedures

  16. THE EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC VISCOSITY ON COLD FRONTS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Kunz, M. W.

    2015-01-10

    Cold fronts—contact discontinuities in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters—should be disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities due to the associated shear velocity. However, many observed cold fronts appear stable. This opens the possibility of placing constraints on microphysical mechanisms that stabilize them, such as the ICM viscosity and/or magnetic fields. We performed exploratory high-resolution simulations of cold fronts arising from subsonic gas sloshing in cluster cores using the grid-based Athena MHD code, comparing the effects of isotropic Spitzer and anisotropic Braginskii viscosity (expected in a magnetized plasma). Magnetized simulations with full Braginskii viscosity or isotropic Spitzer viscosity reduced bymore » a factor f ∼ 0.1 are both in qualitative agreement with observations in terms of suppressing K-H instabilities. The rms velocity of turbulence within the sloshing region is only modestly reduced by Braginskii viscosity. We also performed unmagnetized simulations with and without viscosity and find that magnetic fields have a substantial effect on the appearance of the cold fronts, even if the initial field is weak and the viscosity is the same. This suggests that determining the dominant suppression mechanism of a given cold front from X-ray observations (e.g., viscosity or magnetic fields) by comparison with simulations is not straightforward. Finally, we performed simulations including anisotropic thermal conduction, and find that including Braginskii viscosity in these simulations does not significantly affect the evolution of cold fronts; they are rapidly smeared out by thermal conduction, as in the inviscid case.« less

  17. Flares, Magnetic Reconnections and Accretion Disk Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William

    2001-07-01

    Accretion disks are invoked to explain a host of astrophysical phenomena, from protostellar objects to AGN. And yet the mechanism allowing accretion disks to operate are completely unknown. This proposal seeks to observe the ``smoking gun'' signature of magnetically-driven viscosity in accretion disks. Magnetically-induced viscosity is a plausible and generally accepted hypothesis {for esthetic reasons}, but it is completely untested. Determining the cause of accretion disk viscosity is of major significance to all accretion-disk powered systems {e.g. CVs, X-ray binaries, AGN and protostellar disks}. These data will also firmly establish the importance of magnetic fields in accretion disks. Because of its known flaring properites, we will observe the accretion disk in EM Cyg simulataneously with STIS/FUV and CHANDRA. The simultaneous X-rays are absolutely necessary for the unambiguous detection of accretion disk magnetic reconnection flares.

  18. Influence of Functional Groups on the Viscosity of Organic Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Rothfuss, Nicholas E; Petters, Markus D

    2017-01-03

    Organic aerosols can exist in highly viscous or glassy phase states. A viscosity database for organic compounds with atmospherically relevant functional groups is compiled and analyzed to quantify the influence of number and location of functional groups on viscosity. For weakly functionalized compounds the trend in viscosity sensitivity to functional group addition is carboxylic acid (COOH) ≈ hydroxyl (OH) > nitrate (ONO 2 ) > carbonyl (CO) ≈ ester (COO) > methylene (CH 2 ). Sensitivities to group addition increase with greater levels of prior functionalization and decreasing temperature. For carboxylic acids a sharp increase in sensitivity is likely present already at the second addition at room temperature. Ring structures increase viscosity relative to linear structures. Sensitivities are correlated with analogously derived sensitivities of vapor pressure reduction. This may be exploited in the future to predict viscosity in numerical models by piggybacking on schemes that track the evolution of organic aerosol volatility with age.

  19. Study on improving viscosity of polymer solution based on complex reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Li, D.; Zhang, D.; Xu, T. H.

    2018-05-01

    The current status of polymer flooding Technology on high salinity oil reservoir is not ideal. A method for increasing the viscosity of polymer solutions is urgently needed. This paper systematically studied the effect of ions with different mass concentrations on the viscosity of polymer solutions. Based on the theory of complex reaction, a countermeasure of increasing viscosity of polymer solution under conditions of high salinity reservoir was proposed. The results show that Ca2+ and Mg2+ have greater influence on the solution viscosity than K+ and Na+. When the concentration of divalent ions increases from 0 mg/L to 80 mg/L, the viscosity of the polymer solution decreases from 210 mPa·s to 38.6 mPa·s. The viscosity of the polymer solution prepared from the sewage treated with the Na2C2O4 increased by 25.3%. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity.

  20. Numerical analysis of a red blood cell flowing through a thin micropore.

    PubMed

    Omori, Toshihiro; Hosaka, Haruki; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability plays a key role in microcirculation, especially in vessels that have diameters even smaller than the nominal cell size. In this study, we numerically investigate the dynamics of an RBC in a thin micropore. The RBC is modeled as a capsule with a thin hyperelastic membrane. In a numerical simulation, we employ a boundary element method for fluid mechanics and a finite element method for membrane mechanics. The resulting RBC deformation towards the flow direction is suppressed considerably by increased cytoplasm viscosity, whereas the gap between the cell membrane and solid wall becomes smaller with higher cytoplasm viscosity. We also measure the transit time of the RBC and find that nondimensional transit time increases nonlinearly with respect to the viscosity ratio, whereas it is invariant to the capillary number. In conclusion, cytoplasmic viscosity plays a key role in the dynamics of an RBC in a thin pore. The results of this study will be useful for designing a microfluidic device to measure cytoplasmic viscosity.

  1. A study on the dependence of nuclear viscosity on temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Nadtochy, P. N.; La Rana, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Gelli, N.; Ashaduzzaman, M.; Davide, F.; Pulcini, A.; Quero, D.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Itkis, I. M.

    2018-05-01

    Nuclear viscosity is an irreplaceable ingredient of nuclear fission collective dynamical models. It drives the exchange of energy between the collective variables and the thermal bath of single particle degrees of freedom. Its dependence on the shape and temperature is a matter of controversy. By using systems of intermediate fissility we have demonstrated in a recent study that the viscosity parameters is larger for compact shapes, and decreases for larger deformations of the fissioning system, at variance with the conclusions of the statistical model modified to include empirically viscosity and time scales. In this contribution we propose an experimental scenario to highlight the possible dependence of the viscosity from the temperature.

  2. HEMORHEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERFLUOROCARBON BASED OXYGEN CARRIER INTERACTION WITH COLLOID PLASMA EXPANDERS AND BLOOD

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Diana M.; Ortiz, Daniel; Alvarez, Oscar A.; Briceño, Juan C.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion based oxygen carriers lack colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and must be administered with colloid-based plasma expanders (PEs). Although PFC emulsions have been widely studied, there is limited information about PFC emulsion interaction with PEs and blood. Their interaction forms aggregates due to electrostatic and rheological phenomena, and change blood rheology and blood flow. This study analyzes the effects of the interaction between PFC emulsions with blood in the presence of clinically-used PEs. The rheological behavior of the mixtures was analyzed in parallel with in vivo analysis of blood flow in microvessels using intravital microscopy when administered in a clinically relevant scenario. The interaction between the PFC emulsion and PE with blood produced PFC droplets and red blood cell (RBCs) aggregation, and increased blood viscosity. The PFC droplets formed aggregates when mixed with PEs containing electrolytes, and the aggregation increased with the electrolyte concentration. Mixtures of PFC with PEs that produced PFC aggregates also induced RCBs aggregation when mixed with blood, increasing blood viscosity at low shear rates. The more viscous suspension at low shear rates produced a blunted blood flow velocity profile in vivo relative to non-aggregating mixtures of PFC and PEs. For the PEs evaluated, albumin produced minimal to undetectable aggregation. PFC and PEs interaction with blood can affect sections of the microcirculation with low shear rate (e.g. arterioles, venules, and pulmonary circulation) because aggregates could cause capillary occlusion, decrease perfusion, pulmonary emboli, or focal ischemia. PMID:23606592

  3. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBFmore » varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.« less

  4. Viscosity of thickened fluids that relate to the Australian National Standards.

    PubMed

    Karsten Hadde, Enrico; Ann Yvette Cichero, Julie; Michael Nicholson, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, Australia published standardized terminology and definitions for three levels of thickened fluids used in the management of dysphagia. This study examined the thickness of the current Australian National Fluid Standards rheologically (i.e. viscosity, yield stress) and correlated these results with the "fork test", as described in the national standards. Clinicians who prescribe or work with thickened liquids and laypersons were recruited to categorize 15 different thickened fluids of known viscosities using the fork test. The mean apparent viscosity and the yield stress for each fluid category were calculated. Clear responses were obtained by both clinicians and laypersons for very thin fluids (< 90 mPa.s) and very thick fluids (> 1150 mPa.s), but large variations of responses were seen for intermediate viscosities. Measures of viscosity and yield stress were important in allocating liquids to different categories. Three bands of fluid viscosity with distinct intermediate band gaps and associated yield stress measures were clearly identifiable and are proposed as objective complements to the Australian National Standards. The "fork test" provides rudimentary information about both viscosity and yield stress, but is an inexact measure of both variables.

  5. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in patients with gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Jüngst, Dieter; Niemeyer, Anna; Müller, Iris; Zündt, Benedikta; Meyer, Günther; Wilhelmi, Martin; del Pozo, Reginald

    2001-01-01

    AIM: An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid componEnts of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones. METHODS: Viscosity of bile (mPa.s) was measured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non Newtonian property of bile at low shear rates. RESULTS: Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mPa.s, mean ± SEM, n = 28) and mixed stones (3.50 ± 0.68 mPa.s; n = 8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mPa.s, n = 6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r = 0. 65; P < 0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P < 0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles. CONCLUSION: The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones. PMID:11819761

  6. The role of bulk viscosity on the decay of compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Pan, Shaowu

    2016-11-01

    The practice of neglecting bulk viscosity in studies of compressible turbulence is widespread. While exact for monatomic gases and unlikely to strongly affect the dynamics of fluids whose bulk-to-shear viscosity ratio is small and/or of weakly compressible turbulence, this assumption is not justifiable for compressible, turbulent flows of gases whose bulk viscosity is orders of magnitude larger than their shear viscosities (e.g., CO2). To understand the mechanisms by which bulk viscosity and the associated phenomena affect compressible turbulence, we conduct DNS of freely decaying compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence for ratios of bulk-to-shear viscosity ranging from 0-1000. Our simulations demonstrate that bulk viscosity increases the decay rate of turbulent kinetic energy; while enstrophy exhibits little sensitivity to bulk viscosity, dilatation is reduced by an order of magnitude within the two eddy turnover time. Via a Helmholtz decomposition of the flow, we determined that bulk viscosity damps the dilatational velocity and reduces dilatational-solenoidal exchanges, as well as pressure-dilatation coupling. In short, bulk viscosity renders compressible turbulence incompressible by reducing energy transfer between translational and internal modes.

  7. Calculated viscosity-distance dependence for some actively flowing lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, David

    1987-01-01

    The importance of viscosity as a gauge of the various energy and momentum dissipation regimes of lava flows has been realized for a long time. Nevertheless, despite its central role in lava dynamics and kinematics, it remains among the most difficult of flow physical properties to measure in situ during an eruption. Attempts at reconstructing the actual emplacement viscosities of lava flows from their solidified topographic form are difficult. Where data are available on the position of an advancing flow front as a function of time, it is possible to calculate the effective viscosity of the front as a function of distance from the vent, under the assumptions of a steady state regime. As an application and test of an equation given, relevant parameters from five recent flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea were utilized to infer the dynamic structure of their aggregate flow front viscosity as they advanced, up to cessation. The observed form of the viscosity-distance relation for the five active Hawaiian flows examined appears to be exponential, with a rapid increase just before the flows stopped as one would expect.

  8. Blood rheology and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels after erythropoietin treatment.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J P; Chazan, J A; Metzger, J B; Pono, L; Valeri, C R

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven transfusion dependent patients with end-stage renal disease on long-term dialysis had blood cell counts, serum chemistries, blood pressure, and whole blood viscosity measured, as well as having transfusion requirements assessed. Three months after the institution of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHU-EPO) (75 u per kg per wk), there was an 88 percent fall in transfusion requirement. After four months, the hematocrit increased from 24 +/- 3.8 to 25.6 +/- 4.2 percent, mean corpuscular volume from 93 +/- 4.9 to 97 +/- 6.6 fl, 2-3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) from 13.2 +/- 3.2 to 15.6 +/- 4.3 microM per g of Hb. Whole blood viscosity fell from 14.1 +/- 2.1 to 12.7 +/- 2.3 seconds, and ferritin levels fell from 3282 +/- 3889 to 2131 +/- 2441 ng per ml. In eight patients in whom the dose of rHU-EPO was further increased by up to 50 units per kg three times weekly for three months, the hematocrit rose further to 29.3 +/- 3.0 percent and the rise in hematocrit was accompanied by a further increase in 2,3-DPG to 17.9 +/- 2.8 microM per g of Hb (p < 0.03). There were no major side effects or vascular complications.

  9. Development of viscosity sensor with long period fiber grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Dong; Wang, Jian-Neng; Chen, Shih-Huang; Wang, Juei-Mao

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a viscosity sensing system using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. The LPFG sensor was extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator. Viscosity can be simply defined as resistance to flow of a liquid. We have measured asphalt binder, 100-190000 centistokes, in comparison with optical sensing results. The system sensing asphalt binders exhibited increase trend in the resonance wavelength shift when the refractive index of the medium changed. The prototype sensor consisted of a LPFG sensing component and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force can cause asphalt binders flow through the capillary. Thus the measured time for a constant volume of asphalt binders can be converted into either absolute or kinematic viscosity. In addition, a rotational viscometer and a dynamic shear rheometer were also used to evaluate the viscosity of this liquid, the ratio between the applied shear stress and rate of shear, as well as the viscoelastic property including complex shear modulus and phase angle. The measured time could be converted into viscosity of asphalt binder based on calculation. This simple LPFG viscosity sensing system is hopefully expected to benefit the viscosity measurement for the field of civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering.

  10. Comparative study between microvascular tone regulation and rheological properties of blood in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Antonova, N; Tsiberkin, K; Podtaev, S; Paskova, V; Velcheva, I; Chaushev, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the changes of the skin blood flow responses to cold stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 through wavelet analysis of the peripheral skin temperature oscillations and to estimate their relationship with the blood viscosity values. The amplitudes of the skin temperature pulsations (ASTP) were monitored by "Microtest" device ("FM-Diagnostics", Russia); the whole blood viscosity and the shear stresses were measured by Contraves LS30 viscometer (Switzerland) at a steady flow in 9 healthy subjects and in 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Power law and Herschel-Bulkley (HB) equations were applied to describe the blood rheology. Both models include consistency (k) and flow index (m), and the HB also gives the yield stress (τ0). The Spearman rank correlations between these parameters and the ASTP in the frequency ranges, corresponding to the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial mechanisms of the microcirculation tone regulation were calculated. The ASTP values decreased when the blood viscosity increased. The correlation analysis revealed good ASTP-m (r > 0.5) and ASTP-k (r < -0.5) relationships in the endothelial range, while the ASTP-τ0 correlation was weaker (r≈-0.4). These correlations became lower for the ASTP during the cold stress. The results prompt manifestation of endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Damping of drop oscillations by surfactants and surface viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, Brian M.; Nadim, Ali

    1999-01-01

    An energy equation is derived for the general case of a viscous drop suspended in a viscous medium with surfactants contaminating the interface. It contains terms that clearly identify dissipation contributions from the viscous effects in the bulk fluids, surface shear and dilatational viscosity effects at the interface, and surfactant transport. An efficient boundary integral method is developed which incorporates the effects of a constant surface dilatational viscosity in simulations of an oscillating two-dimensional inviscid drop. Surface dilatational viscosity is shown to have a significant damping effect on the otherwise undamped inviscid oscillations.

  12. Shear Viscosity Coefficient of 5d Liquid Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper we have calculated shear viscosity coefficient (η) of 5 d liquid transition metals. To calculate effective pair potential ν(r) and pair distribution function g(r) we have used our own newly constructed model potential and Percus- Yevick hard sphere (PYHS) structure factor S(q) respectively. We have also investigated the effect of different correction function like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar et al. (S) on shear viscosity coefficient (η). Our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of 5 d liquid transition metals.

  13. Anomalous intrinsic viscosity of octadecylamine-functionalised carbon nanotubes in suspension.

    PubMed

    Donovan, K J; Scott, K

    2013-06-28

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs, are used as a model cylinder of nanoscopic dimensions for testing rheological theories of how addition of cylindrical particles affects the viscosity of a suspension of such particles. Using the rate of growth of the accompanying induced linear dichroism following application of an applied electric field, the dynamics of carbon nanotube alignment is studied in suspensions of octadecylamine functionalised single walled carbon nanotubes, ODA-SWCNTs, in 1,2 dichloroethane. From such measurements the viscosity of the suspension is measured as the concentration of the suspension is varied. While working within the dilute limit the viscosity is found to increase linearly with concentration and the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension is found to be 8000. This anomalously high intrinsic viscosity is compared with the predictions of various models for a rigid cylinder and found to be incompatible with any of the current models. Some suggestions are made as to the way this ODA-SWCNT result may be eventually accommodated within other models.

  14. Integrated Solvent Design for CO 2 Capture and Viscosity Tuning

    DOE PAGES

    Cantu, David C.; Malhotra, Deepika; Koech, Phillip K.; ...

    2017-08-18

    We present novel design strategies for reduced viscosity single-component, water-lean CO 2 capture organic solvent systems. Through molecular simulation, we identify the main molecular-level descriptor that influences bulk solvent viscosity. Upon loading, a zwitterionic structure forms with a small activation energy of ca 16 kJ/mol and a small stabilization of ca 6 kJ/mol. Viscosity increases exponentially with CO 2 loading due to hydrogen-bonding between neighboring Zwitterions. We find that molecular structures that promote internal hydrogen bonding (within the same molecule) and suppress interactions with neighboring molecules have low viscosities. In addition, tuning the acid/base properties leads to a shift ofmore » the equilibrium toward a non-charged (acid) form that further reduces the viscosity. Here, based on the above structural criteria, a reduced order model is also presented that allows for the quick screening of large compound libraries and down selection of promising candidates for synthesis and testing.« less

  15. Experimental understanding of the viscosity reduction ability of TLCPs with different PEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youhong; Zuo, Min; Gao, Ping

    2014-08-01

    In this study, two thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters (TLCPs) synthesized by polycondensation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid /hydroquinone/ poly dicarboxylic acid were used as viscosity reduction agents for polyethylene (PE). The TLCPs had different thermal, rheological and other physical properties that were quantitatively characterized. The two TLCPs were blended with high density PE (HDPE) and high molecular mass PE (HMMPE) by simple twin screw extrusion under the same weight ratio of 1.0 wt% and were each rheologically characterized at 190°C. The TLCPs acted as processing modifiers for the PEs and the bulk viscosity of the blends decreased dramatically. However, the viscosity reduction ability was not identical: one TLCP had obviously higher viscosity reduction ability on the HDPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 68.1%, whereas the other TLCP had higher viscosity reduction ability on the HMMPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 98.7%. Proposed explanations for these differences are evaluated.

  16. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Objective: To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP Materials and Methods: The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome Results: Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3.07%), β-pinene (2.0%), β-myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ-terpinen (9.53%), α-terpinolene (1.80%), α-terpineol (2.02%), β-bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test Conclusion: The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. SUMMARY Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3

  17. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP. The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ -terpinen (9.53%), α -terpinolene (1.80%), α -terpineol (2.02%), β -bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test. The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%),

  18. Viscosity Difference Measurements for Normal and Para Liquid Hydrogen Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webeler, R.; Bedard, F.

    1961-01-01

    The absence of experimental data in the literature concerning a viscosity difference for normal and equilibrium liquid hydrogen may be attributed to the limited reproducibility of "oscillating disk" measurements in a liquid-hydrogen environment. Indeed, there is disagreement over the viscosity values for equilibrium liquid hydrogen even without proton spin considerations. Measurements presented here represent the first application of the piezoelectric alpha quartz torsional oscillator technique to liquid-hydrogen viscosity measurements.

  19. Viscosity of carbonate-rich melts under different oxygen fugacity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental property of many materials and its changes affects the fluid dynamics of natural system as well as industrial processes. The mobility of carbonatitic melts, which are carbonate-rich and very fluid melts, has attracted renewed interest in both earth science and industry. In fact, these melts are considered the main transport agent of carbon from the mantle to the crust and may be intimately linked to the generation of kimberlites. At the same time lithium, potassium and sodium carbonate are used as electrolytes in molten carbonate fuel cells which operate at high temperatures (~650° C) for the production of electricity without CO2 emissions. Accurate measurement of the transport property (i.e. viscosity) of carbonatitic melts is a priority in order to understand the carbonatite mobility and reaction rates. Additionally, obtaining accurate viscosity measurements of such low viscosity melts is however an experimental challenge due to volatility, very low torques and chemical melt instability in the viscometer. To overcome these limitations we have customized a Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR 502 from Anton Paar) ad hoc equipped with 2 narrow gap concentric-cylinder geometries of steel and Pt-Au. The rheometer is characterized by an air-bearing-supported synchronous motor with torque ranging between 0.01 μNm and 230 mNm (resolution of 0.1 nNm), achieving very low viscosity measurements in the order of mPa s, temperatures up to 1000° C and shear rates ranging between 1 and 100 sec-1. These experimental conditions well match the temperature-viscosity-shear rate window relevant for carbonate melts. Here we present the calibration of the rheometer and the results of a rheological characterization study on a series of very low viscous synthetic and natural carbonatitic melts at different oxygen fugacity (air and CO2 saturated atmosphere). Viscosity measurements on carbonate melts have been performed in the temperature range between ~650 and 1000

  20. Shear Viscosity of Aluminium under Shock Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-Sheng; Yang, Mei-Xia; Liu, Qi-Wen; Chen, Jun-Xiang; Jing, Fu-Qian

    2005-03-01

    Based on the Newtonian viscous fluid model and the analytic perturbation theory of Miller and Ahrens for the oscillatory damping of a sinusoidal shock front, a flyer-impact technique is developed to investigate the effective viscosity of shocked aluminium. The shear viscosity coefficient is determined to be about 5000 poises at 42 GPa with strain rate of 1.27×106 s-1, which is a reasonable estimation compared with the results of other measurement methods.

  1. The effect of artificial bulk viscosity in simulations of forced compressible turbulence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Campos, A.; Morgan, B.

    The use of an artificial bulk viscosity for shock stabilization is a common approach employed in turbulence simulations with high-order numerics. The effect of the artificial bulk viscosity is analyzed in the context of large eddy simulations by using as a test case simulations of linearly-forced compressible homogeneous turbulence (Petersen and Livescu, 2010 [12]). This case is unique in that it allows for the specification of a priori target values for total dissipation and ratio of solenoidal to dilatational dissipation. A comparison between these target values and the true predicted levels of dissipation is thus used to investigate the performancemore » of the artificial bulk viscosity. Results show that the artificial bulk viscosity is effective at achieving stable solutions, but also leads to large values of artificial dissipation that outweigh the physical dissipation caused by fluid viscosity. An alternate approach, which employs the artificial thermal conductivity only, shows that the dissipation of dilatational modes is entirely due to the fluid viscosity. However, this method leads to unwanted Gibbs oscillations around the shocklets. The use of shock sensors that further localize the artificial bulk viscosity did not reduce the amount of artificial dissipation introduced by the artificial bulk viscosity. Finally, an improved forcing function that explicitly accounts for the role of the artificial bulk viscosity in the budget of turbulent kinetic energy was explored.« less

  2. The effect of artificial bulk viscosity in simulations of forced compressible turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Campos, A.; Morgan, B.

    2018-05-17

    The use of an artificial bulk viscosity for shock stabilization is a common approach employed in turbulence simulations with high-order numerics. The effect of the artificial bulk viscosity is analyzed in the context of large eddy simulations by using as a test case simulations of linearly-forced compressible homogeneous turbulence (Petersen and Livescu, 2010 [12]). This case is unique in that it allows for the specification of a priori target values for total dissipation and ratio of solenoidal to dilatational dissipation. A comparison between these target values and the true predicted levels of dissipation is thus used to investigate the performancemore » of the artificial bulk viscosity. Results show that the artificial bulk viscosity is effective at achieving stable solutions, but also leads to large values of artificial dissipation that outweigh the physical dissipation caused by fluid viscosity. An alternate approach, which employs the artificial thermal conductivity only, shows that the dissipation of dilatational modes is entirely due to the fluid viscosity. However, this method leads to unwanted Gibbs oscillations around the shocklets. The use of shock sensors that further localize the artificial bulk viscosity did not reduce the amount of artificial dissipation introduced by the artificial bulk viscosity. Finally, an improved forcing function that explicitly accounts for the role of the artificial bulk viscosity in the budget of turbulent kinetic energy was explored.« less

  3. Viscosity Measurements and Correlation of the Squalane + CO2 Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, D.; Kumagai, A.; Yokoyama, C.

    2007-02-01

    Experimental results for the viscosity of squalane + CO2 mixtures are reported. The viscosities were measured using a rolling ball viscometer. The experimental temperatures were 293.15, 313.15, 333.15, and 353.15 K, and pressures were 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 MPa. The CO2 mole fraction of the mixtures varied from 0 to 0.417. The experimental uncertainties in viscosity were estimated to be within ±3.0%. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased with an increase in the CO2 mole fraction. The experimental data were compared with predictions from the Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations, which correlated the experimental data with maximum deviations of 10 and 8.7%, respectively.

  4. Effects of hydroxyurea on blood rheology in sickle cell anemia: A two-years follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lemonne, Nathalie; Möckesch, Berenike; Charlot, Keyne; Garnier, Yohann; Waltz, Xavier; Lamarre, Yann; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Connes, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on clinical, hematological and hemorheological parameters in adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Hematological and hemorheological parameters were measured in 28 SCA patients before HU therapy (i.e., baseline) and at 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry at 30 Pa. RBC aggregation properties were investigated by light-backscatter method. Blood viscosity was measured at 225 s-1 by a cone-plate viscometer. The rates of vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome were lower at 1 and 2 years of HU therapy compared to baseline. The proportion of patients with leg ulcers tended to decrease after 2 years of treatment. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation improved with HU therapy. HU therapy induced a decrease of platelet and white blood cell counts and a rise in fetal hemoglobin level and mean cell volume. While hemoglobin concentrations increased under HU, blood viscosity remained unchanged all along the study. RBC deformability increased over baseline values at 6 months of HU therapy and continued to rise until the end of the follow-up period. In conclusion, the improvement in RBC deformability probably compensates the increase of hemoglobin on blood viscosity and participates to the improvement of the clinical status of patients.

  5. Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

  6. Titin Based Viscosity in Ventricular Physiology: An Integrative Investigation of PEVK-Actin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Charles S; Methawasin, Methajit; Nelson, O Lynne; Radke, Michael H; Hidalgo, Carlos G; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2011-01-01

    Viscosity is proposed to modulate diastolic function, but only limited understanding of the source(s) of viscosity exists. In-vitro experiments have shown that the proline-glutamic acid-valine-lysine (PEVK) rich element of titin interacts with actin, causing a viscous force in the sarcomere. It is unknown whether this mechanism contributes to viscosity in-vivo. We tested the hypothesis that PEVK-actin interaction causes cardiac viscosity and is important in-vivo via an integrative physiological study on a unique PEVK-knockout (KO) model. Both skinned cardiomyocytes and papillary muscle fibers were isolated from wildtype (WT) and PEVK KO mice and passive viscosity was examined using stretch-hold-release and sinusoidal analysis. Viscosity was reduced by ~60% in KO myocytes and ~50% in muscle fibers at room temperature. The PEVK-actin interaction was not modulated by temperature or diastolic calcium, but was increased by lattice compression. Stretch-hold and sinusoidal frequency protocols on intact isolated mouse hearts showed a smaller, 30–40% reduction in viscosity, possibly due to actomyosin interactions, and showed that microtubules did not contribute to viscosity. Transmitral Doppler echocardiography similarly revealed a 40% decrease in LV chamber viscosity in the PEVK KO in-vivo. This integrative study is the first to quantify the influence of a specific molecular (PEVK-actin) viscosity in-vivo and shows that PEVK-actin interactions are an important physiological source of viscosity. PMID:21708170

  7. The influence of tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M

    2018-06-01

    The ability to generate tongue pressures is widely considered to be critical for liquid bolus propulsion in swallowing. It has been proposed that the application of tongue pressure may also serve the function of collecting sensory information regarding bolus viscosity (resistance to flow). In this study, we explored the impact of age-related reductions in tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity. The experiment employed a triangle test discrimination protocol with an array of xanthan-gum thickened liquids in the mildly to moderately thick consistency range. A sample of 346 healthy volunteers was recruited, with age ranging from 12 to 86 (164 men, 182 women). On average, participants were able to detect a 0.29-fold increase in xanthan-gum concentration, corresponding to a 0.5-fold increase in viscosity at 50/s. Despite having significantly reduced tongue strength on maximum isometric tongue-palate pressure tasks, and regardless of sex, older participants in this study showed no reductions in viscosity discrimination acuity. In this article, the relationship between tongue strength and the ability to discriminate small differences in liquid viscosity during oral processing is explored. Given that tongue strength declines with age in healthy adults and is also reduced in individuals with dysphagia, it is interesting to determine whether reduced tongue strength might contribute to difficulties in evaluating liquid viscosity during the oral stage of swallowing. Using an array of mildly to moderately thick xanthan-gum thickened liquids, this experiment failed to find any evidence that reductions in tongue strength influence oral viscosity discrimination acuity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Semiclassical theory of Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Rudro

    2014-03-01

    Hall viscosity is an intriguing stress response in quantum Hall systems and is predicted to be observable via the conductivity in an inhomogeneous electric field. This has been studied extensively using a range of techniques, such as adiabatic transport, effective field theories, and Kubo formulae. All of these are, however, agnostic as to the distinction between strongly correlated quantum Hall states and non-interacting ones, where the effect arises due to the fundamental non-commuting nature of velocities and orbit positions in a magnetic field. In this talk I shall develop the semiclassical theory of quantized cyclotron orbits drifting in an applied inhomogeneous electric field and use it to provide a clear physical picture of how single particle properties in a magnetic field contribute to the Hall viscosity-dependence of the conductivity.

  9. Geometry-dependent viscosity reduction in sheared active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    We investigate flow pattern formation and viscosity reduction mechanisms in active fluids by studying a generalized Navier-Stokes model that captures the experimentally observed bulk vortex dynamics in microbial suspensions. We present exact analytical solutions including stress-free vortex lattices and introduce a computational framework that allows the efficient treatment of higher-order shear boundary conditions. Large-scale parameter scans identify the conditions for spontaneous flow symmetry breaking, geometry-dependent viscosity reduction, and negative-viscosity states amenable to energy harvesting in confined suspensions. The theory uses only generic assumptions about the symmetries and long-wavelength structure of active stress tensors, suggesting that inviscid phases may be achievable in a broad class of nonequilibrium fluids by tuning confinement geometry and pattern scale selection.

  10. Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.

    1999-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.

  11. Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szydłowska, Adriana; Hapanowicz, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i) 150÷212 μm, (ii) 106÷150 μm and (iii) below106 μm) of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.

  12. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the Viscosities of Liquid Sn-Based Binary Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Li, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    The viscosity of a binary Sn-based lead-free solder alloy was calculated by combining the predicted model with the Miedema model. The viscosity factor was proposed and the relationship between the viscosity and surface tension was analyzed as well. The investigation result shows that the viscosity of Sn-based lead-free solders predicted from the predicted model shows excellent agreement with the reported values. The viscosity factor is determined by three physical parameters: atomic volume, electronic density, and electro-negativity. In addition, the apparent correlation between the surface tension and viscosity of the binary Sn-based Pb-free solder was obtained based on the predicted model.

  14. Viscosity measurements of metallic melts using the oscillating drop technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzmann, P.; Yang, F.; Schneider, S.; Lohöfer, G.; Meyer, A.

    2016-06-01

    By means of benchmarking reduced gravity experiments, we have verified the measured viscosity of binary Zr-Ni glass forming liquids utilizing the oscillating drop technique combined with ground-based electrostatic levitation (ESL). Reliable viscosity data can be obtained as long as internal viscous damping of a single oscillation mode of a levitated drop dominates external perturbations. This can be verified by the absence of a sample mass dependence of the results. Hence, ESL is an excellent tool for studying the viscosity of metallic glass forming melts in the range of about 10-250 mPa s, with sample masses below 100 mg. To this end, we show that, for binary Zr-Ni melts, the viscosity is qualitatively controlled by the packing density.

  15. Viscosity of confined two-dimensional Yukawa liquids: A nonequilibrium method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Landmann, S.; Kählert, H.; Thomsen, H.

    2015-09-15

    We present a nonequilibrium method that allows one to determine the viscosity of two-dimensional dust clusters in an isotropic confinement. By applying a tangential external force to the outer parts of the cluster (e.g., with lasers), a sheared velocity profile is created. The decay of the angular velocity towards the center of the confinement potential is determined by a balance between internal (viscosity) and external friction (neutral gas damping). The viscosity can then be calculated from a fit of the measured velocity profile to a solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. Langevin dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the feasibility ofmore » the method. We find good agreement of the measured viscosity with previous results for macroscopic Yukawa plasmas.« less

  16. Measurement of gas viscosity using photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.-K.; Sheehe, S. L.; Kurtz, J.; O'Byrne, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new measurement technique for gas viscosity coefficient is designed and demonstrated using the technique of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas flow is driven by a pressure gradient between two gas cells, through a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) surrounded by a furnace for temperature adjustment. PCF with 20-micron diameter affords physical space for gas-light interaction and provides a basis for gas viscosity measurement by determining the time for flow to exit a capillary tube under the influence of a pressure gradient. Infrared radiation from a diode laser is coupled into the fiber to be guided through the gas, and the light attenuation due to absorption from the molecular absorbing species is measured by a photo detector placed at the exit of the fiber. A numerical model from Sharipov and Graur describing local number density distribution in a unsteady state is applied for the determination of gas viscosity, based on the number density of gas measured by the absorption of the laser light, using the Beer-Lambert law. The measurement system is confirmed by measuring the viscosity of CO2 as a reference gas.

  17. Passive non-linear microrheology for determining extensional viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Dinic, Jelena; Ren, Yi; Sharma, Vivek; Schroeder, Charles M.

    2017-12-01

    Extensional viscosity is a key property of complex fluids that greatly influences the non-equilibrium behavior and processing of polymer solutions, melts, and colloidal suspensions. In this work, we use microfluidics to determine steady extensional viscosity for polymer solutions by directly observing particle migration in planar extensional flow. Tracer particles are suspended in semi-dilute solutions of DNA and polyethylene oxide, and a Stokes trap is used to confine single particles in extensional flows of polymer solutions in a cross-slot device. Particles are observed to migrate in the direction transverse to flow due to normal stresses, and particle migration is tracked and quantified using a piezo-nanopositioning stage during the microfluidic flow experiment. Particle migration trajectories are then analyzed using a second-order fluid model that accurately predicts that migration arises due to normal stress differences. Using this analytical framework, extensional viscosities can be determined from particle migration experiments, and the results are in reasonable agreement with bulk rheological measurements of extensional viscosity based on a dripping-onto-substrate method. Overall, this work demonstrates that non-equilibrium properties of complex fluids can be determined by passive yet non-linear microrheology.

  18. Time evolution of the eddy viscosity in two-dimensional navier-stokes flow

    PubMed

    Chaves; Gama

    2000-02-01

    The time evolution of the eddy viscosity associated with an unforced two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flow is analyzed by direct numerical simulation. The initial condition is such that the eddy viscosity is isotropic and negative. It is shown by concrete examples that the Navier-Stokes dynamics stabilizes negative eddy viscosity effects. In other words, this dynamics moves monotonically the initial negative eddy viscosity to positive values before relaxation due to viscous term occurs.

  19. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions canmore » be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle

  20. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  1. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  2. Steady Shear Viscosities of Two Hard Sphere Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengdong; Chaikin, Paul M.; Phan, See-Eng; Russel, William B.; Zhu, Jixiang

    1996-03-01

    Though hard spheres have the simplest inter-particle potential, the many body hydrodynamic interactions are complex and the rheological properties of dispersions are not fully understood in the concentrated regime. We studied two model systems: colloidal poly-(Methyl Methacrylate) spheres with a grafted layer of poly-(12-hydroxy stearic acid) (PMMA/PHSA) and spherical Silica particles (PST-5, Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). Steady shear viscosities were measured by a Zimm viscometer. The high shear relative viscosity of the dispersions compares well with other hard sphere systems, but the low shear relative viscosity of PMMA/PHSA dispersions is η / η 0 = 50 at φ = 0.5 , higher than η / η 0 = 22 for other hard sphere systems, consistent with recently published data (Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(1995)958). Bare Silica spheres are used to clarify the effect of the grafted layer. With the silica spheres, volume fraction can be determined independent of intrinsic viscosity measurements; also, higher concentrated dispersions can be made.

  3. Early stages of transition in viscosity-stratified channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Jose, Sharath; Brandt, Luca

    2013-11-01

    In parallel shear flows, it is well known that transition to turbulence usually occurs through a subcritical process. In this work we consider a flow through a channel across which there is a linear temperature variation. The temperature gradient leads to a viscosity variation across the channel. A large body of work has been done in the linear regime for this problem, and it has been seen that viscosity stratification can lead to considerable changes in stability and transient growth characteristics. Moreover contradictory effects of introducing a non uniform viscosity in the system have been reported. We conduct a linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations (DNS) for this system. We show that the optimal initial structures in the viscosity-stratified case, unlike in unstratified flow, do not span the width of the channel, but are focussed near one wall. The nonlinear consequences of the localisation of the structures will be discussed.

  4. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  5. Research on viscosity of metal at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Liu, F.; Ma, X.; Zhang, M.

    2016-11-01

    A new experimental technique, the flyer-impact method, is proposed in this article to investigate the viscosity coefficient of shocked metals. In this technique, a shock wave with a sinusoidal perturbation on the front is induced by the sinusoidal profile of the impact surface of the sample by use of a two-stage light-gas gun, and the oscillatory damping process of the perturbation amplitude is monitored by electric pins. The damping processes of aluminum at 78 and 101 GPa and iron at 159 and 103 GPa are obtained by this technique, which supplement the existing data by measuring the viscosity coefficient via a dynamic high-pressure method. Applying the formula of Miller and Ahrens to fit the experimental data, the shear viscosity coefficients of aluminum at 78 and 101 GPa are 1350 ± 500 and 1200 ± 500 Pa s, respectively, and those of iron at 159 and 103 GPa are 1150 ± 1000 and 4800 ± 1000 Pa s, respectively. The values measured by the flyer-impact method, approximately 103 Pa s, are consistent with those measured by Sakharov's method, while still greatly differing from those measured by static high-pressure methods. In dynamic high-pressure experiments, the shear viscosity is related to dislocation motion in the solid material, while that in static high-pressure experiments is related to the diffusion motion of atoms or molecules in liquids. Therefore, there are different physical meanings of shear viscosity in dynamic and static high-pressure experiments, and there is no comparability among these results.

  6. Shear viscosity in an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Sharma, Rishi; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a dual gravitational description. Results using the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence) in these theories show that in systems with a background linear potential, certain viscosity components can be made much smaller than the entropy density, parametrically violating the bound proposed by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets (KSS). This intuition, along with results from a Boltzmann analysis that we perform, suggests that a violation of the KSS bound can perhaps occur in the unitary Fermi gas system when it is subjected to a suitable anisotropic trapping potential which may be approximated to be linear in a suitable range of parameters. We give a concrete proposal for an experimental setup where an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor may arise. In such situations, it may also be possible to observe a reduction in the spin-1 component of the shear viscosity from its lowest value observed so far in ultracold Fermi gases. In extreme anisotropic situations, the reduction may be enough to reduce the shear viscosity to entropy ratio below the proposed KSS bound, although this regime is difficult to analyze in a theoretically controlled manner.

  7. Knee stiffness and viscosity: New implementation and perspectives in prosthesis development

    PubMed Central

    Bohinc, Klemen; Vantur, Nejc; Torkar, Drago; Lampe, Tomaž; Hribernik, Marija; Jakovljević, Miroljub

    2017-01-01

    The pendulum test is a method applied to measure passive resistance of the knee. A new and simple pendulum test with instrumentation based on infrared camera was used to evaluate knee stiffness and viscosity on a female human cadaver. The stiffness and viscosity were calculated based on the kinetic data. During the measurements, the periarticular and intraarticular soft tissue of the knee was gradually removed to determine the stiffness and viscosity as a function of the tissue removal rate. The measurements showed that the removal of tissue around the joint reduces the damping of leg oscillation, and therefore decreases the stiffness and viscosity. The contribution to knee joint damping was 10% for the skin, 20% for ligaments, and 40% for muscles and tendons. Tissue removal has a very large impact on the knee stiffness and viscosity. PMID:28422623

  8. Knee stiffness and viscosity: New implementation and perspectives in prosthesis development.

    PubMed

    Bohinc, Klemen; Vantur, Nejc; Torkar, Drago; Lampe, Tomaž; Hribernik, Marija; Jakovljević, Miroljub

    2017-05-20

    The pendulum test is a method applied to measure passive resistance of the knee. A new and simple pendulum test with instrumentation based on infrared camera was used to evaluate knee stiffness and viscosity on a female human cadaver. The stiffness and viscosity were calculated based on the kinetic data. During the measurements, the periarticular and intraarticular soft tissue of the knee was gradually removed to determine the stiffness and viscosity as a function of the tissue removal rate. The measurements showed that the removal of tissue around the joint reduces the damping of leg oscillation, and therefore decreases the stiffness and viscosity. The contribution to knee joint damping was 10% for the skin, 20% for ligaments, and 40% for muscles and tendons. Tissue removal has a very large impact on the knee stiffness and viscosity.

  9. Viscosity of komatiite liquid at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Dwyer, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Wang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures are being investigated by the in-situ falling sphere technique, using the T-25 multianvil apparatus at the GSECARS 13 ID-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. The refractory and fluid nature of komatiite and other ultramafic liquids relevant to the Earth's deep interior, presents unique challenges for this approach. To reach superliquidus temperatures we use a double reservoir configuration, where marker spheres are placed at the top of both a main melt reservoir and an overlying reservoir containing a more refractory composition. Using this approach, we have successfully measured the viscosity of a komatiite from Gorgona Island (GOR-94-29; MgO - 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.6) up to 6 GPa and 1900 K. Under isothermal conditions, viscosity increases with pressure, consistent with the depolymerized nature of the komatiite. At 1900 K, viscosity increases from 1.5 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 3.5 GPa to 3.4 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 6 GPa, corresponding to an activation volume of 2.2 cm3/mol. At high pressures, the viscosities of Gorgona Island komatiite melt are an order of magnitude higher than those measured by Liebske et al. (2005, EPSL, v. 240) for peridotite melt (MgO 37.1 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.5), and similar in magnitude to molten diopside (NBO/T = 2) (Reid et al. 2003, PEPI, v. 139). The positive pressure dependence is consistent with the reduction in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid as it is compressed. Above 6 GPa the free volume reduction may become less important with the production of high-coordinated network formers, as attributed to the reversal of the pressure dependence of viscosity for peridotite melt at ~8.5 GPa and diopside melt at ~10 GPa. Experiments at higher pressures are underway to determine if a similar viscosity maximum occurs for komatiite melt and whether its pressure is greater than 10 GPa, as suggested by the data for peridotite and diopside melts.

  10. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-01-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions. PMID:24957323

  11. Viscosity scaling in concentrated dispersions and its impact on colloidal aggregation.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Lattuada, Marco; Lazzari, Stefano; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-10-07

    Gaining fundamental knowledge about diffusion in crowded environments is of great relevance in a variety of research fields, including reaction engineering, biology, pharmacy and colloid science. In this work, we determine the effective viscosity experienced by a spherical tracer particle immersed in a concentrated colloidal dispersion by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We characterize how the effective viscosity increases from the solvent viscosity for small tracer particles to the macroscopic viscosity of the dispersion when large tracer particles are employed. Our results show that the crossover between these two regimes occurs at a tracer particle size comparable to the host particle size. In addition, it is found that data points obtained in various host dispersions collapse on one master curve when the normalized effective viscosity is plotted as a function of the ratio between the tracer particle size and the mean host particle size. In particular, this master curve was obtained by varying the volume fraction, the average size and the polydispersity of the host particle distribution. Finally, we extend these results to determine the size dependent effective viscosity experienced by a fractal cluster in a concentrated colloidal system undergoing aggregation. We include this scaling of the effective viscosity in classical aggregation kernels, and we quantify its impact on the kinetics of aggregate growth as well as on the shape of the aggregate distribution by means of population balance equation calculations.

  12. Measuring viscosity with a resonant magnetic perturbation in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridström, Richard; Munaretto, Stefano; Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Chapman, Brett; Brunsell, Per; Sarff, John; MST Team

    2016-10-01

    Application of an m = 1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) causes braking and locking of naturally rotating m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) in the MST RFP. The experimental TM dynamics are replicated by a theoretical model including the interaction between the RMP and multiple TMs [Fridström PoP 23, 062504 (2016)]. The viscosity is the only free parameter in the model, and it is chosen such that model TM velocity evolution matches that of the experiment. The model does not depend on the means by which the natural rotation is generated. The chosen value of the viscosity, about 40 m2/s, is consistent with separate measurements in MST using a biased probe to temporarily spin up the plasma. This viscosity is about 100 times larger than the classical prediction, likely due to magnetic stochasticity in the core of these plasmas. Viscosity is a key parameter in visco-resistive MHD codes like NIMROD. The validation of these codes requires measurement of the viscosity over a broad parameter range, which will now be possible with the RMP technique that, unlike the biased probe, is not limited to low-energy-density plasmas. Estimation with the RMP technique of the viscosity in several MST discharges suggests that the viscosity decreases as the electron beta increases. Work supported by USDOE.

  13. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  14. Constraints on mantle viscosity from convection models with plate motion history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W.; Zhong, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's long-wavelength geoid and dynamic topography are mainly controlled by the mantle buoyancy and viscosity structure. Previous dynamical models for the geoid provide constraints on the 1-D mantle viscosity, using mantle buoyancy derived from seismic topography models. However, it is a challenge in these studies on how to convert seismic velocity to density anomalies and mantle buoyancy. Furthermore, these studies provide constraints only on relative viscosity variations but not on absolute magnitude of viscosity. In this study, we formulate time-dependent 3-D spherical mantle convection models with imposed plate motion history and seek constraints on mantle viscosity structure for both its radial relative variations and its absolute magnitude (i.e., Rayleigh number), using the geoid from the convection models. We found that the geoid at intermediate wavelengths of degrees 4-9 is mainly controlled by the subducted slabs in the upper mantle and the upper part of lower mantle that result from subduction from the last 50 Myr or the Cenozoic. To fit the degrees 4-9 geoid, we need viscosity contrast β defined as the ratio of the lower mantle viscosity and the asthenospheric viscosity to be larger than 2000 and Ra to be 1e8 (defined by the Earth's radius). The best fit model leads to 57% variance reduction and 76% correlation between the model and the observations. However, the long-wavelength geoid at degrees 2-3 is controlled by the lower mantle structure which requires much longer time scale to develop, as seen from our modeling. The preferred viscosity structure and Rayleigh number as constrained by the Cenozoic plate motion and the degrees 4-9 geoid no longer provide adequate fit to the geoid in models with the plate motion history for the last 450 Myr. The degrees 4-9 geoid amplitude is smaller for the models with longer plate motion history and a smaller Ra is required to fit the observation. In order to satisfy the relative amplitude between degrees 2

  15. Towards adjoint-based inversion of time-dependent mantle convection with nonlinear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dunzhu; Gurnis, Michael; Stadler, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We develop and study an adjoint-based inversion method for the simultaneous recovery of initial temperature conditions and viscosity parameters in time-dependent mantle convection from the current mantle temperature and historic plate motion. Based on a realistic rheological model with temperature-dependent and strain-rate-dependent viscosity, we formulate the inversion as a PDE-constrained optimization problem. The objective functional includes the misfit of surface velocity (plate motion) history, the misfit of the current mantle temperature, and a regularization for the uncertain initial condition. The gradient of this functional with respect to the initial temperature and the uncertain viscosity parameters is computed by solving the adjoint of the mantle convection equations. This gradient is used in a pre-conditioned quasi-Newton minimization algorithm. We study the prospects and limitations of the inversion, as well as the computational performance of the method using two synthetic problems, a sinking cylinder and a realistic subduction model. The subduction model is characterized by the migration of a ridge toward a trench whereby both plate motions and subduction evolve. The results demonstrate: (1) for known viscosity parameters, the initial temperature can be well recovered, as in previous initial condition-only inversions where the effective viscosity was given; (2) for known initial temperature, viscosity parameters can be recovered accurately, despite the existence of trade-offs due to ill-conditioning; (3) for the joint inversion of initial condition and viscosity parameters, initial condition and effective viscosity can be reasonably recovered, but the high dimension of the parameter space and the resulting ill-posedness may limit recovery of viscosity parameters.

  16. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of previously described theoretical predictions with in vivo data from anesthetized dogs. It is shown that the observed attenuation of the pressure and axial waves cannot be accounted for by fluid viscosity alone. For large values of the frequency parameter alpha, the previous analysis is extended to include the effects of viscoelasticity of the vessel wall. The results indicate that the speeds of both types of waves are essentially unaffected by a realistic viscoelasticity model while the attenuation per wavelength is significantly increased and becomes frequency independent. There is fair agreement between theory and experiment.

  17. Do Clustering Monoclonal Antibody Solutions Really Have a Concentration Dependence of Viscosity?

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Jai A.; Sologuren, Rumi R.; Narwal, Rojaramani

    2013-01-01

    Protein solution rheology data in the biophysics literature have incompletely identified factors that govern hydrodynamics. Whereas spontaneous protein adsorption at the air/water (A/W) interface increases the apparent viscosity of surfactant-free globular protein solutions, it is demonstrated here that irreversible clusters also increase system viscosity in the zero shear limit. Solution rheology measured with double gap geometry in a stress-controlled rheometer on a surfactant-free Immunoglobulin solution demonstrated that both irreversible clusters and the A/W interface increased the apparent low shear rate viscosity. Interfacial shear rheology data showed that the A/W interface yields, i.e., shows solid-like behavior. The A/W interface contribution was smaller, yet nonnegligible, in double gap compared to cone-plate geometry. Apparent nonmonotonic composition dependence of viscosity at low shear rates due to irreversible (nonequilibrium) clusters was resolved by filtration to recover a monotonically increasing viscosity-concentration curve, as expected. Although smaller equilibrium clusters also existed, their size and effective volume fraction were unaffected by filtration, rendering their contribution to viscosity invariant. Surfactant-free antibody systems containing clusters have complex hydrodynamic response, reflecting distinct bulk and interface-adsorbed protein as well as irreversible cluster contributions. Literature models for solution viscosity lack the appropriate physics to describe the bulk shear viscosity of unstable surfactant-free antibody solutions. PMID:23442970

  18. Nutritional and metabolic determinants of blood rheology differ between trained and sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Guiraudou, Marie; Fédou, Christine; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Durand, Fabienne; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Body composition and nutrition have been reported to be correlated with blood rheology. However, in sedentary and in physically active individuals these relationships seem to be not exactly similar. This study investigated whether exercise training status influences these relationships. 32 athletes (ATH) (age: 25 ± 0.7 yr; body mass index (BMI): 23.75 ± 0.23 kg/m2) were compared to 21 sedentary subjects (SED) (age: 45.19 ± 2.90; BMI = 33.41 ± 1.33) with nutritional assessment (autoquestionnaire), bioelectrical impedancemetry, viscometry at high shear rate (MT90) and Myrenne aggregometer. Subjects differ according to age, weight and adiposity parameters. Their eating behavior is different: ATH eat a higher percentage of protein (p < 0.005), a lower percentage of lipid (p < 0.05), and a higher total amount of carbohydrate (+31% p < 0.02). Their viscosity factors are similar except plasma viscosity which is higher in SED than ATH (1.51 ± 0.03 vs 1.43 ± 0.02 mPa.s, p < 0.05). In both ATH and SED, abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio or WHR) is associated with impairments in blood rheology, but not exactly the same. In ATH, WHR is associated with an increase in hematocrit (r = 0.647; p = 0.009), plasma viscosity (r = 0.723; p = 0.002), and caloric (and CHO) intake moderately increase RBC rigidity (r = 0.5405; p = 0.0251) and aggregability (r = 0.3366 p = 0.0596). In SED the picture is different, adiposity increases hematocrit (r = 0.460; p = 0.048), abdominal fatness increases blood viscosity independent of hematocrit, and CHO intake is associated with lower RBC aggregability (r = -0.493; p = 0.0319).

  19. One-, two- and three-phase viscosity treatments for basaltic lava flows

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Allen, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Lava flows comprise three-phase mixtures of melt, crystals, and bubbles. While existing one-phase treatments allow melt phase viscosity to be assessed on the basis of composition, water content, and/or temperature, two-phase treatments constrain the effects of crystallinity or vesicularity on mixture viscosity. However, three-phase treatments, allowing for the effects of coexisting crystallinity and vesicularity, are not well understood. We investigate existing one- and two-phase treatments using lava flow case studies from Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Mount Etna (Italy) and compare these with a three-phase treatment that has not been applied previously to basaltic mixtures. At Etna, melt viscosities of 425 ± 30 Pa s are expected for well-degassed (0.1 w. % H2O), and 135 ± 10 Pa s for less well-degassed (0.4 wt % H2O), melt at 1080°C. Application of a three-phase model yields mixture viscosities (45% crystals, 25–35% vesicles) in the range 5600–12,500 Pa s. This compares with a measured value for Etnean lava of 9400 ± 1500 Pa s. At Mauna Loa, the three-phase treatment provides a fit with the full range of field measured viscosities, giving three-phase mixture viscosities, upon eruption, of 110–140 Pa s (5% crystals, no bubble effect due to sheared vesicles) to 850–1400 Pa s (25–30% crystals, 40–60% spherical vesicles). The ability of the three-phase treatment to characterize the full range of melt-crystal-bubble mixture viscosities in both settings indicates the potential of this method in characterizing basaltic lava mixture viscosity. PMID:21691456

  20. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  1. Swimming at low Reynolds number in fluids with odd, or Hall, viscosity.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Matthew F; Hughes, Taylor L

    2014-04-01

    We apply the geometric theory of swimming at low Reynolds number to the study of nearly circular swimmers in two-dimensional fluids with nonvanishing "odd," or Hall, viscosity. The odd viscosity gives an off-diagonal contribution to the fluid stress tensor, which results in a number of striking effects. In particular, we find that a swimmer whose area is changing will experience a torque proportional to the rate of change of the area, with the constant of proportionality given by the coefficient ηo of odd viscosity. After working out the general theory of swimming in fluids with odd viscosity for a class of simple swimmers, we give a number of example swimming strokes which clearly demonstrate the differences between swimming in a fluid with conventional viscosity and a fluid which also has an odd viscosity. We also include a discussion of the extension of the famous Scallop theorem of low Reynolds number swimming to the case where the fluid has a nonzero odd viscosity. A number of more technical results, including a proof of the torque-area relation for swimmers of more general shape, are explained in a set of Appendixes.

  2. Hall viscosity of a chiral two-orbital superconductor at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani-Hamid, Meghdad; Shahzamanian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    The Hall viscosity known as the anti-symmetric part of the viscosity fourth-rank tensor. Such dissipationless response which appears for systems with broken time reversal symmetry. We calculate this non-dissipative quantity for a chiral two-orbital superconductor placed in a viscoelastic magnetic field using the linear response theory and apply our calculations to the putative multiband chiral superconductor Sr2RuO4. The chirality origin of a multiband superconductor arises from the interorbital coupling of the superconducting state. This feature leads to the robustness of the Hall viscosity against temperature and impurity effects. We study the temperature effect on the Hall viscosity at the one-loop approximation.

  3. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  4. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cohen, E.G.D.; Schepper, I.M. de

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  5. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Ethane

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vogel, Eckhard, E-mail: eckhard.vogel@uni-rostock.de; Span, Roland; Herrmann, Sebastian

    2015-12-15

    A new representation of the viscosity for the fluid phase of ethane includes a zero-density correlation and a contribution for the critical enhancement, initially both developed separately, but based on experimental data. The higher-density contributions are correlated as a function of the reduced density δ = ρ/ρ{sub c} and of the reciprocal reduced temperature τ = T{sub c}/T (ρ{sub c}—critical density and T{sub c}—critical temperature). The final formulation contains 14 coefficients obtained using a state-of-the-art linear optimization algorithm. The evaluation and choice of the selected primary data sets is reviewed, in particular with respect to the assessment used in earliermore » viscosity correlations. The new viscosity surface correlation makes use of the reference equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of ethane by Bücker and Wagner [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35, 205 (2006)] and is valid in the fluid region from the melting line to temperatures of 675 K and pressures of 100 MPa. The viscosity in the limit of zero density is described with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (coverage factor k = 2) for temperatures 290 < T/K < 625, increasing to 1.0% at temperatures down to 212 K. The uncertainty of the correlated values is 1.5% in the range 290 < T/K < 430 at pressures up to 30 MPa on the basis of recent measurements judged to be very reliable as well as 4.0% and 6.0% in further regions. The uncertainty in the near-critical region (1.001 < 1/τ < 1.010 and 0.8 < δ < 1.2) increases with decreasing temperature up to 3.0% considering the available reliable data. Tables of the viscosity calculated from the correlation are listed in an appendix for the single-phase region, for the vapor–liquid phase boundary, and for the near-critical region.« less

  6. The differences in analysing strategy of viscosity experiment between freshmen and laboratory assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggrayni, S.; Mubarok, H.; Putri, N. P.; Suprapto, N.; Kholiq, A.

    2018-03-01

    The viscosity is defined by dimension of a fluid that resists the force tending to motive the fluid to flow. The aim of viscosity experiment is to determine the fluid viscosity coefficient value. By using graphical analysis, the result of oil viscosity coefficient value which performed by laboratory assistant showed: (1) 0.20 Pa.s using solid ball with accuracy 99.64% and (2) 0.21 Pa.s using smaller solid ball with accuracy 99.17%. Meanwhile, the result of oil viscosity coefficient value which performed by freshmen showed: (1) 0.44 Pa.s using solid ball with accuracy 87.85% and (2) 0.32 Pa.s using smaller solid ball with accuracy 89.84%. The differences result of the freshmen and assistant laboratory viscosity experiment are caused by the freshmen calculated the coefficient viscosity value without velocity correction factor and they used small range fluid so the times are not identified well.

  7. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  8. Estimation of the viscosities of liquid binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Su, Xiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    As one of the most important physical and chemical properties, viscosity plays a critical role in physics and materials as a key parameter to quantitatively understanding the fluid transport process and reaction kinetics in metallurgical process design. Experimental and theoretical studies on liquid metals are problematic. Today, there are many empirical and semi-empirical models available with which to evaluate the viscosity of liquid metals and alloys. However, the parameter of mixed energy in these models is not easily determined, and most predictive models have been poorly applied. In the present study, a new thermodynamic parameter Δ G is proposed to predict liquid alloy viscosity. The prediction equation depends on basic physical and thermodynamic parameters, namely density, melting temperature, absolute atomic mass, electro-negativity, electron density, molar volume, Pauling radius, and mixing enthalpy. Our results show that the liquid alloy viscosity predicted using the proposed model is closely in line with the experimental values. In addition, if the component radius difference is greater than 0.03 nm at a certain temperature, the atomic size factor has a significant effect on the interaction of the binary liquid metal atoms. The proposed thermodynamic parameter Δ G also facilitates the study of other physical properties of liquid metals.

  9. Reliable Viscosity Calculation from Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations: A Time Decomposition Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Otani, Akihito; Maginn, Edward J

    2015-08-11

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics is often used in conjunction with a Green-Kubo integral of the pressure tensor autocorrelation function to compute the shear viscosity of fluids. This approach is computationally expensive and is subject to a large amount of variability because the plateau region of the Green-Kubo integral is difficult to identify unambiguously. Here, we propose a time decomposition approach for computing the shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formalism. Instead of one long trajectory, multiple independent trajectories are run and the Green-Kubo relation is applied to each trajectory. The averaged running integral as a function of time is fit to a double-exponential function with a weighting function derived from the standard deviation of the running integrals. Such a weighting function minimizes the uncertainty of the estimated shear viscosity and provides an objective means of estimating the viscosity. While the formal Green-Kubo integral requires an integration to infinite time, we suggest an integration cutoff time tcut, which can be determined by the relative values of the running integral and the corresponding standard deviation. This approach for computing the shear viscosity can be easily automated and used in computational screening studies where human judgment and intervention in the data analysis are impractical. The method has been applied to the calculation of the shear viscosity of a relatively low-viscosity liquid, ethanol, and relatively high-viscosity ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Tf2N]), over a range of temperatures. These test cases show that the method is robust and yields reproducible and reliable shear viscosity values.

  10. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  11. The thermo magnetic instability in hot viscose plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghani, A.; Khosravi, A.; Khesali, A.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic Rotational Instability (MRI) can not performed well in accretion disks with strong magnetic field. Studies have indicated a new type of instability called thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in systems where Nernst coefficient and gradient temperature were considered. Nernst coefficient would appear if Boltzman equation could be expanded through ω_{Be} (cyclotron frequency). However, the growth rate of this instability was two magnitude orders below MRI growth (Ωk), which could not act the same as MRI. Therefor, a higher growth rate of unstable modes was needed. In this paper, rotating viscid hot plasma with strong magnetic filed was studied. Firstly, a constant alpha viscosity was studied and then a temperature sensitive viscosity. The results showed that the temperature sensitive viscosity would be able to increase the growth rate of TMI modes significantly, hence capable of acting similar to MRI.

  12. Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  13. Viscosities encountered during the cryopreservation of dimethyl sulphoxide systems.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, P; Morris, G J

    2017-06-01

    This study determined the viscous conditions experienced by cells in the unfrozen freeze concentrated channels between ice crystals in slow cooling protocols. This was examined for both the binary Me 2 SO-water and the ternary Me 2 SO-NaCl-water systems. Viscosity increases from 6.9 ± 0.1 mPa s at -14.4 ± 0.3 °C to 958 ± 27 mPa s at -64.3 ± 0.4 °C in the binary system, and up to 55387 ± 1068 mPa s at -75 ± 0.5 °C in the ternary (10% Me 2 SO, 0.9% NaCl by weight) solution were seen. This increase in viscosity limits molecular diffusion, reducing adsorption onto the crystal plane. These viscosities are significantly lower than observed in glycerol based systems and so cells in freeze concentrated channels cooled to between -60 °C and -75 °C will reside in a thick fluid not a near-solid state as is often assumed. In addition, the viscosities experienced during cooling of various Me 2 SO based vitrification solutions is determined to below -70 °C, as is the impact which additional solutes exert on viscosity. These data show that additional solutes in a cryopreservation system cause disproportionate increases in viscosity. This in turn impacts diffusion rates and mixing abilities of high concentrations of cryoprotectants, and have applications to understanding the fundamental cooling responses of cells to Me 2 SO based cryopreservation solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of D-Penicillamine on the Viscosity of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy E.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) is an important component in synovial fluid. Its presence results in highly viscoelastic solutions with excellent lubricating and shock-absorbing properties. In comparison to healthy synovial fluid, diseased fluid has a reduced viscosity. In osteoarthritis this reduction in viscosity results from a decline in both the molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronic acid HA. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine affects the rheology of bovine synovial fluid, a model synovial fluid solution, and its components, including HA. In order to understand how D-penicillamine modifies the viscosity of these solutions, the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with D-penicillamine were studied as function of time, D-penicillamine concentration (0 -- 0.01 M), and storage conditions. Penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA in PBS by ca. 40% after 44 days.

  15. Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2017-03-06

    In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. Here, this work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 + 1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening themore » equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. In conclusion, the observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.« less

  16. Nanoscale Origin of the Dichotimous Viscosity-Pressure Behavior in Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Skiner, L.; Jing, Z.; Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Shen, G.; Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A defining characteristic of silicate melts is the degree of polymerization (tetrahedral connectivity), which dictates physical properties such as viscosity and density. While viscosity of depolymerized silicate melts increases with pressure consistent with free volume theory, isothermal viscosity of polymerized melts decreases with pressure up to ~3 - 5 GPa, above which it turns over to normal (positive) pressure dependence. We conducted high-pressure melt structure studies along the jadeite (Jd) - diopside (Di) join, using a Paris-Edinburgh Press at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B and measured Jd melt density using a DIA type apparatus based on x-ray absorption at GSECARS beamline 13-BM-D. Structures of polymerized (Jd and Jd50Di50) and depolymerized (Di) melts show distinct responses to pressure. For Jd melt, T-O, T-T bond lengths (where T denotes tetrahedrally coordinated Al and Si) and T-O-T angle all exhibit rapid, sometimes non-linear decrease with increasing pressure to ~3 GPa. For Di melt, these parameters vary linearly with pressure and change very little. Molecular dynamics calculations, constrained by the x-ray structural data, were employed to examine details of structural evolution in polymerized and depolymerized liquids. A structural model is developed to link structural evolution to changes in melt properties, such as density and viscosity, with pressure. We show that the pressure of the viscosity turnover corresponds to the tetrahedral packing limit, below which the structure is compressed through tightening of the inter-tetrahedral bond angle, resulting in continual breakup of tetrahedral connectivity and viscosity decrease. Above the turnover pressure, Si and Al coordination increases to allow further packing, with increasing viscosity. This structural response prescribes the distribution of melt viscosity and density with depth, and may be the main controlling factor for magma transport rates in terrestrial planetary interiors.

  17. Measurement of viscosity of gaseous mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficients of viscosity of various types of gas mixtures, including simulated natural-gas samples, have been measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a modified capillary tube method. Pressure drops across the straight capillary tube section of a thermal mass flowmeter were measured for small, well-defined, volume flow rates for the test gases and for standard air. In this configuration, the flowmeter provides the volumetric flow rates as well as a well-characterized capillary section for differential pressure measurements across it. The coefficients of viscosity of the test gases were calculated using the reported value of 185.6 micro P for the viscosity of air. The coefficients of viscosity for the test mixtures were also calculated using Wilke's approximation of the Chapman-Enskog (C-E) theory. The experimental and calculated values for binary mixtures are in agreement within the reported accuracy of Wilke's approximation of the C-E theory. However, the agreement for multicomponent mixtures is less satisfactory, possible because of the limitations of Wilkes's approximation of the classical dilute-gas state model.

  18. Predicting dynamics and rheology of blood flow: A comparative study of multiscale and low-dimensional models of red blood cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Caswell, Bruce

    In this work we compare the predictive capability of two mathematical models for red blood cells (RBCs) focusing on blood flow in capillaries and arterioles. Both RBC models as well as their corresponding blood flows are based on the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics approach. The first model employs a multiscale description of the RBC (MS-RBC), with its membrane represented by hundreds or even thousands of DPD-particles connected by springs into a triangular network in combination with out-of-plane elastic bending resistance. Extra dissipation within the network accounts for membrane viscosity, while the characteristic biconcave RBC shapemore » is achieved by imposition of constraints for constant membrane area and constant cell volume. The second model is based on a low-dimensional description (LD-RBC) constructed as a closed torus-like ring of only 10 large DPD colloidal particles. They are connected into a ring by worm-like chain (WLC) springs combined with bending resistance. The LD-RBC model can be fitted to represent the entire range of nonlinear elastic deformations as measured by optical-tweezers for healthy and for infected RBCs in malaria. MS-RBCs suspensions model the dynamics and rheology of blood flow accurately for any size vessel but this approach is computationally expensive above 100 microns. Surprisingly, the much more economical suspensions of LD-RBCs also capture the blood flow dynamics and rheology accurately except for vessels with sizes comparable to RBC diameter. In particular, the LD-RBC suspensions are shown to properly capture the experimental data for the apparent viscosity of blood and its cell-free layer (CFL) in tube flow. Taken together, these findings suggest a hierarchical approach in modeling blood flow in the arterial tree, whereby the MS-RBC model should be employed for capillaries and arterioles below 100 microns, the LD-RBC model for arterioles, and the continuum description for

  19. The effects of non-Newtonian blood flow on curved stenotic coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Chin, Cheng; Monty, Jason; Barlis, Peter; Ooi, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are carried out using both Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity models under a pulsatile physiological flow condition to study the influences of the non-Newtonian blood property on the flow fields in the idealised curved stenotic artery model. Quemada model is adopted to simulate the non-Newtonian blood in the simulations. Both time-averaged and selected instantaneous velocity, vorticity and pressure data are examined and the differences between the Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows are examined. The non-Newtonian simulations tend to have blunted axial velocity profile compared to the Newtonian cases. In the proximal of post-stenotic region, smaller recirculation bubbles are observed because of the non-Newtonian effects. Decreased secondary flow strengths are observed upstream of stenosis while higher magnitudes of secondary flows are found out downstream of stenosis. The deviation of mean cross-sectionally axial vorticity is minimal except at the peak systole, where an additional vortice appears near the centre of the 90 degrees plane that is more pronounced in the Newtonian case. The influence of blood-analog viscosity increases the mean pressure drops. However, lower instantaneous pressure losses at peak systole are observed in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.

  20. Calculation of shear viscosity using Green-Kubo relations within a parton cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesp, C.; El, A.; Reining, F.; Xu, Z.; Bouras, I.; Greiner, C.

    2011-11-01

    The shear viscosity of a gluon gas is calculated using the Green-Kubo relation. Time correlations of the energy-momentum tensor in thermal equilibrium are extracted from microscopic simulations using a parton cascade solving various Boltzmann collision processes. We find that the perturbation-QCD- (pQCD-) based gluon bremsstrahlung described by Gunion-Bertsch processes significantly lowers the shear viscosity by a factor of 3 to 8 compared to elastic scatterings. The shear viscosity scales with the coupling as η˜1/[αs2log(1/αs)]. For constant αs the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s has no dependence on temperature. Replacing the pQCD-based collision angle distribution of binary scatterings by an isotropic form decreases the shear viscosity by a factor of 3.

  1. The effect of shear and extensional viscosity on atomization in medical inhaler.

    PubMed

    Broniarz-Press, L; Ochowiak, M; Matuszak, M; Włodarczak, S

    2014-07-01

    The paper contains the results of experimental studies of water, aqueous solutions of glycerol and aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyethylene oxide (PEO) atomization process in a medical inhaler obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The effect of the shear and extensional viscosity on the drop size, drop size histogram and mean drop diameter has been analyzed. The obtained results have shown that the drop size increases with the increase in shear and extensional viscosity of liquid atomized. Extensional viscosity has a greater impact on the spraying process. It has been shown that the change in liquid viscosity leads to significant changes in drop size distribution. The correlation for Sauter mean diameter as function of the shear and extensional viscosity was proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature and pressure dependences of kimberlite melts viscosity (experimental-theoretical study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persikov, Eduard; Bykhtiyarov, Pavel; Cokol, Alexsander

    2016-04-01

    Experimental data on temperature and pressure dependences of viscosity of model kimberlite melts (silicate 82 + carbonate 18, wt. %, 100NBO/T = 313) have been obtained for the first time at 100 MPa of CO2 pressure and at the lithostatic pressures up to 7.5 GPa in the temperature range 1350 oC - 1950 oC using radiation high gas pressure apparatus and press free split-sphere multi - anvil apparatus (BARS). Experimental data obtained on temperature and pressure dependences of viscosity of model kimberlite melts at moderate and high pressures is compared with predicted data on these dependences of viscosity of basaltic melts (100NBO/T = 58) in the same T, P - range. Dependences of the viscosity of model kimberlite and basaltic melts on temperature are consistent to the exponential Arrenian equation in the T, P - range of experimental study. The correct values of activation energies of viscous flow of kimberlite melts have been obtained for the first time. The activation energies of viscous flow of model kimberlite melts exponentially increase with increasing pressure and are equal: E = 130 ± 1.3 kJ/mole at moderate pressure (P = 100 MPa) and E = 160 ± 1.6 kJ/mole at high pressure (P = 5.5 GPa). It has been established too that the viscosity of model kimberlite melts exponentially increases on about half order of magnitude with increasing pressures from 100 MPa to 7.5 GPa at the isothermal condition (1800 oC). It has been established that viscosity of model kimberlite melts at the moderate pressure (100 MPa) is lover on about one order of magnitude to compare with the viscosity of basaltic melts, but at high pressure range (5.5 - 7.5 GPa), on the contrary, is higher on about half order of magnitude at the same values of the temperatures. Here we use both a new experimental data on viscosity of kimberlite melts and our structural chemical model for calculation and prediction the viscosity of magmatic melts [1] to determine the fundamental features of viscosity of

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Viscosity of Iron-rich Silicate Melts under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. M.; Lesher, C. E.; Pommier, A.; O'Dwyer Brown, L.

    2017-12-01

    The transport properties of silicate melts govern diffusive flow of momentum, heat, and mass in the interior of terrestrial planets. In particular, constraining melt viscosity is critical for dynamic modeling of igneous processes and is thus key to our understanding of magma convection and mixing, melt migration in the mantle, and crystal-liquid fractionation. Among the different constituents of silicate melts, iron is of significant importance as it highly influences some of their properties, such as surface tension, compressibility, and density. We present an experimental study of the viscosity of natural and synthetic iron-rich silicate melts under pressure. In situ falling-sphere measurements of viscosity have been conducted on hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) and iron-rich peridotite melts from 1 to 7 GPa and at temperatures between 1750 and 2100 K, using the multi-anvil apparatus at the GSECARS beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab. We used double reservoir capsules, with the bottom reservoir containing the sample, while a more refractory material is placed in the upper reservoir (e.g., diopside, enstatite, forsterite). This configuration allows the fall of two rhenium spheres across the sample at different temperatures. Melt viscosity is calculated using Stokes' law and the terminal velocity of the spheres. We observe that melt viscosity slightly decreases with increasing temperature and increasing pressure: for instance, the viscosity of the hedenbergite melt decreases from 1.26 Pa•s to 0.43 Pa•s over the 1 - 3.5 GPa pressure range and between 1820 and 1930 K. Our experimental data are used to develop a viscosity model of iron-rich silicate melts under pressure. Results will be compared with previous viscosity works on iron-free and iron-bearing silicate liquids in order to discuss the effect of iron on melt viscosity and structure at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to terrestrial mantles.

  4. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  5. Clinical investigations of polymethylmethacrylate cement viscosity during vertebroplasty and related in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Boger, A.; Schenk, B.; Heini, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising an injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is a practical procedure for the stabilization of osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the material plays a key role in this context. In order to enhance the safety for the patient, a rheometer system was developed to measure the cement viscosity intraoperatively. For this development, it is of great importance to know the proper viscosity to start the procedure determined by experienced surgeons and the relation between the time period when different injection devices are used and the cement viscosity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the viscosity ranges for different injection systems during conventional vertebroplasty. Clinically observed viscosity values and related time periods showed high scattering. In order to get a better understanding of the clinical observations, cement viscosity during hardening at different ambient temperatures and by simulation of the body temperature was investigated in vitro. It could be concluded, that the direct viscosity assessment with a rheometer during vertebroplasty can help clinicians to define a lower threshold viscosity and thereby decrease the risk of leakage and make adjustments to their injection technique in real time. Secondly, the acceleration in hardening of PMMA-based cements at body temperature can be useful in minimizing leakages by addressing them with a short injection break. PMID:19479285

  6. ARRHENIUS MODEL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE GLASS VISCOSITY WITH A CONSTANT PRE-EXPONENTIAL FACTOR

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2008-04-15

    A simplified form of the Arrhenius equation, ln η = A + B(x)/T, where η is the viscosity, T the temperature, x the composition vector, and A and B the Arrhenius coefficients, was fitted to glass-viscosity data for the processing temperature range (the range at which the viscosity is within 1 to 103 Pa.s) while setting A = constant and treating B(x) as a linear function of mass fractions of major components. Fitting the Arrhenius equation to over 550 viscosity data of commercial glasses and approximately 1000 viscosity data of glasses for nuclear-waste glasses resulted in the A values ofmore » -11.35 and -11.48, respectively. The R2 value ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for commercial glasses and was 0.98 for waste glasses. The Arrhenius models estimate viscosities for melts of commercial glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 1100 to 1550°C and viscosity range of 5 to 400 Pa.s and for waste glasses containing 32 to 60 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 850 to 1450°C and viscosity range of 0.4 to 250 Pa.s.« less

  7. Specific decrease in solution viscosity of antibodies by arginine for therapeutic formulations.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-06-02

    Unacceptably high viscosity is observed in high protein concentration formulations due to extremely large therapeutic dose of antibodies and volume restriction of subcutaneous route of administration. Here, we show that a protein aggregation suppressor, arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl), specifically decreases viscosity of antibody formulations. The viscosities of bovine gamma globulin (BGG) solution at 250 mg/mL and human gamma globulin (HGG) solution at 292 mg/mL at a physiological pH were too high for subcutaneous injections, but decreased to an acceptable level (below 50 cP) in the presence of 1,000 mM ArgHCl. ArgHCl also decreased the viscosity of BGG solution at acidic and alkaline pHs. Interestingly, ArgHCl decreased the viscosity of antibody solutions (BGG, HGG, and human immunoglobulin G) but not globular protein solutions (α-amylase and α-chymotrypsin). These results indicate not only high potency of ArgHCl as an excipient to decrease the solution viscosity of high concentration antibodies formulations but also specific interactions between ArgHCl and antibodies.

  8. The determination of viscosity at liquid mixtures - Comparison of approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Schmirler; Hana, Netřebská; Jan, Kolínský

    2017-09-01

    The research of flow field parameters for non-stationary flow of non-Newtonian fluids carried out at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of CTU showed the need for knowledge of determination of the resulting viscosity of a mixture of several liquids. There are several sources for determining viscosity of mixtures. It is possible either to find theoretical relations in the literature or use technical tables based on experimentally measured data. This article focuses on comparing these approaches with an experiment. The experiment was performed by a Rheotest RN 4.1 rotating viscometer produced by the company RHEOTEST Medingen. The research was carried out using a solution of glycerol and water. The research has shown great differences in results in different approaches for determining the viscosity of the liquid mixtures. The result of this paper is to determine the method of viscosity calculation that is closest to the experimental data.

  9. The Role of Viscosity in Causing the Plasma Poloidal Motion in Magnetic Clouds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhao, Ake; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Jiajia

    An interesting phenomenon, plasma poloidal motion, has been found in many magnetic clouds (MCs), and viscosity has been proposed as a possible mechanism. However, it is not clear how significant the role of viscosity is in generating such motion. In this paper, we conduct a statistical study of the MCs detected by the Wind spacecraft during 1995–2012. It is found that, for 19% of all the studied MCs (186), the poloidal velocities of the MC plasma near the MC boundaries are well correlated with those of the corresponding ambient solar wind plasma. A non-monotonic increase from inner to outer MCsmore » suggests that the viscosity does play a role, albeit weak, on the poloidal motion in the MC statistically. The possible dependence on the solar wind parameters is then studied in detail for the nine selected crossings, which represent the viscosity characteristic. There is an evident negative correlation between the viscosity and the density, a weak negative correlation between the viscosity and the turbulence strength, and no clear correlation between the viscosity and the temperature.« less

  10. Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ≥ 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ≥4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p < 0.001) were significant variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ≥ 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor.

  11. A "distorted-BODIPY"-based fluorescent probe for imaging of cellular viscosity in live cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao; Fan, Jiangli; Li, Miao; Cao, Jianfang; Wang, Jingyun; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-04-14

    Cellular viscosity is a critical factor in governing diffusion-mediated cellular processes and is linked to a number of diseases and pathologies. Fluorescent molecular rotors (FMRs) have recently been developed to determine viscosity in solutions or biological fluid. Herein, we report a "distorted-BODIPY"-based probe BV-1 for cellular viscosity, which is different from the conventional "pure rotors". In BV-1, the internal steric hindrance between the meso-CHO group and the 1,7-dimethyl group forced the boron-dipyrrin framework to be distorted, which mainly caused nonradiative deactivation in low-viscosity environment. BV-1 gave high sensitivity (x=0.62) together with stringent selectivity to viscosity, thus enabling viscosity mapping in live cells. Significantly, the increase of cytoplasmic viscosity during apoptosis was observed by BV-1 in real time. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. In-silico prediction of concentration-dependent viscosity curves for monoclonal antibody solutions

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Li, Li; Broulidakis, Matthew P.; Luksha, Nicholas G.; Burns, Christopher T.; Singh, Satish K.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early stage developability assessments of monoclonal antibody (mAb) candidates can help reduce risks and costs associated with their product development. Forecasting viscosity of highly concentrated mAb solutions is an important aspect of such developability assessments. Reliable predictions of concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors for mAb solutions in platform formulations can help screen or optimize drug candidates for flexible manufacturing and drug delivery options. Here, we present a computational method to predict concentration-dependent viscosity curves for mAbs solely from their sequence—structural attributes. This method was developed using experimental data on 16 different mAbs whose concentration-dependent viscosity curves were experimentally obtained under standardized conditions. Each concentration-dependent viscosity curve was fitted with a straight line, via logarithmic manipulations, and the values for intercept and slope were obtained. Intercept, which relates to antibody diffusivity, was found to be nearly constant. In contrast, slope, the rate of increase in solution viscosity with solute concentration, varied significantly across different mAbs, demonstrating the importance of intermolecular interactions toward viscosity. Next, several molecular descriptors for electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the 16 mAbs derived using their full-length homology models were examined for potential correlations with the slope. An equation consisting of hydrophobic surface area of full-length antibody and charges on VH, VL, and hinge regions was found to be capable of predicting the concentration-dependent viscosity curves of the antibody solutions. Availability of this computational tool may facilitate material-free high-throughput screening of antibody candidates during early stages of drug discovery and development. PMID:28125318

  13. In-silico prediction of concentration-dependent viscosity curves for monoclonal antibody solutions.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Li, Li; Broulidakis, Matthew P; Luksha, Nicholas G; Burns, Christopher T; Singh, Satish K; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-04-01

    Early stage developability assessments of monoclonal antibody (mAb) candidates can help reduce risks and costs associated with their product development. Forecasting viscosity of highly concentrated mAb solutions is an important aspect of such developability assessments. Reliable predictions of concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors for mAb solutions in platform formulations can help screen or optimize drug candidates for flexible manufacturing and drug delivery options. Here, we present a computational method to predict concentration-dependent viscosity curves for mAbs solely from their sequence-structural attributes. This method was developed using experimental data on 16 different mAbs whose concentration-dependent viscosity curves were experimentally obtained under standardized conditions. Each concentration-dependent viscosity curve was fitted with a straight line, via logarithmic manipulations, and the values for intercept and slope were obtained. Intercept, which relates to antibody diffusivity, was found to be nearly constant. In contrast, slope, the rate of increase in solution viscosity with solute concentration, varied significantly across different mAbs, demonstrating the importance of intermolecular interactions toward viscosity. Next, several molecular descriptors for electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the 16 mAbs derived using their full-length homology models were examined for potential correlations with the slope. An equation consisting of hydrophobic surface area of full-length antibody and charges on V H , V L , and hinge regions was found to be capable of predicting the concentration-dependent viscosity curves of the antibody solutions. Availability of this computational tool may facilitate material-free high-throughput screening of antibody candidates during early stages of drug discovery and development.

  14. Zakharov equations for viscous flow and their use in the blood clot formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ai-Ping; Li, Xiao-Qing

    2017-12-01

    For theoretical study, blood can be regarded as a viscous electrically conducting fluid of negative ions and protons. Zakharov equations including viscosity are relevant for describing the behaviour of blood plasma. The dispersion formula is derived from the perturbation method and is solved numerically. It turns out that the imaginary part of one root of the perturbation frequency is greater than zero, and modulation instability occurs. This would lead to the formation of blood clot. The viscous force can suppress the occurrence of instability and prevent thrombosis. One can find that the chaotic state of blood signals human health.

  15. Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vuksan, Vladimir; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Rogovik, Alexander L; Fairgrieve, Christopher D; Jovanovski, Elena; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2011-11-01

    The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (SD 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (SEM 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14,300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136,300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY (-12.6 (SEM 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB (-14.6 (SEM 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet.

  16. Modeling the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions: Improvements in prediction of limiting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwasame, Paul M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2016-06-01

    The present study develops a fully consistent extension of the approach pioneered by Farris ["Prediction of the viscosity of multimodal suspensions from unimodal viscosity data," Trans. Soc. Rheol. 12, 281-301 (1968)] to describe the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions significantly improving upon our previous model [P. M. Mwasame, N. J. Wagner, and A. N. Beris, "Modeling the effects of polydispersity on the viscosity of noncolloidal hard sphere suspensions," J. Rheol. 60, 225-240 (2016)]. The new model captures the Farris limit of large size differences between consecutive particle size classes in a suspension. Moreover, the new model includes a further generalization that enables its application to real, complex suspensions that deviate from ideal non-colloidal suspension behavior. The capability of the new model to predict the viscosity of complex suspensions is illustrated by comparison against experimental data.

  17. Viscosities of Fe Ni, Fe Co and Ni Co binary melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuzuru; Sugisawa, Koji; Aoki, Daisuke; Yamamura, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Viscosities of three binary molten alloys consisting of the iron group elements, Fe, Ni and Co, have been measured by using an oscillating cup viscometer over the entire composition range from liquidus temperatures up to 1600 °C with high precision and excellent reproducibility. The viscosities measured showed good Arrhenius linearity for all the compositions. The viscosities of Fe, Ni and Co as a function of temperature are as follows: \\eqalign{ & \\log \\eta={-}0.6074 + 2493/T\\qquad for\\quad Fe\\\\ & \\log \\eta={-}0.5695 + 2157/T\\qquad for\\quad Ni \\\\ & \\log \\eta={-}0.6620 + 2430/T\\qquad for\\quad Co.} The isothermal viscosities of Fe-Ni and Fe-Co binary melts increase monotonically with increasing Fe content. On the other hand, in Ni-Co binary melt, the isothermal viscosity decreases slightly and then increases with increasing Co. The activation energy of Fe-Co binary melt increased slightly on mixing, and those of Fe-Ni and Ni-Co melts decreased monotonically with increasing Ni content. The above behaviour is discussed based on the thermodynamic properties of the alloys.

  18. A Comparison of the Viscosities of Thickened Liquids for Pediatric Dysphagia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Clifton, Mekale; Tarlton, Morgan; Heinsohn, Erica; Ewing, Mary

    It has been reported that Speech Language Pathologists in different facilities across the nation use a variety of thickening agents and recipes as therapeutic measures for infants and children diagnosed with dysphagia. Limited research has been completed in this area. Viscosity was tested to determine the thickness of each thickening agent mixed with infant formula. The values were then compared to the National Dysphagia Diet liquid levels to determine which thickening agent resulted in the desired viscosity levels. The thickeners were mixed with common infant formulas and soy formulas to determine if the type of formula impacted the viscosity. The main goal was to determine if the assumed thickness level (viscosity) of prescribed thickened liquids was actually being met. This topic is of high concern because of its impact on the safety and well-being of clients with dysphagia. A viscometer was used to collect the viscosity levels. Commercially available formulas selected for this study. The final results of our investigation will be presented during the APS meeting. This work is supported by a Ball State University Immersive Learning Grant.

  19. Viscosity and density of methanol/water mixtures at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J. G.; Kurata, F.; Swift, G. W.

    1968-01-01

    Viscosity and density are measured at low temperatures for three methanol/water mixtures. Viscosity is determined by a modified falling cylinder method or a calibrated viscometer. Density is determined by the volume of each mixture contained in a calibrated glass cell placed in a constant-temperature bath.

  20. Revisiting the assessment of semen viscosity and its relationship to leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Flint, M; du Plessis, S S; Menkveld, R

    2014-10-01

    With infertility challenges posing an obstacle to many couples, the extension of variables to assess male fertility is an important line of research. At the Reproductive Biology Unit where the study was undertaken, a considerable proportion of male patient's seeking fertility assessment presented with hyperviscous semen samples and elevated concentrations of leucocytes. Despite viscosity being included as part of a routine spermiogram, it raises a considerable amount of concern as it is assessed semiquantitatively. The study was undertaken to evaluate the quantification of semen viscosity in centipoise (cP) and to investigate whether a correlation exists between hyperviscosity and leucocytospermia. A total of 200 semen samples were assessed from a sample cohort of two population groups: 162 male patients undergoing fertility assessment and 38 volunteer donors. Semen viscosity was determined by measuring the filling time of a capillary-loaded Leja chamber and quantifying the viscosity in cP. Leucocytes were identified histochemically with a leucocyte peroxidase test. The viscosity when quantified in cP was significantly higher in the peroxidase positive sample group (9.01 ± 0.49 vs. 7.39 ± 0.23 cP; P < 0.005). The introduction of a more accurate method of quantifying viscosity may possibly help to identify, diagnose and treat patients suffering from leucocytospermia to ultimately enhance their fertility potential. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Sensitivity of viscosity Arrhenius parameters to polarity of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacem, R. B. H.; Alzamel, N. O.; Ouerfelli, N.

    2017-09-01

    Several empirical and semi-empirical equations have been proposed in the literature to estimate the liquid viscosity upon temperature. In this context, this paper aims to study the effect of polarity of liquids on the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence, considering particularly the Arrhenius type equations. To achieve this purpose, the solvents are classified into three groups: nonpolar, borderline polar and polar solvents. Based on adequate statistical tests, we found that there is strong evidence that the polarity of solvents affects significantly the distribution of the Arrhenius-type equation parameters and consequently the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence. Thus, specific estimated values of parameters for each group of liquids are proposed in this paper. In addition, the comparison of the accuracy of approximation with and without classification of liquids, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, shows a significant discrepancy of the borderline polar solvents. For that, we suggested in this paper new specific coefficient values of the simplified Arrhenius-type equation for better estimation accuracy. This result is important given that the accuracy in the estimation of the viscosity-temperature dependence may affect considerably the design and the optimization of several industrial processes.

  2. On the measurement of the relative viscosity of suspensions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Acrivos, A.; Fan, X.; Mauri, R.

    The relative viscosity of a suspension of rigid, noncolloidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid was measured in a Couette device and was found to be shear thinning even for values of the solids fraction as low as 20%. Although such behavior was reported previously, no satisfactory explanation appears to have been given thus far. It shall be shown presently, however, that, at least for our systems, this shear-thinning effect was due to a slight mismatch in the densities of the two phases. Moreover, the apparent relative viscosities measured in our apparatus were found to be in excellent agreement withmore » those predicted theoretically using a model, originally proposed by Leighton and Acrivos [Chem. Eng. Sci. [bold 41], 1377--1384 (1986)], to describe viscous resuspension, according to which the measured relative viscosity should depend on the bulk particle concentration and on the dimensionless Shields number [ital A], and should attain its correct value for a well-mixed suspension only as [ital A][r arrow][infinity]. The predictions of this model are also in excellent agreement with the measured transient response of the apparent relative viscosity due to a sudden change in the shear rate.« less

  3. Tribological performance of ultra-low viscosity composite base fluid with bio-derived fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One obvious approach to increase efficiencies in many lubricated systems such as ICE and gearbox is the reduction in viscosity of oil lubricant. Indeed, ultra-low viscosity engine oils are now commercially available. One approach to the development of ultra-low viscosity lubricants without compromis...

  4. Intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of natural and substituted guar gums in seawater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; He, Le; Guo, Jianchun; Zhao, Jinzhou; Tang, Hongbiao

    2015-05-01

    The intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of guar gum (GG), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) and carboxymethyl guar (CMG) in seawater and the effects of shear rate, concentration, temperature and pH on these properties were investigated. An intrinsic viscosity-increasing effect was observed with GG and HPG in seawater (SW) compared to deionized water (DW), whereas the intrinsic viscosity of CMG in seawater was much lower than that in DW due to a screening effect that reduced the repulsion between the polymer chains. Regardless of the functional groups, all sample solutions was well characterized by a modified Cross model that exhibited the transition from Newtonian to pseudoplastic in the low shear rate range at the concentrations of interest to industries, and their viscosity increased with the increase in their concentration but decreased with the increase in temperature. In contrast to nonionic GG or HPG, anionic CMG had a slightly decreased viscosity property in SW, exhibiting polyelectrolyte viscosity behavior. The α value in the zero-shear rate viscosity vs. concentration power-law equation for the samples gave the order of CMG>HPG>GG while the SW solution of CMG had the lowest viscous flow activation energy and exhibited a strong pH-dependent viscosity by a different shear rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal

  6. Viscosity of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. IV. Binary mixtures containing p-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Oswal, P.; Phalak, R. P.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of the viscosity η and density p are reported for eight binary mixtures of p-dioxane with methylcyclohexane, l-chlorohexane, l-bromohexane, p-xylene, propylbenzene, methyl acetate, butyl acetate. anyl acetate at 303.15 K. The viscosity data haw been correlated with the equations of Grunbeng Nissan. of McAllister, and of Auslaendcr. The relation among the excess viscosity Δ In η, excess Gibbs energy of activation ΔG* E of viscous flow. and intermolecular interaction in these mixtures is discussed.

  7. Bulk Viscosity of Bubbly Magmas and the Amplification of Pressure Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, O.; Lensky, N. G.; Neuberg, J. W.; Lyakhovsky, V.

    2001-12-01

    The bulk viscosity of magma is needed in order to describe the dynamics of a compressible bubbly magma flowing in conduits and to follow the attenuation of pressure waves travelling through a compressible magma. We developed a model for the bulk viscosity of a suspension of gas bubbles in an incompressible Newtonian liquid that exsolves volatiles (e.g. magma). The suspension is modeled as a close pack of spherical cells, consisting of gas bubbles centered in spherical shells of a volatile-bearing liquid. Following a drop in the ambient pressure the resulting dilatational motion and driving pressure are obtained in terms of the two-phase cell parameters, i.e. bubble radius and gas pressure. By definition, the bulk viscosity of a fluid is the relation between changes of the driving pressure with respect to changes in the resulted expansion strain-rate. Thus, we can use the two-phase solution to define the bulk viscosity of a hypothetical cell, composed of a homogeneously compressible, one-phase, continuous fluid. The resulted bulk viscosity is highly non-linear. At the beginning of the expansion process, when gas exsolution is efficient, the expansion rate grows exponentially while the driving pressure decreases slightly. That means that bulk viscosity is formally negative. The negative value reflects the release of the energy stored in the supersaturated liquid (melt) and its conversion to mechanical work during exsolution. Later, when bubbles are large enough and the gas influx decreases significantly, the strain rate decelerates and the bulk viscosity becomes positive as expected in a dissipative system. We demonstrate that amplification of seismic wave travelling through a volcanic conduit filled with a volatile saturated magma may be attributed to the negative bulk viscosity of the compressible magma. Amplification of an expansion wave may, at some level in the conduit, damage the conduit walls and initiate opening of new pathways for magma to erupt.

  8. Pressure Dependence of Komatiite Liquid Viscosity and Implications for Magma Ocean Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer Brown, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Terasaki, H. G.; Yamada, A.; Sakamaki, T.; Shibazaki, Y.; Ohtani, E.

    2009-12-01

    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures were investigated using the in-situ falling sphere technique at BL04B1, SPring-8. Komatiites are naturally occurring magmas, rich in network modifying cations. Despite the refractory and fluid nature of komatiite, we successfully measured the viscosity of molten komatiites from Gorgona Island, Colombia (MgO = 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.5) between 11 and 13 GPa at 2000 C, and from Belingwe, Zimbabwe (MgO = 28.14 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.1) from 12 to 14 GPa at 2000 C. Under isothermal conditions, the viscosity of Gorgona Island komatiite melt increased with pressure, consistent with our previous measurements at lower pressures for this composition. We interpreted this positive pressure dependence as the result of reductions in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid when compressed. The viscosity of molten komatiite from Belingwe also increased up to 12 GPa, however between 12 and 14 GPa the viscosity is nearly constant. In previous studies of depolymerized silicate liquids, the pressure dependence of viscosity has been shown to reverse from positive to negative between 8 and 10 GPa with corresponding changes in activation volume [1] [2]. In contrast, the activation volume for Belingwe liquid decreases to near zero, but does not become negative above 11 GPa. Similarly, the activation volume for Gorgona Island komatiite remains positive throughout the pressure range investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations of simple MgO-SiO2 liquids with NBO/T > 2 also show a positive pressure dependence, reflecting the dominant control of free-volume reduction on the viscosity of depolymerized melts. However, the more rapid reduction in activation volume with pressure in komatiite liquids may be related to the presence of Al, Ti and other cations that interact and undergo coordination changes unavailable in simple silicate liquids. Along Hadean and post-Hadean mantle adiabats the net effect of

  9. Computing the Viscosity of Supercooled Liquids: Markov Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Kushima, Akihiro; Eapen, Jacob; Lin, Xi; Qian, Xiaofeng; Mauro, John C.; Diep, Phong; Yip, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic origin of glass transition, when liquid viscosity changes continuously by more than ten orders of magnitude, is challenging to explain from first principles. Here we describe the detailed derivation and implementation of a Markovian Network model to calculate the shear viscosity of deeply supercooled liquids based on numerical sampling of an atomistic energy landscape, which sheds some light on this transition. Shear stress relaxation is calculated from a master-equation description in which the system follows a transition-state pathway trajectory of hopping among local energy minima separated by activation barriers, which is in turn sampled by a metadynamics-based algorithm. Quantitative connection is established between the temperature variation of the calculated viscosity and the underlying potential energy and inherent stress landscape, showing a different landscape topography or “terrain” is needed for low-temperature viscosity (of order 107 Pa·s) from that associated with high-temperature viscosity (10−5 Pa·s). Within this range our results clearly indicate the crossover from an essentially Arrhenius scaling behavior at high temperatures to a low-temperature behavior that is clearly super-Arrhenius (fragile) for a Kob-Andersen model of binary liquid. Experimentally the manifestation of this crossover in atomic dynamics continues to raise questions concerning its fundamental origin. In this context this work explicitly demonstrates that a temperature-dependent “terrain” characterizing different parts of the same potential energy surface is sufficient to explain the signature behavior of vitrification, at the same time the notion of a temperature-dependent effective activation barrier is quantified. PMID:21464988

  10. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  11. Study on viscosity of MDEA-MeOH aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Wang, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, D.

    2017-03-01

    The viscosities of the N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-methanol (MeOH) aqueous solutions were measured at temperatures ranging from (303.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction of MDEA and MeOH respectively ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 and 0 to 0.15. On the basis of experimental measurement, the effects of temperature, mass fraction of MDEA and MeOH on viscosities were demonstrated.

  12. Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?

    PubMed

    Brandenstein, Cai V S; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-15

    The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P-values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Variable-viscosity thermal hemodynamic slip flow conveying nanoparticles through a permeable-walled composite stenosed artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for simulating viscous, incompressible, steady-state blood flow containing copper nanoparticles and coupled heat transfer through a composite stenosed artery with permeable walls. Wall slip hydrodynamic and also thermal buoyancy effects are included. The artery is simulated as an isotropic elastic tube, following Joshi et al. (2009), and a variable viscosity formulation is employed for the flowing blood. The equations governing the transport phenomena are non-dimensionalized and the resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically in the steady state subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical computations are conducted to quantify the effects of relevant hemodynamic, thermophysical and nanoscale parameters emerging in the model on velocity and temperature profiles, wall shear stress, impedance resistance and also streamline distributions. The model may be applicable to drug fate transport modeling with nanoparticle agents and also to the optimized design of nanoscale medical devices for diagnosing stenotic diseases in circulatory systems.

  14. On the penetration of a hot diapir through a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, S. F.; Raefsky, A.

    1985-01-01

    The ascent of a hot spherical body through a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity has been studied using an axisymmetric finite element method. Numerical solutions range over Peclet numbers of 0.1 - 1000 from constant viscosity up to viscosity variations of 100,000. Both rigid and stress-free boundary conditions were applied at the surface of the sphere. The dependence of drag on viscosity variation was shown to have no dependence on the stress boundary condition except for a Stokes flow scaling factor. A Nusselt number parameterization based on the stress-free constant viscosity functional dependence on the Peclet number scaled by a parameter depending on the viscosity structure fits both stress-free and rigid boundary condition data above viscosity variations of 100. The temperature scale height was determined as a function of sphere radius. For the simple physical model studied in this paper pre-heating is required to reduce the ambient viscosity of the country rock to less than 10 to the 22nd sq cm/s in order for a 10 km diapir to penetrate a distance of several radii.

  15. A Difference Scheme with Autocontrol Artificial Viscosity to Predict Ablated Nosetip Shape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-29

    I FTD-ID(RS)T-0640-89 U) (0 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION A DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE by...September 1989 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-89-C-000800 A DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE By: Yang Maozhao...DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE Yang Maozhao (China Aerodynamic Research and Development Centre

  16. Viscosity minima in binary mixtures of ionic liquids + molecular solvents.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Shimizu, K; Esperança, J M S S; Canongia Lopes, J N; Rebelo, L P N

    2015-05-28

    The viscosity (η) of four binary mixtures (ionic liquids plus molecular solvents, ILs+MSs) was measured in the 283.15 < T/K < 363.15 temperature range. Different IL/MS combinations were selected in such a way that the corresponding η(T) functions exhibit crossover temperatures at which both pure components present identical viscosity values. Consequently, most of the obtained mixture isotherms, η(x), exhibit clear viscosity minima in the studied T-x range. The results are interpreted using auxiliary molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data in order to correlate the observed η(T,x) trends with the interactions in each mixture, including the balance between electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding.

  17. Astronaut Mike Fincke Conducts Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  18. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of moderately dense gas mixtures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeham, W. A.; Kestin, J.; Mason, E. A.; Sandler, S. I.

    1972-01-01

    Derivation of a simple, semitheoretical expression for the initial density dependence of the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gaseous mixtures in terms of the appropriate properties of the pure components and of their interaction quantities. The derivation is based on Enskog's theory of dense gases and yields an equation in which the composition dependence of the linear factor in the density expansion is explicit. The interaction quantities are directly related to those of the mixture extrapolated to zero density and to a universal function valid for all gases. The reliability of the formulation is assessed with respect to the viscosity of several binary mixtures. It is found that the calculated viscosities of binary mixtures agree with the experimental data with a precision which is comparable to that of the most precise measurements.

  19. Heritability and Seasonal Changes in Viscosity of Slash Pine Oleoresin

    Treesearch

    Robert D. McReynolds

    1971-01-01

    Oleoresin viscosity was measured in slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) trees of known genetic origin over a 1-year period. A strong broad-sense heritability of this trait was found. Seasonal variation followed a definite pattern, with the highest viscosities occurring in early spring and a gradual decline occurring in...

  20. A Clot Model Examination: with Impulsion of Nanoparticles under Influence of Variable Viscosity and Slip Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijaz, S.; Shahzadi, Iqra; Nadeem, S.; Saleem, Anber

    2017-11-01

    In this speculative analysis, our main focused is to address the neurotic condition that occurs due to accumulation of blood components on the wall of the artery that results in blood coagulation. Specifically, to perceive this phenomena clot model is considered. To discuss this analysis mathematical model is formed in the presence of the effective thermal conductivity and variable viscosity of base fluid. Appropriate slip conditions are employed to obtain the close form solutions of temperature and velocity profile. The graphical illustrations have been presented for the assessment of pressure rise, pressure gradient and velocity profile. The effects of several parameters on the flow quantities for theoretical observation are investigated. At the end, the results confirmed that the impulsion of copper and silver nanoparticles as drug agent enlarges the amplitude of the velocity and hence nanoparticles play an important role in engineering and biomedical applications such as drug delivery system.

  1. Extraction of shear viscosity in stationary states of relativistic particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reining, F.; Bouras, I.; El, A.; Wesp, C.; Xu, Z.; Greiner, C.

    2012-02-01

    Starting from a classical picture of shear viscosity we construct a stationary velocity gradient in a microscopic parton cascade. Employing the Navier-Stokes ansatz we extract the shear viscosity coefficient η. For elastic isotropic scatterings we find an excellent agreement with the analytic values. This confirms the applicability of this method. Furthermore, for both elastic and inelastic scatterings with pQCD based cross sections we extract the shear viscosity coefficient η for a pure gluonic system and find a good agreement with already published calculations.

  2. Dependence of Perpendicular Viscosity on Magnetic Fluctuations in a Stochastic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridström, R.; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Nishizawa, T.; Sarff, J. S.

    2018-06-01

    In a magnetically confined plasma with a stochastic magnetic field, the dependence of the perpendicular viscosity on the magnetic fluctuation amplitude is measured for the first time. With a controlled, ˜ tenfold variation in the fluctuation amplitude, the viscosity increases ˜100 -fold, exhibiting the same fluctuation-amplitude-squared dependence as the predicted rate of stochastic field line diffusion. The absolute value of the viscosity is well predicted by a model based on momentum transport in a stochastic field, the first in-depth test of this model.

  3. Deformation and dynamics of red blood cells in flow through cylindrical microchannels.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Peltomäki, Matti; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-06-28

    The motion of red blood cells (RBCs) in microcirculation plays an important role in blood flow resistance and in the cell partitioning within a microvascular network. Different shapes and dynamics of RBCs in microvessels have been previously observed experimentally including the parachute and slipper shapes. We employ mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations to predict the phase diagram of shapes and dynamics of RBCs in cylindrical microchannels, which serve as idealized microvessels, for a wide range of channel confinements and flow rates. A rich dynamical behavior is found, with snaking and tumbling discocytes, slippers performing a swinging motion, and stationary parachutes. We discuss the effects of different RBC states on the flow resistance, and the influence of RBC properties, characterized by the Föppl-von Kármán number, on the shape diagram. The simulations are performed using the same viscosity for both external and internal fluids surrounding a RBC; however, we discuss how the viscosity contrast would affect the shape diagram.

  4. Detection of Liposome Membrane Viscosity Perturbations with Ratiometric Molecular Rotors

    PubMed Central

    Nipper, Matthew E.; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Molecular rotors are a form of fluorescent intramolecular charge-transfer complexes that can undergo intramolecular twisting motion upon photoexcitation. Twisted-state formation leads to non-radiative relaxation that competes with fluorescence emission. In bulk solutions, these molecules exhibit a viscosity-dependent quantum yield. On the molecular scale, the fluorescence emission is a function of the local free volume, which in turn is related to the local microviscosity. Membrane viscosity, and the inverse; fluidity, are characteristic terms used to describe the ease of movement withing the membrane. Often, changes in membrane viscosity govern intracellular processes and are indicative of a disease state. Molecular rotors have been used to investigate viscosity changes in liposomes and cells, but accuracy is affected by local concentration gradients and sample optical properties. We have developed self-calibrating ratiometric molecular rotors to overcome this challenge and integrated the new molecules into a DLPC liposome model exposed to the membrane-fluidizing agent propanol. We show that the ratiometric emission intensity linearly decreases with the pentanol exposure and that the ratiometric intensity is widely independent of the total liposome concentration. Conversely, dye concentration inside liposomes influences the sensitivity of the system. We suggest that the new self-calibrating dyes can be used for real-time viscosity sensing in liposome systems with the advantages of lifetime measurements, but with low-cost steady-state instrumentation. PMID:21354253

  5. [Relations between plasma-erythrocyte viscosity factors and ESR].

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Crippa, M; Bosoni, T; Moratti, R

    1992-09-01

    The ESR is usually put in relationship: to the real density of the RBCs (erythrocytes) (difference between the RBC specific gravity and the plasma one), and to the resistance that the RBCs meet moving in a medium, which is due to the plasma viscosity and to the total external RBC surface. When the RBCs take shape of aggregates, their external surface is decreased and ESR increases. The most important plasma factor causing changes in ESR is the fibrinogen level followed by the plasma globulins and by the products arising from the tissue damage. The resistance that the RBCs meet moving in the plasma is well expressed by the measurement of the plasma-RBC viscosity considering that is inclusive of both factors that are the plasma viscosity and the external RBC surface. The plasma-RBC viscosity is the resultant of several factors: Fa = Fb - Fe - Fs - Fm, were: Fa is the resultant, Fb the attracting forces due to the proteic macromolecules, Fe the repulsing forces due the negative charges. Fs the repulsing forces due to the shear-stress, Fm the force which opposes itself against the surface tension of the aggregation; it depends on the RBC morphology and on the RBC rigidity. The ESR has been recently used like an index of the RBC aggregation. The Authors study the relationship between several hemorheological parameters and the ESR in infective and inflammatory processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Online shear viscosity measurement of starchy melts enriched in wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Robin, Frédéric; Bovet, Nicolas; Pineau, Nicolas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Palzer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Addition of wheat bran to flours modifies their expansion properties after cooking extrusion. This can be attributed to changes in the melt shear viscosity at the die. The effect of wheat bran concentration added to achieve 2 levels of dietary fibers of 12. 6% and 24.4%, and process conditions on the shear viscosity of wheat flour was therefore assessed using an online twin-slit rheometer. The shear viscosity measured at 30 s⁻¹ ranged from 9.5 × 10³ to 53.4 × 10³ Pa s. Regardless of the process conditions and bran concentration, the extruded melts showed a pseudoplastic behavior with a power law index n ranging from 0.05 to 0.27. Increasing the barrel temperature of the extruder from 120 to 180 °C, the water content from 18% to 22% or the screw speed from 400 to 800 rpm significantly decreased the melt shear viscosity at the extruder exit. The addition of bran significantly increased the melt shear viscosity only at the highest bran concentration. The effect was process condition dependant. Mathematical interpretations, based upon observations, of the experimental data were carried out. They can be used to predict the effect of the process conditions on the melt shear viscosity at the die of extruded wheat flour with increasing bran concentration. The viscosity data will be applied in future works to study the expansion properties of extruded wheat flour supplemented with bran. Incorporation of wheat bran, a readily available and low cost by-product, in extruded puffed foods is constrained due to its negative effect on the product texture. Understanding the effect of wheat bran on rheological properties of extruded melts, driving the final product properties, is essential to provide solutions to the food industry and enhance its use. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Numerical viscosity and the entropy condition for conservative difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1983-01-01

    Consider a scalar, nonlinear conservative difference scheme satisfying the entropy condition. It is shown that difference schemes containing more numerical viscosity will necessarily converge to the unique, physically relevant weak solution of the approximated conservation equation. In particular, entropy satisfying convergence follows for E schemes - those containing more numerical viscosity than Godunov's scheme.

  8. Setting the pace of microswimmers: when increasing viscosity speeds up self-propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Jayant; Merchant, Laura; Krüger, Timm; Harting, Jens; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2017-05-01

    It has long been known that some microswimmers seem to swim counter-intuitively faster when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid is increased, whereas others slow down. This conflicting dependence of the swimming velocity on the viscosity is poorly understood theoretically. Here we explain that any mechanical microswimmer with an elastic degree of freedom in a simple Newtonian fluid can exhibit both kinds of response to an increase in the fluid viscosity for different viscosity ranges, if the driving is weak. The velocity response is controlled by a single parameter Γ, the ratio of the relaxation time of the elastic component of the swimmer in the viscous fluid and the swimming stroke period. This defines two velocity-viscosity regimes, which we characterize using the bead-spring microswimmer model and analyzing the different forces acting on the parts of this swimmer. The analytical calculations are supported by lattice-Boltzmann simulations, which accurately reproduce the two velocity regimes for the predicted values of Γ.

  9. Intermolecular Interactions and the Viscosity of Highly Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Solutions.

    PubMed

    Binabaji, Elaheh; Ma, Junfen; Zydney, Andrew L

    2015-09-01

    The large increase in viscosity of highly concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions can be challenging for downstream processing, drug formulation, and delivery steps. The objective of this work was to examine the viscosity of highly concentrated solutions of a high purity IgG1 monoclonal antibody over a wide range of protein concentrations, solution pH, ionic strength, and in the presence / absence of different excipients. Experiments were performed with an IgG1 monoclonal antibody provided by Amgen. The steady-state viscosity was evaluated using a Rheometrics strain-controlled rotational rheometer with a concentric cylinder geometry. The viscosity data were well-described by the Mooney equation. The data were analyzed in terms of the antibody virial coefficients obtained from osmotic pressure data evaluated under the same conditions. The viscosity coefficient in the absence of excipients was well correlated with the third osmotic virial coefficient, which has a negative value (corresponding to short range attractive interactions) at the pH and ionic strength examined in this work. These results provide important insights into the effects of intermolecular protein-protein interactions on the behavior of highly concentrated antibody solutions.

  10. Measurement of Viscosity of Reacting Vinyl-Ester Resins Using Direct-Current Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY ___ ^:5T",g?"r/:"/:^SS^ fö’^^;^>.^.^^^^M^^^^^; Measurement of Viscosity of Reacting Vinyl-Ester Resins Using Direct...under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is sensors mounted as roving threads (SMARTweave), a patented sensor system that...in viscosity characterizes the initial stages of chain polymerization reaction. The point at which viscosity tends toward infinity is gelation and is

  11. Aqueous Viscosity Is the Primary Source of Friction in Lipidic Pore Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ryham, Rolf; Berezovik, Irina; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2011-01-01

    A new theory, to our knowledge, is developed that describes the dynamics of a lipidic pore in a liposome. The equations of the theory capture the experimentally observed three-stage functional form of pore radius over time—stage 1, rapid pore enlargement; stage 2, slow pore shrinkage; and stage 3, rapid pore closure. They also show that lipid flow is kinetically limited by the values of both membrane and aqueous viscosity; therefore, pore evolution is affected by both viscosities. The theory predicts that for a giant liposome, tens of microns in radius, water viscosity dominates over the effects of membrane viscosity. The edge tension of a lipidic pore is calculated by using the theory to quantitatively account for pore kinetics in stage 3, rapid pore closing. This value of edge tension agrees with the value as standardly calculated from the stage of slow pore closure, stage 2. For small, submicron liposomes, membrane viscosity affects pore kinetics, but only if the viscosity of the aqueous solution is comparable to that of distilled water. A first-principle fluid-mechanics calculation of the friction due to aqueous viscosity is in excellent agreement with the friction obtained by applying the new theory to data of previously published experimental results. PMID:22208191

  12. Eddy Viscosity for Variable Density Coflowing Streams,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EDDY CURRENTS, *JET MIXING FLOW, *VISCOSITY, *AIR FLOW, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW, AXISYMMETRIC FLOW, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, THRUST AUGMENTATION , EJECTORS , COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, SECONDARY FLOW, DENSITY, MODIFICATION.

  13. Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment - Abstract of Issues 9907W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F.; Freire, F. G.

    1999-11-01

    Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment simulates a series of viscosity experiments. Viscosity is an important subject in chemistry and chemical engineering. It is important when dealing with intermolecular forces in liquids and gases and it has enormous relevance in all technological aspects of equipment dealing with liquids or gases. Most university-level chemistry courses include viscosity to some extent. Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. The Ostwald viscometer simulator and the balance simulator allow the student to find out how composition and temperature influence the density and viscosity of an ethanol-water mixture. The falling-ball viscometer simulator allows the student to determine experimentally the size and density of the ball required to measure viscosity of various liquids. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own. Preparation is not essential. Students can use the program unsupervised, thus saving staff time and allowing flexibility in students' time. The design of the program interface plays a key role in the success of a simulated experiment. Direct manipulation has greater intuitive appeal than alternative interface forms such as menus and has been observed to provide performance and learning advantages (1). We tried to design an interface that is visually attractive, is user friendly with simple and intuitive navigation, and provides appropriate schematic animations to clarify the principles of the laboratory procedures. The opening screen presents the virtual experiments that can be selected. Clicking an icon takes the student to the appropriate section. Viscosity Measurement allows the student to concentrate on the

  14. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  15. Considerations of viscosity in the preliminaries to mammalian fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ronald H F; Coy, P; Gadea, J; Rath, D

    2011-03-01

    Migration of spermatozoa in the female genital tract will be strongly influenced by the viscosity of the fluids encountered, yet little systematic analysis has been given to such a consideration. This essay reviews the series of milieux confronting a fertilising sperm during its progression to the oviduct ampulla. Two groups are discussed, first those in which ejaculation is into the vagina, second those in which semen enters the uterus during a protracted mating. Viscous glycoprotein secretions that accumulate in the oviduct isthmus of both groups before ovulation are highlighted, as is the environment generated in the ampulla by the post-ovulatory suspension of oocyte(s), cumulus cells and spermatozoa; follicular and peritoneal fluids may also be present. The viscosity of all female tract fluids responds to cyclical variations in temperature, and these exist within the oviduct near the time of ovulation. Gradations in viscosity influence the pattern and strength of sperm flagellar activity and the rate of forward movement. Measurements of sperm motility are currently made in a physiological medium of constant viscosity and temperature, thereby overlooking changes in the female genital tract. A more sophisticated approach might reveal an adequate fertilising potential in a proportion of putatively poor semen samples.

  16. Mechanism of gas saturated oil viscosity anomaly near to phase transition point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, Baghir A.; Abbasov, Elkhan M.; Sisenbayeva, Marziya R.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents experimental studies of the phase behavior by the flash liberation test and of the viscosity of the live oil at different pressures. Unlike the typical studies at the pressure near the saturation pressure, the measurements were conducted at a relatively small pressure increment of 0.08-0.25 MPa. The viscosity anomaly was discovered experimentally near to the phase transition point in the range of the pressure levels P/Pb = 1-1.14 (Pb—bubble point pressure) and shows that it decreases about 70 times in comparison to the viscosity at the reservoir pressure. It was found that the bubble point pressure decreases significantly (up to 36%) with surfactant addition. Furthermore, the viscosity of the live oil at the surfactant concentration of 5 wt. % decreases almost 37 times in comparison to the viscosity at the reservoir pressure. The mechanism of observed effects was suggested based on the formation of the stable subcritical gas nuclei and associated slippage effect. The mechanism for the stabilization of the subcritical nuclei by the combined action of the surface and electrical forces, as well as the morphology of the formed nanobubbles, was considered. The model for determining the oil viscosity taking into account the slippage effect was suggested.

  17. Measuring the Viscosity of the Escherichia coli Plasma Membrane Using Molecular Rotors.

    PubMed

    Mika, Jacek T; Thompson, Alexander J; Dent, Michael R; Brooks, Nicholas J; Michiels, Jan; Hofkens, Johan; Kuimova, Marina K

    2016-10-04

    The viscosity is a highly important parameter within the cell membrane, affecting the diffusion of small molecules and, hence, controlling the rates of intracellular reactions. There is significant interest in the direct, quantitative assessment of membrane viscosity. Here we report the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the molecular rotor BODIPY C10 in the membranes of live Escherichia coli bacteria to permit direct quantification of the viscosity. Using this approach, we investigated the viscosity in live E. coli cells, spheroplasts, and liposomes made from E. coli membrane extracts. For live cells and spheroplasts, the viscosity was measured at both room temperature (23°C) and the E. coli growth temperature (37°C), while the membrane extract liposomes were studied over a range of measurement temperatures (5-40°C). At 37°C, we recorded a membrane viscosity in live E. coli cells of 950 cP, which is considerably higher than that previously observed in other live cell membranes (e.g., eukaryotic cells, membranes of Bacillus vegetative cells). Interestingly, this indicates that E. coli cells exhibit a high degree of lipid ordering within their liquid-phase plasma membranes. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of SEAWAT to select variable-density and viscosity problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Langevin, Christian D.; Thorne, Danny T.; Sukop, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS, designed to simulate three-dimensional, variable-density, saturated groundwater flow. The most recent version of the SEAWAT program, SEAWAT Version 4 (or SEAWAT_V4), supports equations of state for fluid density and viscosity. In SEAWAT_V4, fluid density can be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and optionally, fluid pressure. Fluid viscosity is calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and the program also includes additional functions for representing the dependence of fluid viscosity on temperature. This report documents testing of and experimentation with SEAWAT_V4 with six previously published problems that include various combinations of density-dependent flow due to temperature variations and/or concentration variations of one or more species. Some of the problems also include variations in viscosity that result from temperature differences in water and oil. Comparisons between the results of SEAWAT_V4 and other published results are generally consistent with one another, with minor differences considered acceptable.

  19. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  20. Mantle viscosity structure constrained by joint inversions of seismic velocities and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of Earth's deep mantle affects the thermal evolution of Earth, the ascent of mantle upwellings, sinking of subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the mixing of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle. Modeling the long-wavelength dynamic geoid allows us to constrain the radial viscosity profile of the mantle. Typically, in inversions for the mantle viscosity structure, wavespeed variations are mapped into density variations using a constant- or depth-dependent scaling factor. Here, we use a newly developed joint model of anisotropic Vs, Vp, density and transition zone topographies to generate a suite of solutions for the mantle viscosity structure directly from the seismologically constrained density structure. The density structure used to drive our forward models includes contributions from both thermal and compositional variations, including important contributions from compositionally dense material in the Large Low Velocity Provinces at the base of the mantle. These compositional variations have been neglected in the forward models used in most previous inversions and have the potential to significantly affect large-scale flow and thus the inferred viscosity structure. We use a transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian approach to solve the inverse problem, and our solutions for viscosity structure include an increase in viscosity below the base of the transition zone, in the shallow lower mantle. Using geoid dynamic response functions and an analysis of the correlation between the observed geoid and mantle structure, we demonstrate the underlying reason for this inference. Finally, we present a new family of solutions in which the data uncertainty is accounted for using covariance matrices associated with the mantle structure models.

  1. The influence of moderate-intensity physical effort on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aleksander-Szymanowicz, P; Marchewka, A; Dabrowski, Z; Teleglow, A; Bac, A; Glodzik, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a six-week aerobic training on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome. Fifteen men with Down syndrome (average age 22.4 years ± 0.91) with moderate or severe intellectual disability took part in the study. Patients underwent a training program three times a week for six weeks. Venous blood samples of 10 ml were collected from every examined patient, 24 hours before and after the exercise. The blood samples were submitted to hematological examination (hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) number, RBC indicators: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and number of macrocytes, polikilocytrometric examination of RBC and rheological blood examination (elongation index (EI), aggregation index (AI), syllectogram amplitude (AMP), aggregation half time (t1/2)) was made by LORCA. Amoderate six-week physical training performed on a cycloergometer resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the MCV value, hematocrit and plasma viscosity. The six-week cycloergometer training caused a statistically significant increase in the GSH level and erythrocyte pliability at a shear stress of 0.58 Pa.

  2. Modelling droplet collision outcomes for different substances and viscosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerfeld, Martin; Kuschel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is the derivation of models describing the outcome of binary droplet collisions for a wide range of dynamic viscosities in the well-known collision maps (i.e. normalised lateral droplet displacement at collision, called impact parameter, versus collision Weber number). Previous studies by Kuschel and Sommerfeld (Exp Fluids 54:1440, 2013) for different solution droplets having a range of solids contents and hence dynamic viscosities (here between 1 and 60 mPa s) revealed that the locations of the triple point (i.e. coincidence of bouncing, stretching separation and coalescence) and the critical Weber number (i.e. condition for the transition from coalescence to separation for head-on collisions) show a clear dependence on dynamic viscosity. In order to extend these findings also to pure liquids and to provide a broader data basis for modelling the viscosity effect, additional binary collision experiments were conducted for different alcohols (viscosity range 1.2-15.9 mPa s) and the FVA1 reference oil at different temperatures (viscosity range 3.0-28.2 mPa s). The droplet size for the series of alcohols was around 365 and 385 µm for the FVA1 reference oil, in each case with fixed diameter ratio at Δ= 1. The relative velocity between the droplets was varied in the range 0.5-3.5 m/s, yielding maximum Weber numbers of around 180. Individual binary droplet collisions with defined conditions were generated by two droplet chains each produced by vibrating orifice droplet generators. For recording droplet motion and the binary collision process with good spatial and temporal resolution high-speed shadow imaging was employed. The results for varied relative velocity and impact angle were assembled in impact parameter-Weber number maps. With increasing dynamic viscosity a characteristic displacement of the regimes for the different collision scenarios was also observed for pure liquids similar to that observed for solutions. This

  3. Viscosity of a Suspension with Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabeth, Lemaire; Laurent, Lobry; François, Peters

    2008-07-01

    When an insulating particle immersed into a low conducting liquid is submitted to a sufficiently high DC field, E, it can rotate spontaneously around itself along any axis perpendicular to the electric field. This symmetry break is known as Quincke rotation and could have important consequences on the rheology of such a suspension of particles (insulating particles dispersed in a slightly conducting liquid). Indeed, if the suspension is subject to a shear rate, and a DC electric field is applied in the velocity gradient direction, the spin rate of the particles is greater than in the absence of an E field, so that the macroscopic spin rate of the particles drives the suspending liquid and thus leads to a decrease of the apparent viscosity of the suspension. The purpose of this paper is to provide a relation between the apparent viscosity of the suspension, the spin rate of the particles and the E field intensity. The predictions of the model are compared to experimental data which have been obtained on a suspension of PMMA particles dispersed in a low polar dielectric liquid. The agreement between experiments and theory is rather good even if the model overestimates the viscosity decrease induced by the field.

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Hee-Sub; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 °C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  5. Fluorine and the viscosity of jadeite-leucite and nepheline-kalsilite melts at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, G.; Bruno, M.; Carty, O.; Smith, R. A.; Whittington, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    While fluorine has a lower abundance than H2O and CO2 in most magmatic and volcanic systems, F is as effective as water at reducing the viscosity of silica-rich melts. Previous studies have also shown that, just like water, the effect of F in reducing melt viscosity is strongest in the most highly polymerized melts. We measured the viscosity of fluorine-free and fluorine-bearing melts along the jadeite-leucite (Jd-Lct) and nepheline-kalsilite (Ne-Kls) joins of the NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-SiO2 system. All compositions studied are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and nominally fully polymerized (noting that non-bridging oxygen sites exist in metaluminous and peraluminous glasses, their proportion being a function of Al/Si ratio and cation charge). We test whether the effects of fluorine on viscosity have a dependence on Na/K or Al/Si ratios in these melts. In fluorine-free melts, the K-rich melts have the highest viscosity and T12 (temperature of the 1012 Pas isokom). The mixed-alkali effect results in a viscosity minimum at compositions with intermediate Na/K ratios. At 1200K, for the Na- end-member melts, the lowest Al/Si ratio melts (nepheline-kalsilite melts) have the highest viscosity. Available literature data and extrapolation of trends from our measurements suggest there is little difference in viscosity between the K- end-member melts at 1200K. At high temperatures, the jadeite-leucite melts generally have higher viscosities than the nepheline-kalsilite melts. Fluorine reduces the viscosity of all of the melts we studied, and, although it has been suggested that fluorine preferentially bonds with potassium over sodium, its effects on viscosity appears to be approximately independent of Na/K ratio in metaluminous melts. With increasing Al/Si ratio, more order is required to satisfy the aluminum avoidance principle, but this also does not seem to affect the magnitude of viscosity reduction due to the addition of fluorine, at least for melts with intermediate Na

  6. Individual lipid encapsulated microbubble radial oscillations: Effects of fluid viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Helfield, Brandon; Chen, Xucai; Qin, Bin; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-stimulated microbubble dynamics have been shown to be dependent on intrinsic bubble properties, including size and shell characteristics. The effect of the surrounding environment on microbubble response, however, has been less investigated. In particular, microbubble optimization studies are generally conducted in water/saline, characterized by a 1 cP viscosity, for application in the vasculature (i.e., 4 cP). In this study, ultra-high speed microscopy was employed to investigate fluid viscosity effects on phospholipid encapsulated microbubble oscillations at 1 MHz, using a single, eight-cycle pulse at peak negative pressures of 100 and 250 kPa. Microbubble oscillations were shown to be affected by fluid viscosity in a size- and pressure-dependent manner. In general, the oscillation amplitudes exhibited by microbubbles between 3 and 6 μm in 1 cP fluid were larger than in 4 cP fluid, reaching a maximum of 1.7-fold at 100 kPa for microbubbles 3.8 μm in diameter and 1.35-fold at 250 kPa for microbubbles 4.8 μm in diameter. Simulation results were in broad agreement at 250 kPa, however generally underestimated the effect of fluid viscosity at 100 kPa. This is the first experimental demonstration documenting the effects of surrounding fluid viscosity on microbubble oscillations, resulting in behavior not entirely predicted by current microbubble models. PMID:26827018

  7. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  8. Acoustic Experiment to Measure the Bulk Viscosity of Near-Critical Xenon in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, K. A.; Shinder, I.; Moldover, M. R.; Zimmerli, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    We plan a rigorous test of the theory of dynamic scaling by accurately measuring the bulk viscosity of xenon in microgravity 50 times closer to the critical temperature T(sub c) than previous experiments. The bulk viscosity zeta (or "second viscosity" or "dilational viscosity") will be determined by measuring the attenuation length of sound alpha lambda and also measuring the frequency-dependence of the speed of sound. For these measurements, we developed a unique Helmholtz resonator and specialized electro-acoustic transducers. We describe the resonator, the transducers, their performance on Earth, and their expected performance in microgravity.

  9. Effect of laser infrared therapy on several rheological indices of blood and on the homeostasis of patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volov, N. A.; Kudinova, M. A.; Fedulaeva, A. I.; Fedulaev, Yu. N.; Gordeev, I. G.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made on 38 patients affected by exertion angina pectoris of the I-III functional classes. The patients survived a Q-associated myocardial infarction not earlier than 1 year ago. The patients were treated according to a 10-session course of laser infrared therapy. The dynamics of several hemorheological indices (such as blood viscosity, the hematocrit of venous blood, fibrinogen, fibronectine, thrombocyte aggregation, antithrombin III, and the activated partial thrombplastin time) was estimated prior to the treatment, 5 - 7 days after the beginning of laser therapy, and 30 days after the beginning of laser therapy treatment. It was found that laser therapy was capable of producing a significant decrease in the blood viscosity, fibrinogen level, and in the aggregation of thrombocytes. Moreover, laser infrared therapy carried out on patients affected by post-infarction cardiosclerosis and by stable exertion stenocardia of the I-III functional classes produced a reliable normalization of hemorheological indices of the blood.

  10. Green-Kubo relations for the viscosity of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten

    1996-09-01

    We derive Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal. In this system there are seven shear viscosities, three twist viscosities, and three cross coupling coefficients between the antisymmetric strain rate and the symmetric traceless pressure tensor. According to the Onsager reciprocity relations these couplings are equal to the cross couplings between the symmetric traceless strain rate and the antisymmetric pressure. Our method is based on a comparison of the microscopic linear response generated by the SLLOD equations of motion for planar Couette flow (so named because of their close connection to the Doll's tensor Hamiltonian) and the macroscopic linear phenomenological relations between the pressure tensor and the strain rate. In order to obtain simple Green-Kubo relations we employ an equilibrium ensemble where the angular velocities of the directors are identically zero. This is achieved by adding constraint torques to the equations for the molecular angular accelerations. One finds that all the viscosity coefficients can be expressed as linear combinations of time correlation function integrals (TCFIs). This is much simpler compared to the expressions in the conventional canonical ensemble, where the viscosities are complicated rational functions of the TCFIs. The reason for this is, that in the constrained angular velocity ensemble, the thermodynamic forces are given external parameters whereas the thermodynamic fluxes are ensemble averages of phase functions. This is not the case in the canonical ensemble. The simplest way of obtaining numerical estimates of viscosity coefficients of a particular molecular model system is to evaluate these fluctuation relations by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  11. Effects of viscosity, taste, and bolus volume on swallowing apnea duration of normal adults.

    PubMed

    Butler, Susan G; Postma, Gregory N; Fischer, Eileen

    2004-12-01

    The effects of viscosity, taste, and nectar-thick liquid bolus volume on swallowing apnea duration (SAD) were examined. Twenty-two adults, comprised of 10 males and 12 females, participated. SAD was assessed via nasal airflow during swallow conditions of viscosity (thin liquid, thick liquid, and puree), taste (water, apple juice, lemon concentrate), and nectar-thick liquid bolus volumes (5, 10, 15, and 20 mL) across three trials. A significant main effect of nectar-thick liquid bolus volume was found (P < 0.05). Viscosity and taste were not significant. SAD increased with increases in bolus volume; however, neither changes in bolus viscosity nor changes in taste affected SAD. These findings indicate that since viscosity was not significant, the normative data previously published (by this PI) with 60 healthy adults stratified by age and gender can be utilized for comparison to disordered swallowing without regard to the bolus viscosity being used. D.

  12. On the self-preservation of turbulent jet flows with variable viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaila, Luminita; Gauding, Michael; Varea, Emilien; Turbulence; mixing Team

    2017-11-01

    The concept of self-preservation has played an important role in shaping the understanding of turbulent flows. The assumption of complete self-preservation imposes certain constrains on the dynamics of the flow, allowing to express one-point or two-point statistics by choosing an appropriate unique length scale. Determining this length scale and its scaling is of high relevance for modeling. In this work, we study turbulent jet flows with variable viscosity from the self-preservation perspective. Turbulent flows encountered in engineering and environmental applications are often characterized by fluctuations of viscosity resulting for instance from variations of temperature or species composition. Starting from the transport equation for the moments of the mixture fraction increment, constraints for self-preservation are derived. The analysis is based on direct numerical simulations of turbulent jet flows where the viscosity between host and jet fluid differs. It is shown that fluctuations of viscosity do not affect the decay exponents of the turbulent energy or the dissipation but modify the scaling of two-point statistics in the dissipative range. Moreover, the analysis reveals that complete self-preservation in turbulent flows with variable viscosity cannot be achieved. Financial support from Labex EMC3 and FEDER is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Deep and wide gaps by super Earths in low-viscosity discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2018-06-01

    Planets can open cavities (gaps) in the protoplanetary gaseous discs in which they are born by exerting gravitational torques. Viscosity counters these torques and limits the depletion of the gaps. We present a simple one-dimensional scheme to calculate the gas density profile inside gaps by balancing the gravitational and viscous torques. By generalizing the results of Goodman & Rafikov (2001), our scheme properly accounts for the propagation of angular momentum by density waves. This method allows us to easily study low-viscosity discs, which are challenging for full hydrodynamical simulations. We complement our numerical integration by analytical equations for the gap's steady-state depth and width as a function of the planet's to star's mass ratio μ, the gas disc's aspect ratio h, and its Shakura & Sunyaev viscosity parameter α. Specifically, we focus on low-mass planets (μ < μth ≡ h3) and identify a new low-viscosity regime, α < h(μ/μth)5, in which the classical analytical scaling relations are invalid. Equivalently, this low-viscosity regime applies to every gap that is depleted by more than a factor of (μth/μ)3 relative to the unperturbed density. We show that such gaps are significantly deeper and wider than previously thought, and consequently take a longer time to reach equilibrium.

  14. Viscosity negatively affects the nutritional value of blue lupin seeds for broilers.

    PubMed

    Konieczka, P; Smulikowska, S

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the impact of Lupinus angustifolius variety (C) and inclusion level (L) in broiler diets on the nutritional value, viscosity of ileal digesta and activity of gut microbiota. The experiment was conducted on 154 female 21-day-old broilers, allocated to 11 groups (kept individually). A reference lupin-free diet and 10 test diets containing one of five lupin seeds; Kadryl, Regent, Dalbor, Bojar and Tango, mixed with the reference diet at a ratio of 25 : 75 or 32 : 68 dry matter (DM) (low or high level of inclusion) were prepared. Diets were fed for 6 days, excreta were collected over last 4 days. Apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) of diets and AMEN of lupin seeds were calculated. Birds were sacrificed, ileal and caecal digesta were pooled by segments from two birds, and the activity of bacterial enzymes was determined. The ileal digesta viscosity was measured immediately (ileal viscosity immediate (IVI)) or after 6 days storage at -18°C (ileal viscosity frozen). AMEN of test diets were lower than the reference diet. Lupin AMEN values ranged from 6.04 MJ/kg DM for Regent at high level to 9.25 MJ/kg DM for Bojar at low level. High inclusion level numerically decreased AMEN value in all cultivars, except for Kadryl, for which it increased (significant C×L interaction). The IVI value was 2.6 mPa·s in the reference group, but ranged from 6.3 to 21.7 mPa·s in lupin-fed birds. It increased significantly with level for Regent, Dalbor and Tango but not for the other two cultivars (significant C×L interaction). There was a negative correlation between IVI and: apparent total tract N retention, fat digestibility from test diets, AMEN of diets and lupins. Ileal viscosity immediate was positively correlated with the activity of ileal α- and β-glucosidase and negatively with ileal α-galactosidase and caecal α-glucosidase. Ileal viscosity frozen ranged from 3.2 to 5 mPa·s and it was not correlated with lupins AMEN. This

  15. Viscosity of saturated R152a measured with a vibrating wire viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gulik, P. S.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier reported values of the viscosity coefficient of the refrigerant R152a (1,1-difluoroethane) have been recalculated with an improved value for the mechanical damping of the vibrating wire viscometer. The measurements were taken along the saturation line both in the saturated liquid and in the saturated vapor every 10 K from 243 up to 393 K by means of a vibrating wire viscometer The damping of the vibration of the wire is a measure for the viscosity provided that the mechanical damping is subtracted. The latter is usually measured in vacuum. It turns out that the damping value measured in this way depends on the vacuum pressure and on the way the wire has been handled before. It appeared that the damping applied previously, measured after 6 days of pumping, is too small, resulting in values of the viscosity coefficient which are too large. The effect on the data for the saturated-liquid viscosity is small, but the new saturated-vapor viscosity data agree much better with the unsaturated-vapor data reported by Takahashi et al.

  16. Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.

    2014-05-09

    One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound η/s=1/4π for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particlesmore » interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed η/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow.« less

  17. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Vold, Erik Lehman; Joglekar, Archis S.; Ortega, Mario I.; ...

    2015-11-20

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion(ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. In this paper, we have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasmaviscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasmaviscosity andmore » to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasmaviscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Finally, plasmaviscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.« less

  18. Estimation of shear viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    STAR Collaboration; Sharma, Monika; STAR Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    Event anisotropy measurements at RHIC suggest the strongly interacting matter created in heavy ion collisions flows with very little shear viscosity. Precise determination of “shear viscosity-to-entropy” ratio is currently a subject of extensive study [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302]. We present preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au+Au interactions at s=200 GeV. We compare two differential correlation functions, namely inclusive [J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 72 (2005) 044902] and a differential version of the correlation measure C˜ introduced by Gavin et al. [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302; M. Sharma and C. A. Pruneau, Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024905.]. These observables can be used for the experimental study of the shear viscosity per unit entropy.

  19. Viscosity Measurement via Drop Coalescence: A Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil; Ethridge, Edwin C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of using low gravity experimental data together with CFD simulations for measuring the viscosity of highly viscous liquids was recently validated on onboard the International Space Station (ISS). A series of microgravity tests were conducted for this purpose on the ISS in July, 2004 and in May of 2005. In these experiments two liquid drops were brought manually together until they touched and were allowed to coalesce under the action of the capillary force alone. The coalescence process was recorded photographically from which the contact radius speed of the merging drops was measured. The liquid viscosity was determined by fitting the measured data with accurate numerical simulation of the coalescence process. Several liquids were tested and for each liquid several drop diameters were employed. Experimental and numerical results will be presented in which the viscosity of several highly viscous liquids were determined using this technique.

  20. Predicting bifurcation angle effect on blood flow in the microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiho; Pak, Y Eugene; Lee, Tae-Rin

    2016-11-01

    Since blood viscosity is a basic parameter for understanding hemodynamics in human physiology, great amount of research has been done in order to accurately predict this highly non-Newtonian flow property. However, previous works lacked in consideration of hemodynamic changes induced by heterogeneous vessel networks. In this paper, the effect of bifurcation on hemodynamics in a microvasculature is quantitatively predicted. The flow resistance in a single bifurcation microvessel was calculated by combining a new simple mathematical model with 3-dimensional flow simulation for varying bifurcation angles under physiological flow conditions. Interestingly, the results indicate that flow resistance induced by vessel bifurcation holds a constant value of approximately 0.44 over the whole single bifurcation model below diameter of 60μm regardless of geometric parameters including bifurcation angle. Flow solutions computed from this new model showed substantial decrement in flow velocity relative to other mathematical models, which do not include vessel bifurcation effects, while pressure remained the same. Furthermore, when applying the bifurcation angle effect to the entire microvascular network, the simulation results gave better agreements with recent in vivo experimental measurements. This finding suggests a new paradigm in microvascular blood flow properties, that vessel bifurcation itself, regardless of its angle, holds considerable influence on blood viscosity, and this phenomenon will help to develop new predictive tools in microvascular research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Viscosities of implantable biomaterials in vocal fold augmentation surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Titze, I R

    1998-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration depends critically on the viscoelasticity of vocal fold tissues. For instance, phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the "ease" of phonation, has been shown to be directly related to the viscosity of the vibrating mucosa. Various implantable biomaterials have been used in vocal fold augmentation surgery, with implantation sites sometimes close to or inside the mucosa. Yet their viscosities or other mechanical properties are seldom known. This study attempts to provide data on viscosities of commonly used phonosurgical biomaterials. Using a parallel-plate rotational rheometer, oscillatory shear experiments were performed on implantable polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon or Polytef; Mentor Inc., Hingham, MA), collagen (Zyderm; Collagen Corp., Palo Alto, CA), glutaraldehyde crosslinked (GAX) collagen (Phonagel or Zyplast; Collagen Corp.), absorbable gelatin (Gelfoam; Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI), and human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Samples of human vocal fold mucosal tissues were also tested. Under sinusoidal oscillatory shear at 10 Hz and at 37 degrees C, the dynamic viscosity was 116 Pascal-seconds (Pa-s) for polytetrafluoroethylene, 21 Pa-s for gelatin, 8-13 Pa-s for the two types of collagen, 3 Pa-s for fat, and 1 to 3 Pa-s for vocal fold mucosa. Results extrapolated to 100 Hz also show similar differences among the biomaterials, but all values are an order of magnitude lower because of the typical inverse frequency relation (shear thinning effect) for polymeric and biologic materials. The data suggest that the use of fat for vocal fold augmentation may be more conducive to the "ease" of phonation because of its relatively low viscosity, which is closest to physiologic levels. This implication is probably the most relevant in predicting initial outcome of the postoperative voice before there is any significant assimilation (e.g., resorption and fibrosis) of the implanted biomaterial.

  2. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  3. Factors affecting the viscosity in high concentration solutions of different monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sandeep; Shire, Steven J; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2010-12-01

    The viscosity profiles of four different IgG(1) molecules were studied as a function of concentration at pH 6.0. At high concentrations, MAb-H and -A showed significantly higher viscosities as compared to MAb-G and -E. Zeta Potential (ξ) measurements showed that all the IgG(1) molecules carried a net positive charge at this pH. MAb-G showed the highest positive zeta potential followed by MAb-E, -H, and -A. A consistent interpretation of the impact of net charge on viscosity for these MAbs is not possible, suggesting that electroviscous effects cannot explain the differences in viscosity. Values of k(D) (dynamic light scattering) indicated that the intermolecular interactions were repulsive for MAb-E and -G; and attractive for MAb-H and -A. Solution storage modulus (G') in high concentration solutions was consistent with attractive intermolecular interactions for MAb-H and -A, and repulsive interactions for MAb-G and -E. Effect of salt addition on solution G' and k(D) indicated that the interactions were primarily electrostatic in nature. The concentration dependent viscosity data were analyzed using a modified Ross and Minton equation. The analysis explicitly differentiates between the effect of molecular shape, size, self-crowding, and electrostatic intermolecular interactions in governing high concentration viscosity behavior. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  4. Viscous Moment, Mechanism of Slow Slip, and Subduction Megathrust Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) represent transient slip velocities slower than earthquakes but faster than steady, average plate motion. SSEs repeating at the same location have characteristic slip magnitude and duration. Contrary to earthquakes, however, average slip relates to neither duration nor area. Variations in duration, slip, and slip rate can instead be tied to variations in effective viscosity, calculated from a viscous definition of moment. In this paradigm, the observation that deep slow slip events are slower and longer, implies a higher effective viscosity than in shallower, colder SSEs. Observed variations in effective viscosity and slip rate can be interpreted in terms of differences in driving stress and shear zone width, and likely arise in anastomosing shear zones containing a heterogeneous mixture of materials.

  5. Vortex lattices and defect-mediated viscosity reduction in active liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jorn

    2016-11-01

    Generic pattern-formation and viscosity-reduction mechanisms in active fluids are investigated using a generalized Navier-Stokes model that captures the experimentally observed bulk vortex dynamics in microbial suspensions. We present exact analytical solutions including stress-free vortex lattices and introduce a computational framework that allows the efficient treatment of previously intractable higher-order shear boundary conditions. Large-scale parameter scans identify the conditions for spontaneous flow symmetry breaking, defect-mediated low-viscosity phases and negative-viscosity states amenable to energy harvesting in confined suspensions. The theory uses only generic assumptions about the symmetries and long-wavelength structure of active stress tensors, suggesting that inviscid phases may be achievable in a broad class of non-equilibrium fluids by tuning confinement geometry and pattern scale selection.

  6. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  7. Intermonolayer Friction and Surface Shear Viscosity of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    den Otter, W. K.; Shkulipa, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model lipids, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For lipids with two identical tails, the surface shear viscosity rises rapidly with tail length, while the intermonolayer friction coefficient is less sensitive to the tail length. Interdigitation of lipid tails across the bilayer midsurface, as observed for lipids with two distinct tails, strongly enhances the intermonolayer friction coefficient, but hardly affects the surface shear viscosity. The simulation results are compared against the available experimental data. PMID:17468168

  8. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  9. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  10. Effect of pressure on viscosity of liquid Fe-alloys up to 16 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Nishida, K.; Sakamaki, T.; Shindo, S.; Funakoshi, K.

    2005-12-01

    Viscosity of liquid Fe-alloy is closely related to a convection behavior of the Earth's liquid outer core and also time scale of planetary core formation. In previous studies, viscosity of liquid Fe-S has been measured up to 7 GPa using X-ray radiography falling sphere method [Terasaki et al. 2001]. However, some technical problems, such as chemical reaction between the metal marker sphere and the Fe-alloy sample and insufficient image recording time for less viscous material, have been suggested. In this study, we have measured the viscosity of Fe-S and Fe-C liquids without those problems by using novel techniques combined with in situ X-ray radiography falling sphere method and extended the pressure range to 16 GPa. Falling sphere viscometry was carried out under high pressure and temperature using high speed CCD camera with 1500 ton Kawai-type multi-anvil device at BL04B1, SPring-8 in Japan. Starting compositions of Fe-alloy were Fe78S22 and Fe86C14 which correspond to near eutectic compositions at the experimental pressures. Viscosity marker sphere, which was made of Re or Pt, was coated by alumina in order to prevent the reaction between the sphere and the Fe-alloy sample. Falling sphere images were obtained with recording rate of 50 - 125 frame/second. Viscosity of liquid Fe-S was measured up to 16.1 GPa and 1763 K. Measured viscosity coefficients were in the range of 8.8 - 9.2 mPa-s which indicates that the activation volume of viscous flow is approximately a half of the previous estimations (1.5 cm3/mol). Viscosity of liquid Fe-C was measured up to 5 GPa and 1843 K. Viscosity coefficients are 4.7 - 4.9 mPa-s. Activation volume of Fe-C liquid is estimated to be 0.8 cm3/mol. This pressure dependence is consistent with the result of Lucas (1964) measured at ambient pressure. Consequently, viscosity of Fe-alloy liquids are likely to stay small in the Earth's interior and there is no large difference in viscosity coefficient and activation volume between Fe

  11. Can a grain size-dependent viscosity help yielding realistic seismic velocities of LLSVPs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierjott, J.; Cheng, K. W.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic studies show two antipodal regions of low shear velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), one beneath the Pacific and one beneath Africa. These regions, called Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs), are thought to be thermally and chemically distinct and thus have a different density and viscosity. Whereas there is some general consensus about the density of the LLSVPs the viscosity is still a very debated topic. So far, in numerical studies the viscosity is treated as either depth- and/or temperature- dependent but the potential grain size- dependence of the viscosity is neglected most of the time. In this study we use a self-consistent convection model which includes a grain size- dependent rheology based on the approach by Rozel et al. (2011) and Rozel (2012). Further, we consider a primordial layer and a time-dependent basalt production at the surface to dynamically form the present-day chemical heterogeneities, similar to earlier studies, e.g by Nakagawa & Tackley (2014). With this model we perform a parameter study which includes different densities and viscosities of the imposed primordial layer. We detect possible thermochemical piles based on different criterions, compute their average effective viscosity, density, rheology and grain size and investigate which detecting criterion yields the most realistic results. Our preliminary results show that a higher density and/or viscosity of the piles is needed to keep them at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Relatively to the ambient mantle grain size is high in the piles but due to the temperature at the CMB the viscosity is not remarkably different than the one of ordinary plumes. We observe that grain size is lower if the density of the LLSVP is lower than the one of our MORB material. In that case the average temperature of the LLSVP is also reduced. Interestingly, changing the reference viscosity is responsible for a change in the average viscosity of the LLSVP but not for a different average

  12. Factors affecting the viscosity of sodium hypochlorite and their effect on irrigant flow.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, F; Soler, T; Guivarch, M; Camps, J; Tassery, H; Cuisinier, F; Candoni, N

    2013-10-01

    To assess the influence of concentration, temperature and surfactant addition to a sodium hypochlorite solution on its dynamic viscosity and to calculate the corresponding Reynolds number to determine the corresponding flow regimen. The dynamic viscosity of the irrigant was assessed using a rotational viscometer. Sodium hypochlorite with concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 9.6% was tested at 37 and 22 °C. A wide range of concentrations of three different surfactants was mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite for viscosity measurements. The Reynolds number was calculated under each condition. Data were analysed using two-way anova. There was a significant influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration (P < 0.001) and temperature (P < 0.001) on dynamic viscosity: the latter significantly increased with sodium hypochlorite concentration and decreased with temperature. A significant influence of surfactant concentration on dynamic viscosity (P < 0.001) occurred, especially for high surfactant concentrations: 6.25% for benzalkonium chloride, 15% for Tween 80 and 6.25% for Triton X-100. Reynolds number values calculated for a given flow rate (0.14 mL s(-1)), and root canal diameter (sizes 45 and 70) clearly qualified the irrigant flow regimen as laminar. Dynamic viscosity increased with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant concentration but decreased with temperature. Under clinical conditions, all viscosities measured led to laminar flow. The transition between laminar and turbulent flow may be reached by modifying different parameters at the same time: increasing flow rate and temperature whilst decreasing irrigant viscosity by adding surfactants with a high value of critical micellar concentration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Particle size effects on viscosity of silver pastes: A manufacturer's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provance, J.; Allison, K.

    1983-01-01

    Particles from a variety of silver powders were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyses. Particle size distribution curves and volume population graphs were prepared for these silver powders and for glass powders with optimum, extra fine and coarse particle sizes. The viscosity at a given shear rate and slope of viscosity over a range of shear rates were determined for thick film pastes made with these powders. Because of particle anomalies and variations, the need for flexibility to achieve the best printing qualities for silver pastes was evident. It was established that print quality, dried and fired film density and optimum contact of silver particles with silicon, important for cell electrical output, could be achieved by adjusting the slope of viscosity that fell outside of the range, -0.550 to -0.650. This was accomplished through organic vehicle technology that permitted a change in the slope of viscosity, up or down, while maintaining a constant silver and total solids content.

  14. Recombinant Human DNase I Reduces the Viscosity of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shak, Steven; Capon, Daniel J.; Hellmiss, Renate; Marsters, Scot A.; Baker, Carrie L.

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.

  15. Recombinant human DNase I reduces the viscosity of cystic fibrosis sputum.

    PubMed

    Shak, S; Capon, D J; Hellmiss, R; Marsters, S A; Baker, C L

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.

  16. Penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations in a rotating tokamak plasma with neoclassical poloidal viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jialei; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wei, Lai

    2015-09-01

    The penetration of time-dependant resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is numerically studied by means of reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the neoclassical poloidal viscosity (NPV) damping. It is found that with the increase of the RMP growth rate, the scalings of penetration threshold on resistivity as well as viscosity are significantly weakened in both viscoresistive and resistive-inertial regimes. In the high neoclassical viscosity regime, the scalings on neoclassical viscosity ν n c are numerically obtained in the cases of different RMP growth rate and viscosity ν. In the low neoclassical viscosity regime, ν n c almost has no effect on penetration threshold, which is unlike ν. Moreover, the synergistic effect of both ν n c and ν on the threshold is discussed as well. Finally, the role of the NPV in the torque balance is analysed. It is shown that the NPV tends to restore the velocity profile in the vicinity of the rational surface.

  17. Reduced viscosity for flagella moving in a solution of long polymer chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2018-02-01

    The bacterial flagellum thickness is smaller than the radius of gyration of long polymer chain molecules. The flow velocity gradient over the length of polymer chains can be nonuniform and continuum models of polymeric liquids break in this limit. In this work, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study a rotating helical flagellum in a polymer solution and overcome this limitation. As the polymer size increases, the viscosity experienced by the flagellum asymptotically reduces to the solvent viscosity. The contribution of polymer molecules to the local viscosity in a solution of long polymer chains decreases with the inverse of polymer size to the power 1/2. The difference in viscosity experienced by the bacterial cell body and flagella can predict the nonmonotonic swimming speed of bacteria in polymer solutions.

  18. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z.; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC6(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics.

  19. Dynamic viscosity mapping of the oxidation of squalene aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Fitzgerald, Clare; Davidson, Nicholas M; Giorio, Chiara; Botchway, Stanley W; Ward, Andrew D; Kalberer, Markus; Pope, Francis D; Kuimova, Marina K

    2016-11-09

    Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging. We employ Fluorescent Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) in conjunction with viscosity sensitive probes termed molecular rotors, in order to image the changes in microviscosity in real time during oxidation with ozone and hydroxyl radicals, which are two key oxidising species in the troposphere. We also recorded the Raman spectra of the levitated particles to follow the reactivity during particle ozonolysis. The levitation of droplets was achieved via optical trapping that enabled simultaneous levitation and measurement via FLIM or Raman spectroscopy and allowed the true aerosol phase to be probed. Our data revealed a very significant increase in viscosity of the levitated squalene droplets upon ozonolysis, following their transformation from the liquid to solid phase that was not observable when the oxidation was carried out on coverslip mounted droplets. FLIM imaging with sub-micron spatial resolution also revealed spatial heterogeneity in the viscosity distribution of oxidised droplets. Overall, a combination of molecular rotors, FLIM and optical trapping is able to provide powerful insights into OA chemistry and the microscopic structure that enables the dynamic monitoring of microscopic viscosity in aerosol particles in their true phase.

  20. The dependence of efficiency of transmembrane molecular transfer using electroporation on medium viscosity.

    PubMed

    Sungailaitė, Sandra; Ruzgys, Paulius; Šatkauskienė, Ingrida; Čepurnienė, Karolina; Šatkauskas, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of drug and gene electrotransfer into cells in vitro depending on medium viscosity. Experiments were performed using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Efficiency of molecular electrotransfer depending of medium viscosity was evaluated using two different electroporation conditions: a high-voltage (HV) pulse and a combination of a high-voltage pulse and a low-voltage pulse (HV + LV). To evaluate the efficiency of molecular electrotransfer, anticancer drug bleomycin and two different plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein and luciferase were used. We found that a slight increase in medium viscosity from 1.3-1.4 mPa·s significantly decreased the transfection efficiency, both in terms of transfected cells and total protein production, which was abolished completely with an increase in medium viscosity to 6.1 mPa·s. Notably, at this medium viscosity, electrotransfer of the small anticancer drug was still efficient. Using HV and HV + LV pulse combinations, we showed that a decrease of DNA electrotransfer, especially at lower medium viscosities, can be compensated for by the LV pulse to some extent. On the other hand, the addition of the LV pulse after the HV pulse did not have any positive effect on the efficiency of bleomycin electrotransfer. These findings demonstrate that transfection is very susceptible to medium viscosity and highlights the importance of the electrophoretic component in experiments when a considerable transfection level is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Refractive index and viscosity: dual sensing with plastic fibre gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo; Bilro, Lúcia; Marques, Carlos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rogério

    2014-05-01

    A refractive index and viscosity sensor based on FBGs in mPOF is reported for the first time. The refractive index was measured with a sensitivity of -10:98nm=RIU and a resolution of 1 - 10-4RIU. Viscosity measurements were performed with acousto-optic modulation, obtaining a sensitivity of -94:42%=mPa • s and a resolution of 0:06mPa • s.

  2. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  3. The Impact of Blood Rheology on Drug Transport in Stented Arteries: Steady Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaratnam, Pujith R. S.; O’Brien, Caroline C.; Reizes, John A.; Barber, Tracie J.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods It is important to ensure that blood flow is modelled accurately in numerical studies of arteries featuring drug-eluting stents due to the significant proportion of drug transport from the stent into the arterial wall which is flow-mediated. Modelling blood is complicated, however, by variations in blood rheological behaviour between individuals, blood’s complex near-wall behaviour, and the large number of rheological models which have been proposed. In this study, a series of steady-state computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed in which the traditional Newtonian model was compared against a range of non-Newtonian models. The impact of these rheological models was elucidated through comparisons of haemodynamic flow details and drug transport behaviour at various blood flow rates. Results Recirculation lengths were found to reduce by as much as 24% with the inclusion of a non-Newtonian rheological model. Another model possessing the viscosity and density of blood plasma was also implemented to account for near-wall red blood cell losses and yielded recirculation length increases of up to 59%. However, the deviation from the average drug concentration in the tissue obtained with the Newtonian model was observed to be less than 5% in all cases except one. Despite the small sensitivity to the effects of viscosity variations, the spatial distribution of drug matter in the tissue was found to be significantly affected by rheological model selection. Conclusions/Significance These results may be used to guide blood rheological model selection in future numerical studies. The clinical significance of these results is that they convey that the magnitude of drug uptake in stent-based drug delivery is relatively insensitive to individual variations in blood rheology. Furthermore, the finding that flow separation regions formed downstream of the stent struts diminish drug uptake may be of interest to device designers. PMID:26066041

  4. Models for viscosity and shear localization in bubble-rich magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, Alessandro; Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Romano, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Bubble content influences magma rheology and, thus, styles of volcanic eruption. Increasing magma vesicularity affects the bulk viscosity of the bubble-melt suspension and has the potential to promote non-Newtonian behavior in the form of shear localization or brittle failure. Here, we present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. The starting materials are cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian synthesized to have variable vesicularity (ϕ = 0- 66%). The foamed cores were deformed isothermally (T = 750 °C) at atmospheric conditions using a high-temperature uniaxial press under constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5- 1 ×10-4 s-1) and to total strains of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods to establish a baseline for experiments on the vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, rising vesicle content produces a marked decrease in bulk viscosity that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log10 ⁡ηBulk =log10 ⁡η0 - 1.47[ ϕ / (1 - ϕ) ] 0.48. Our parameterization of the bubble-melt rheology is combined with Maxwell relaxation theory to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behavior (shear localization) in magmas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, and strain rate. For low degrees of strain (i.e. as in our study), the rheological properties of vesicular magmas under different flow types (pure vs. simple shear) are indistinguishable. For high strain or strain rates where simple and pure shear viscosity values may diverge, our model represents a maximum boundary condition. Vesicular magmas can behave as non-Newtonian fluids at lower strain rates than unvesiculated melts, thereby, promoting shear localization and (explosive or non-explosive) magma fragmentation. The extent of shear localization in magma influences outgassing efficiency

  5. Ion Viscosity Mediated by Tangled Magnetic Fields: An Application to Black Hole Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Prasad; Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas

    1996-01-01

    We examine the viscosity associated with the shear stress exerted by ions in the presence of a tangled magnetic field. As an application, we consider the effect of this mechanism on the structure of black hole accretion disks. We do not attempt to include a self-consistent description of the magnetic field. Instead, we assume the existence of a tangled field with coherence length lambda(sub coh), which is the average distance between the magnetic 'kinks' that scatter the particles. For simplicity, we assume that the field is self-similar, and take lambda(sub coh) to be a fixed fraction zeta of the local disk height H. Ion viscosity in the presence of magnetic fields is generally taken to be the cross-field viscosity, wherein the effective mean free path is the ion Larmor radius lambda(sub L), which is much less than the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path A(sub ii) in hot accretion disks. However, we arrive at a formulation for a 'hybrid' viscosity in which the tangled magnetic field acts as an intermediary in the transfer of momentum between different layers in the shear flow. The hybrid viscosity greatly exceeds the standard cross-field viscosity when (lambda/lambda(sub L)) much greater than (lambda(sub L)/lambda(sub ii)), where lambda = ((lambda(sub ii)(sup -1) + lambda(sub (coh)(sup -1))(sup -1) is the effective mean free path for the ions. This inequality is well satisfied in hot accretion disks, which suggests that the ions may play a much larger role in the momentum transfer process in the presence of magnetic fields than was previously thought. The effect of the hybrid viscosity on the structure of a steady-state, two-temperature, quasi-Keplerian accretion disk is analyzed. The hybrid viscosity is influenced by the degree to which the magnetic field is tangled (represented by zeta = lambda(sub coh)), and also by the relative accretion rate M/M(sub E), where M(sub E) = L(sub E)/c(sup 2) and L(sub E) is the Eddington luminosity. We find that ion viscosity in the

  6. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  7. Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.

  8. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational approach to estimating the effects of blood properties on changes in intra-stent flow.

    PubMed

    Benard, Nicolas; Perrault, Robert; Coisne, Damien

    2006-08-01

    In this study various blood rheological assumptions are numerically investigated for the hemodynamic properties of intra-stent flow. Non-newtonian blood properties have never been implemented in blood coronary stented flow investigation, although its effects appear essential for a correct estimation and distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the fluid on the internal vessel surface. Our numerical model is based on a full 3D stent mesh. Rigid wall and stationary inflow conditions are applied. Newtonian behavior, non-newtonian model based on Carreau-Yasuda relation and a characteristic newtonian value defined with flow representative parameters are introduced in this research. Non-newtonian flow generates an alteration of near wall viscosity norms compared to newtonian. Maximal WSS values are located in the center part of stent pattern structure and minimal values are focused on the proximal stent wire surface. A flow rate increase emphasizes fluid perturbations, and generates a WSS rise except for interstrut area. Nevertheless, a local quantitative analysis discloses an underestimation of WSS for modelisation using a newtonian blood flow, with clinical consequence of overestimate restenosis risk area. Characteristic viscosity introduction appears to present a useful option compared to rheological modelisation based on experimental data, with computer time gain and relevant results for quantitative and qualitative WSS determination.

  10. Adequacy of human milk viscosity to respond to infants with dysphagia: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Mariangela Bartha de Mattos; de ALMEIDA, João Aprígio Guerra; MOREIRA, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; NOVAK, Franz Reis

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal nutrition is an important subject in health in the short, medium and long term. In preterm newborns, nutrition assumes a predominant role for the child's overall development. Babies with uncoordinated swallowing or respiration may not have the necessary oral abilities to suck the mother's breast and will need to implement different feeding practices; one of them is changing the consistency of the milk offered. Objectives Determine viscosity variations of untreated human and pasteurized milk without and with thickening to adapt the diet to the needs of dysphagic infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Cara Unit (NICU). Material and Methods The authors altered the viscosity of natural infant powdered milk and, after thickening, determined and adopted a thickening standard for human milk. Untreated human and pasteurized milk was thickened in concentrations of 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% and the viscosity were determined every 20 minutes for a period of 60 minutes at a temperature of 37ºC. Results The infant lactose formula thickened at concentrations of 2% and 3% produced viscosities of 8.97cP and 27.73 cP, respectively. The increases were significantly different after 1 hour. Inversely, untreated human milk at 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% produced diminished viscosity over time; the changes were more accentuated in the first 20 minutes. In pasteurized human milk, the 2% concentration had no variation in viscosity, but with the 3%, 5% and 7% concentrations, there was a significant decrease in the first 20 minutes with stability observed in the subsequent times. Conclusion In powdered milk, the viscosity increases over time; the viscosity in human milk diminishes. The results point out the importance not only of considering the concentration of the thickener but also the time being administered after its addition to effectively treat dysphagic infants. PMID:22230987

  11. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.

  12. Application of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions as Test Fluids for In Vitro Evaluation of Potential Blood Damage in Blood Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Amanda R.; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E.; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Temperature-Dependency of Viscosity-Sensitive Fluorescent Molecular Rotors

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Sarah; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Haidekker, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular rotors are a group of environment-sensitive fluorescent probes whose quantum yield depends on the ability to form twisted intramolecular chargetransfer (TICT) states. TICT formation is dominantly governed by the solvent's microviscosity, but polarity and the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds play an additional role. The relationship between quantum yield ϕF and viscosity η is widely accepted as a power-law, ϕF = C · ηx. In this study, we isolated the direct influence of the temperature on the TICT formation rate by examining several molecular rotors in protic and aprotic solvents over a range of temperatures. Each solvent's viscosity was determined as a function of temperature and used in the above power-law to determine how the proportionality constant C varies with temperature. We found that the power-law relationship fully explains the variations of the measured steady-state intensity by temperature-induced variations of the solvent viscosity, and C can be assumed to be temperature-independent. The exponent x, however, was found to be significantly higher in aprotic solvents than in protic solvents. We conclude that the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds has a major influence on the relationship between viscosity and quantum yield. To use molecular rotors for the quantitative determination of viscosity or microviscosity, the exponent x needs to be determined for each dye-solvent combination. PMID:21947609

  14. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  15. Thermodynamic parameters of bonds in glassy materials from viscosity-temperature relationships.

    PubMed

    Ojovan, Michael I; Travis, Karl P; Hand, Russell J

    2007-10-17

    Doremus's model of viscosity assumes that viscous flow in amorphous materials is mediated by broken bonds (configurons). The resulting equation contains four coefficients, which are directly related to the entropies and enthalpies of formation and motion of the configurons. Thus by fitting this viscosity equation to experimental viscosity data these enthalpy and entropy terms can be obtained. The non-linear nature of the equation obtained means that the fitting process is non-trivial. A genetic algorithm based approach has been developed to fit the equation to experimental viscosity data for a number of glassy materials, including SiO 2 , GeO 2 , B 2 O 3 , anorthite, diopside, xNa 2 O-(1-x)SiO 2 , xPbO-(1-x)SiO 2 , soda-lime-silica glasses, salol, and α-phenyl-o-cresol. Excellent fits of the equation to the viscosity data were obtained over the entire temperature range. The fitting parameters were used to quantitatively determine the enthalpies and entropies of formation and motion of configurons in the analysed systems and the activation energies for flow at high and low temperatures as well as fragility ratios using the Doremus criterion for fragility. A direct anti-correlation between fragility ratio and configuron percolation threshold, which determines the glass transition temperature in the analysed materials, was found.

  16. The tribological behaviour of different clearance MOM hip joints with lubricants of physiological viscosities.

    PubMed

    Hu, X Q; Wood, R J K; Taylor, A; Tuke, M A

    2011-11-01

    Clearance is one of the most influential parameters on the tribological performance of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints and its selection is a subject of considerable debate. The objective of this paper is to study the lubrication behaviour of different clearances for MOM hip joints within the range of human physiological and pathological fluid viscosities. The frictional torques developed by MOM hip joints with a 50 mm diameter were measured for both virgin surfaces and during a wear simulator test. Joints were manufactured with three different diametral clearances: 20, 100, and 200 microm. The fluid used for the friction measurements which contained different ratios of 25 percent newborn calf serum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with the obtained viscosities values ranging from 0.001 to 0.71 Pa s. The obtained results indicate that the frictional torque for the 20 microm clearance joint remains high over the whole range of the viscosity values. The frictional torque of the 100 microm clearance joint was low for the very low viscosity (0.001 Pa s) lubricant, but increased with increasing viscosity value. The frictional torque of the 200 microm clearance joint was high at very low viscosity levels, however, it reduced with increasing viscosity. It is concluded that a smaller clearance level can enhance the formation of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film, but this is at the cost of preventing fluid recovery between the bearing surfaces during the unloaded phase of walking. Larger clearance bearings allow a better recovery of lubricant during the unloaded phase, which is necessary for higher viscosity lubricants. The selection of the clearance value should therefore consider both the formation of the EHL film and the fluid recovery as a function of the physiological viscosity in order to get an optimal tribological performance for MOM hip joints. The application of either 25 per cent bovine serum or water in existing in vitro tribological study should

  17. Predicting the glass transition temperature and viscosity of secondary organic material using molecular composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong DeRieux, Wing-Sy; Li, Ying; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Bertram, Allan K.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a large fraction of submicron particles in the atmosphere. SOA can occur in amorphous solid or semi-solid phase states depending on chemical composition, relative humidity (RH), and temperature. The phase transition between amorphous solid and semi-solid states occurs at the glass transition temperature (Tg). We have recently developed a method to estimate Tg of pure compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (CHO compounds) with molar mass less than 450 g mol-1 based on their molar mass and atomic O : C ratio. In this study, we refine and extend this method for CH and CHO compounds with molar mass up to ˜ 1100 g mol-1 using the number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. We predict viscosity from the Tg-scaled Arrhenius plot of fragility (viscosity vs. Tg/T) as a function of the fragility parameter D. We compiled D values of organic compounds from the literature and found that D approaches a lower limit of ˜ 10 (±1.7) as the molar mass increases. We estimated the viscosity of α-pinene and isoprene SOA as a function of RH by accounting for the hygroscopic growth of SOA and applying the Gordon-Taylor mixing rule, reproducing previously published experimental measurements very well. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate impacts of Tg, D, the hygroscopicity parameter (κ), and the Gordon-Taylor constant on viscosity predictions. The viscosity of toluene SOA was predicted using the elemental composition obtained by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), resulting in a good agreement with the measured viscosity. We also estimated the viscosity of biomass burning particles using the chemical composition measured by HRMS with two different ionization techniques: electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Due to differences in detected organic compounds and signal intensity, predicted viscosities at low RH based on ESI and APPI measurements differ by 2-5 orders

  18. Variational approach to the volume viscosity of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.

    2006-04-01

    The variational principle of Hamilton is applied to develop an analytical formulation to describe the volume viscosity in fluids. The procedure described here differs from those used in the past in that a dissipative process is represented by the chemical affinity and progress variable (sometimes called "order parameter") of a reacting species. These state variables appear in the variational integral in two places: first, in the expression for the internal energy, and second, in a subsidiary condition accounting for the conservation of the reacting species. As a result of the variational procedure, two dissipative terms appear in the Navier-Stokes equation. The first is the traditional volume viscosity term, proportional to the dilatational component of velocity; the second term is proportional to the material time derivative of the pressure gradient. Values of the respective volume viscosity coefficients are determined by applying the resulting volume-viscous Navier-Stokes equation to the case of acoustical propagation and then comparing expressions for the dispersion and absorption of sound. The formulation includes the special case of equilibration of the translational degrees of freedom. As examples, values are tabulated for dry and humid air, argon, and sea water.

  19. Electro-optical properties of low viscosity driven holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K. R.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Relative diffraction efficiency (RDE), operating voltage, and response times are most important performance characteristics of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC). Two types of triallyl isocyanurate (TI) having different structures were incorporated into the conventional transmission grating of HPDLC. Premix viscosity decreased by 13-18% with up to 3% TI, beyond which it increased. TI eliminated induction period and augmented initial grating formation rate at all contents. Saturation RDE increased over 200% while threshold voltage and rise time decreased to about half and 2/3, respectively up to 3% TI, beyond which the tendencies were reversed. Among the two TIs, low viscosity monomer (TA) showed high RDE, while high miscibility monomer (TE) low characteristic voltages and short response times. It is concluded that grating formation is largely favored by low viscosity, while interface tensions and electro-optical performances by miscibility at similar viscosities.

  20. Viscosity of a multichannel one-dimensional Fermi gas

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DeGottardi, Wade; Matveev, K. A.

    Many one-dimensional systems of experimental interest possess multiple bands arising from shallow confining potentials. In this paper, we study a gas of weakly interacting fermions and show that the bulk viscosity is dramatically altered by the occupation of more than one band. The reasons for this are twofold: a multichannel system is more easily displaced from equilibrium and the associated relaxation processes lead to more rapid equilibration than in the single channel case. We estimate the bulk viscosity in terms of the underlying microscopic interactions. The experimental relevance of this physics is discussed in the context of quantum wires andmore » trapped cold atomic gases.« less

  1. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and stability of nanofluids obtained by dispersing Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol have been analyzed at several concentrations up to 25% in mass fraction. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally determined at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 323.15 K using an apparatus based on the hot-wire method and a rotational viscometer, respectively. It has been found that both thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the concentration of nanoparticles, whereas when the temperature increases the viscosity diminishes and the thermal conductivity rises. Measured enhancements on thermal conductivity (up to 19%) compare well with literature values when available. New viscosity experimental data yield values more than twice larger than the base fluid. The influence of particle size on viscosity has been also studied, finding large differences that must be taken into account for any practical application. These experimental results were compared with some theoretical models, as those of Maxwell-Hamilton and Crosser for thermal conductivity and Krieger and Dougherty for viscosity. PMID:21711737

  2. Viscosity Measurements of "FeO"-SiO2 Slag in Equilibrium with Metallic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mao; Raghunath, Sreekanth; Zhao, Baojun

    2013-06-01

    The current study delivered the measurements of viscosities in the system "FeO"-SiO2 in equilibrium with metallic Fe in the composition range between 15 and 40 wt pct SiO2. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1473 K to 1773 K (1200 °C to 1500 °C) using a rotational spindle technique. An analysis of the quenched sample by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) after the viscosity measurement enables the composition and microstructure of the slag to be directly linked with the viscosity. The current results are compared with available literature data. The significant discrepancies of the viscosity measurements in this system have been clarified. The possible reasons affecting the accuracy of the viscosity measurement have been discussed. The activation energies derived from the experimental data have a sharp increase at about 33 wt pct SiO2, which corresponds to the composition of fayalite (Fe2SiO4). The modified quasi-chemical model was constructed in the system "FeO"-SiO2 to describe the current viscosity data.

  3. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastoriza-Gallego, María José; Lugo, Luis; Legido, José Luis; Piñeiro, Manuel M.

    2011-12-01

    The dispersion and stability of nanofluids obtained by dispersing Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol have been analyzed at several concentrations up to 25% in mass fraction. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally determined at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 323.15 K using an apparatus based on the hot-wire method and a rotational viscometer, respectively. It has been found that both thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the concentration of nanoparticles, whereas when the temperature increases the viscosity diminishes and the thermal conductivity rises. Measured enhancements on thermal conductivity (up to 19%) compare well with literature values when available. New viscosity experimental data yield values more than twice larger than the base fluid. The influence of particle size on viscosity has been also studied, finding large differences that must be taken into account for any practical application. These experimental results were compared with some theoretical models, as those of Maxwell-Hamilton and Crosser for thermal conductivity and Krieger and Dougherty for viscosity.

  4. Investigation of the blood behaviour and vascular diseases by using mathematical physic principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Ahmet; Simsek, Buket

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we prepare a short survey for using of mathematical physic principles in blood flow and vascular diseases researches. The study of the behavior of blood flow in the blood vessels provides understanding on connection between flow and the development of dieseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, aneurysms etc. and how the flow dynamics is changed under these conditions. Blood flow phenomena are often too complex that it would be possible to describe them entirely analytically, although simple models, such as Poiseuille model, can still provide some insight into blood flow. Blood is not an "ideal fluid" and energy is lost as flowing blood overcomes resistance. Resistance to blood flow is a function of viscosity, vessel radius, and vessel length. So, mathematical Physic principles are useful tools for blood flow research studies. Blood flow is a function of pressure gradient and resistance and resistance to flow can be estimates using Poiseuille's law. Reynold's number can be used to determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent.

  5. A Low Viscosity Lunar Magma Ocean Forms a Stratified Anorthitic Flotation Crust With Mafic Poor and Rich Units: Lunar Magma Ocean Viscosity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dygert, Nick; Lin, Jung-Fu; Marshall, Edward W.

    Much of the lunar crust is monomineralic, comprising >98% plagioclase. The prevailing model argues the crust accumulated as plagioclase floated to the surface of a solidifying lunar magma ocean (LMO). Whether >98% pure anorthosites can form in a flotation scenario is debated. An important determinant of the efficiency of plagioclase fractionation is the viscosity of the LMO liquid, which was unconstrained. Here we present results from new experiments conducted on a late LMO-relevant ferrobasaltic melt. The liquid has an exceptionally low viscosity of 0.22more » $$+0.11\\atop{-0.19}$$to 1.45 $$+0.46\\atop{-0.82}$$ Pa s at experimental conditions (1,300–1,600°C; 0.1–4.4 GPa) and can be modeled by an Arrhenius relation. Extrapolating to LMO-relevant temperatures, our analysis suggests a low viscosity LMO would form a stratified flotation crust, with the oldest units containing a mafic component and with very pure younger units. Old, impure crust may have been buried by lower crustal diapirs of pure anorthosite in a serial magmatism scenario.« less

  6. A numerical study of blood flow using mixture theory

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Antaki, James F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the two dimensional flow of blood in a rectangular microfluidic channel. We use Mixture Theory to treat this problem as a two-component system: One component is the red blood cells (RBCs) modeled as a generalized Reiner–Rivlin type fluid, which considers the effects of volume fraction (hematocrit) and influence of shear rate upon viscosity. The other component, plasma, is assumed to behave as a linear viscous fluid. A CFD solver based on OpenFOAM® was developed and employed to simulate a specific problem, namely blood flow in a two dimensional micro-channel, is studied. Finally to better understand this two-component flow system and the effects of the different parameters, the equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed. PMID:24791016

  7. A numerical study of blood flow using mixture theory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Kim, Jeongho; Antaki, James F

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the two dimensional flow of blood in a rectangular microfluidic channel. We use Mixture Theory to treat this problem as a two-component system: One component is the red blood cells (RBCs) modeled as a generalized Reiner-Rivlin type fluid, which considers the effects of volume fraction (hematocrit) and influence of shear rate upon viscosity. The other component, plasma, is assumed to behave as a linear viscous fluid. A CFD solver based on OpenFOAM ® was developed and employed to simulate a specific problem, namely blood flow in a two dimensional micro-channel, is studied. Finally to better understand this two-component flow system and the effects of the different parameters, the equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed.

  8. Brattleboro Rats as the Model of Blood Hyperviscosity Syndrome for Testing Substances with Hemorheological Activity.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, M B; Vasil'ev, A S; Aliev, O I; Zibareva, L N

    2015-09-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome was described in Brattleboro rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of Brattleboro rats using, as a test system for the study of agents with hemorheological activity. Under conditions of this model of high blood viscosity syndrome in Brattleboro rats, Lychnis chalcedonica L. extract (150 mg/kg) administered intragastrically for 10 days exhibited hemorheological activity by modulating macro- (plasma viscosity, fibrinogen concentration) and microrheological (erythrocyte aggregation and deformability parameters. Hence, Brattleboro rats are an adequate model of hyperviscosity syndrome that can be used for search and testing of substances with hemorheological activity.

  9. Numerical simulation of miscible viscous fingering with viscosity change in a displacing fluid by chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Keiichiro; Nagatsu, Yuichiro

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering (VF) with viscosity changes by chemical reactions in case of miscible systems have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically in the recent years. Nagatsu et al. investigated experimentally miscible VF in which viscosity of the displaced fluid or the displacing one is changed by fast chemical reaction They showed that VF was more dense by the viscosity increase whereas less dense by the viscosity increase regardless of whether the viscosity change occurs in the displaced fluid or displacing one. From a theoretical viewpoint, numerical simulation performed on the reactive VF where viscosity of the displaced fluid is changed by instantaneously fast chemical reaction. The results had a good agreement with those in the corresponding experiment. In this work, we have conducted numerical simulation on such reactive VF where viscosity of the displacing fluid is changed. We have found the results have a good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.

  10. Conformations of gelatin in trivalent chromium salt solutions: Viscosity and dynamic light scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Congde; Zhang, Jianlong; Kong, Aiqun

    2017-02-01

    An investigation of the influences of pH, salt type, and salt concentration on the conformations of gelatin molecules in trivalent chromium salt solutions was performed by viscosity and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. It was found that the viscosity behaviors as polyelectrolytes or polyampholytes depended on the charge distribution on the gelatin chains, which can be tuned by the value of pH of the gelatin solution. The intrinsic viscosity of gelatin in basic chromium sulfate aqueous solution at pH = 2.0 first decreased and then increased with increasing Cr(OH)SO4 concentration, while a monotonic decrease of the intrinsic viscosity of gelatin was observed in CrCl3 solution. However, the intrinsic viscosity of gelatin at pH = 5.0 was found to be increased first and then decreased with an increase in salt concentration in Cr(OH)SO4 solution, as well as in CrCl3 solution. We suggested that the observed viscosity behavior of gelatin in trivalent chromium salt solutions was attributed to the comprehensive effects of shielding, overcharging, and crosslinking (complexation) caused by the introduction of the different counterions. In addition, the average hydrodynamic radius ( R h ) of gelatin molecules in various salt solutions was determined by DLS. It was found that the change trend of R h with salt concentration was the same as the change of intrinsic viscosity. Based on the results of the viscosity and DLS, a possible mechanism for the conformational transition of gelatin chains with external conditions including pH, salt concentration, and salt type is proposed.

  11. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  12. Development of a miniaturized optical viscosity sensor with an optical surface tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, H.; Nagamachi, R.; Taguchi, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.

    2010-02-01

    A new viscosity sensor enabling non-contact measurement at high speed, with less sample volume and high stability is required in a broad field. For example, in the industrial field, process control by real time monitoring of viscosity can enhance the quality of coating films and the process yield such as conductive films and optical films. Therefore, we have developed a new miniaturized optical viscosity sensor, namely MOVS (Miniaturized Optical Viscosity Sensor), based on a laser-induced capillary wave (LiCW) method which can meet the requirements above. In the MOVS, viscosity is estimated by observing the damping oscillation of LiCW, which is generated by an interference of two excitation laser beams on a liquid surface. By irradiating a probing laser on LiCW, a first order diffracted beam containing information of sample viscosity, is generated. The intensity of the reflected beam is utilized to control the distance between liquid-level and the sensor. The newly integrated optical surface tracking system makes possible the stable viscosity measurement in the presence of disturbance such as evaporation and external vibration. MOVS consists of five U-grooves fabricated by MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) process to possess the optical fibers (photonic crystal fibers and fusion-spliced lensed fibers). In this study, by integrating the optical surface tracking system on the chip, nanosecond order damping oscillation of LiCW is successfully observed in the presence of external forced vibration, high speed evaporation (speed of 1 micrometer per second) and drying process of a liquid film (thickness of hundreds micrometer order).

  13. Artificial viscosity in Godunov-type schemes to cure the carbuncle phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, Alexander V.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a new approach for curing the carbuncle instability. The idea underlying the approach is to introduce some dissipation in the form of right-hand sides of the Navier-Stokes equations into the basic method of solving Euler equations; in so doing, we replace the molecular viscosity coefficient by the artificial viscosity coefficient and calculate heat conductivity assuming that the Prandtl number is constant. For the artificial viscosity coefficient we have chosen a formula that is consistent with the von Neumann and Richtmyer artificial viscosity, but has its specific features (extension to multidimensional simulations, introduction of a threshold compression intensity that restricts additional dissipation to the shock layer only). The coefficients and the expression for the characteristic mesh size in this formula are chosen from a large number of Quirk-type problem computations. The new cure for the carbuncle flaw has been tested on first-order schemes (Godunov, Roe, HLLC and AUSM+ schemes) as applied to one- and two-dimensional simulations on smooth structured grids. Its efficiency has been demonstrated on several well-known test problems.

  14. Evaluation of canine red blood cell quality after processing with an automated cell salvage device.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Nina; Windberger, Ursula; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Tichy, Alexander; Eberspächer, Eva

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the properties of RBC concentrate harvested after processing fresh whole blood units from healthy dogs with an automated cell salvage device. Prospective, in vitro, experimental study. University teaching hospital. Sixteen healthy, privately owned dogs of various breeds. Fresh canine whole blood collected in bags with citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution was processed with an automated cell salvage device and analyzed in vitro. Laboratory values determined before (baseline, from a catheter sample) and after processing RBCs (procRBCs) included a complete blood count, selected blood chemistry analytes, erythrocyte osmotic resistance, whole blood viscosity, RBC aggregation, and RBC deformability. Total recovery of RBCs was 80% ± 12%. Hematocrit of the procRBCs yielded by the device was 77% ± 3.7% (mean ± standard deviation). Gross morphology of the RBCs remained unchanged. The mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte osmotic resistance, RBC deformability, RBC aggregation, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase showed minor but statistically significant changes from baseline. No differences in the concentrations of free hemoglobin were observed. Whole blood viscosity was less in the procRBCs. Seventy-seven percent (mean) of the platelets were washed out, while a mean of 57% of the leukocytes remained in the procRBCs. Although processing canine blood with this automated cell salvage device leads to slight changes in some properties of RBCs, most of these changes are comparable to changes seen in human blood after processing. Present data indicate that the use of this cell salvage device does not induce changes in canine RBC concentrate that would preclude its use for transfusion. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  15. GIA models with composite rheology and 3D viscosity: effect on GRACE mass balance in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Whitehouse, Pippa; Schrama, Ernst

    2014-05-01

    Most Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models that have been used to correct GRACE data for the influence of GIA assume a radial stratification of viscosity in the Earth's mantle (1D viscosity). Seismic data in Antarctica indicate that there are large viscosity variations in the horizontal direction (3D viscosity). The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of 3D viscosity on GIA model output, and hence mass balance estimates in Antarctica. We use a GIA model with 3D viscosity and composite rheology in combination with ice loading histories ICE-5G and W12a. From comparisons with uplift and sea-level data in Fennoscandia and North America three preferred viscosity models are selected. For two of the 3D viscosity models the maximum gravity rate due to ICE-5G forcing is located over the Ronne-Filchner ice shelf. This is in contrast with the results obtained using a 1D model, in which the maximum gravity rate