Sample records for blood-sucking bug triatoma

  1. A repertoire of the dominant transcripts from the salivary glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma dimidiata, a vector of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Sakoda, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Triatoma (T.) dimidiata is a hematophagous Hemiptera and a main vector of Chagas disease. The saliva of this and other blood-sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. To describe the repertoire of potential bioactive salivary molecules from this insect, a number of randomly selected transcripts from the salivary gland cDNA library of T. dimidiata were sequenced and analyzed. This analysis showed that 77.5% of the isolated transcripts coded for putative secreted proteins, and 89.9% of these coded for variants of the lipocalin family proteins. The most abundant transcript was a homologue of procalin, the major allergen of T. protracta saliva, and contributed more than 50% of the transcripts coding for putative secreted proteins, suggesting that it may play an important role in the blood-feeding process. Other salivary transcripts encoding lipocalin family proteins had homology to triabin (a thrombin inhibitor), triafestin (an inhibitor of kallikrein–kinin system), pallidipin (an inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation) and others with unknown function. PMID:19900580

  2. A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: A blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, P.H.; Voigt, C.C.; Arnold, J.M.; Nagel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 ??l). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  3. An insight into the sialome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans, a vector of Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Andersen, John F.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Santana, Jaime M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is a hemiptera, vector of Chagas’ disease, that feeds exclusively on vertebrate blood in all life stages. Hematophagous insects’ salivary glands (SG) produce potent pharmacological compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anti-clotting, anti-platelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain a further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacological complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Also, salivary proteins were submitted to two dimentional gel (2D-gel) electrophoresis followed by MS analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 1,534 (SG) cDNA sequences, 645 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. Most salivary proteins described as lipocalins matched peptide sequences obtained from proteomic results. PMID:18207082

  4. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  5. Neurohormones implicated in the control of Malpighian tubule secretion in plant sucking Heteropterans: The stink bugs Acrosternum hilare and Nezara viridula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant sucking heteropteran bugs feed regularly on small amounts of K+rich plant material, in contrast to their hematophagous relatives which imbibe large volumes of Na+-rich blood. It was anticipated that this would be reflected in the endocrine control of MT secretion. To explore this, neuroendocri...

  6. Domestic animal hosts strongly influence human-feeding rates of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cecere, María C; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Gurevitz, Juan M; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E

    2014-01-01

    The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index), and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles) of 49 of 270 rural houses in northwestern Argentina. We developed an improved way of estimating the human-feeding rate of domestic T. infestans populations. We fitted generalized linear mixed-effects models to a global model with six explanatory variables (chicken blood index, dog blood index, bug stage, numbers of human residents, bug abundance, and maximum temperature during the night preceding bug catch) and three response variables (daily blood-feeding rate, human blood index, and daily human-feeding rate). Coefficients were estimated via multimodel inference with model averaging. Median blood-feeding intervals per late-stage bug were 4.1 days, with large variations among households. The main bloodmeal sources were humans (68%), chickens (22%), and dogs (9%). Blood-feeding rates decreased with increases in the chicken blood index. Both the human blood index and daily human-feeding rate decreased substantially with increasing proportions of chicken- or dog-fed bugs, or the presence of chickens indoors. Improved calculations estimated the mean daily human-feeding rate per late-stage bug at 0.231 (95% confidence interval, 0.157-0.305). Based on the changing availability of chickens in domiciles during spring-summer and the much larger infectivity of dogs compared with humans, we infer that the net effects of chickens in the presence of transmission-competent hosts may be more adequately described by zoopotentiation than by zooprophylaxis. Domestic animals in domiciles profoundly affect the host

  7. Domestic Animal Hosts Strongly Influence Human-Feeding Rates of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Cecere, María C.; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Fernández, María del Pilar; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index), and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. Methods A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles) of 49 of 270 rural houses in northwestern Argentina. We developed an improved way of estimating the human-feeding rate of domestic T. infestans populations. We fitted generalized linear mixed-effects models to a global model with six explanatory variables (chicken blood index, dog blood index, bug stage, numbers of human residents, bug abundance, and maximum temperature during the night preceding bug catch) and three response variables (daily blood-feeding rate, human blood index, and daily human-feeding rate). Coefficients were estimated via multimodel inference with model averaging. Findings Median blood-feeding intervals per late-stage bug were 4.1 days, with large variations among households. The main bloodmeal sources were humans (68%), chickens (22%), and dogs (9%). Blood-feeding rates decreased with increases in the chicken blood index. Both the human blood index and daily human-feeding rate decreased substantially with increasing proportions of chicken- or dog-fed bugs, or the presence of chickens indoors. Improved calculations estimated the mean daily human-feeding rate per late-stage bug at 0.231 (95% confidence interval, 0.157–0.305). Conclusions and Significance Based on the changing availability of chickens in domiciles during spring-summer and the much larger infectivity of dogs compared with humans, we infer that the net effects of chickens in the presence of transmission-competent hosts may be more adequately described by zoopotentiation than by zooprophylaxis

  8. Molecular Individual-Based Approach on Triatoma brasiliensis: Inferences on Triatomine Foci, Trypanosoma cruzi Natural Infection Prevalence, Parasite Diversity and Feeding Sources

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Faucher, Leslie; Lavina, Morgane; Costa, Jane; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    We used an individual-based molecular multisource approach to assess the epidemiological importance of Triatoma brasiliensis collected in distinct sites and ecotopes in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. In the semi-arid zones of Brazil, this blood sucking bug is the most important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi—the parasite that causes Chagas disease. First, cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite markers were used for inferences on the genetic structure of five populations (108 bugs). Second, we determined the natural T. cruzi infection prevalence and parasite diversity in 126 bugs by amplifying a mini-exon gene from triatomine gut contents. Third, we identified the natural feeding sources of 60 T. brasiliensis by using the blood meal content via vertebrate cytb analysis. Demographic inferences based on cytb variation indicated expansion events in some sylvatic and domiciliary populations. Microsatellite results indicated gene flow between sylvatic and anthropic (domiciliary and peridomiciliary) populations, which threatens vector control efforts because sylvatic population are uncontrollable. A high natural T. cruzi infection prevalence (52–71%) and two parasite lineages were found for the sylvatic foci, in which 68% of bugs had fed on Kerodon rupestris (Rodentia: Caviidae), highlighting it as a potential reservoir. For peridomiciliary bugs, Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae) was the main mammal feeding source, which may reinforce previous concerns about the potential of this animal to link the sylvatic and domiciliary T. cruzi cycles. PMID:26891047

  9. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Countercurrent heat exchange and thermoregulation during blood-feeding in kissing bugs

    PubMed Central

    Lahondère, Chloé; Insausti, Teresita C; Belev, George; Pereira, Marcos H

    2017-01-01

    Blood-sucking insects experience thermal stress at each feeding event on endothermic vertebrates. We used thermography to examine how kissing-bugs Rhodnius prolixus actively protect themselves from overheating. During feeding, these bugs sequester and dissipate the excess heat in their heads while maintaining an abdominal temperature close to ambient. We employed a functional-morphological approach, combining histology, µCT and X-ray-synchrotron imaging to shed light on the way these insects manage the flow of heat across their bodies. The close alignment of the circulatory and ingestion systems, as well as other morphological characteristics, support the existence of a countercurrent heat exchanger in the head of R. prolixus, which decreases the temperature of the ingested blood before it reaches the abdomen. This kind of system has never been described before in the head of an insect. For the first time, we show that countercurrent heat exchange is associated to thermoregulation during blood-feeding. PMID:29157359

  11. The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

  12. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  13. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W.

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virusmore » in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.« less

  14. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  15. Sleeping habits affect access to host by Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Waleckx, Etienne; Pasos-Alquicira, Rafael; Ramírez-Sierra, María Jesús; Dumonteil, Eric

    2016-11-03

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted by blood-sucking bugs called triatomines. In the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, the main vector of T. cruzi is Triatoma dimidiata. While this species may colonize houses in other regions, it is mostly intrusive in Yucatán: it generally lives in sylvan and peridomestic areas, and frequently enters inside homes, likely attracted by potential vertebrate hosts, without establishing colonies. Bugs collected inside homes have a low nutritional status, suggesting that they cannot efficiently feed inside these houses. We hypothesized that this low nutritional status and limited colonization may be associated, at least in part, with the local practice in Mayan communities to sleep in hammocks instead of beds, as this sleeping habit could be an obstacle for triatomines to easily reach human hosts, particularly for nymphal instars which are unable to fly. We used an experimental chamber in which we placed a miniature bed in one side and a miniature hammock on the other side. After placing a mouse enclosed in a small cage on the bed and another one in the hammock as baits, T. dimidiata bugs were released in the chamber and their activity was video recorded during the night. T. dimidiata adults and nymphs were able to reach the mouse in bed significantly more often than the mouse in hammock (Binomial test, P < 0.0001). Moreover, females reached the mice twice as often as did males. Most of the adult bugs reached the mouse in bed by walking, while they reached the mouse in hammock by flying. Nymphs presented a host-seeking index ten times lower than adult bugs and were also able, on a few occasions (4/132 released bugs), to reach the mouse in hammock. We conclude that sleeping in hammocks, as done in rural Yucatán, makes human hosts less accessible to the bugs. This, combined with other factors (e.g. absence of domestic animals sleeping inside houses), may explain, at least in part, the low

  16. Direct molecular identification of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida from the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Maffey, L; Cardinal, M V; Ordóñez-Krasnowski, P C; Lanati, L A; Lauricella, M A; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida specimens collected in a well-defined rural area in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Microscopically-positive bugs were randomly selected with a multi-level sampling design, and DTUs were identified using direct PCR strategies. TcVI predominated in 61% of 69 T. infestans and in 56% of 9 T. sordida. TcV was the secondary DTU in T. infestans (16%) and was found in 1 T. sordida specimen (11%). Three T. sordida (33%) were found infected with TcI, a DTU also identified in local Didelphis albiventris opossums. Mixed DTU infections occurred rarely (5%) and were detected both directly from the bugs' rectal ampoule and parasite cultures. The identified DTUs and bug collection sites of T. infestans were significantly associated. Bugs infected with TcV were almost exclusively captured in domiciles whereas those with TcVI were found similarly in domiciles and peridomiciles. All mixed infections occurred in domiciles. TcV-infected bugs fed more often on humans than on dogs, whereas TcVI-infected bugs showed the reverse pattern. T. sordida is a probable sylvatic vector of TcI linked to D. albiventris, and could represent a secondary vector of TcVI and TcV in the domestic/peridomestic cycle.

  17. Special functions of valve organs of blood-sucking female mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boheum; Lee, Sangjoon

    2010-11-01

    Food-feeding insects usually have valve organs to regulate the sucking flow effectively. Female mosquitoes sucking lots of blood instantaneously have a unique valve system between two pumping organs located in their head. The valve system seems to prevent reverse flow and to grind granule particles such as red blood cells. To understand the functional characteristics of this valve organ in detail, the volumetric flow rate passing through the valves and their interaction with the two-pumps need to be investigated. However, it is very difficult to observe the dynamic behaviors of pumping organs and valve system. In this study, the dynamic motions of valve organs of blood-sucking female mosquitoes were observed under in vivo condition using synchrotron X-ray micro imaging technique. X-ray micro computed tomography was also employed to examine the three-dimensional internal structure of the blood pumping system including valve organs.

  18. Direct molecular identification of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida from the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    MAFFEY, L.; CARDINAL, M.V.; ORDÓÑEZ-KRASNOWSKI, P.C.; LANATI, L.A.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; SCHIJMAN, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida specimens collected in a well-defined rural area in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Microscopically-positive bugs were randomly selected with a multi-level sampling design, and DTUs were identified using direct PCR strategies. TcVI predominated in 61% of 69 T. infestans and in 56% of 9 T. sordida. TcV was the secondary DTU in T. infestans (16%) and was found in one T. sordida specimen (11%). Three T. sordida (33%) were found infected with TcI, a DTU also identified in local Didelphis albiventris opossums. Mixed DTU infections occurred rarely (5%) and were detected both directly from the bugs’ rectal ampoule and parasite cultures. The identified DTUs and bug collection sites of T. infestans were significantly associated. Bugs infected with TcV were almost exclusively captured in domiciles whereas those with TcVI were found similarly in domiciles and peridomiciles. All mixed infections occurred in domiciles. TcV-infected bugs fed more often on humans than on dogs, whereas TcVI-infected bugs showed the reverse pattern. T. sordida is a probable sylvatic vector of TcI linked to D. albiventris, and could represent a secondary vector of TcVI and TcV in the domestic/peridomestic cycle. PMID:23036510

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly for a non-model species, the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis, a vector of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Marchant, A; Mougel, F; Almeida, C; Jacquin-Joly, E; Costa, J; Harry, M

    2015-04-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) provides new research opportunities for work on non-model organisms, such as differential expression studies between populations exposed to different environmental conditions. However, such transcriptomic studies first require the production of a reference assembly. The choice of sampling procedure, sequencing strategy and assembly workflow is crucial. To develop a reliable reference transcriptome for Triatoma brasiliensis, the major Chagas disease vector in Northeastern Brazil, different de novo assembly protocols were generated using various datasets and software. Both 454 and Illumina sequencing technologies were applied on RNA extracted from antennae and mouthparts from single or pooled individuals. The 454 library yielded 278 Mb. Fifteen Illumina libraries were constructed and yielded nearly 360 million RNA-seq single reads and 46 million RNA-seq paired-end reads for nearly 45 Gb. For the 454 reads, we used three assemblers, Newbler, CAP3 and/or MIRA and for the Illumina reads, the Trinity assembler. Ten assembly workflows were compared using these programs separately or in combination. To compare the assemblies obtained, quantitative and qualitative criteria were used, including contig length, N50, contig number and the percentage of chimeric contigs. Completeness of the assemblies was estimated using the CEGMA pipeline. The best assembly (57,657 contigs, completeness of 80 %, <1 % chimeric contigs) was a hybrid assembly leading to recommend the use of (1) a single individual with large representation of biological tissues, (2) merging both long reads and short paired-end Illumina reads, (3) several assemblers in order to combine the specific advantages of each.

  20. Residual infestation and recolonization during urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Corentin M; Buttenheim, Alison M; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003-2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009-2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35-138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control.

  1. Where do these bugs come from? Phenotypic structure of Triatoma infestans populations after control interventions in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, María Sol; Provecho, Yael Mariana; Piccinali, Romina Valeria; Gürtler/, Ricardo Esteban

    2015-01-01

    House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses) of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs) Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles) were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region. PMID:25946158

  2. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  3. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-10-01

    In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or plastic

  4. Novel adipokinetic hormones in the kissing bugs Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma infestans, Dipetalogaster maxima and Panstrongylus megistus.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Simek, Petr; Clark, Kevin D; Gäde, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    Peptides of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) family were isolated and sequenced from the retrocerebral corpora cardiaca of four kissing bugs which are all vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi responsible for Chagas' disease. The sequence of three novel AKHs were deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data: the octapeptide pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Thr-Asp-Trp amide (denoted Rhopr-AKH) in Rhodnius prolixus and Panstrongylus megistus, the nonapeptide pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly amide (denoted Triin-AKH) in Triatoma infestans and the decapeptide pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Asp-Gly-Trp-Gly-Asn amide (denoted Dipma-AKH) in Dipetalogaster maxima. The sequences were confirmed by identical behavior of natural and synthetic forms in reversed-phase HPLC and by CID-MS mass spectra. Conspecific injections of a dose of 10 pmol of the respective synthetic peptides resulted in a small but significant increase of the lipid concentration in the hemolymph. These experiments suggest that AKHs in kissing bugs act to regulate lipid metabolism, possibly during dispersal flights which is one of the mechanisms whereby the insects reach new outbreak areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Dominic E.; Peñas, Pablo F.; Russell, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations. PMID:22232375

  6. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru1

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E. Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S. Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003–2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009–2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35–138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15–2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control. PMID:25423045

  7. Cholinesterase activity during embryonic development in the blood-feeding bug Triatoma patagonica.

    PubMed

    Visciarelli, E C; Chopa, C Sánchez; Picollo, M I; Ferrero, A A

    2011-09-01

    Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Chagas' disease, is widely distributed in Argentina and is found in sylvatic and peridomiciliary ecotopes, as well as occasionally in human dwellings after the chemical control of Triatoma infestans. Anti-cholinesteratic products can be applied in peridomiciliary areas and thus knowledge of cholinesterase activity during embryonic development in this species might contribute further information relevant to effective chemical control. Cholinesterase activity was characterized by reactions to eserine 10(-5) m, to increasing concentrations of substrate and to varying centrifugal speeds. Acetylcholinesterase activity was detected on day 4 and was significant from day 5. A reduction in cholinesterase activity towards acetylthiocholine (ATC) was observed on days 9 and 10 of development. Cholinesterase activity towards ATC and butyrylthiocholine (BTC) in homogenates of eggs was inhibited by eserine 10(-5) m. The shape of the curve indicating levels of inhibition at different concentrations of ATC was typical of acetylcholinesterase. Activity towards BTC did not appear to be inhibited by excess substrate, which parallels the behaviour of butyrylcholinesterases. Cholinesterase activity towards ATC was reduced in supernatant centrifuged at 15 000 g compared with supernatant centrifuged at 1100 g. The cholinesterase system that hydrolyzes mainly ATC seems to belong to the nervous system, as indicated by its behaviour towards the substrates assayed, its greater insolubility and the fact that it evolves parallel to the development of the nervous system. Knowledge of biochemical changes associated with the development and maturation of the nervous system during embryonic development would contribute to the better understanding of anti-cholinesteratic compounds with ovicidal action that might be used in control campaigns against vectors of Chagas' disease. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology

  8. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Estrozi, L.F.; Neumann, E.; Squires, G.

    The blood-sucking reduviid bug Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vector of American human trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is infected by the Triatoma virus (TrV). TrV has been classified as a member of the Cripavirus genus (type cricket paralysis virus) in the Dicistroviridae family. This work presents the three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of the TrV capsid at about 25 A resolution and its use as a template for phasing the available crystallographic data by the molecular replacement method. The main structural differences between the cryo-EM reconstruction of TrV and other two viruses, one from the same family, the cricketmore » paralysis virus (CrPV) and the human rhinovirus 16 from the Picornaviridae family are presented and discussed.« less

  9. "Sweeter than a rose", at least to Triatoma phyllosoma complex males (Triatominae: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    May-Concha, Irving J; Cruz-López, Leopoldo C; Rojas, Julio C; Ramsey, Janine M

    2018-02-17

    The Triatoma phyllosoma complex of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors (Triatominae: Reduviidae) is distributed in both Neotropical and Nearctic bioregions of Mexico. Volatile organic compounds emitted by disturbed Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma pallidipennis and Triatoma phyllosoma, and from their Brindley's and metasternal glands, were identified using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disturbed bugs and the metasternal glands from T. phyllosoma released or had significantly fewer compounds than T. longipennis and T. pallidipennis. Isobutyric acid was the most abundant compound secreted by disturbed bugs of the three species, while Brindley's glands of all species produced another four compounds: propanoic acid, isobutyric acid, pentyl butanoate, and 2-methyl hexanoic acid. Two novel compounds, both rose oxide isomers, were produced in MGs and released only by disturbed females of all three species, making this the first report in Triatominae of these monoterpenes. The principal compound in MGs of both sexes of T. longipennis and T. phyllosoma was 3-methyl-2-hexanone, while cis-rose oxide was the principal compound in T. pallidipennis females. The major components in male effluvia of T. pallidipennis were 2-decanol and 3-methyl-2-hexanone. Discriminant analysis of volatile organic compounds was significant, separating the three species and was consistent with morphological and genetic evidence for species distinctions within the complex.

  10. Body size and hosts of Triatoma infestans populations affect the size of bloodmeal contents and female fecundity in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María del Pilar; Cecere, María Carla; Cohen, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    Human sleeping quarters (domiciles) and chicken coops are key source habitats of Triatoma infestans—the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease—in rural communities in northern Argentina. Here we investigated the links among individual bug bloodmeal contents (BMC, mg), female fecundity, body length (L, mm), host blood sources and habitats. We tested whether L, habitat and host blood conferred relative fitness advantages using generalized linear mixed-effects models and a multimodel inference approach with model averaging. The data analyzed include 769 late-stage triatomines collected in 120 sites from six habitats in 87 houses in Figueroa, Santiago del Estero, during austral spring. L correlated positively with other body-size surrogates and was modified by habitat type, bug stage and recent feeding. Bugs from chicken coops were significantly larger than pig-corral and kitchen bugs. The best-fitting model of log BMC included habitat, a recent feeding, bug stage, log Lc (mean-centered log L) and all two-way interactions including log Lc. Human- and chicken-fed bugs had significantly larger BMC than bugs fed on other hosts whereas goat-fed bugs ranked last, in consistency with average blood-feeding rates. Fecundity was maximal in chicken-fed bugs from chicken coops, submaximal in human- and pig-fed bugs, and minimal in goat-fed bugs. This study is the first to reveal the allometric effects of body-size surrogates on BMC and female fecundity in a large set of triatomine populations occupying multiple habitats, and discloses the links between body size, microsite temperatures and various fitness components that affect the risks of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:29211791

  11. Body size and hosts of Triatoma infestans populations affect the size of bloodmeal contents and female fecundity in rural northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Cecere, María Carla; Cohen, Joel E

    2017-12-01

    Human sleeping quarters (domiciles) and chicken coops are key source habitats of Triatoma infestans-the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease-in rural communities in northern Argentina. Here we investigated the links among individual bug bloodmeal contents (BMC, mg), female fecundity, body length (L, mm), host blood sources and habitats. We tested whether L, habitat and host blood conferred relative fitness advantages using generalized linear mixed-effects models and a multimodel inference approach with model averaging. The data analyzed include 769 late-stage triatomines collected in 120 sites from six habitats in 87 houses in Figueroa, Santiago del Estero, during austral spring. L correlated positively with other body-size surrogates and was modified by habitat type, bug stage and recent feeding. Bugs from chicken coops were significantly larger than pig-corral and kitchen bugs. The best-fitting model of log BMC included habitat, a recent feeding, bug stage, log Lc (mean-centered log L) and all two-way interactions including log Lc. Human- and chicken-fed bugs had significantly larger BMC than bugs fed on other hosts whereas goat-fed bugs ranked last, in consistency with average blood-feeding rates. Fecundity was maximal in chicken-fed bugs from chicken coops, submaximal in human- and pig-fed bugs, and minimal in goat-fed bugs. This study is the first to reveal the allometric effects of body-size surrogates on BMC and female fecundity in a large set of triatomine populations occupying multiple habitats, and discloses the links between body size, microsite temperatures and various fitness components that affect the risks of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  12. Could the bug Triatoma sherlocki be vectoring Chagas disease in small mining communities in Bahia, Brazil?

    PubMed

    Almeida, C E; Folly-Ramos, E; Peterson, A T; Lima-Neiva, V; Gumiel, M; Duarte, R; Lima, M M; Locks, M; Beltrão, M; Costa, J

    2009-12-01

    Searches for Chagas disease vectors were performed at the type locality from which Triatoma sherlocki Papa et al. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) was described in the municipality of Gentio do Ouro, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and in a small artisan quarry-mining community approximately 13 km distant in a remote area of the same municipality. The latter site represents a new locality record for this species. Adults, nymphs and exuviae of T. sherlocki were found in 21% of human dwellings, indicating that the species is in the process of domiciliation. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in collected bugs was 10.8%. Simple predictive approaches based on environmental similarity were used to identify additional sites likely suitable for this species. The approach successfully predicted an additional five sites for the species in surrounding landscapes. Ecological and entomological indicators were combined to discuss whether this scenario likely represents an isolated case or an emerging public health problem.

  13. Hemi-nested PCR and RFLP methodologies for identifying blood meals of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mead, Daniel G; Pinto, Jesus; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Calderon, Maritza; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H; Cama, Vitaliano A

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by hematophagous reduviid bugs within the subfamily Triatominae. These vectors take blood meals from a wide range of hosts, and their feeding behaviors have been used to investigate the ecology and epidemiology of T. cruzi. In this study we describe two PCR-based methodologies that amplify a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA, aimed to improve the identification of blood meal sources for Triatoma infestans: a.--Sequence analyses of two heminested PCRs that allow the identification of mammalian and avian species, and b.--restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis from the mammalian PCR to identify and differentiate multi-host blood meals. Findings from both methodologies indicate that host DNA could be detected and the host species identified in samples from laboratory reared and field collected triatomines. The implications of this study are two-fold. First, these methods can be used in areas where the fauna diversity and feeding behavior of the triatomines are unknown. Secondly, the RFLP method led to the identification of multi-host DNA from T. infestans gut contents, enhancing the information provided by this assay. These tools are important contributions for ecological and epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases.

  14. Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, Mercedes M.N.; Seccacini, Emilia A.; Calcagno, Javier A.; Zerba, Eduardo N.

    2017-01-01

    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220.8 µg/insect. Using IR3535, topical application of 500 µg/insect killed no nymphs. The minimum concentration that produced repellency was the same for both compounds: 1,15 µg/cm2. The effect of a mixture DEET:IR3535 1:1 was similar to that of their pure components. Flushing out was assessed in a chamber with a shelter containing groups of ten nymphs. The repellents were aerosolized on the shelter and the number of insects leaving it was recorded for 60 min. During that time, 0.006 g/m3 of the positive control tetramethrin flushed out 76.7% of the nymphs, while 1.76 g/m3 of DEET or IR3535 flushed out 30 and 0%, respectively. The concentrations required for both compounds to produce toxicity or flushing out are too high to have any practical applications. However, they showed a promising repellency. Additional research should be done to evaluate their possible use for personal protection against T. infestans bites. PMID:28533956

  15. Key Source Habitats and Potential Dispersal of Triatoma infestans Populations in Northwestern Argentina: Implications for Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Cecere, María C.; Fernández, María del Pilar; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma infestans —the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease— defies elimination efforts in the Gran Chaco region. This study identifies the types of human-made or -used structures that are key sources of these bugs in the initial stages of house reinfestation after an insecticide spraying campaign. Methodology and Principal Findings We measured demographic and blood-feeding parameters at two geographic scales in 11 rural communities in Figueroa, northwest Argentina. Of 1,297 sites searched in spring, 279 (21.5%) were infested. Bug abundance per site and female fecundity differed significantly among habitat types (ecotopes) and were highly aggregated. Domiciles (human sleeping quarters) had maximum infestation prevalence (38.7%), human-feeding bugs and total egg production, with submaximal values for other demographic and blood-feeding attributes. Taken collectively peridomestic sites were three times more often infested than domiciles. Chicken coops had greater bug abundance, blood-feeding rates, engorgement status, and female fecundity than pig and goat corrals. The host-feeding patterns were spatially structured yet there was strong evidence of active dispersal of late-stage bugs between ecotopes. Two flight indices predicted that female fliers were more likely to originate from kitchens and domiciles, rejecting our initial hypothesis that goat and pig corrals would dominate. Conclusions and Significance Chicken coops and domiciles were key source habitats fueling rapid house reinfestation. Focusing control efforts on ecotopes with human-fed bugs (domiciles, storerooms, goat corrals) would neither eliminate the substantial contributions to bug population growth from kitchens, chicken coops, and pig corrals nor stop dispersal of adult female bugs from kitchens. Rather, comprehensive control of the linked network of ecotopes is required to prevent feeding on humans, bug population growth, and bug dispersal simultaneously. Our

  16. Evaluation of mature soybean pods as a food source for two pod-sucking bugs, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) and Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Mahbubur

    2017-01-01

    Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) cause injury to soybeans by piercing and sucking pods and seeds. Growers believe that new damage decreases near to harvest despite the occurrence of these bugs at that time. As this question has never been assessed, we evaluated two diets: a) mature soybean pods (dried shell + dried soybean seeds) and b) dried soybean seeds for the two bugs by assessing their biological, behavioral, and morphological attributes on each diet in laboratory. While nymphs of both species were able to develop and adults able to reproduce on the tested diets, bugs fed on pods had longer development times and 2.2 to 5.0 times higher mortality rates than bugs fed on seeds. Furthermore, adult longevity of R. pedestris and H. halys fed on pods was 8.4 and 7.5 days shorter, respectively, than that of bugs fed on seeds. However, pod feeding had no effect on adult fecundity or egg viability. In a behavioral choice test, adult R. pedestris preferred seeds over pods and probed seeds longer than pods. On average, adult H. halys also preferred seeds over pods, although 15.6% of H. halys showed the reverse, preferring pods over seeds. The proboscis length and estimated depth of stylet penetration into the host tissue of both nymphs and adults of both species was much greater than the thickness of the pod shell, suggesting that mouthpart structure does not explain the negative effects of pods vs. seeds. In conclusion, mature soybean pods were found to be a suitable food source for both R. pedestris and H. halys despite some negative effects, and thus careful attention should be paid to the population levels of these two bugs approaching harvest to reduce economic damage in soybean. PMID:28430798

  17. [Personal protection measures against blood-sucking insects and ticks].

    PubMed

    Orshan, Laor; Wilamowski, Amos; Pener, Hedva

    2010-09-01

    Blood-sucking arthropods are major vectors of various pathogens like viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes. Preventing exposure to the vector is imperative especially when vaccine and prophylactic treatments are not available. Personal protection measures (PPM) are essential and often the only means available when dealing with blood-sucking disease transmitting arthropods. Awareness of the risk in the specific areas of travel is the first step to be taken before and while traveling. PPM include preventive personal behavior, suitable clothing, application of insect repellents to the skin, the use of space repellents, impregnation of clothing, camping gear and bed nets and, when necessary, ground spraying of insecticides. The registered and recommended active ingredients for skin application are Deet, picaridin (icaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and IR3535. Volatile pyrethrins are used as space repellents while pyrethroids, especially permethrin, are employed for impregnation and for ground spraying. It is recommended to purchase only products registered in Israel or other developed countries. These products should have a detailed label specifying the concentration of the active ingredient, application instructions and the duration of protection.

  18. Substantial variation in the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation among blood-sucking lice of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3-4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice.

  19. Substantial Variation in the Extent of Mitochondrial Genome Fragmentation among Blood-Sucking Lice of Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3–4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice. PMID:23781098

  20. Blood constituents as phagostimulants for the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Schal, Coby

    2014-02-15

    Many hematophagous arthropods are stimulated by blood constituents to initiate feeding. We used a membrane-based feeding system to identify chemicals that stimulate acceptance and engorgement responses in various life stages of bed bugs. Water was fortified with a variety of compounds (e.g. salts, amino acids, vitamins, nucleotides, cholesterol and fatty acids) in these bioassays. ATP was the most effective phagostimulant in adults and nymphs, resulting in >70% of bed bugs fully engorging. Addition of NaCl to low ATP solutions that alone elicited <50% engorgement significantly enhanced feeding responses of bed bugs. A comparison of feeding responses with solutions of various adenine nucleotides showed that ATP was more stimulatory than ADP, which was more effective than AMP. Feeding assays with physiological levels of other blood constituents such as d-glucose, albumin, globulin, cholesterol and mixtures of vitamins and amino acids did not stimulate engorgement, suggesting that adenine nucleotides are the most important feeding stimulants in bed bugs. Identification of phagostimulants for bed bugs will contribute towards the development of artificial diets for rearing purposes, as well as for the development of alternative methods to eliminate bed bug infestations.

  1. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed Central

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  2. Examining Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in Eggs of Two Populations of the Chagas' Disease Vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I; Capriotti, N; Sierra, I; Santo-Orihuela, P L

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis transmitted to man by blood-sucking triatomine bugs found in the Americas. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is the main vector of Chagas' disease in Argentina. The control of this illness relies heavily on vector control through the use of insecticide. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments has been increasingly reported in T. infestans from Argentina and Bolivia. There are few reports on the expression and causes of resistance in eggs of resistant populations, and even fewer studies on insecticide resistance throughout embryonic development. In this study, we explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms potentially associated with the deltamethrin resistance assessed in the developing eggs of the Argentinean (Campo Largo) and Bolivian (Entre Ríos) T. infestans populations.We found measurable activity of monooxigenases and pyrethroid esterases throughout embryonic development. The pyrethroid esterase activity grew steadily throughout development in all the studied populations and was highest in eggs 12 d old. Mean enzyme activity increased from 13.6 to 16.3 and 22.2 picomol 7-hydroxycoumarin/min (7-OHC) in eggs of 4-, 7-, and 12 d old from the susceptible reference bug colony. Mean activity of resistant populations increased from 16.0 to 25.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in eggs of 4- to 12 d old in Entre Ríos population, and from 15.9 to 28.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in Campo Largo population. Molecular analysis of susceptible and resistant developing eggs detected L1014F mutation in both resistant populations, but no L925I mutation was found in any of the studied populations.Higher esterase activity and L1014F presence justify the resistance to pyrethroid throughout developing eggs of both studied T. infestans populations. The description of resistance profiles including resistance mechanisms involved will allow a rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas disease transmission

  3. Volatile compound diversity and conserved alarm behaviour in Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    May-Concha, Irving; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-02-06

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a key vector complex of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease, as it spans North, Central, and South America. Although morphological and genetic studies clearly indicate existence of at least five clades within the species, there has been no robust or systematic revision, or appropriate nomenclature change for species within the complex. Three of the clades (haplogroups) are distributed in Mexico, and recent evidence attests to dispersal of clades across previously "presumed" monotypic geographic regions. Evidence of niche conservatism among sister species of this complex suggests that geographic dispersal is possible for non-sympatric populations, although no information is available on the behavioural aspects of potential interclade interactions, for instance whether differentiation of chemical signaling or response to these signals could impede communication among the haplogroups. Volatiles emitted by disturbed bugs, Brindley's (BGs), and metasternal (MGs) glands were identified using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Volatile compounds emitted by BGs and MGs, and those secreted by disturbed nymphs and adults, of the three Mexican T. dimidiata haplogroups were tested for avoidance behaviour by conspecific nymphs and adults using an olfactometer. Triatoma dimidiata haplogroups all have three age-related alarm responses: absence of response by early stage nymphs, stage-specific response by 4-5th stage nymphs, and a shared 4-5th nymph and adult response to adult compounds. Disturbed bugs released 15 to 24 compounds depending on the haplogroup, among which were three pyrazines, the first report of these organoleptics in Triatominae. Isobutyric acid from BGs was the most abundant molecule in the response in all haplogroups, in addition to 15 (h1) to 21 (h2 and h3) MG compounds. Avoidance behaviour of disturbed bugs and volatiles emitted by BGs were haplogroup

  4. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  5. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Paredes-González, Edgar; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel Dante; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2012-08-01

    The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta) and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri), were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  6. Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Rosio; Bosseno, Marie-France; Depickère, Stéphanie; Waleckx, Etienne; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2016-04-18

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources. In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources. Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

  7. Ecological, Social and Biological Risk Factors for Continued Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission by Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Dulce M.; De Urioste-Stone, Sandra M.; Juárez, José G.; Pennington, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease transmission by Triatoma dimidiata persists in Guatemala and elsewhere in Central America under undefined ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) conditions. Methodology Eco-bio-social risk factors associated with persistent domiciliary infestation were identified by a cross-sectional survey and qualitative participatory methods. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated regarding Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs and triatomine hosts. Blood meal analysis and infection of insects, dogs and rodents were determined. Based on these data, multimodel inference was used to identify risk factors for domestic infestation with the greatest relative importance (>0.75). Principal Findings Blood meal analysis showed that 64% of 36 bugs fed on chickens, 50% on humans, 17% on dogs; 24% of 34 bugs fed on Rattus rattus and 21% on Mus musculus. Seroprevalence among 80 dogs was 37%. Eight (17%) of 46 M. musculus and three (43%) of seven R. rattus from households with infected triatomines were infected with T. cruzi Distinct Typing Unit I. Results from interviews and participatory meetings indicated that vector control personnel and some householders perceived chickens roosting and laying eggs in the house as bug infestation risk factors. House construction practices were seen as a risk factor for bug and rodent infestation, with rodents being perceived as a pest by study participants. Multimodel inference showed that house infestation risk factors of high relative importance are dog density, mouse presence, interior wall plaster condition, dirt floor, tile roofing and coffee tree presence. Conclusions/Significance Persistent house infestation is closely related to eco-bio-social factors that maintain productive T. dimidiata habitats associated with dogs, chickens and rodents. Triatomine, dog and rodent infections indicate active T. cruzi transmission. Integrated vector control methods should include actions that consider the role of

  8. Geographical Variation of Deltamethrin Susceptibility of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Argentina With Emphasis on a Resistant Focus in the Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fronza, G; Toloza, A C; Picollo, M I; Spillmann, C; Mougabure-Cueto, G A

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important parasitic infections in Latin America. The main vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi in America is Triatoma infestans, a blood-sucking triatomine bug who is widely distributed in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Control programs in endemic countries are focused in the elimination of triatomine vectors with pyrethroid insecticides. However, chemical control has failed in the Gran Chaco over the last two decades because of several factors. Previous studies have reported the evolution of different levels of resistance to deltamethrin in Tri. infestans Recently, very high resistance has been found in the central area of the Argentine Gran Chaco. However, the origin and the extension of this remarkably resistant focus remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographical variation of deltamethrin susceptibility of Tri. infestans in different endemic provinces of Argentina, with emphasis in the center of the Argentine Gran Chaco ecoregion where this main vector has not been reduced. Populations of Mendoza, San Juan, Santiago del Estero, and Tucumán provinces were all susceptible. Resistant populations were only detected in the province of Chaco, where a mosaic resistant focus was described at the Güemes Department. It was characterized into three pyrethroid resistance categories: susceptible, low, and highly resistant populations. We found the populations with the highest resistance levels to deltamethrin, with resistant ratios over 1000. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Host-feeding sources and habitats jointly affect wing developmental stability depending on sex in the major Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Del Pilar Fernández, María; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a slight and random departure from bilateral symmetry that is normally distributed around a 0 mean, has been widely used to infer developmental instability. We investigated whether habitats (ecotopes) and host-feeding sources influenced wing FA of the hematophagous bug Triatoma infestans. Because bug populations occupying distinct habitats differed substantially and consistently in various aspects such as feeding rates, engorgement status and the proportion of gravid females, we predicted that bugs from more open peridomestic habitats (i.e., goat corrals) were more likely to exhibit higher FA than bugs from domiciles. We examined patterns of asymmetry and the amount of wing size and shape FA in 196 adult T. infestans collected across a gradient of habitat suitability and stability that decreased from domiciles, storerooms, kitchens, chicken coops, pig corrals, to goat corrals in a well-defined area of Figueroa, northwestern Argentina. The bugs had unmixed blood meals on human, chicken, pig and goat depending on the bug collection ecotope. We documented the occurrence of FA in wing shape for bugs fed on all host-feeding sources and in all ecotopes except for females from domiciles or fed on humans. FA indices for wing shape differed significantly among host-feeding sources, ecotopes and sexes. The patterns of wing asymmetry in females from domiciles and from goat corrals were significantly different; differences in male FA were congruent with evidence showing that they had higher mobility than females across habitats. The host-feeding sources and habitats of T. infestans affected wing developmental stability depending on sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experience-dependent modulation of the attraction to faeces in the kissing bug Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N; Minoli, Sebastián A

    2017-04-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of the Chagas disease in Latin America. These nocturnal bugs spend most of the daylight hours aggregated with conspecifics inside crevices in roofs and walls. Around the entrances of the shelters T. infestans deposits faeces that contain chemical cues that attract conspecifics. In this work we investigated whether attraction to faeces can be modulated by experience in this insect species. First, we analyzed if the attraction of nymphs to faeces is innate or acquired through previous sensory experiences. Results show that after hatching, 1st instar nymphs are attracted to faeces even if they had never been in contact with them before, thus indicating that this attraction is innate. Second, we studied if attraction to faeces can be influenced by the presence of con-specifics. No differences were found in the attraction to faeces of nymphs released alone or in groups, suggesting that attraction to faeces is independent of the presence of other individuals. Third, we examined if the innate response to faeces of nymphs can be modulated by experience. After pre-exposing nymphs to faeces during 24h, insects were no longer attracted to faeces. Finally, by pairing the presence of faeces with an aversive mechanical disturbance, nymphs switched from attraction to avoidance of faeces. These results show that although faeces attraction has a strong innate component, it can be modulated by experience. The learning and memory capacities of triatomines have been studied only recently, and our work is the first report on the effects of experience in the aggregation context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Studies on the persistence of the infectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi. II. Persistence of infectivity of T. cruzi in dead bugs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Soares, V A; Marsden, P D

    1979-12-01

    Investigations into the viability time of T. cruzi in dead bugs experimentally infected with "Peru" strain showed a maximum of 9 days for Dipetalogaster maximus and 8 for Triatoma infestans maintained at ambient temperature (26 degrees C). On refrigeration survival was increased to 60 days. In routine xenodiagnosis in the refrigerator 90 day survival was noted of both T. cruzi and the vector bug.

  12. Determinants of the domiciliary density of Triatoma infestans, vector of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Rubel, D N; Schweigmann, N J

    1992-01-01

    In two heavily infested rural villages of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, where no indoor-spraying with residual insecticides had ever been carried out by official control services, we studied the influence of roof and wall structure, domestic use of insecticide, family size and the number of domestic dogs, on the domiciliary density of Triatoma infestans (Klug). Bug density was significantly associated with (1) the interaction between insecticide use and type of roof, (2) the structure of indoor walls, (3) the number of dogs sharing sleeping areas of people (room-mate dogs), and (4) the number of people plus room-mate dogs, but not with just the number of people resident in the house. The interaction between insecticide use and a roof made of 'simbol', a locally available grass (Pennisetum sp.), also reflected a younger age structure of domestic bug populations. In infested houses, the density of bugs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas was significantly correlated with overall bug density. Our data suggest that the application of environmental management measures by the affected people, such as plastering of walls and modification of roofs, coupled with keeping dogs away from bedrooms and application of insecticides, should limit the domestic population density of T. infestans and thus reduce the transmission of T. cruzi to people.

  13. Bacterial elicitation of transcriptional response of female squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major pest of squash, pumpkin, and other cucurbits throughout North America. A. tristis is a piercing/sucking feeder which causes extensive foliar wilting, fruit scarring, and in addition transmits plant pathogens. Current biological control agents ava...

  14. Habitat Management to Reduce Human Exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and Western Conenose Bugs (Triatoma protracta).

    PubMed

    Shender, Lisa; Niemela, Michael; Conrad, Patricia; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna

    2016-09-01

    Chagas disease, which manifests as cardiomyopathy and severe gastrointestinal dysfunction, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a vector-borne parasite. In California, the vector Triatoma protracta frequently colonizes woodrat (Neotoma spp.) lodges, but may also invade nearby residences, feeding upon humans and creating the dual risk of bite-induced anaphylaxis and T. cruzi transmission. Our research aimed to assess T. cruzi presence in woodrats in a previously unstudied northern California area, statistically evaluate woodrat microhabitat use with respect to vegetation parameters, and provide guidance for habitat modifications to mitigate public health risks associated with Tr. protracta exposure. Blood samples from big-eared woodrats (N. macrotis) trapped on rural private properties yielded a T. cruzi prevalence of 14.3%. Microhabitat analyses suggest that modifying vegetation to reduce understory density within a 40 meter radius of human residences might minimize woodrat lodge construction within this buffer area, potentially decreasing human exposure to Tr. protracta.

  15. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  16. The eco-epidemiology of Triatoma infestans in the temperate Monte Desert ecoregion of mid-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Provecho, Yael Mariana; Fernández, María del Pilar; Cardinal, Marta Victoria; Lencina, Patricia; Spillmann, Cynthia; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eco-epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the Monte Desert ecoregion of western Argentina is largely unknown. We investigated the environmental and socio-demographic determinants of house infestation with Triatoma infestans, bug abundance, vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and host-feeding sources in a well-defined rural area of Lavalle Department in the Mendoza province. METHODS Technical personnel inspected 198 houses for evidence of infestation with T. infestans, and the 76 houses included in the current study were re-inspected. In parallel with the vector survey, an environmental and socio-demographic survey was also conducted. Univariate risk factor analysis for domiciliary infestation was carried out using Firth penalised logistic regression. We fitted generalised linear models for house infestation and bug abundance. Blood meals were tested with a direct ELISA assay, and T. cruzi infection was determined using a hot-start polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle (kDNA-PCR). FINDINGS The households studied included an aged population living in precarious houses whose main economic activities included goat husbandry. T. infestans was found in 21.2% of 198 houses and in 55.3% of the 76 re-inspected houses. Peridomestic habitats exhibited higher infestation rates and bug abundances than did domiciles, and goat corrals showed high levels of infestation. The main host-feeding sources were goats. Vector infection was present in 10.2% of domiciles and 3.2% of peridomiciles. Generalised linear models showed that peridomestic infestation was positively and significantly associated with the presence of mud walls and the abundance of chickens and goats, and bug abundance increased with the number of all hosts except rabbits. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We highlight the relative importance of specific peridomestic structures (i.e., goat corrals and chicken coops) associated with construction materials and host abundance as

  17. Distribution and pathogenicity of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma guasayana from rural western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lauricella, Marta A; Stariolo, Raúl L; Riarte, Adelina R; Segura, Elsa L; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in peridomestic triatomines collected manually at a district-wide scale in rural villages around Olta, western Argentina, and typed the isolated strains according to their pathogenicity to laboratory mice. Of 1623 triatomines examined, only 14 (0.9%) were infected with T. cruzi based on microscopical examination of feces. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 0.8% in Triatoma infestans, 2.3% in T. guasayana, and nil in T. garciabesi, T. platensis, and T. eratyrusiformis. Local transmission occurred in kitchens, store-rooms and goat corrals or nearby, though at very low levels. T. cruzi was detected by at least one parasitological method in 11 (79%) of 14 microscope-positive bugs. Hemoculture was the most sensitive method (67%) followed by culture of organ homogenates, histopathology or xenodiagnosis of inoculated suckling mice (55-58%), and culture of microscope-positive bug feces (46%). The evidence suggests that most of the isolated T. cruzi strains would be myotropic type III. Our study establishes for the first time that peridomestic, microscope-positive T. guasayana nymphs were actually infected with T. cruzi, and may be implicated as a putative secondary vector of T. cruzi in domestic or peridomestic sites. PMID:16021298

  18. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes are present in both major clades of the blood-sucking lice (suborder Anoplura): evidence from two Hoplopleura rodent lice (family Hoplopleuridae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Song, Simon; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Yang, Qianqian; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2014-09-02

    The suborder Anoplura contains 540 species of blood-sucking lice that parasitize over 840 species of eutherian mammals. Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been found in the lice of humans, pigs, horses and rats from four families: Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Haematopinidae and Polyplacidae. These lice, eight species in total, are from the same major clade of the Anoplura. The mt genomes of these lice consist of 9-20 minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 1.5-4 kb in size and has 1-8 genes. To understand mt genome fragmentation in the other major clade of the Anoplura, we sequenced the mt genomes of two species of rodent lice in the genus Hoplopleura (family Hoplopleuridae). We identified 28 mt genes on 10 minichromosomes in the mouse louse, Ho. akanezumi; each minichromosome is 1.7-2.7 kb long and has 1-6 genes. We identified 34 mt genes on 11 minichromosomes in the rat louse, Ho. kitti; each minichromosome is 1.8-2.8 kb long and has 1-5 genes. Ho. akanezumi also has a chimeric minichromosome with parts of two rRNA genes and a full-length tRNA gene for tyrosine. These two rodent lice share the same pattern for the distribution of all of the protein-coding and rRNA genes but differ in tRNA gene content and gene arrangement in four minichromosomes. Like the four genera of blood-sucking lice that have been investigated in previous studies, the Hoplopleura species have four minichromosomes that are only found in this genus. Our results indicate that fragmented mt genomes were present in the most recent common ancestor of the two major clades of the blood-sucking lice, which lived ~75 million years ago. Intra-genus variation in the pattern of mt genome fragmentation is common in the blood-sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) and genus-specific minichromosomes are potential synapomorphies. Future studies should expand into more species, genera and families of blood-sucking lice to explore further the phylogenetic utility of the novel features associated with fragmented

  19. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  20. Genetic variability, phylogenetic relationships and gene flow in Triatoma infestans dark morphs from the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Piccinali, R. V.; Marcet, P. L.; Ceballos, L. A.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.; Dotson, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans outside the Andean Valleys of Bolivia prompted an evolutionary question about the putative ancestral area of origin and dispersal of the species, and an epidemiological question regarding the possible role of these sylvatic populations in the recolonization process of insecticide-treated houses. The finding of a population of sylvatic melanic T. infestans (dark morphs) in the Argentinean dry Chaco at 7 km from a peridomestic bug population of typical coloration gave us the opportunity to test both questions simultaneously by employing phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. For this purpose we analyzed sylvatic and peridomestic bugs using sequence-based mitochondrial and nuclear markers (mtCOI and ITS-1) and microsatellites. Sylvatic bugs were confirmed to be T. infestans and not hybrids, and showed high levels of genetic variability and departures from neutral expectations for mtCOI variation. New ITS-1 and mtCOI haplotypes were recorded, as well as haplotypes shared with peridomestic and/or domestic bugs from previous records. The peridomestic population was invariant for ITS-1 and mtCOI, but showed variability for microsatellites and signatures of a population bottleneck, probably due to a limited number of founders. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with the presence of ancestral haplotypes in sylvatic bugs. According to F-statistics and assignment methods there was a significant differentiation between sylvatic and peridomestic bugs and gene flow was low and asymmetric, with more bugs moving from the peridomicile to the sylvatic environment. These results support the hypothesis of the Chaco region as the area of origin of T. infestans, and a limited role of sylvatic melanic T. infestans in peridomestic infestation in the Argentinean Chaco. PMID:21352954

  1. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jennifer M.; Lai, James E.; Dotson, Ellen M.; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Ponce, Carlos; Norris, Douglas E.; Ben Beard, C.

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in Central America, is found in both domestic and peri-domestic habitats. Questions concerning population boundaries, infestation rates, insecticide resistance, and geographic dispersal of triatomine bugs persist and may be resolved using genetic markers such as microsatellites. Microsatellites are short tandem repeats found dispersed throughout a genome and can be useful for genotypic identification. We developed a plasmid library from the genomic DNA isolated from a single T. dimidiata adult collected in Guatamala. Ten thousand clones were screened using a probe consisting of nine microsatellite oligonucleotides. Eight loci appear polymorphic among populations found in Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic applications. PMID:12798021

  2. Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships. Results This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families. Conclusions The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events

  3. Peripheral venous vs. capillary microfilariaemia in a dog co-infected with Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis: A comparative approach using triatomine bugs for blood collection.

    PubMed

    Păstrav, Ioana Raluca; Ionică, Angela Monica; Peştean, Cosmin; Novakova, Eva; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2018-06-15

    Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are mosquito-borne nematodes, primarily infecting dogs, but also other species of carnivores and even humans. Given their impact on animal and human health, the transmission of these filarioids has been widely studied. The microfilariaemia has been shown to have a circadian variation for both Dirofilaria species infecting dogs. Due to methodological difficulties, the periodicity was only studied using venous blood samples, while the mosquitoes feed, in fact, on capillary blood. In this context, the present study aimed to test the feasibility of using triatomine bugs for the collection of capillary blood and to comparatively evaluate the level of microfilariaemia and its circadian variation in capillary blood vs. peripheral venous blood in a dog naturally co-infected with D. immitis and D. repens. The results showed a feeding success of 50%, with variations in the blood meal volume that the bugs ingested. The relative values of microfilariaemia (mf/bug) were strongly correlated with the volume of blood recovered: the more blood recovered from each bug, the higher values of microfilariaemia in the evening samples while the opposite results were obtained for the morning samples. The counting of microfilariae revealed a dominance of D. immitis in all the samples, but with significantly higher microfilariaemia in the venous blood. Meanwhile, for D. repens, the situation was opposite, with higher counts in the capillary blood samples. Our study showed that triatomine bugs can be used as a model for the collection and study of microfilariaemia in the capillary blood in mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new method for forensic DNA analysis of the blood meal in chagas disease vectors demonstrated using Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Feeding patterns of the vector are important in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite, Trypanasoma cruzi, which is transmitted by blood feeding insects. Historically, feeding behaviours of haematophagous insects have been investigated using serological reactions, which have detection limits in terms of both taxonomic resolution, and quantity and quality of the blood meal. They are labor intensive, require technical expertise, need fresh or frozen samples and antibodies often are either not available commercially or the resources for synthesis and purification are not available. We describe an assay to identify vertebrate blood meal sources, and the parasite T. cruzi using species-specific PCR assays from insect vectors and use the method to provide information regarding three questions: (1) Do domestic and peri-domestic (chicken coop and animal corral) habitats vary in the blood meals detected in the vectors? (2) What is the pattern of multiple blood meals? (3) Does the rate of T. cruzi infection vary among habitats and is it associated with specific blood meal types? Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction were evaluated for identification of the blood meal source in the heamatophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. We evaluate a technique to identify 11 potential vertebrate food sources from the complex mixture extracted from the vector's abdomen. We tested the assay on 81 T. infestans specimens collected from the Andean highlands in the department of Chuquisaca, located in central Bolivia, one of the regions in South America where sylvatic T. infestans have been reported. This area is suggested to be the geographic origin of T. infestans and has very high human infection rates that may be related to sylvatic vector populations. The results of the assays revealed that a high percentage of insects collected in human dwellings had fed on peri

  5. Factors limiting the domestic density of Triatoma infestans in north-west Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cecere, M C; Gürtler, R E; Chuit, R; Cohen, J E

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the environmental and demographic risk factors associated with the domestic infestation and density of Triatoma infestans in three heavily infested rural villages in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina. In a one-factor unadjusted analysis, the number of T. infestans captured per person-hour was associated significantly and negatively with the use of domestic insecticides by householders, type of thatch used in the roofs and the age of the house; and positively with the following: degree of cracking of the indoor walls and presence of hens nesting indoors. In one model, using multiple linear regression and a backward stepwise elimination procedure, most of the variation in the overall abundance of T. infestans was explained by insecticide use and the presence of hens nesting indoors; in another model using the same procedure it was explained by insecticide use, bug density in 1988 and previous spraying with deltamethrin in 1985. Variations in bug density per capture stratum (household goods, beds, walls and roof) were explained by the bug density in other strata and by one or two of the following risk factors: hens nesting indoors, type of roof, presence of cracks in the walls and number of people living in the house. Bug density might be locally controlled by the availability of refuges in the roofs and walls, by the presence of hens nesting indoors and by the use of domestic insecticides. Certain local materials, such as a grass known as simbol, could be successfully used in rural housing improvement programmes aimed at reducing the availability of refuges for insects in the roof.

  6. Panstrongylus geniculatus and four other species of triatomine bug involved in the Trypanosoma cruzi enzootic cycle: high risk factors for Chagas' disease transmission in the Metropolitan District of Caracas, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Segovia, Maikell; Londoño, Juan C; Ortegoza, Jaire; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Martínez, Clara E

    2014-12-23

    Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is autochthonous to the Americas. Its distribution depends on triatomine bugs that are responsible for the transmission of the disease. In 2005, we reported the presence of Panstrongylus geniculatus as a risk for Chagas' disease transmission in Caracas and neighboring areas. Three massive oral outbreaks occurred in the following years. Here we report the results of a 7-year study on triatomine species found in the Metropolitan District of Caracas (MDC), Venezuela. Triatomine species collected by inhabitants of Caracas during 7 years were analyzed for parasite infection and blood meal. Triatomines were found in 31 of the 32 parishes surveyed. Traitomines were examined for the presence of blood and parasites in the digestive tract. Molecular techniques were used for the typing of parasites. A total of 3551 triatomines were captured from 31 of the 32 parishes surveyed. The vast majority of these were identified as P. geniculatus (98.96%), followed by Triatoma nigromaculata (0.59%), Triatoma maculata (0.39%) and Rhodnius prolixus (0.06%). Triatomines were always most abundant between April and June, and 2010 showed the highest number. We found that 54% of the specimens were females, 42.5% males and 3.5% nymphs. Overall, 75.2% of the insects were naturally infected with T. cruzi and 48.7% had fed on blood. Analysis of the adult forms showed that 60% of the females and 31.9 % of the males had blood in their stomachs, and 77.5% of the females and 73.3% of the males were naturally infected with T. cruzi. Nearly all, 99.6% of the T. cruzi isolates analyzed belonged to the TcI genotype. Blood-fed triatomine bugs infected with T. cruzi were distributed throughout Caracas. Four different species of triatomines were identified of which P. geniculatus was by far the most predominant. Our previous report of Eratyrus mucronatus raises the number of triatomine species in the MDC to 5. Dramatic modifications to the

  7. Mariner transposons are sailing in the genome of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Filée, Jonathan; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Harry, Myriam; Hua-Van, Aurélie

    2015-12-15

    The Triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes the Chagas disease in Latin America. R. prolixus can also transfer transposable elements horizontally across a wide range of species. We have taken advantage of the availability of the 700 Mbp complete genome sequence of R. prolixus to study the dynamics of invasion and persistence of transposable elements in this species. Using both library-based and de novo methods of transposon detection, we found less than 6 % of transposable elements in the R. prolixus genome, a relatively low percentage compared to other insect genomes with a similar genome size. DNA transposons are surprisingly abundant and elements belonging to the mariner family are by far the most preponderant components of the mobile part of this genome with 11,015 mariner transposons that could be clustered in 89 groups (75 % of the mobilome). Our analysis allowed the detection of a new mariner clade in the R. prolixus genome, that we called nosferatis. We demonstrated that a large diversity of mariner elements invaded the genome and expanded successfully over time via three main processes. (i) several families experienced recent and massive expansion, for example an explosive burst of a single mariner family led to the generation of more than 8000 copies. These recent expansion events explain the unusual prevalence of mariner transposons in the R. prolixus genome. Other families expanded via older bursts of transposition demonstrating the long lasting permissibility of mariner transposons in the R. prolixus genome. (ii) Many non-autonomous families generated by internal deletions were also identified. Interestingly, two non autonomous families were generated by atypical recombinations (5' part replacement with 3' part). (iii) at least 10 cases of horizontal transfers were found, supporting the idea that host/vector relationships played a pivotal role in the transmission and subsequent persistence of transposable

  8. Feeding and defecation behavior of Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions, and its potential role as a vector of Chagas disease in Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Gregory, Teresa; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Hildebrand, John G

    2011-10-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine insects. This disease is endemic throughout Mexico and Central and South America, but only a few autochthonous cases have been reported in the United States, despite the fact that infected insects readily invade houses and feed on humans. Competent vectors defecate during or shortly after feeding so that infective feces contact the host. We thus studied the feeding and defecation behaviors of the prevalent species in southern Arizona, Triatoma rubida. We found that whereas defecation during feeding was frequent in females (93%), it was very rare in immature stages (3%), and absent in males. Furthermore, more than half of the immature insects that exhibited multiple feeding bouts (62%) defecated during interruptions of feeding, i.e., while likely on or near the host. These results indicate that T. rubida potentially could transmit T. cruzi to humans.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma sordida before and after community-wide residual insecticide spraying in the Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Macchiaverna, Natalia P; Gaspe, María S; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Tomassone, Laura; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cardinal, Marta V

    2015-03-01

    Triatoma sordida is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco and Cerrado eco-regions where it frequently infests peridomestic and domestic habitats. In a well-defined area of the humid Argentine Chaco, very few T. sordida were found infected when examined by optical microscopic examination (OM). In order to further assess the role of T. sordida and the relative magnitude of subpatent bug infections, we examined the insects for T. cruzi infection, parasite Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) and bloodmeal sources using various molecular techniques. Among 205 bugs with a negative or no OM-based diagnosis, the prevalence of infection determined by kDNA-PCR was nearly the same in bugs captured before (6.3%) and 4 months after insecticide spraying (6.4%). On average, these estimates were sixfold higher than the prevalence of infection based on OM (1.1%). Only TcI was identified, a DTU typically associated with opossums and rodents. Chickens and turkeys were the only bloodmeal sources identified in the infected specimens and the main local hosts at the bugs' capture sites. As birds are refractory to T. cruzi infection, further studies are needed to identify the infectious bloodmeal hosts. The persistent finding of infected T. sordida after community-wide insecticide spraying highlights the need of sustained vector surveillance to effectively prevent T. cruzi transmission in the domestic and peridomestic habitats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Factors limiting the domestic density of Triatoma infestans in north-west Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, M. C.; Gürtler, R. E.; Chuit, R.; Cohen, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the environmental and demographic risk factors associated with the domestic infestation and density of Triatoma infestans in three heavily infested rural villages in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina. In a one-factor unadjusted analysis, the number of T. infestans captured per person-hour was associated significantly and negatively with the use of domestic insecticides by householders, type of thatch used in the roofs and the age of the house; and positively with the following: degree of cracking of the indoor walls and presence of hens nesting indoors. In one model, using multiple linear regression and a backward stepwise elimination procedure, most of the variation in the overall abundance of T. infestans was explained by insecticide use and the presence of hens nesting indoors; in another model using the same procedure it was explained by insecticide use, bug density in 1988 and previous spraying with deltamethrin in 1985. Variations in bug density per capture stratum (household goods, beds, walls and roof) were explained by the bug density in other strata and by one or two of the following risk factors: hens nesting indoors, type of roof, presence of cracks in the walls and number of people living in the house. Bug density might be locally controlled by the availability of refuges in the roofs and walls, by the presence of hens nesting indoors and by the use of domestic insecticides. Certain local materials, such as a grass known as simbol, could be successfully used in rural housing improvement programmes aimed at reducing the availability of refuges for insects in the roof. PMID:9803588

  12. A New Method for Forensic DNA Analysis of the Blood Meal in Chagas Disease Vectors Demonstrated Using Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Background Feeding patterns of the vector are important in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite, Trypanasoma cruzi, which is transmitted by blood feeding insects. Historically, feeding behaviours of haematophagous insects have been investigated using serological reactions, which have detection limits in terms of both taxonomic resolution, and quantity and quality of the blood meal. They are labor intensive, require technical expertise, need fresh or frozen samples and antibodies often are either not available commercially or the resources for synthesis and purification are not available. We describe an assay to identify vertebrate blood meal sources, and the parasite T. cruzi using species-specific PCR assays from insect vectors and use the method to provide information regarding three questions: (1) Do domestic and peri-domestic (chicken coop and animal corral) habitats vary in the blood meals detected in the vectors? (2) What is the pattern of multiple blood meals? (3) Does the rate of T. cruzi infection vary among habitats and is it associated with specific blood meal types? Methodology/Principal Findings Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction were evaluated for identification of the blood meal source in the heamatophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. We evaluate a technique to identify 11 potential vertebrate food sources from the complex mixture extracted from the vector's abdomen. We tested the assay on 81 T. infestans specimens collected from the Andean highlands in the department of Chuquisaca, located in central Bolivia, one of the regions in South America where sylvatic T. infestans have been reported. This area is suggested to be the geographic origin of T. infestans and has very high human infection rates that may be related to sylvatic vector populations. Conclusion/Significance The results of the assays revealed that a high percentage of

  13. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Enríquez, Gustavo F.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8–2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Conclusions/Significance Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector

  14. Factors affecting infestation by Triatoma infestans in a rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina: a multi-model inference approach.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Juan M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Enríquez, Gustavo F; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-10-01

    Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8-2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector surveillance. A more integrated perspective that considers simultaneously

  15. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Justi, Silvia A; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-04-01

    The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region.

  17. Bridging the gap between chewing and sucking in the hemipteroid insects:
    new insights from Cretaceous amber.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles

    2016-02-11

    The diversity of feeding apparatuses in insects far exceeds that observed in any other animal group. Consequently, tracking mouthpart innovation in insects is one of the keys toward understanding their diversification. In hemipteroid insects (clade Paraneoptera or Acercaria: lice, thrips, aphids, cicadas, bugs, etc.), the transition from chewing to piercing-and-sucking mouthparts is widely regarded as the turning point that enabled hyperdiversification of the Hemiptera, the fifth largest insect order. However, the transitional process from chewing to piercing-and-sucking in the Paraneoptera was hitherto completely unknown. In this paper, we report a well preserved mid Cretaceous amber fossil of the paraneopteran insect family Archipsyllidae and describe it as Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae gen. et sp. n. This species has elongate mandibles and styliform laciniae similar to Hemiptera but retains functional chewing mouthparts. A number of morphological characters place the Archipsyllidae as the sister group of the thrips plus hemipterans, which strongly suggests that the mouthparts of M. eviohlhoffae represent a transitional condition from primitive chewing to derived piercing-and-sucking mouthparts. The clade composed of Archipsyllidae, thrips, and hemipterans is here named Pancondylognatha, a new supra-ordinal taxon. Based on newly obtained information, we also assess the monophyly of the Paraneoptera, which was called into question by recent phylogenomic analyses. A phylogenetic analysis that includes Mydiognathus strongly supports the monophyly of the Paraneoptera.

  18. Effect of Moxidectin on Bed Bug Feeding, Development, Fecundity, and Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Sheele, Johnathan Michael

    2017-09-30

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. The LC 50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population) of moxidectin against bed bug male adults, female adults, and large nymphs were 52.7 (95% CI (confidence interval): 39.5-70.8), 29.3 (95% CI: 20.7-40.5), and 29.1 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.3-35.3), respectively. Moxidectin (≥ 25 ng/mL) reduced egg laying of bed bug females, but showed no significant effect on egg hatching. One time feeding on rabbit blood containing 20 and 40 ng/mL moxidectin showed no negative effects in bed bug feeding and blood meal ingestion, but significantly reduced digestion rates and nymph molting rates. Although moxidectin at concentrations of 20 and 40 ng/mL only caused moderate mortality in bed bugs, it significantly interrupted digestion, development, and oviposition of survived bed bugs for at least one week after feeding. Moxidectin is a promising supplement of the existing bed bug control materials if its use on humans can be approved in the future.

  19. Effect of Moxidectin on Bed Bug Feeding, Development, Fecundity, and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Chen; Sheele, Johnathan Michael

    2017-01-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population) of moxidectin against bed bug male adults, female adults, and large nymphs were 52.7 (95% CI (confidence interval): 39.5–70.8), 29.3 (95% CI: 20.7–40.5), and 29.1 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.3–35.3), respectively. Moxidectin (≥ 25 ng/mL) reduced egg laying of bed bug females, but showed no significant effect on egg hatching. One time feeding on rabbit blood containing 20 and 40 ng/mL moxidectin showed no negative effects in bed bug feeding and blood meal ingestion, but significantly reduced digestion rates and nymph molting rates. Although moxidectin at concentrations of 20 and 40 ng/mL only caused moderate mortality in bed bugs, it significantly interrupted digestion, development, and oviposition of survived bed bugs for at least one week after feeding. Moxidectin is a promising supplement of the existing bed bug control materials if its use on humans can be approved in the future. PMID:28973981

  20. Comparative Analysis of Repetitive DNA between the Main Vectors of Chagas Disease: Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Pita, Sebastián; Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Palomeque, Teresa; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Francisco; Lorite, Pedro

    2018-04-24

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis affects six to seven million people worldwide, mostly in Latin America. This disease is transmitted by hematophagous insects known as "kissing bugs" (Hemiptera, Triatominae), with Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus being the two most important vector species. Despite the fact that both species present the same diploid chromosome number (2 n = 22), they have remarkable differences in their total DNA content, chromosome structure and genome organization. Variations in the DNA genome size are expected to be due to differences in the amount of repetitive DNA sequences. The T. infestans genome-wide analysis revealed the existence of 42 satellite DNA families. BLAST searches of these sequences against the R. prolixus genome assembly revealed that only four of these satellite DNA families are shared between both species, suggesting a great differentiation between the Triatoma and Rhodnius genomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) location of these repetitive DNAs in both species showed that they are dispersed on the euchromatic regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome. Regarding the Y chromosome, these common satellite DNAs are absent in T. infestans but they are present in the R. prolixus Y chromosome. These results support a different origin and/or evolution in the Y chromosome of both species.

  1. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

  2. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries.

  3. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  4. Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a Sister Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a sister species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group. PMID:26787157

  5. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid.

    PubMed

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan; Agirre, Jon; Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S; Costabel, Marcelo D; Marti, Gerardo A; Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Guérin, Diego M A; Rey, Felix A

    2013-06-01

    The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  6. A Common Caatinga Cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an Important Ecotope of Wild Triatoma brasiliensis Populations in the Jaguaribe Valley of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M.; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

  7. Bed Bugs and Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  8. Habitats, dispersion and invasion of sylvatic Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Petén, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Maria Carlota; Bustamante, Dulce Maria; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Enriquez, Maria Eunice; Rosales, Regina Guadalupe

    2003-11-01

    Dispersion and invasion capacity of sylvatic populations of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) were investigated during 14 mo by means of experimental chicken coops installed in a nature reserve within the Maya Biosphere, Petén, Guatemala. In addition, palm trees, underground archeological holes (chultunes) and piles of limestones within the forest were inspected as potential sylvatic habitats of T. dimidiata. From the three types of sylvatic habitats we inspected, all served as shelter and breeding sites for T dimidiata. The natural infection of these bugs (n = 72) with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas) was high (25%) and represent a risk for humans who colonize the forest. T. dimidiata quickly invaded the experimental chicken coops installed in the primary forest, albeit at very low densities. However, only one adult bug was encountered in the chicken coops installed in a secondary forest. Dispersal of adult T. dimidiata was most apparent at the end of the dry season. Overall, our results indicate a potential risk for invasion by sylvatic T. dimidiata of domestic environments in this area, with a risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans. We suggest that a system of community-based surveillance should be developed to detect new infestations and organize prompt treatment of any new cases of acute Chagas disease that may result.

  9. Potential population growth and harmful effects on humans from bed bug populations exposed to different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Taylor, A S; Lehnert, M P; Koehler, P G

    2013-06-01

    Effects of host availability and feeding period on bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), were measured. Population growth and the potential harmful effect of bed bug populations on human hosts were modelled. Bloodmeal sizes were affected by both feeding length and frequency, with >2-fold difference between insects fed daily or weekly. Blood consumption increased >2-fold between bed bugs fed occasionally and often, and 1.5-fold between occasional and daily feeding. Bed bugs fed more often than once a week, potentially every 2-4 days. Egg production was associated with nutrition, being strongly correlated with blood consumption in the previous week. Bed bug populations can grow under different feeding regimes and are hard to control with <80% mortality. Bed bugs can survive and grow even in locations with a limited blood supply, where bed bug persistence may be important for the continual spread of populations. Persistence in non-traditional locations and a potential association with human pathogens increase the health risks of bed bugs. Potential blood loss as a result of a bed bug can have serious consequences because uncontrolled populations can reach harmful levels in 3-8 months. The reproduction potential of bed bug populations suggests serious consequences to human health and the need for efficacious control measures. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Tyrosine Detoxification Is an Essential Trait in the Life History of Blood-Feeding Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Sterkel, Marcos; Perdomo, Hugo D; Guizzo, Melina G; Barletta, Ana Beatriz F; Nunes, Rodrigo D; Dias, Felipe A; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2016-08-22

    Blood-feeding arthropods are vectors of infectious diseases such as dengue, Zika, Chagas disease, and malaria [1], and vector control is essential to limiting disease spread. Because these arthropods ingest very large amounts of blood, a protein-rich meal, huge amounts of amino acids are produced during digestion. Previous work on Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, showed that, among all amino acids, only tyrosine degradation enzymes were overexpressed in the midgut compared to other tissues [2]. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine detoxification is an essential trait in the life history of blood-sucking arthropods. We found that silencing Rhodnius tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), the first two enzymes of the phenylalanine/tyrosine degradation pathway, caused the death of insects after a blood meal. This was confirmed by using the HPPD inhibitor mesotrione, which selectively killed hematophagous arthropods but did not affect non-hematophagous insects. In addition, mosquitoes and kissing bugs died after feeding on mice that had previously received a therapeutic effective oral dose (1 mg/kg) of nitisinone, another HPPD inhibitor used in humans for the treatment of tyrosinemia type I [3]. These findings indicate that HPPD (and TAT) can be a target for the selective control of blood-sucking disease vector populations. Because HPPD inhibitors are extensively used as herbicides and in medicine, these compounds may provide an alternative less toxic to humans and more environmentally friendly than the conventional neurotoxic insecticides that are currently used, with the ability to affect only hematophagous arthropods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lygus bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, and the western tarnished plant bug, L. hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae), are pests of lentil in western USA. Feeding Lygus bugs produces depressed, chalk-colored lesions (chalky spot) on the lentil seeds. These bugs are pests of lentil throughout the Palous...

  13. Phylogeography and Genetic Variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Main Chagas Disease Vector in Central America, and Its Position within the Genus Triatoma

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, María Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T

  14. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Capilouto, Gilson J.; Cunningham, Tommy J.; Mullineaux, David R.; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. PMID:28324904

  15. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods.

    PubMed

    Capilouto, Gilson J; Cunningham, Tommy J; Mullineaux, David R; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. [The systemic effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on Xenopsylla cheopis fleas (Siphonaptera) and blood-sucking Ornithonyssus bacoti gamasid mites (Gamasina: Macronyssidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The systemic effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on Xenopsylla cheopis fleas and blood-sucking Ornithonyssus bacoti gamasid mites were studied under laboratory conditions. Albino rats were forcibly administered insectoacaricides per os in doses of 1, 10, 30 mg/kg or fed with dietary bait (the doses of fipronil and imidacloprid were 10-33 and 18-70 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 3 or more days. Fipronil had a pronounced systemic effect on both X. cheopis and O. baconi. Imidacloprid was markedly active against the fleas and, on the contrary, inactive against the mites.

  17. American trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, where an estimated 10-14 million people are infected, and an emerging disease in Europe and the USA. Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted by blood-sucking bugs of the family Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma infestans, and T. dimidiata are the main vectors in the sylvatic cycle. Non vector-borne transmission includes blood transfusion, congenital and oral transmission, transplantation, and accidental infections. Most cases of acute infection occur in childhood and are usually asymptomatic, although severe myocarditis and meningoencephalitis may occur. Approximately 30% of T. cruzi-infected people will develop the chronic stage of the disease. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy is characterized by progressive heart failure, arrhythmias, intraventricular conduction defects, sudden death, and peripheral thromboembolism. Acute exacerbation can occur in individuals with involvement of cellular immunity such as advanced AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and transplant-associated immunosuppression. Neurological involvement may present with encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, or a space-occupying cerebral lesion called chagoma. Chagas disease is a major cause of ischemic stroke in Latin America. Several epidemiological studies have found an association between T. cruzi infection and cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Benznidazole and nifurtimox are the two available trypanocide drugs against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracking bed bugs (Cimex lectularius): a study of the effect of physiological and extrinsic factors on the response to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2013-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, feeds on the blood of mammal and bird hosts, and is a pest of global importance. Semiochemicals are chemicals involved in animal communication that may affect behaviour and/or physiology. Attractive semiochemicals that play a role in mediating bed bug behaviour could be exploited for the development of a highly effective novel monitoring device. Tracking software was used to record the response of bed bugs to volatiles from paper previously exposed to conspecific bugs in a still-air olfactometer illuminated by infrared lights, through a variety of activity variables. The effect of time of day as an extrinsic factor, and sex, stage, mating status and nutritional status as physiological factors on the response of bed bugs to the volatiles was examined. Bed bugs of both sexes and all stages responded to the volatiles from bed bug-exposed papers, showing significant attraction and orientation towards the volatile source whether they were starved or engorged. Confirmation that the physiological factors examined do not affect the response of bed bugs to the volatiles from bed bug-exposed papers provides evidence that these bed bug-derived volatiles contain aggregation cues, as semiochemicals that promote aggregation should by definition be detected by both sexes and all life stages. A device baited with such semiochemicals could play a major role in limiting the impact of the current bed bug resurgence by enabling timely detection of infestations, along with quantitative evaluation of control and effective surveillance of the geographical distribution of the pest species.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes.

    PubMed

    Herd, Kate E; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2015-09-03

    Blood-sucking lice in the genera Pediculus and Pthirus are obligate ectoparasites of great apes. Unlike most bilateral animals, which have 37 mitochondrial (mt) genes on a single circular chromosome, the sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mt genomes. The head louse, Pediculus capitis, and the body louse, Pe. humanus, have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, has its 34 mt genes known on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice of great apes, we sequenced the mt genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pe. schaeffi, and compared it with the three human lice. We identified all of the 37 mt genes typical of bilateral animals in the chimpanzee louse; these genes are on 18 types of minichromosomes. Seventeen of the 18 minichromosomes of the chimpanzee louse have the same gene content and gene arrangement as their counterparts in the human head louse and the human body louse. However, five genes, cob, trnS 1 , trnN, trnE and trnM, which are on three minichromosomes in the human head louse and the human body louse, are together on one minichromosome in the chimpanzee louse. Using the human pubic louse, Pt. pubis, as an outgroup for comparison, we infer that a single minichromosome has fragmented into three in the lineage leading to the human head louse and the human body louse since this lineage diverged from the chimpanzee louse ~6 million years ago. Our results provide insights into the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice in a relatively fine evolutionary scale.

  20. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Manoj; Shetty, N Shridhar; Deoghare, Anushka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thumb and digit-sucking habits or non-nutritive sucking are considered to be the most prevalent among oral habits. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. If the habit continues beyond 3 to 4 years of age, it not only affects the dental occlusion, but the shape of the thumb/digit may be altered as well. This article presents the management of thumb sucking by modified RURS, elbow guard incorporated with revised ‘three-alarm’ system. How to cite this article: Shetty RM, Shetty M, Shetty NS, Deoghare A. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):82-86. PMID:26124588

  1. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  2. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  3. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan; Agirre, Jon

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses ofmore » this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.« less

  4. Patterned orocutaneous therapy improves sucking and oral feeding in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Poore, M; Zimmerman, E; Barlow, SM; Wang, J; Gu, F

    2008-01-01

    Aim To determine whether NTrainer patterned orocutaneous therapy affects preterm infants' non-nutritive suck and/or oral feeding success. Subjects Thirty-one preterm infants (mean gestational age 29.3 weeks) who demonstrated minimal non-nutritive suck output and delayed transition to oral feeds at 34 weeks post-menstrual age. Intervention NTrainer treatment was provided to 21 infants. The NTrainer promotes non-nutritive suck output by providing patterned orocutaneous stimulation through a silicone pacifier that mimics the temporal organization of suck. Method Infants' non-nutritive suck pressure signals were digitized in the NICU before and after NTrainer therapy and compared to matched controls. Non-nutritive suck motor pattern stability was calculated based on infants' time- and amplitude-normalized digital suck pressure signals, producing a single value termed the Non-Nutritive Suck Spatiotemporal Index. Percent oral feeding was the other outcome of interest, and revealed the NTrainer's ability to advance the infant from gavage to oral feeding. Results Multilevel regression analyses revealed that treated infants manifest a disproportionate increase in suck pattern stability and percent oral feeding, beyond that attributed to maturational effects alone. Conclusion The NTrainer patterned orocutaneous therapy effectively accelerates non-nutritive suck development and oral feeding success in preterm infants who are at risk for oromotor dysfunction. PMID:18462468

  5. Survival and Transstadial Persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Blakely, Brittny N; Hanson, Stephen F; Romero, Alvaro

    2018-05-04

    Bed bug populations are increasing around the world at an alarming rate and have become a major public health concern. The appearance of bed bug populations in areas where Chagas disease is endemic raises questions about the role of these insects in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the disease. In a series of laboratory evaluations, bed bug adults and nymphs were experimentally fed with T. cruzi-infected blood to assess the ability of T. cruzi to survive inside the bed bug and throughout the insect's molting process. Live T. cruzi were observed in gut contents of experimentally infected bed bug adults via light microscopy and the identity of the parasite was confirmed via polymerase chain reaction analysis. T. cruzi persisted at least 97-d postinfection in adult bed bugs. Nymphal stage bed bugs that were infected with T. cruzi maintained the parasite after molting, indicating that transstadial passage of T. cruzi in bed bugs took place. This report provides further evidence of acquisition, maintenance, and for the first time, transstadial persistence of T. cruzi in bed bugs.

  6. Kissing bugs can generalize and discriminate between different bitter compounds.

    PubMed

    Asparch, Yamila; Pontes, Gina; Masagué, Santiago; Minoli, Sebastian; Barrozo, Romina B

    2016-10-01

    sense of a blood-sucking model but also into the learning abilities of hematophagous insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species “Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis” in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Maureen; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion’s disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii. Conclusions As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue. PMID:28095503

  8. [Economic importance of protecting draft horses used in forestry against blood-sucking dipterous insects].

    PubMed

    Ríha, J; Minár, J; Králík, O; Krupa, V

    1983-03-01

    The adverse effect of blood-sucking dipterous insects (gadflies, gnats, black flies, midges) was determined and checked, as exerted on the working performance of draft horses working in forests; the possibilities of protecting horses with repellents were studied at the same time. The trial was conducted under field conditions in the territory of the Broumov Forest Establishment in the Náchod and Trutnov districts. A 10% water emulsion of the repellent, diethyltoluamide, was used; the horses were treated with the emulsion in a 24-hour interval. Over the seventy working days from the 1st of July to the 30th of September, 1981, the performance of the test horse increased by 153 m3 wood in the skidding operation (i. e. by 58.06%), as compared with the control group. Recalculated per horse/day, this improvement is 2.19 m3 wood and the saving of prime costs amounts to 35.50 Czechoslovak crowns. The coefficient of loss per untreated horse was 9180 crowns. The effectiveness of the costs (per each crown of the capital expended) was calculated to be 309.07 crowns. The results were statistically significant.

  9. The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Autochthonous Chagas Disease Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Edward J; Lawrence, Gena; Gorchakov, Rodion; Alamgir, Hasanat; Dotson, Ellen; Sissel, Blake; Sarkar, Sahotra; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-10-01

    Triatomine bugs are a group of hematophagous arthropods that can serve as biological vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Because of differences in the biology and feeding habits among triatomine species, some are more likely than others to be involved in zoonotic and/or human-to-human transmission cycles of T. cruzi . In an attempt to assess the risk for Chagas disease exposure in south-central Texas, human habitations across Texas Health Service Region 8 (HSR 8) and surrounding counties were surveyed for triatomines to characterize the geographic distribution, species-specific biology, and T. cruzi -infection prevalence better. Between May 2010 and August 2013, a total of 545 triatomines representing all 5 known indigenous species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma lecticularia, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma protracta woodi) were collected from 59 sites across the region. Triatoma gerstaeckeri was the species most commonly found in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes across Texas HSR 8, representing over 80% of the triatomines collected. Adult T. gerstaeckeri exhibited a seasonal dispersal pattern that began in late April, peaked in mid-May, and then continued into August. On homes with available crevices in the exterior walls, adult T. gerstaeckeri were observed emerging from or entering these protective microhabitats, suggesting possible opportunistic colonization of some exterior walls compartments. Laboratory testing of triatomine hindgut contents for T. cruzi by PCR demonstrated the adult T. gerstaeckeri-infection prevalence across Texas HSR 8 to be 64%. Monitoring peridomestic adult T. gerstaeckeri over the seasonal dispersal peak demonstrated statistically significant increases in both their T. cruzi -infection prevalence (P < 0.01) and tendency to invade human dwellings (P < 0.01) in the later aspect of the emergence peak. In addition to the adult insects, variably sized

  10. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bugs EPA Registered Bed Bug Products EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products Resources Bed Bug Main Page Top Ten ... Where you can use the pesticide Pesticide type Bed Bug Search Tool Enter the information as described in ...

  11. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  12. Harvesting Venom Toxins from Assassin Bugs and Other Heteropteran Insects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew Allan; Rosenthal, Max; Undheim, Eivind E A; King, Glenn F

    2018-04-21

    Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes. One obstacle to the characterization of heteropteran venom toxins is the structure and function of the venom/labial glands, which are both morphologically complex and perform multiple biological roles (defense, prey capture, and extra-oral digestion). In this article, we describe three methods we have successfully used to collect heteropteran venoms. First, we present electrostimulation as a convenient way to collect venom that is often lethal when injected into prey animals, and which obviates contamination by glandular tissue. Second, we show that gentle harassment of animals is sufficient to produce venom extrusion from the proboscis and/or venom spitting in some groups of heteropterans. Third, we describe methods to harvest venom toxins by dissection of anaesthetized animals to obtain the venom glands. This method is complementary to other methods, as it may allow harvesting of toxins from taxa in which electrostimulation and harassment are ineffective. These protocols will enable researchers to harvest toxins from heteropteran insects for structure-function characterization and possible applications in medicine and agriculture.

  13. Bugging forecast: unknown, disliked, occasionally intimate. Bed bugs in Germany meet unprepared people.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Conrad; Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs appear to be feared more than vector insects and other household pests. The reasons for this exaggerated fear are not fully understood. One hypothesis is that the folk knowledge on recognising and controlling bed bugs decreased as bed bugs became rarer in the 1960s and led to irrational perceptions. Here, we examine people's ability to recognise a bed bug and their response what to do in case of an infestation. We found that 13% of a sample of 391 people in four large German cities recognised a bed bug; 15% of all respondents would call a pest controller in case of bed bug infestation. This results in the pessimistic estimate that 97% of all early-stage infestations could go untreated. We discuss additional scenarios. The effectiveness of efforts to educate people about the presence of bed bugs has never been tested, but our sample is useful to guide future studies. We found three sources of information were associated with increased recognition rates of bed bugs: a) previous contacts with bed bugs (60% recognition), b) knowledge from friends or relatives (25%) and school or education courses (15%). By contrast, people who heard of bed bugs from television, print media or the Internet showed reduced recognition rates. We propose that the former factors be tested for educational interventions. In Germany, the bed bug is an estranged creature to many people, a fact that seems to hinder rational approaches to their control.

  14. Bugging Forecast: Unknown, Disliked, Occasionally Intimate. Bed Bugs in Germany Meet Unprepared People

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Conrad; Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs appear to be feared more than vector insects and other household pests. The reasons for this exaggerated fear are not fully understood. One hypothesis is that the folk knowledge on recognising and controlling bed bugs decreased as bed bugs became rarer in the 1960s and led to irrational perceptions. Here, we examine people’s ability to recognise a bed bug and their response what to do in case of an infestation. We found that 13% of a sample of 391 people in four large German cities recognised a bed bug; 15% of all respondents would call a pest controller in case of bed bug infestation. This results in the pessimistic estimate that 97% of all early-stage infestations could go untreated. We discuss additional scenarios. The effectiveness of efforts to educate people about the presence of bed bugs has never been tested, but our sample is useful to guide future studies. We found three sources of information were associated with increased recognition rates of bed bugs: a) previous contacts with bed bugs (60% recognition), b) knowledge from friends or relatives (25%) and school or education courses (15%). By contrast, people who heard of bed bugs from television, print media or the Internet showed reduced recognition rates. We propose that the former factors be tested for educational interventions. In Germany, the bed bug is an estranged creature to many people, a fact that seems to hinder rational approaches to their control. PMID:23300947

  15. Chemoreception to aggregation pheromones in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xiong, Caixing; Liu, Nannan

    2017-03-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone. We found that the ORNs in the D olfactory sensilla played a predominant role in detecting all the components of aggregation pheromone except for histamine, which was only recognized by the C sensilla. Bed bugs' E sensilla, which include four functionally distinct groups, showed only a very weak but variant sensitivity (both excitatory and inhibitory) to the components of aggregation pheromone. Functional tests of 15 odorant receptors (ORs) in response to the components of aggregation pheromone revealed that most of these components were encoded by multiple ORs with various tuning properties. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of how bed bug aggregation pheromone is perceived and recognized in the peripheral olfactory system and will contribute useful information to support the development of synthetic attractants for bed bug monitoring and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geographic variation of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units from Triatoma infestans at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Del Pilar; Cecere, María Carla; Lanati, Leonardo Alejandro; Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban; Cardinal, Marta Victoria

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) in Triatoma infestans populations and its association with local vector-borne transmission levels at various geographic scales. At a local scale, we found high predominance (92.4%) of TcVI over TcV in 68 microscope-positive T. infestans collected in rural communities in Santiago del Estero province in northern Argentina. TcV was more often found in communities with higher house infestation prevalence compatible with active vector-borne transmission. Humans and dogs were the main bloodmeal sources of the TcV- and TcVI-infected bugs. At a broader scale, the greatest variation in DTU diversity was found within the Argentine Chaco (227 microscope-positive bugs), mainly related to differences in equitability between TcVI and TcV among study areas. At a country-wide level, a meta-analysis of published data revealed clear geographic variations in the distribution of DTUs across countries. A correspondence analysis showed that DTU distributions in domestic T. infestans were more similar within Argentina (dominated by TcVI) and within Bolivia (where TcI and TcV had similar relative frequencies), whereas large heterogeneity was found within Chile. DTU diversity was lower in the western Argentine Chaco region and Paraguay (D=0.14-0.22) than in the eastern Argentine Chaco, Bolivia and Chile (D=0.20-0.68). Simultaneous DTU identifications of T. cruzi-infected hosts and triatomines across areas differing in epidemiological status are needed to shed new light on the structure and dynamics of parasite transmission cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Erica A.; Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment have had devastating ecologic and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here we show that populations of Tria. Infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban center share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. Infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographic distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. Infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. Infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. Infestans and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. PMID:24103030

  18. [Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding, sucking habits and malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children].

    PubMed

    Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Medeiros-Bezerra, Priscila K; Moura, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at verifying the prevalence of nutritive (breast-feeding and bottle-feeding) and non-nutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children. The study was a cross-sectional oral health survey of 342 children (196 boys and 146 girls) between the ages of 3 and 5 in Campina Grande, Brazil. The data was collected by interviews with the children's mothers or minders and by clinical examinations carried out by a calibrated examiner (kappa = 0,86). Descriptive statistics using the EPI-INFO Program (version 3.3) and Chi-square test at 0.05 probability level were produced. Sucking habit prevalence was very high in all groups, ranging from 70 % to 77,4 %. Malocclusion was present in 87 %, dummy use in 84,8 % and finger-sucking in 7,2 %. About 84,2 % of the children had a history of bottle-feeding and 79,9 % showed some evidence of malocclusion at the time of dental examination. There were significant differences for the following variables: sucking habits and malocclusion; breast-feeding time and sucking habits; breast-feeding time and malocclusion; type of feeding and sucking habits; and type of feeding and malocclusion. Dummy-sucking incidence was higher than that of finger-sucking in Brazilian children. Sucking habit incidence was higher in bottle-fed children than in breast-fed children. The relationship between incidence of habits and malocclusion was statistically significant.

  19. Effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Tsai, Wan-Tien; Cooper, Richard; White, Jeffrey

    2011-02-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

  20. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  1. Amount of Sucking When a Sucking Object Is Readily Available to Human Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, Jean E.; Barnes, Pat

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of 10 newborn babies given pacifiers in response to spontaneous empty sucking, rooting, and mouthing was compared to that of 10 controls. Observations, conducted at 24-hour intervals for four days, began 2 hours before and concluded 1 hour after feedings. (RH)

  2. RNA Interference of the Muscle Actin Gene in Bed Bugs: Exploring Injection Versus Topical Application for dsRNA Delivery.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Sanjay; Kamble, Shripat T

    2018-05-01

    Bed bugs are one the most troublesome household pests that feed primarily on human blood. RNA interference (RNAi) is currently being pursued as a potential tool for insect population management and has shown efficacy against some phytophagous insects. We evaluated the different techniques to deliver dsRNA specific to bed bug muscle actin (dsactin) into bed bugs. Initially, stability of dsRNA in human blood was studied to evaluate the feasibility of feeding method. Adult bed bugs were injected with dsRNA between last thoracic segment and first abdominal segment on the ventral side, with a dose of 0.2 µg dsactin per insect. In addition to injection, dsactin was mixed in acetone and treated topically in the abdomens of fifth stage nymphs. We found the quick degradation of dsRNA in blood. Injection of dsactin caused significant depletion of actin transcripts and substantial reduction in oviposition and lethality in female adults. Topically treated dsRNA in fifth stage nymphs had no effect on actin mRNA expression and survival. Our results demonstrated that injection is a reliable method of dsRNA delivery into bed bugs while topical treatment was not successful. This research provides an understanding on effective delivery methods of dsRNA into bed bugs for functional genomics research and feasibility of the RNAi based molecules for pest management purposes.

  3. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

  4. Design and operation of a bio-inspired micropump based on blood-sucking mechanism of mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Kao, Ruei-Hung

    2018-05-01

    The study is to develop a novel bionic micropump, mimicking blood-suck mechanism of mosquitos with a similar efficiency of 36%. The micropump is produced by using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) to fabricate the microchannel, and an actuator membrane made by Fe-PDMS. It employs an Nd-FeB permanent magnet and PZT to actuate the Fe-PDMS membrane for generating flow rate. A lumped model theory and the Taguchi method are used for numerical simulation of pulsating flow in the micropump. Also focused is to change the size of mosquito mouth for identifying the best waveform for the transient flow processes. Based on computational results of channel size and the Taguchi method, an optimization actuation waveform is identified. The maximum pumping flow rate is 23.5 μL/min and the efficiency is 86%. The power density of micropump is about 8 times of that produced by mosquito’s suction. In addition to using theoretical design of the channel size, also combine with Taguchi method and asymmetric actuation to find the optimization actuation waveform, the experimental result shows the maximum pumping flowrate is 23.5 μL/min and efficiency is 86%, moreover, the power density of micropump is 8 times higher than mosquito’s.

  5. [The effect of selected preparations for the protection of draft horses against dipterous blood-sucking insects].

    PubMed

    Ríha, J; Minár, J; Skaloud, J; Janes, K; Králík, O

    1986-03-01

    Dipterous blood-sucking insects (horseflies, black flies, gnats, midges) have negative impacts on the performance of draught horses in forest enterprises. For the protection of these animals, the following preparations were applied at the interval of 24 hours: diethyltoluamide, Oxamat (N,N-diethyloxamine acid, USSR) and Stomoxin (synthetic pyrethroid, product of the firm Wellcome, England). In the course of 66 working days, the performance of test animals treated with 10% water emulsion of diethyltoluamide increased by 49.25 cu. m. of skidded wood, i.e. by 0.74 cu. m. wood per horse/day (21.65%), as compared with the control group. The daily savings of prime costs per test horse/day made 16.99 Kcs (Czechoslovak crowns). In comparison with the control group, the performance of horses treated with 5% water emulsion of Oxamat increased by 85.50 cu. m. wood, i.e. by 1.29 cu. m. wood per horse/day (38.00%). Stomoxin at the concentration of 0.05% acted as a good insecticide but had no marked repellent effect. The results of this study document that the production of effective repellents should be introduced in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.

  6. Life cycle and vectorial competence of Triatoma williami (Galvão, Souza e Lima, 1965) under the influence of different blood meal sources.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Rosaline Rocha; Gomes, Letícia Pinho; Peres Câmara, Thaís; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber

    2015-09-01

    Triatoma williami is naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, the ethiological agent of Chagas disease, the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in South and Central America.The possibility of domiciliation of T. williami increases the risk of human T. cruzi vetorial transmission. Despite this, there is a lack of data demonstrating the bionomic aspects, the vectorial competence or the natural ecotope and the wild hosts of T. williami. This study describes for the first time the life cycle of T. williami under the influence of two blood meal sources and also evaluates the vectorial potential of the species. The development of two groups of hundred triatomines was followed over the nymphal stages and adulthood. Each group was exposed to a sole blood meal source, mammalian or bird. The average egg-to-adult development time in both groups was similar, except by shorter stages of N3 and N4 in triatomines fed on mammals. The group fed on birds needed more blood feedings to suffer the ecdysis and had higher cumulative mortality in the nymphal stages. Although the observed delay at defecation of adults after feeding, our results suggest that T. williami in the third and fifth nymphal stages may be good vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-04-06

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs.

  8. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs. PMID:28383033

  9. Stink bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stink bugs can cause serious damage to apple and pear fruit at harvest. Feeding on the maturing fruit results in a puncture wound with a depressed and discolored blemish on the surface. The fruit flesh under the damage site is brown and corky. There are currently four major species of stink bugs ...

  10. Repellency of deet to nymphs of Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, R A; Fontan, A; Zerba, E N

    2000-03-01

    The repellency of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) to Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was evaluated using third-instar nymphs and a video tracking technique. Three experimental designs were used: (a) the test arena floor was divided into two halves, only one of which was treated with deet; (b) the arena floor was divided into an inner circle and an outer ring, only the latter treated with deet; (c) half of the test arena was covered by a filter paper roof treated with deet (out of reach of the nymphs). In all three types of experiment, a repellent effect was demonstrated proportional to the dose of deet. When a host (pigeon) was shielded by deet-treated gauze, the rate of blood-feeding by the nymphs was inhibited. Topical pre-treatment of the nymphs with N-ethylmaleimide, to block chemoreception, inhibited the repellency.

  11. Identification of Bloodmeal Sources and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) From Residential Settings in Texas, the United States

    PubMed Central

    KJOS, SONIA A.; MARCET, PAULA L.; YABSLEY, MICHAEL J.; KITRON, URIEL; SNOWDEN, KAREN F.; LOGAN, KATHLEEN S.; BARNES, JOHN C.; DOTSON, ELLEN M.

    2014-01-01

    The host–vector–parasite interactions in Chagas disease peridomestic transmission cycles in the United States are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection prevalence and bloodmeal sources were determined for adult and immature triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens collected from residential settings in central Texas. Sequenced cytochrome b DNA segments obtained from triatomine digestive tract identified nine vertebrate hosts and one invertebrate host in four triatomine species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma sanguisuga). The broad range of wild and domestic host species detected in triatomine specimens collected from residential sites indicates high host diversity and potential movement between the sylvatic and peridomestic settings. Domestic dogs appear to be key in the maintenance of the peridomestic transmission cycle as both a blood host for the triatomine vectors and a potential reservoir for the parasite. The high rate of T. cruzi infection among triatomine specimens that were collected from inside houses, outside houses, and dog kennels (69, 81, and 82%, respectively) suggests a current risk for Chagas disease vector-borne transmission for humans and domestic animals in residential settings in Texas because of overlap with the sylvatic cycle. PMID:24180119

  12. Diatomaceous earth and oil enhance effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Luz, Christian; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Rocha, Luiz F N

    2012-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for integrated control of peridomestic triatomine bugs. However, the high susceptibility of these vectors to fungal infection at elevated ambient humidities decreases in the comparatively dry conditions that often prevail in their microhabitats. A formulation adapted to this target pest that induces high and quick mortality can help to overcome these drawbacks. In the present study diatomaceous earth, which is used against pests of stored grains or as an additive to mycoinsecticides, delayed but did not reduce in vitro germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia after >24h agitation without affecting viability, and did not hamper the survival of Triatoma infestans nymphs exposed to treated surfaces. The settling behavior of nymphs on a treated surface in choice tests depended on the concentration of diatomaceous earth and ambient light level. Conidia formulated with diatomaceous earth and a vegetable oil synergized the insecticidal effect of the fungus in nymphs, and quickly killed all treated insects, even at 75% relative humidity (LT(90) 8.3 days) where unformulated conidia caused only 25% mortality after a 25 days exposure. The improved performance of a combined oil and desiccant dust formulation of this Metarhizium isolate raises the likelihood for its successful mycoinsecticidal use for triatomine control and, apparently, against other domestic insect pests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Zachary C.; Reid, William R.; Kells, Stephen A.; Appel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692) ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724) ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386) ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176) ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134) ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102) ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs. PMID:26463068

  14. [Effect of cupping on hemodynamic levels in the regional sucked tissues in patients with lumbago].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao; Xiao, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2012-10-01

    To observe hemodynamic changes in the local sucked tissue of lower back undergoing negative pressure after cupping in patients with lumbago. Twenty-two lumbago outpatients were recruited in the present study and 32 sucked tissues accepted measurements. The cupping was applied to the tenderpoint of the patients' lower back for 10 min by using a glass-mug (5 cm in diameter). Hemodynamic indexes [peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI)] of the sucked skin and subcutaneous tissues at the lower back were detected before and after cupping by using a color Doppler flow imaging. After cupping intervention at the lower back, the PSV [(14.2 +/- 1.8) cm/s] and EDV [(5.5 +/- 0.7) cm/s] levels were increased significantly in comparison with those [(5.9 +/- 0.9) and (1.9 +/- 0.3) cm/s] before cupping (P < 0.01), while RI was reduced evidently after cupping (0.61 +/- 0.05 vs 0.68 +/- 0.06, P < 0.01), suggesting an increase of the regional blood flow. Cupping therapy can increase the peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity and lower vascular resistance of the subcutaneous arterioles in the regional tissue, which may contribute to its effect in relieving lumbago.

  15. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface.

    PubMed

    Foley, Erica A; Khatchikian, Camilo E; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R; Levy, Michael Z; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment has had devastating ecological and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here, we show that populations of Tria. infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban centre share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographical distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. infestans, and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  17. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  18. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  19. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs), and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs). Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group) was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) during the learning stage and adopt their own pattern. PMID:20149217

  20. Sucking and swallowing rates after palatal anesthesia: an electromyographic study in infant pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waranch, Danielle R.; Campbell-Malone, Regina; Ding, Peng; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    Infant mammalian feeding consists of rhythmic suck cycles and reflexive pharyngeal swallows. Although we know how oropharyngeal sensation influences the initiation and frequency of suck and swallow cycles, the role of palatal sensation is unknown. We implanted EMG electrodes into the mylohyoid muscle, a muscle active during suckling, and the thyrohyoid muscle, a muscle active during swallowing, in eight infant pigs. Pigs were then bottle-fed while lateral videofluoroscopy was simultaneously recorded from the electrodes. Two treatments were administered prior to feeding and compared with control feedings: 1) palatal anesthesia (0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride), and 2) palatal saline. Using the timing of mylohyoid muscle and thyrohyoid muscle activity, we tested for differences between treatment and control feedings for swallowing frequency and suck cycle duration. Following palatal anesthesia, four pigs could not suck and exhibited excessive jaw movement. We categorized the four pigs that could suck after palatal anesthesia as group A, and those who could not as group B. Group A had no significant change in suck cycle duration and a higher swallowing frequency after palatal saline (P = 0.021). Group B had significantly longer suck cycles after palatal anesthesia (P < 0.001) and a slower swallowing frequency (P < 0.001). Swallowing frequency may be a way to predict group membership, since it was different in control feedings between groups (P < 0.001). The qualitative and bimodal group response to palatal anesthesia may reflect a developmental difference. This study demonstrates that palatal sensation is involved in the initiation and frequency of suck and swallow cycles in infant feeding. PMID:23636723

  1. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  2. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h) to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius) and tropical (C. hemipterus) bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps). Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating) of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ), thus

  3. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Berenger, Jean Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean Marc; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1) to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3). The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium. Conclusion The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens. PMID

  4. Minute pirate bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The minute pirate bugs (Orius) feed primarily on small, soft-bodied arthropods, but may supplement that diet with ingestion of plant fluids. The plant-feeding behavior of the minute pirate bugs has led to anecdotal reports of plant damage and speculation that these insects may occasionally be pests...

  5. Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Lori; Monroy, M. Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Dorn, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not. PMID:25211347

  6. Ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in indigenous communities of the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Sol Gaspe, M; Provecho, Yael M; Cardinal, M Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-03-01

    The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles'. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles' (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved

  7. Stink bug species composition and relative abundance of the redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean in the upper gulf coast Texas.

    PubMed

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Medina, Raul F

    2014-12-01

    Stink bugs are the primary arthropod soybean pests in the southern United States. Historically, important stink bug species damaging soybeans in the southern United States included the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.), the green stink bug Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has recently become an economic pest of soybean in the southern region of the United States, especially in Louisiana and Texas. Little is known about current stink bug species composition and relative abundance in Texan soybean agro-ecosystems. To fill this gap, commercial soybean fields in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas were sampled weekly during the growing season using a sweep net throughout R2 (full flowering) to R7 (beginning maturity) from 2011 to 2013. Adults and nymphs (third, fourth, and fifth instars) of redbanded stink bug, southern green stink bug, green stink bug, and brown stink bug were counted per 25 sweeps. The relative abundance of redbanded stink bug was significantly higher than any other stink bug species throughout 2011-2013. Over 65% of the total population of major stink bugs collected during this period were redbanded stink bugs and ≍19% were southern green stink bugs. The highest redbanded stink bug densities and the highest ratio of redbanded stink bug nymphs to adults were recorded at R7. Results from this study show that redbanded stink bug has become the predominant stink bug species in soybean in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas.

  8. Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes.

  9. Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes. PMID:19492006

  10. The comparative effectiveness of two digit-sucking deterrent methods.

    PubMed

    Bourne, C O

    2005-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of the crib and positive reinforcement in eliminating anterior open bites and increased overjets caused by digit-sucking. The overjet and overbite were measured using an overjet ruler at the start and end of the seventeen-week observation period. Forty patients consented to participate but measurements were only obtained for 11 subjects. The trend in this study is that the crib is more effective than positive reinforcement in preventing digit-sucking.

  11. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190

  12. Synthetic orocutaneous stimulation entrains preterm infants with feeding difficulties to suck

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, SM; Finan, DS; Lee, J; Chu, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Prematurity can disrupt the development of a specialized neural circuit known as suck central pattern generator (sCPG), which often leads to poor feeding skills. The extent to which suck can be entrained using a synthetically patterned orocutaneous input to promote its development in preterm infants who lack a functional suck is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effects of a new motorized ‘pulsating’ pacifier capable of entraining the sCPG in tube-fed premature infants who lack a functional suck and exhibit feeding disorders. Methods Prospective cohort study of 31 preterm infants assigned to either the oral patterned entrainment intervention (study) or non-treated (controls) group, matched by gestational age, birth weight, oxygen supplementation history, and oral feed status. Study infants received a daily regimen of orocutaneous pulse trains through a pneumatically-controlled silicone pacifier concurrent with gavage feeds. Results The patterned orocutaneous stimulus was highly effective in accelerating the development of NNS in preterm infants. A repeated-measure multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant increases in minute-rates for total oral compressions, NNS bursts, and NNS cycles, suck cycles per burst, and the ratiometric measure of NNS cycles as a percentage of total ororhythmic output. Moreover, study infants also manifest significantly greater success at achieving oral feeds, surpassing their control counterparts by a factor of 3.1× (72.8% daily oral feed versus 23.3% daily oral feed, respectively). Conclusion Functional expression of the sCPG among preterm infants who lack an organized suck can be induced through the delivery of synthetically patterned orocutaneous pulse trains. The rapid emergence of NNS in treated infants is accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of nutrient taken orally. PMID:18548084

  13. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Siddall, Mark E; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-02-02

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations.

  14. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R.; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C.; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T.; Hastie, Alex R.; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J.; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Siddall, Mark E.; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations. PMID:26836631

  15. Digit-sucking: a review of the literature, clinical observations and treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, R A

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged digit-sucking habits can have a negative impact on dental, speech, physical and emotional development. Children can be helped to eliminate their sucking habits quickly, without coercion, and in a positive way. Admittedly, most of my data is based purely on clinical observation. However, clinical observation is the basis for classical scientific investigation. I welcome this investigation; it is long overdue. Much of the literature available to parents appears to take a rather cavalier attitude with regard to the dental consequences of sucking habits. Parents are frequently left with the impression that no harm is done to the teeth. This perspective is based on the assumption that most children stop the sucking behavior before permanent teeth erupt into the mouth. Therefore, any dental malocclusion in the primary teeth will often be transitional or will spontaneously self-correct. However, as demonstrated by Kelly, et al (1973), millions of children do not discontinue their sucking habits before permanent teeth erupt. In addition, stress levels in today's world are probably significantly greater than when this study was done. Because stress is a powerful stimulus for the sucking activity, it is highly probable that if a similar study were done today, it would produce a substantially greater number of individuals with prolonged sucking habits. The active pursuit of insurance benefits for the Certified Orofacial Myologist providing therapy for the elimination of these habits will be germane to prevention. Research is needed to accomplish this goal including: investigation of the incidence of prolonged digit-sucking habits; the impact of these habits on the entire stomatognathic system, speech development and emotional health; efficacy of treatment (including psychological response) both through the utilization of habit appliances and motivational therapy. The Certified Orofacial Myologist provides many valuable therapeutic programs to enhance dental and

  16. Classifying Bugs is a Tricky Business.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    programming tutor to help students learn to program in Pascal; we wanted the system to identify the nen-.pntactic bugs in a student’s program and tutor the... student with respect to the misconceptions that might have given rise to the bugs. The emphasis was on the system understanding what the student did...and did not understand; we felt that simply telling the student that there was a bug in line 14 was not sufficient -- since oftentimes the bug in line

  17. Breaking the Thumb Sucking Habit: When Compliance Is Essential

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Orlando; Oliveira, Wagner; Galarza, Melissa; Aoki, Vanessa; Bertaiolli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The anterior open bite (AOB) and posterior cross bite are the most frequent malocclusions associated with prolonged sucking habits. This clinical case illustrates and discusses the use of a Haas-type palatal expander for stopping a thumb sucking habit. The improvement in closing the open bite with discontinuation of the habit was observed. But with the return of the habit and lack of cooperation, the relapse of anterior open bite occurred. Therefore, different approaches are necessary. The need of a multidisciplinary approach, consent, and cooperation are keys to a good prognosis. PMID:26904311

  18. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, M V; Lauricella, M A; Marcet, P L; Orozco, M M; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2007-09-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures.

  19. Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A A; Werdin González, J O; Sánchez Chopa, C

    2006-07-01

    Hexanic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle were tested for repellent and insecticidal properties against first instar nymphs and eggs of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Chagas' disease. Leaf and fruit extracts were highly repellent for first nymphs. Fruit extracts had also ovicidal activity.

  20. Evidence of selection on phenotypic plasticity and cost of plasticity in response to host-feeding sources in the major Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Leonhard, Gustavo; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Crocco, Liliana B

    2015-12-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to display alternative phenotypes in different environments. Understanding how plasticity evolves and the factors that favor and constrain its evolution have attracted great interest. We investigated whether selection on phenotypic plasticity and costs of plasticity affect head and wing morphology in response to host-feeding sources in the major Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. Full-sib families were assigned to blood-feeding on either live pigeons or guinea pigs throughout their lives. We measured diet-induced phenotypic plasticity on wing and head size and shape; characterized selection on phenotypic plasticity for female and male fecundity rates, and evaluated costs of plasticity. Wing size and shape variables exhibited significant differences in phenotypic plasticity associated with host-feeding source in female and male bugs. Evidence of selection on phenotypic plasticity was detected in head size and shape for guinea pig-fed females. A lower female fecundity rate was detected in more plastic families for traits that showed selection on plasticity. These results provide insights into the morphological phenotypic plasticity of T. infestans, documenting fitness advantages of head size and shape for females fed on guinea pigs. This vector species showed measurable benefits of responding plastically to environmental variation rather than adopting a fixed development plan. The presence of cost of plasticity suggests constraints on the evolution of plasticity. Our study indicates that females fed on guinea pigs (and perhaps on other suitable mammalian hosts) have greater chances of evolving under selection on phenotypic plasticity subject to some constraints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A bioassay for studying behavioural responses of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Gezan, S A; Woodcock, C M; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2011-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. Current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour and physiology modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. However, in order to identify semiochemicals that can be utilised in monitoring or control, a suitable olfactometer is needed that enables the study of the responses of bed bugs to volatile chemicals. Previous studies have used olfactometers that do not separate olfactory responses from responses to physical contact. In this study, a still-air olfactometer was used to measure behavioural responses to different bed bug-derived volatiles presented in an odour pot. Bed bugs were significantly more likely to visit the area above the odour pot first, and more frequently, in the presence of volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper but not in the presence of volatiles from conspecific bed bugs. Bed bug activity was found to be dependent on the presence of the volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper, the time during the scotophase and the sex of the insect being tested. The still-air olfactometer could be used to test putative semiochemicals, which would allow an understanding of their behavioural role in bed bug ecology. Ultimately, this could lead to the identification of new semiochemical tools for bed bug monitoring and control.

  2. Could the Chagas disease elimination programme in Venezuela be compromised by reinvasion of houses by sylvatic Rhodnius prolixus bug populations?

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Martin, Maria J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Davies, Clive R

    2006-10-01

    The Andean Pact Initiative (1997) committed Andean countries to eliminate vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by 2010 via widespread residual insecticide spraying. In Venezuela, this aim could be compromised by reinvasion of houses by palm tree populations of the major vector Rhodnius prolixus. To test this hypothesis, a multivariate logistic regression was undertaken of risk factors for triatomine infestation and colonization in 552 houses and 1068 peri-domestic outbuildings in Barinas State. After adjusting for other risk factors, including palm roofs, R. prolixus infestation and colonization of outbuildings (and, to some extent, houses) was significantly associated with proximity to high densities of Attalea butyracea palm trees. House infestation and/or colonization was also positively associated with bug density in peri-domestic outbuildings, the presence of pigsties and nests. Hence, R. prolixus populations in ineffectively sprayed outbuildings could also provide an important source of house re-infestations. The secondary vector Triatoma maculata was mainly found associated with the presence of hens nesting both indoors and outdoors.

  3. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  4. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  6. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. Dynamics of bed bug infestations in three low-income housing communities with various bed bug management programs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Eiden, Amanda; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Wang, Desen; Cooper, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., have become common in low-income communities in the USA over the last 15 years. We evaluated community-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs for reducing bed bug infestations. Two housing authorities (Bayonne and Hackensack) implemented bed bug IPM programs. A third housing authority (Paterson) was used as the control site. Building-wide surveys were conducted in all communities, three times, to evaluate the effectiveness of the IPM programs. From 0 to 24 months, the infestation rate at Bayonne, Hackensack, and Paterson decreased by 49, 64, and 26%, respectively. The two sites that adopted IPM achieved faster bed bug elimination than the control site. The bed bug introduction rate over a 24-month period at Bayonne, Hackensack, and Paterson was 7, 3, and 11%, respectively. The introduction rate was positively associated with the initial infestation rate. Residents from buildings enrolled in IPM programs were more satisfied with the bed bug control services than residents from the control site. IPM programs were more effective in reducing bed bug infestations than traditional pest control services, but many factors contributed to the lower than desired level of reduction in infestation rate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. New discoveries of sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) throughout the Bolivian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Waleckx, Etienne; Depickère, Stéphanie; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Monje, Marcelo; Calle, Hiber; Buitrago, Rosio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2012-03-01

    Sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans might be involved in the recolonization of human dwellings. We report here the discoveries of new T. infestans sylvatic foci in the Bolivian Chaco. Eighty-one triatomines were caught, 38 of which were identified as T. infestans. Triatoma sordida and Panstrongylus geniculatus were the other species collected. One T. infestans and one T. sordida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi TcI; one T. infestans was infected with TcII. These discoveries add to the debate on the geographic distribution of sylvatic T. infestans populations, the geographic origin of the species, and the epidemiological role of these populations.

  9. Comparison of ingestion and topical application of insecticides against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. Results LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder. LD50 values were calculated based on the ingested blood volume. Ingested abamectin, clothianidin and fipronil caused rapid mortality in both life stages. Fipronil was ∼43-fold more effective by ingestion than by topical application. Indoxacarb and its bioactive metabolite decarbomethoxyllated JW062 (DCJW) were ineffective at causing bed bug mortality even at concentrations as high as 1000 ng mL−1 blood. Conclusions Fipronil, clothianidin and abamectin have potential for being incorporated into a liquid bait for bed bug control; indoxacarb and DCJW were not effective. Bed bugs are a good candidate for an ingestible liquid bait because systemic formulations generally require less active ingredient than residual sprays, they remain contained and more effectively target hematophagous arthropods. PMID:27766740

  10. Comparison of ingestion and topical application of insecticides against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby

    2017-03-01

    The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. LC 50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an artificial feeder. LD 50 values were calculated based on the ingested blood volume. Ingested abamectin, clothianidin and fipronil caused rapid mortality in both life stages. Fipronil was ∼43-fold more effective by ingestion than by topical application. Indoxacarb and its bioactive metabolite decarbomethoxylated JW062 (DCJW) were ineffective at causing bed bug mortality even at concentrations as high as 1000 ng mL -1 blood. Fipronil, clothianidin and abamectin have potential for being incorporated into a liquid bait for bed bug control; indoxacarb and DCJW were not effective. Bed bugs are a good candidate for an ingestible liquid bait because systemic formulations generally require less active ingredient than residual sprays, they remain contained and more effectively target hematophagous arthropods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  12. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  13. Empirical Evaluation of Hunk Metrics as Bug Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferzund, Javed; Ahsan, Syed Nadeem; Wotawa, Franz

    Reducing the number of bugs is a crucial issue during software development and maintenance. Software process and product metrics are good indicators of software complexity. These metrics have been used to build bug predictor models to help developers maintain the quality of software. In this paper we empirically evaluate the use of hunk metrics as predictor of bugs. We present a technique for bug prediction that works at smallest units of code change called hunks. We build bug prediction models using random forests, which is an efficient machine learning classifier. Hunk metrics are used to train the classifier and each hunk metric is evaluated for its bug prediction capabilities. Our classifier can classify individual hunks as buggy or bug-free with 86 % accuracy, 83 % buggy hunk precision and 77% buggy hunk recall. We find that history based and change level hunk metrics are better predictors of bugs than code level hunk metrics.

  14. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By ... Rid of Bed Bugs When a bed bug infestation is discovered there are multiple methods for controlling it. Be aware that it will ...

  15. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  16. The Let's Beat the Bug! Campaign--A Statewide Active Public Education Against Bed Bugs in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Shindelar, Amelia K

    2017-03-01

    Bed bugs continue to affect society and place a burden on public health systems. Experiences of the Let’s Beat the Bug! campaign are presented to help information networks prepare personnel to effectively address questions about this pest. Following recommendations from the Minnesota state bed bug working group, an information line was established and the Web site (www.bedbugs.umn.edu) was revised. Data from both services were analyzed by geographic region and type of information requested. InformationLine primarily assisted people who had issues dealing with failed treatments and landlord reluctance to take effective measures against this pest. Web site visits indicated a preference for learning do-it-yourself control methods. There were commonalities in the information sought from both services. People were often looking for reassurance, in addition to information about basic prevention and control of bed bugs. We present here priority topics that public health personnel should be prepared to answer if they receive inquiries about bed bugs.

  17. Sublethal Effects of ActiveGuard Exposure on Feeding Behavior and Fecundity of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L; Sivakoff, Frances S

    2015-05-01

    Sublethal exposure to pesticides can alter insect behavior with potential for population-level consequences. We investigated sublethal effects of ActiveGuard, a permethrin-impregnated fabric, on feeding behavior and fecundity of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) from five populations that ranged from susceptible to highly pyrethroid resistant. After exposure to ActiveGuard fabric or untreated fabric for 1 or 10 min, adult virgin female bed bugs were individually observed when offered a blood meal to determine feeding attempts and weight gain. Because bed bug feeding behavior is tightly coupled with its fecundity, all females were then mated, and the number of eggs laid and egg hatch rate were used as fecundity measures. We observed that pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible bugs were not significantly different for all feeding and fecundity parameters. Bed bugs exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly less likely to attempt to feed or successfully feed, and their average blood meal size was significantly smaller compared with individuals in all other groups. Independent of whether or not feeding occurred, females exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly more likely to lay no eggs. Only a single female exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min laid any eggs. Among the other fabric treatment-exposure time groups, there were no observable differences in egg numbers or hatch rates. Brief exposure of 10 min to ActiveGuard fabric appeared to decrease feeding and fecundity of pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs, suggesting the potentially important role of sublethal exposure for the control of this ectoparasitic insect. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Multi-species Bait for Chagas Disease Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Theo; Vitta, Ana C. R.; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N.; Barezani, Carla P.; Zani, Carlos L.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Jeffares, Lynne; Bohman, Björn; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. Conclusions/Significance Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs. PMID:24587457

  19. House Reinfestation With Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) After Community-Wide Spraying With Insecticides in the Argentine Chaco: A Multifactorial Process.

    PubMed

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; Fernández, M Del Pilar; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the dynamics and underlying causes of house (re)infestation with Triatoma infestans (Klug 1834) after a community-wide residual spraying with pyrethroids in a well-defined rural section of Pampa del Indio municipality (northeastern Argentina) over a 4-yr period. House infestation was assessed by timed manual searches, during insecticide applications, and by opportunistic householders' bug collections. All reinfested houses were selectively re-sprayed with insecticides. The resident population comprised Qom (66.6%) and Creole (33.4%) households, whose sociodemographic profiles differed substantially. The prevalence of house infestation dropped, less than expected, from 20.5% at baseline to 5.0% at 14 months postspraying (MPS), and then fluctuated between 0.8 and 4.2% over 21-51 MPS. Postspraying house infestation was positively and highly significantly associated with prespraying infestation. Most of the foci detected over 14-21 MPS were considered persistent (residual), some of which were moderately resistant to pyrethroids and were suppressed with malathion. Infestation patterns over 27-51 MPS suggested bug invasion from internal or external foci, but the sources of most findings were unaccounted for. Local spatial analysis identified two hotspots of postspraying house infestation. Using multimodel inference with model averaging, we corroborated that baseline domestic infestation was closely related to refuge availability, housing quality, and occurrence of peridomestic infestation. The diminished effectiveness of single pyrethroid treatments, partly attributable to moderate resistance compounded with rather insensitive vector detection methods and poor housing conditions, contributed to vector persistence. Improved control strategies combined with broad social participation are needed for the sustainable elimination of vector-borne human Chagas disease from the Gran Chaco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  20. [Ecological niches of sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and their coevolution relationship with small mammal hosts in Yunnan, China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan-Fen; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Wu, Dian

    2008-02-28

    To investigate the ecological niches of sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) on the body surface of small mammal hosts and the co-evolutionary relationship between lice and mammal hosts in Yunnan Province. Thirty species of small mammals were captured and used as 30 resource sequences. The distribution and composition of the dominant 22 species of sucking lice on the body surface of the 30 species small mammal hosts were analyzed as the utilization proportion for each resource sequence. The niche breadth and proportional similarity were measured. SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used for analyzing the niche overlap matrix of sucking lice by hierarchical clustering analysis, and a dendrogram was made. The niche breadth was narrow for most species of sucking louse. Among the detected species, Hoplopleura pacifica showed the widest niche breadth, but only 0.1536. Indices of niche proportional similarity of most sucking lice were relatively small from 0.0005 to 0.4695. The 22 species of sucking lice were classified into 16 niche overlap groups, by lambda = 5.5, through a hierarchical clustering analysis for the niche overlaps, and the clustering process of most sucking lice was late. The sucking lice have a high specificity for hosts, of which different species show an apparent niche divergence on host selection. The results reveal a high coevolution between sucking lice and the mammal hosts.

  1. All about Bugs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Bugs fascinate children, and each kind of bug plays a special role in the circle of life. Some bugs pollinate plants, while others help to decompose plant and animal waste. In this videotape, students learn about the similar characteristics that all bugs share and compare them to their close cousins, the arachnids. This videotape correlates to the…

  2. New Discoveries of Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Throughout the Bolivian Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Waleckx, Etienne; Depickère, Stéphanie; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Monje, Marcelo; Calle, Hiber; Buitrago, Rosio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans might be involved in the recolonization of human dwellings. We report here the discoveries of new T. infestans sylvatic foci in the Bolivian Chaco. Eighty-one triatomines were caught, 38 of which were identified as T. infestans. Triatoma sordida and Panstrongylus geniculatus were the other species collected. One T. infestans and one T. sordida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi TcI; one T. infestans was infected with TcII. These discoveries add to the debate on the geographic distribution of sylvatic T. infestans populations, the geographic origin of the species, and the epidemiological role of these populations. PMID:22403316

  3. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  4. Bed bug deterrence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph) signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121 PMID:20828375

  5. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  6. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  7. Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  8. Confirmational study: a positive-based thumb and finger sucking elimination program.

    PubMed

    Green, Shari E

    2010-11-01

    This article emphasizes the critical need for information specifically regarding the topic of retained sucking behaviors. The study aimed to confirm results provided by Van Norman of 723 subjects in 1997. Parent surveys were collected on 441 subjects who received an orofacial myofunctional treatment program provided by one certified orofacial myologist. Results of this study do confirm that retained digit sucking behavior may be addressed successfully and expediently by a program based on positive behavior modification techniques.

  9. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  10. Immunogenic Salivary Proteins of Triatoma infestans: Development of a Recombinant Antigen for the Detection of Low-Level Infestation of Triatomines

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Helling, Stefan; Collin, Nicolas; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Hume, Jen C. C.; Assumpção, Teresa C.; Marcus, Katrin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Billingsley, Peter F.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Schaub, Günter A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans. Methodology/Principal Findings T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6) in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising epidemiological marker for

  11. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  12. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  13. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  14. Spatial distribution of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus , O. pugnax , N. viridula , and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L. PMID:25205358

  15. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  16. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  17. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  18. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  19. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a suite of cytochrome P450 enzymes implicated in insect hydrocarbon degradation in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Zhang, Shizhu; Juárez, M Patricia; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2010-08-01

    The insect epicuticle or waxy layer comprises a heterogeneous mixture of lipids that include abundant levels of long-chain alkanes, alkenes, wax esters and fatty acids. This structure represents the first barrier against microbial attack and for broad-host-range insect pathogens, such as Beauveria bassiana, it is the initial interface mediating the host-pathogen interaction, since these organisms do not require any specialized mode of entry and infect target hosts via the cuticle. B. bassiana is able to grow on straight chain alkanes up to n-C(33) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The cDNA and genomic sequences, including putative regulatory elements, for eight cytochrome P450 enzymes, postulated to be involved in alkane and insect epicuticle degradation, were isolated and characterized. Expression studies using a range of alkanes as well as an insect-derived epicuticular extract from the blood-sucking bug Triatomas infestans revealed a differential expression pattern for the P450 genes examined, and suggest that B. bassiana contains a series of hydrocarbon-assimilating enzymes with overlapping specificity in order to target the surface lipids of insect hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of the translated ORFs of the sequences revealed that the enzyme which displayed the highest levels of induction on both alkanes and the insect epicuticular extract represents the founding member of a new cytochrome P450 family, with three of the other sequences assigned as the first members of new P450 subfamilies. The remaining four proteins clustered with known P450 families whose members include alkane monooxygenases.

  1. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mothers' attitude toward digit sucking habits in children of United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Salah, Afraa

    2007-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate maternal attitudes and knowledge towards digit sucking habits and to investigate the association between various factors and the presence of these habits. A cross-sectional sample of 150 mothers of children currently engaged in digit sucking habits were interviewed. The information collected was from a questionnaire completed by the mothers. The analyzed data regarding the mothers revealed that younger mothers represented 54% of the sample, 47.3% were well-educated and 70.0% were unemployed. Regarding the children, female children (65.3%) practiced digit habits more than males, and 45.3% of the children were younger than 3 years of age. Significant factors associated with maternal attitudes towards digit sucking habit included: 88.6% of mothers never tolerated this habit, 75.0% of the mothers were unemployed and provided instruction to cease the habit, and 89.9% of the mothers never sought advice from a dentist. Overall, mothers did not view digit sucking habits to be an acceptable behavior regardless of their nationality. Mothers indicated that they tried to stop the habit with a variety of techniques but without any professional advice. The study concludes that mothers would benefit from receiving information about a motivational program, professional advice, and suggestions to discourage this habit.

  3. Hidden Sylvatic Foci of the Main Vector of Chagas Disease Triatoma infestans: Threats to the Vector Elimination Campaign?

    PubMed Central

    Schachter-Broide, Judith; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Dotson, Ellen M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing the sources of reinfestation after residual insecticide spraying is crucial for vector elimination programs. Triatoma infestans, traditionally considered to be limited to domestic or peridomestic (abbreviated as D/PD) habitats throughout most of its range, is the target of an elimination program that has achieved limited success in the Gran Chaco region in South America. Methodology/Principal Findings During a two-year period we conducted semi-annual searches for triatomine bugs in every D/PD site and surrounding sylvatic habitats after full-coverage spraying of pyrethroid insecticides of all houses in a well-defined rural area in northwestern Argentina. We found six low-density sylvatic foci with 24 T. infestans in fallen or standing trees located 110–2,300 m from the nearest house or infested D/PD site detected after insecticide spraying, when house infestations were rare. Analysis of two mitochondrial gene fragments of 20 sylvatic specimens confirmed their species identity as T. infestans and showed that their composite haplotypes were the same as or closely related to D/PD haplotypes. Population studies with 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and wing geometric morphometry consistently indicated the occurrence of unrestricted gene flow between local D/PD and sylvatic populations. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite sibship analyses in the most abundant sylvatic colony revealed descendents from five different females. Spatial analysis showed a significant association between two sylvatic foci and the nearest D/PD bug population found before insecticide spraying. Conclusions Our study shows that, despite of its high degree of domesticity, T. infestans has sylvatic colonies with normal chromatic characters (not melanic morphs) highly connected to D/PD conspecifics in the Argentinean Chaco. Sylvatic habitats may provide a transient or permanent refuge after control interventions, and function as sources for D/PD reinfestation. The

  4. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  5. Bug Distribution and Pattern Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    The study examines the rule space model, a probabilistic model capable of measuring cognitive skill acquisition and of diagnosing erroneous rules of operation in a procedural domain. The model involves two important components: (1) determination of a set of bug distributions (bug density functions representing clusters around the rules); and (2)…

  6. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations.

  7. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence When Detection Is Imperfect II: Drivers of Site-Occupancy by Synanthropic Triatoma brasiliensis in the Brazilian Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M.; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the drivers of habitat selection by insect disease vectors is instrumental to the design and operation of rational control-surveillance systems. One pervasive yet often overlooked drawback of vector studies is that detection failures result in some sites being misclassified as uninfested; naïve infestation indices are therefore biased, and this can confound our view of vector habitat preferences. Here, we present an initial attempt at applying methods that explicitly account for imperfect detection to investigate the ecology of Chagas disease vectors in man-made environments. Methodology We combined triplicate-sampling of individual ecotopes (n = 203) and site-occupancy models (SOMs) to test a suite of pre-specified hypotheses about habitat selection by Triatoma brasiliensis. SOM results were compared with those of standard generalized linear models (GLMs) that assume perfect detection even with single bug-searches. Principal Findings Triatoma brasiliensis was strongly associated with key hosts (native rodents, goats/sheep and, to a lesser extent, fowl) in peridomestic environments; ecotope structure had, in comparison, small to negligible effects, although wooden ecotopes were slightly preferred. We found evidence of dwelling-level aggregation of infestation foci; when there was one such focus, same-dwelling ecotopes, whether houses or peridomestic structures, were more likely to become infested too. GLMs yielded negatively-biased covariate effect estimates and standard errors; both were, on average, about four times smaller than those derived from SOMs. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm substantial population-level ecological heterogeneity in T. brasiliensis. They also suggest that, at least in some sites, control of this species may benefit from peridomestic rodent control and changes in goat/sheep husbandry practices. Finally, our comparative analyses highlight the importance of accounting for the various sources of

  8. INCIDENCE OF TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTION AMONG CHILDREN FOLLOWING DOMESTIC REINFESTATION AFTER INSECTICIDE SPRAYING IN RURAL NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.; CECERE, MARÍA C.; LAURICELLA, MARTA A.; PETERSEN, ROSARIO M.; CHUIT, ROBERTO; SEGURA, ELSA L.; COHEN, JOEL E.

    2005-01-01

    Following increasing reinfestation with Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying, the household incidence of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in children was positively related to the domestic abundance of infected T. infestans and the presence or proportion of infected dogs or cats in Amamá, a rural village in northwestern Argentina. Seven (12.1%) children seronegative for antibodies to T. cruzi at baseline, with no history of travel or blood transfusion, seroconverted after three years. Six incident cases lived in houses heavily infested with T. infestans, with high proportions of bugs infected with T. cruzi and having fed on humans or dogs. The remaining incident case occurred under a very light domestic infestation detected only at the endpoint, and most bugs had fed on humans. Dogs had a 17 times greater force of infection than children (4.3% per year). Sustained vector surveillance is crucially needed in high-risk areas for Chagas disease such as the Gran Chaco. PMID:16014842

  9. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  10. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  11. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Judith I.; Ballif, Bryan A.; St. Clair, Riley M.; Vincent, James J.; Monroy, M. Carlota

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect’s feces during a blood meal, and enters the host’s blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more traditional DNA

  12. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Anne E; Taylor, Phillip W

    2011-05-07

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as 'prey'.

  13. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae), an insect of emerging medical relevance.

    PubMed

    Cannet, Arnaud; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Michel, Gregory; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15-34 °C) and relative humidity (46-75%) with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans. © A. Cannet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  15. Relationship between facial morphology, anterior open bite and non-nutritive sucking habits during the primary dentition stage

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Melissa Proença Nogueira; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Nogueira, Rodrigo Proença; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) can cause occlusal alterations, including anterior open bite (AOB). However, not all patients develop this malocclusion. Therefore, the emergence of AOB does not depend on deleterious habits, only. Objective Investigate a potential association between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs), anterior open bite (AOB) and facial morphology (FM). Methods 176 children in the primary dentition stage were selected. Intra and extraoral clinical examinations were performed and the children's legal guardians were asked to respond to a questionnaire comprising issues related to non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs). Results A statistically significant relationship was found between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) and anterior open bite (AOB). However, no association was found between these factors and children's facial morphology (FM). Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) during the primary dentition stage play a key role in determining anterior open bite (AOB) malocclusion regardless of patient's morphological facial pattern (FM). PMID:25162574

  16. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W.; Stiller, Warwick N.; Wilson, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  17. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites.

  18. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  19. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Lucas; Pedrini, Nicolás; Girotti, Juan R.; Mijailovsky, Sergio J.; Cardozo, Rubén M.; Gentile, Alberto G.; Hernández-Suárez, Carlos M.; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Juárez, M. Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America. Methodology and findings We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control. Conclusions The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling. PMID:25969989

  20. Tarnished plant bug management in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the most important insect pest of cotton in the Mississippi Delta. Although recent research has demonstrated that several cultural practices can be used in an overall IPM program for tarnished plant bug, insecticides remain the mos...

  1. Testing a Threshold-Based Bed Bug Management Approach in Apartment Buildings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard; Robson, Mark

    2017-07-26

    We tested a threshold-based bed bug ( Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: I- Non-chemical only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, II- Chemical control only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, III- Non-chemical and chemical control in apartments with >12 bed bug count, and IV- Chemical control only in apartments with ≥11 bed bug count. All apartments were monitored or treated once every two weeks for a maximum of 28 wk. Treatment I eliminated bed bugs in a similar amount of time to treatment II. Time to eliminate bed bugs was similar between treatment III and IV but required significantly less insecticide spray in treatment III than that in treatment IV. A threshold-based management approach (non-chemical only or non-chemical and chemical) can eliminate bed bugs in a similar amount of time, using little to no pesticide compared to a chemical only approach.

  2. Testing a Threshold-Based Bed Bug Management Approach in Apartment Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard; Robson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We tested a threshold-based bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: I- Non-chemical only in apartments with 1–12 bed bug count, II- Chemical control only in apartments with 1–12 bed bug count, III- Non-chemical and chemical control in apartments with >12 bed bug count, and IV- Chemical control only in apartments with ≥11 bed bug count. All apartments were monitored or treated once every two weeks for a maximum of 28 wk. Treatment I eliminated bed bugs in a similar amount of time to treatment II. Time to eliminate bed bugs was similar between treatment III and IV but required significantly less insecticide spray in treatment III than that in treatment IV. A threshold-based management approach (non-chemical only or non-chemical and chemical) can eliminate bed bugs in a similar amount of time, using little to no pesticide compared to a chemical only approach. PMID:28933720

  3. Deleterious sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children with otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Ralli, Giovanni; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Mora, Renzo; Guastini, Luca

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, bad sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children affected by otitis media with effusion. 65 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, observed in the ENT Department of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome, were enrolled in the study group (group A). All children were affected by otitis media with effusion for more than 3 months. As control group, 60 healthy children, aged from 7 to 12 years were identified (group B). All the children underwent medical history, with evaluation of the sucking habits, ENT examination, tympanometry, orthodontic examination and evaluation of swallowing. In the orthodontic examination the variables analyzed were: maximum mouth opening, right and left mandibular lateral movements and mandibular protrusion. Atypical swallowing was considered to occur when lip activity produced strong tension in the perioral musculature, and/or the tip of the tongue was placed or pushed against the anterior teeth during swallowing. In the group A, atypical swallowing was found in 33/65 subjects out of the 65 children (50.7%). In the control group (group B) 16/60 children (26.6%) showed atypical swallowing. Compared with group B, deleterious sucking habits were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the study group (28/65 vs. 12/60). In both the study and control group, deleterious sucking habits were present in almost all children with atypical swallowing (28/33 in group A and 12/16 in group B). Our data suggest a correlation between otitis media with effusion, deleterious sucking habits and prevalence of atypical swallowing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, amore » significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.« less

  5. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  6. Morphometric changes of Triatoma flavida Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera:Triatominae) in the transition from sylvatic to laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Fuentes González, Omar; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The one-generational metric changes occurring in Triatoma flavida (Hemiptera: Triatominae) when carried from its wild habitat (caves) to laboratory, were examined using traditional morphometric techniques. As for other species of Triatoma, Rhodnius or Panstrongylus studied in similar conditions, a significant reduction of head, thorax and wing size was observed. Sexual dimorphism of the wings, while present in the wild sample, was not detected anymore in the laboratory individuals. Biological significance and epidemiological importance are discussed.

  7. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  8. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  9. Bug City: Butterflies and Moths [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  10. Toxicity and potential utility of ivermectin and moxidectin as xenointoxicants against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Ridge, Gale E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. throughout western industrialized nations has been facilitated in part by the insect becoming pesticide-resistant. Novel control strategies, including xenointoxication, should be considered to combat C. lectularius. Ivermectin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for several human parasites, and the antiparasitic drug moxidectin, currently being explored in human clinical trials, were evaluated for efficacy against C. lectularius. Results showed that C. lectularius fed on ivermectin or moxidectin blood concentrations of >25 ng/mL and had significantly higher mortality (50-100 %) than controls (0-6 %) by day 13. Bed bugs that survived a blood meal containing >2.5 ng/mL of ivermectin suffered long-term sequelae including reduced fecundity, feeding difficulty, and incomplete ecdysis. Some insects that survived a blood meal containing ≤75 ng/mL moxidectin were able to feed and reproduce.

  11. Cimex lectularius ("Bed Bugs"): Recognition, Management, and Eradication.

    PubMed

    McMenaman, Kathryn S; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the United States and abroad have been in the public press. Physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. In this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites and their complications. Integrated pest management programs involving housing managers, residents, and professional pest exterminators provide both chemical and nonchemical solutions for eradication of bed bug infestations.

  12. Fixing Two BSD TCP Bugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This note outlines two bugs found in the BSD 4.4 Lite TCP implementation, as well as the implications of these bugs and possible ways to correct them. The first problem encountered in this particular TCP implementation is the use of a 2 segment initial congestion window, rather than the standard 1 segment initial window. The second problem is that the receiver delays ACKs in violation of the delayed ACK rules,

  13. Virulence of entomopathogenic bacteria in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Jose E; Liang, Dangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. The failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. While a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. Here, we tested the virulence of three entomopathogenic bacterial species in C. lectularius to determine their potential for bed bug control. We examined bed bug survival after inoculation with live or heat-killed Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis at varying temperatures. We also analyzed the viability and growth of the same bacteria in infected bed bugs. All three bacterial species were pathogenic to bed bugs. However, the effects of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were temperature-dependent while the lethality of B. thuringiensis israelensis was not. In addition, bacterial virulence was partly dependent on the route of infection but was not strongly associated with proliferation. Thus, our results suggest multiple possible mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity in the bed bug and indicate that entomopathogenic bacteria, or products derived from them, may have useful applications for bed bug control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lice outbreak in buffaloes: evidence of Anaplasma marginale transmission by sucking lice Haematopinus tuberculatus.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Diaz, Jorge Damian Stumpfs; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Araújo, Denise Nunes

    2013-06-01

    Lice infestations are commonly seen in buffaloes, causing damage directly to the animal, i.e., itching, skin lesions, and anemia. In addition, these insects can also be vectors for infectious diseases. The present study describes an outbreak of lice in buffaloes as well as evidence for Haematopinus tuberculatus acting as a vector of anaplasmosis. Lice and blood were collected from 4 young buffaloes (2- to 4-mo-old) and a molecular analysis for the presence of Anaplasma marginale was conducted. DNA of A. marginale was detected in the blood of all 4 animals. Twelve lice were collected and separated in 4 groups, with 3 insects each, to comprise a pool of samples. After DNA extraction and molecular analysis, a positive PCR for A. marginale was found in all pooled samples. These results identify sucking lice as potential vectors of anaplasmosis. However, additional studies are necessary to fully evaluate the vector potential of H. tuberculatus for A. maginale transmission.

  15. Functional Immunomics of the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Kent S.

    2013-01-01

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits, causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. No genomic resources to facilitate field and laboratory studies of this pest were available; therefore the first de novo exome for this destructive pest was assembled. RNA was extracted from insects challenged with bacterial and fungal immunoelicitors, insects fed on different cucurbit species, and insects from all life stages from egg to adult. All treatments and replicates were separately barcoded for subsequent analyses, then pooled for sequencing in a single lane using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Over 211 million 100-base tags generated in this manner were trimmed, filtered, and cleaned, then assembled into a de novo reference transcriptome using the Broad Institute Trinity assembly algorithm. The assembly was annotated using NCBIx NR, BLAST2GO, KEGG and other databases. Of the >130,000 total assemblies 37,327 were annotated identifying the sequences of candidate gene silencing targets from immune, endocrine, reproductive, cuticle, and other physiological systems. Expression profiling of the adult immune response was accomplished by aligning the 100-base tags from each biological replicate from each treatment and controls to the annotated reference assembly of the A. tristis transcriptome. PMID:26462532

  16. Role of Vision and Mechanoreception in Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages. PMID:25748041

  17. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  18. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  20. Nosema maddoxi sp. nov. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae), a Widespread Pathogen of the Green Stink Bug Chinavia hilaris (Say) and the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AWe describe a unique microsporidian species that infects the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and the dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus. All life stages are unikaryotic, but analysis of the consensus s...

  1. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies.

  2. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  3. Two compounds in bed bug feces are sufficient to elicit off-host aggregation by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Olson, Joelle F; Vers, Leonard M Ver; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    After feeding, bed bugs aggregate in cracks and crevices near a host. Aggregation and arrestment are mediated by tactile and chemical stimuli associated with the bugs' feces and exuviae. Volatiles derived from fecally stained filter papers were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and evaluated using a multichoice behavioral assay to determine their impact on bed bug aggregation. In addition, crude fecal extracts were collected in methanol, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated in open-air multichoice behavioral assays. The SPME method was used to detect (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal in heated bed bug feces. The presence of these two volatile components did not affect aggregation. Analysis of the crude fecal extracts revealed several semi-volatile nitrogenous compounds, a carboxylic acid and a sulfur-based compound. Adult antennae responded to compounds eluted from three regions of the crude extract using GC-EAD. A combination of two compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyldiethanolamine, resulted in aggregation responses equivalent to the original crude extract. Bed bug aggregation is mediated by semi-volatile compounds derived from fecal extracts, and two compounds are sufficient to elicit aggregation. The two compounds identified here could be used to enhance the effectiveness of insecticidal applications or improve monitoring techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Functional characterization of Aquaporin-like genes in the human bed bug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Joyce M; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-06-12

    The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a blood-feeding re-emerging annoyance pest insect that has the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi under experimental laboratory conditions. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that are essential in biological organisms. C. lectularius are constantly exposed to water-related stress, suggesting that AQPs may offer novel control avenues. We identified and cloned four AQPs from C. lectularius, assessed tissue and lifestage-specific expression, and characterized biochemical functions in vitro and in vivo. We identified an efficient water-specific AQP (ClAQP1), two aquaglyceroporins (ClGlp1 and ClGlp2) and a homolog of Drosophila melanogaster big brain (ClBib). ClGlp1 was only functional when co-expressed with the water-specific AQP. Simultaneous RNAi gene silencing of ClAQP1 and ClGlp1 significantly reduced water and urea excretion post blood feeding. The Bib homologue was enriched in embryos, exclusively expressed in ovaries, and when silenced, dramatically increased bug fecundity. Our data demonstrate that AQPs have critical roles in excretion, water homeostasis and reproduction in C. lectularius, and could be potential targets for control in this notorious pest.

  5. Comparative Trial of Effectiveness of Pyrethroid Insecticides Against Peridomestic Populations of Triatoma infestans in Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    CECERE, MARÍA CARLA; VÁZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, GONZALO M.; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO A.; GUREVITZ, JUAN M.; ZÁRATE, JOAQUÍN E.; ZAIDENBERG, MARIO; KITRON, URIEL; GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different pyrethroid insecticides, formulations, and doses on peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug) were evaluated in 128 houses with 148 identified infested peridomestic sites in northwestern Argentina between October 2003 and March 2005. Four treatments were randomly assigned within each community: two doses of 5% suspension concentrate β-cypermethrin in water applied with manual compression sprayers, the standard dose (S) at 50 mg and a double dose (2S) at 100 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2; and two emulsifiable concentrates diluted in diesel fuel and applied with power sprayers, 25% cypermethrin (100 mg [AI]m2) (CF) and 10% permethrin (170 mg [AI]m2) (DF). Infestation was assessed by timed manual collections with a dislodging agent at baseline, 5, 12, and 17 mo postspraying, and the sites found to be reinfested at 5 mo postspraying were selectively resprayed. Only 2S eliminated T. infestans from all peridomestic sites up to 12 mo postspraying, and it was significantly more effective than all other treatments. At 5 mo postspraying, more sites treated with CF or DF rather than S had bug colonies that probably represented residual foci, which they also failed in eliminating after a second spray. At 17 mo postspraying, the prevalence of reinfested peridomestic sites was 5% for 2S, 29% for S, 43% for CF, and 54% for DF. The application of suspension concentrate pyrethroids in dose twice as large as that currently in use in the attack phase produces a greater initial impact and may eliminate peridomestic populations of T. infestans. PMID:17017227

  6. Bed bugs, public health, and social justice: Part 2, An opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Jones, Susan C

    2011-04-01

    Bed bug infestations have resurged globally, nationally, and locally, yet the public health community in the U.S. has yet to mount a coordinated response to the escalating bed bug problem. Surveys of attendees at the 2009 National Environmental Health Association Annual Educational Conference & Exhibition, 2009 Ohio Association of Health Commissioners Fall Conference, 2009 Central Ohio Bed Bug Summit, and 2010 Hamilton County Council on Aging Annual Conference were conducted to gauge opinions about bed bugs. Survey results revealed that 90% of all respondents considered bed bugs to be a public health concern, and 73% indicated that bed bugs pose an environmental justice concern. These findings, which indicate that bed bugs are an inescapable public health mandate with environmental justice undertones, should rally public health agencies at federal, state, and local levels to respond with authority of agency to the escalating bed bug problem.

  7. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Barros, Aluísio J D; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora, César Gomes

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits was collected at birth, in the first, third, sixth and 12th months of life, and at six years of age. Control variables included maternal schooling and child's birthweight, cephalic perimeter, and sex. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. Prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.2%, and that of posterior cross bite was 18.2%. Non-nutritive sucking habits between 12 months and four years of age and digital sucking at age six years were the main risk factors for anterior open bite. Breastfeeding for less than nine months and regular use of pacifier between age 12 months and four years were risk factors for posterior cross bite. Interaction between duration of breastfeeding and the use of pacifier was identified for posterior cross bite. Given that breastfeeding is a protective factor for other diseases of infancy, our findings indicate that the common risks approach is the most appropriate for the prevention of posterior cross bite in primary or initial mixed dentition.

  8. Behavioral effects of sublethal exposure to a combination of β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Sydney E; Kowles, Katelyn A; Gordon, Jennifer R; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2017-03-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are blood-feeding insect pests with public health relevance. Their rapid evolution of resistance to pyrethroids has prompted a shift to combination products that include both a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticide. Insecticides have both a direct impact on mortality and an indirect effect on behavior. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of a widely used combination product containing β-cyfluthrin (a pyrethroid) and imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid), as unexpected behavioral changes after exposure have been known to affect efficacy of insecticides. We found that bed bugs exposed to sublethal doses of a combination product containing β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid did not feed as effectively as untreated bugs. Their locomotion behavior was also reduced. However, aggregation in response to the presence of conspecific harborages was not affected by sublethal exposure. Bed bugs exhibit behavioral changes after sublethal exposure to a combination product that could affect pest management choices and outcomes. A reduction in host-finding efficiency and feeding could complement the lethal effects of the insecticide. Alternatively, reduced locomotion following exposure could limit ongoing contact with insecticide deposits. However, an overall reduction in movement indicates that treatments are unlikely to cause dispersal of bugs to adjacent dwellings. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Bug repellent safety

    MedlinePlus

    The safest bug repellent is to wear proper clothing. Wear a full-brimmed hat to protect your ... Tuck pant cuffs into socks. Wear light-colored clothing. Light colors are less attractive than dark colors ...

  10. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren

    2015-06-01

    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  12. Efficacy of three different steamers for control of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Desen; Wang, Changlu; Wang, Guohong; Zha, Chen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-15

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., have become one of the most difficult urban pests to control. Steam treatment is reported to be an effective method to kill bed bugs and is considered to be an important component of bed bug integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated and compared the efficacy of two affordable consumer-grade commercial steamers to a commonly used professional-grade steamer for killing bed bugs. In laboratory experiments, the consumer-grade steamer at an affordable price achieved the same high control efficacy as the professional-grade steamer for treating bed bugs exposed on mattresses (100% bed bug mortality), located beneath a fabric cover (>89% bed bug mortality), or hiding in cracks (100% bed bug mortality). Bed bugs located behind a leather cover did not suffer significant mortality from steam treatment regardless of the type of steamers used and treatment duration. Proper use of steamers can kill all life stages of bed bugs. Affordable consumer-grade steamers are as effective as professional-grade steam machines for eliminating bed bugs resting on mattresses, hiding behind fabric materials, or in cracks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential of Essential Oil-Based Pesticides and Detergents for Bed Bug Control.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The bed bug, (Cimex lectularius L.), is a difficult pest to control. Prevalence of insecticide resistance among bed bug populations and concerns over human-insecticide exposure has stimulated the development of alternative bed bug control materials. Many essential oil-based pesticides and detergent insecticides targeting bed bugs have been developed in recent years. We evaluated the efficacy of nine essential oil-based products and two detergents using direct spray and residual contact bioassays in the laboratory. Two conventional insecticides, Temprid SC (imidacloprid and β-cyfluthrin) and Demand CS (λ-cyhalothrin), were used for comparison. Among the 11 nonsynthetic insecticides tested, only EcoRaider (1% geraniol, 1% cedar extract, and 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) and Bed Bug Patrol (0.003% clove oil, 1% peppermint oil, and 1.3% sodium lauryl sulfate) caused >90% mortality of nymphs in direct spray and forced exposure residual assays. However, the efficacy of EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol was significantly lower than that of Temprid SC and Demand CS in choice exposure residual bioassay. Direct spray of EcoRaider caused 87% egg mortality, whereas the other nonsynthetic insecticides had little effect on bed bug eggs. EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol did not exhibit detectable repellency against bed bugs in the presence of a carbon dioxide source. These findings suggest that EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol are potentially useful pesticides for controlling bed bug infestations, but further testing in naturally infested environments is needed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  14. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Suchy, James T; Lewis, Vernard R

    2011-03-07

    The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect's host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect's behavioral patterns.

  15. Association between allergic rhinitis, bottle feeding, non‐nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusion in the primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez‐Nava, F; Quezada‐Castillo, J A; Oviedo‐Treviño, S; Saldivar‐González, A H; Sánchez‐Nuncio, H R; Beltrán‐Guzmán, F J; Vázquez‐Rodríguez, E M

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between allergic rhinitis, bottle feeding, non‐nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusion in the primary dentition. Methods Data were collected on 1160 children aged 4–5 years, who had been longitudinally followed since the age of 4 months, when they were admitted to nurseries in a suburban area of Tampico–Madero, Mexico. Periodically, physical examinations were conducted and a questionnaire was given to their parents or tutors. Results Malocclusion was detected in 640 of the children (51.03% had anterior open bite and 7.5% had posterior cross‐bite). Allergic rhinitis alone (adjusted odds ratio = 2.87; 95% CI 1.57 to 5.25) or together with non‐nutritive sucking habits (adjusted odds ratio = 3.31; 95% CI 1.55 to 7.09) had an effect on anterior open bite. Bottle feeding alone (adjusted odds ratio = 1.95; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.54) or together with allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio = 3.96; 95% CI 1.80 to 8.74) had an effect on posterior cross‐bite. Posterior cross‐bite was more frequent in children with allergic rhinitis and non‐nutritive sucking habits (10.4%). Conclusions Allergic rhinitis alone or together with non‐nutritive sucking habits is related to anterior open bite. Non‐nutritive sucking habits together with allergic rhinitis seem to be the most important factor for development of posterior open bite in children under the age of 5 years. PMID:16769710

  16. Brown marmorated stink bug detections in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, was first detected in the U.S. in Pennsylvania in 1998. This pest is now well-established in the northeast and has been detected in more than 25 states, including Oregon. These non-native stink bugs look much like many of our native stink b...

  17. Species composition and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Louisiana soybean.

    PubMed

    Temple, J H; Davis, J A; Micinski, S; Hardke, J T; Price, P; Leonard, B R

    2013-08-01

    In Louisiana during the last decade, the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has become a significant and yield-limiting pest of soybean. The redbanded stink bug was previously reported in the United States in 1892, but was never considered an economically important pest until recently. Soybeans representing four maturity groups (MG) III, IV, V, and VI were sampled weekly from beginning bloom (R1) to physiological maturity (R8) during 2008-2010 at five locations across Louisiana to determine the Pentatomidae composition. In total, 13,146 stink bugs were captured and subsequently identified to species. The predominant species included the redbanded stink bug (54.2%); southern green stink bug (27.1%), Nezara viridula L.; brown stink bug (6.6%), Euschistus servus (Say); and green stink bug (5.5%), Acrosternum hilare (Say). Redbanded stink bug comprised the largest percentage of the complex collected at four of the five survey sites. Numbers exceeding action thresholds of this stink bug complex were only detected during R4 to R7 growth stages. Redbanded stink bug accounted for the largest percentage of the stink bug complex in early maturing soybean varieties (MG III [86%] and IV [60%]) and declined in later maturing soybeans (MG V [54%] and VI [50%]). The redbanded stink bug was initially identified in southern Louisiana during 2000 and had been reported in all soybean producing regions in Louisiana by 2006. This survey is the first to report the redbanded stink bug as a predominant pest of soybeans from locations within the United States.

  18. Stink bug host preferences: colonization, oviposition, and feeding on cotton.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relative colonization rates of stink bug species among host crops grown in the Southeastern US are needed to parameterize a landscape model that seeks to predict stink bug populations in Bt cotton. We sampled stink bugs in Bt cotton, non-Bt cotton, soybean and peanuts over 3 years and 3 sites in the...

  19. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Immo A; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Blakely, Brittny N; Hammond, John I; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y; Maio, William A; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  20. Between-group transmission dynamics of the swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2005-06-01

    The parasitic cimicid swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius, is the principal invertebrate vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) and has also been associated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To help understand the spread of this vector, we experimentally measured the transmission of O. vicarius between groups (colonies) of its main host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), in the field. Transmission of bugs between colonies varied significantly with year, size of the colony, and week within the season. Bug immigration into sites tended to peak in mid-summer. Swallow nests in larger colonies had more consistent rates of bug introduction than did nests in small colonies, but within a colony a given nest's weekly immigrant-bug count varied widely across the season. Transmission of O. vicarius between host social groups follows broadly predictable seasonal patterns, but there is nevertheless temporal and spatial heterogeneity in bug transmission. By understanding how long-distance movement by this vector varies in time and space, we can better predict where and when BCRV epizootics may occur.

  1. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Y.J.; Fessenden, T.

    1998-08-17

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as ''beam bugs'', have been used throughoutmore » linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug.« less

  2. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Y J; Fessenden, T

    1998-09-02

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as "beam bugs", have been used throughoutmore » linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug.« less

  3. 76 FR 550 - Second National Bed Bug Summit; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0190; FRL-8858-4] Second National Bed Bug Summit... planning the second National Bed Bug Summit to be held February 1 and 2, 2011, on the topic of the bed bug resurgence in the United States. The goal of this meeting is to review the current bed bug problem and...

  4. Entrapment of bed bugs by leaf trichomes inspires microfabrication of biomimetic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Szyndler, Megan W.; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Potter, Michael F.; Corn, Robert M.; Loudon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Resurgence in bed bug infestations and widespread pesticide resistance have greatly renewed interest in the development of more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to manage bed bugs. Historically, in Eastern Europe, bed bugs were entrapped by leaves from bean plants, which were then destroyed; this purely physical entrapment was related to microscopic hooked hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surfaces. Using scanning electron microscopy and videography, we documented the capture mechanism: the physical impaling of bed bug feet (tarsi) by these trichomes. This is distinct from a Velcro-like mechanism of non-piercing entanglement, which only momentarily holds the bug without sustained capture. Struggling, trapped bed bugs are impaled by trichomes on several legs and are unable to free themselves. Only specific, mechanically vulnerable locations on the bug tarsi are pierced by the trichomes, which are located at effective heights and orientations for bed bug entrapment despite a lack of any evolutionary association. Using bean leaves as templates, we microfabricated surfaces indistinguishable in geometry from the real leaves, including the trichomes, using polymers with material properties similar to plant cell walls. These synthetic surfaces snag the bed bugs temporarily but do not hinder their locomotion as effectively as real leaves. PMID:23576783

  5. Tracking zoonotic pathogens using blood-sucking flies as 'flying syringes'

    PubMed Central

    Bitome-Essono, Paul-Yannick; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Mokoudoum, Nancy Diamella; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Boundenga, Larson; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Mbehang-Nguema, Philippe; Njiokou, Flobert; Makanga, Boris; Wattier, Rémi; Ayala, Diego; Ayala, Francisco J; Renaud, Francois; Rougeron, Virginie; Bretagnolle, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    About 60% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of zoonotic origin. Their increasing number requires the development of new methods for early detection and monitoring of infectious agents in wildlife. Here, we investigated whether blood meals from hematophagous flies could be used to identify the infectious agents circulating in wild vertebrates. To this aim, 1230 blood-engorged flies were caught in the forests of Gabon. Identified blood meals (30%) were from 20 vertebrate species including mammals, birds and reptiles. Among them, 9% were infected by different extant malaria parasites among which some belonged to known parasite species, others to new parasite species or to parasite lineages for which only the vector was known. This study demonstrates that using hematophagous flies as ‘flying syringes’ constitutes an interesting approach to investigate blood-borne pathogen diversity in wild vertebrates and could be used as an early detection tool of zoonotic pathogens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22069.001 PMID:28347401

  6. Bed Bug Myths

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  7. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of Beauveria bassiana for bed bug control.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Jenkins, Nina E; Rajotte, Edwin G; Thomas, Matthew B

    2012-09-15

    Residual biopesticide treatments of Beauveria bassiana were tested against the bed bug Cimex lectularius. An oil formulation of conidia was applied to different substrates. Bed bugs were exposed for 1 h, transferred to an unsprayed environment and monitored for mortality. Separate bioassays evaluated the effect of bed bug strain, sex, life stage, and exposure substrate on mortality. Rapid mortality was observed in all bioassays, with bed bugs exposed to treated jersey knit cotton dying most rapidly. A further assay demonstrated efficient autodissemination of conidia from exposed bed bugs to unexposed bed bugs within artificial harborages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Page of Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For mass distribution: two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  9. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  10. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-04-21

    Early transition from breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits may be related to occlusofacial abnormalities as environmental factors. Previous studies have not taken into account the potential for interactions between feeding practice, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal traits. This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Peking city. This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior crossbite, posterior crossbite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations. It was found that a short duration of breast-feeding (never or ≤ 6 months) was directly associated with posterior cross bite (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031) and no maxillary space (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.23-2.98; P = 0.038). In children breast-fed for ≤ 6 months, the probability of developing pacifier-sucking habits was 4 times that for those breast-fed for >6 months (OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.85-9.60; P = 0.0002). Children who were bottle-fed for over 18 months had a 1.45-fold higher risk of nonmesial step occlusion and a 1.43-fold higher risk of a class II canine relationship compared with those who were bottle-fed for up to 18 months. Non-nutritive sucking habits were also found to affect occlusion: A prolonged digit-sucking habit increased the probability of an anterior open bite, while a pacifier-sucking habit associated with excessive overjet and absence of lower

  11. Psychological effects of bed bug attacks (Cimex lectularius L.).

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome; de Shazo, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In some individuals, psychological sequelae resulting from bed bug biting events include nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance (to keep the bugs away), insomnia, anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and personal dysfunction. These symptoms are suggestive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We used a previously published PTSD checklist to analyze online blogs and other Internet sites where bed bug postings occur to assess postings for evidence of emotional trauma. One hundred thirty-five postings were read and analyzed, and 110 (81%) of those postings reported psychological effects from bed bug infestations. Scoring with the PTSD checklist revealed a range of 0-52 (mean 13.25; SD 9.38); one met the criteria (≥50) considered positive for PTSD. Based upon our survey of online postings concerning such effects, an as-yet-to-be-determined proportion of individuals who experience bed bug bites develop moderate-to-severe negative emotional symptoms after infestations. These individuals should be identified in the course of their interactions with health professionals so that appropriate mental health care may be provided. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Behavioral Responses of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, to Insecticide Dusts.

    PubMed

    Agnew, John L; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-08-08

    Bed bugs have reemerged recently as a serious and growing problem not only in North America but in many parts of the world. These insects have become the most challenging pest to control in urban environments. Residual insecticides are the most common methods used for bed bug control; however, insecticide resistance limits the efficacy of treatments. Desiccant dusts have emerged as a good option to provide a better residual effect for bed bug control. Several studies have focused on determining the efficacy of dust-based insecticides against bed bugs. However, behavioral responses of bed bugs to insecticide dusts could influence their efficacy. The behavioral responses of bed bugs to six insecticide dusts commonly used in the United States were evaluated with an advanced video tracking technique (Ethovision). Bed bugs took longer to make first contact with areas treated with the diatomaceous earth (DE)-based products MotherEarth D and Alpine than pyrethroid, pyrethrins or silica gel based products, DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust and CimeXa, respectively. Lower visitation rates of bed bugs were recorded for areas treated with MotherEarth D, Alpine and CimeXa than that of DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust, and Tri-Die Silica + Pyrethrum Dust. Bed bugs spent less time in areas treated with Tri-Die Dust, CimeXa, Alpine, and MotherEarth D than DeltaDust and Tempo 1% Dust, and they exhibited a reduction in locomotor parameters when crawling on areas treated with CimeXa and Alpine. The implications of these responses to bed bug control are discussed.

  13. Behavioral Responses of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, to Insecticide Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, John L.; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Bed bugs have reemerged recently as a serious and growing problem not only in North America but in many parts of the world. These insects have become the most challenging pest to control in urban environments. Residual insecticides are the most common methods used for bed bug control; however, insecticide resistance limits the efficacy of treatments. Desiccant dusts have emerged as a good option to provide a better residual effect for bed bug control. Several studies have focused on determining the efficacy of dust-based insecticides against bed bugs. However, behavioral responses of bed bugs to insecticide dusts could influence their efficacy. The behavioral responses of bed bugs to six insecticide dusts commonly used in the United States were evaluated with an advanced video tracking technique (Ethovision). Bed bugs took longer to make first contact with areas treated with the diatomaceous earth (DE)-based products MotherEarth D and Alpine than pyrethroid, pyrethrins or silica gel based products, DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust and CimeXa, respectively. Lower visitation rates of bed bugs were recorded for areas treated with MotherEarth D, Alpine and CimeXa than that of DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust, and Tri-Die Silica + Pyrethrum Dust. Bed bugs spent less time in areas treated with Tri-Die Dust, CimeXa, Alpine, and MotherEarth D than DeltaDust and Tempo 1% Dust, and they exhibited a reduction in locomotor parameters when crawling on areas treated with CimeXa and Alpine. The implications of these responses to bed bug control are discussed. PMID:28786920

  14. The Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor from the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Blakely, Brittny N.; Hammond, John I.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y.; Maio, William A.; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs’ antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers. PMID:25411789

  15. Spatial Distribution and Site-Specific Spraying of Main Sucking Pests of Elm Trees.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, R; Iranipour, S

    2017-06-01

    Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012. Each sample was a 30-cm branch terminal. Eight samples were taken from each tree in four cardinal directions and two canopy levels. The number of sucking insects and leaves of each sample were counted and recorded. Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using geostatistics. Kriging was used for producing prediction maps. Insecticide application was restricted to the regions with populations higher than threshold. To identify within-tree distribution of the honeydew-producing pests, six and four elm trees were chosen in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and sampled weekly. These trees were sampled as described previously. European elm scale (EES), Gossyparia spuria (Modeer) and two species of aphids were the dominant honeydew-producing pests. The results revealed that the effects of direction, canopy level and their interactions on insect populations were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Site-specific spraying decreased the amount of insecticides used by ca. 20%, while satisfactory control of the sucking pests and honeydew excretion was obtained. Considering the environmental and economic benefits of site-specific spraying, it is worth doing more complementary works in this area.

  16. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  17. Ability of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal to attract adult bed bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate and timely surveillance of bed bug infestations is critical for development of effective control strategies. While the bed bug produced volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal are considered defensive secretions, through use of EthoVision® video-tracking software we demonstrate that low ...

  18. Differences in competitive ability for the occupancy of shelters in triatomines.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, C A; Minoli, S A; Manrique, G

    2017-09-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) are nocturnal blood-sucking insects. During daylight hours they remain in an akinetic state inside their shelters, whereas at dusk they become active and move outside. When they are outside their shelters during the photophase, triatomines are vulnerable to diurnal predators and the period just before dawn is critical to their survival. This work analyses the existence of competitive interactions involved in the occupancy of shelters by triatomines. Behavioural assays were performed in which nymphs of different stages, nutritional status or species were released in an experimental arena containing a space-limited artificial shelter. The proportions of individuals occupying the shelter during the photophase were quantified to estimate the competitive abilities of each stage and species. Intraspecific comparisons showed higher levels of shelter occupancy for fourth over fifth instars and fed over unfed nymphs of Triatoma infestans. Interspecific comparisons showed higher rates of shelter occupancy for Triatoma sordida in comparison with T. infestans, and for T. infestans over Rhodnius prolixus. Arrival order was also relevant to determining shelter occupancy levels: early arrival was advantageous in comparison with later arrival. The study of intra- and interspecific competitive interactions for shelter occupancy provides relevant information about colonization and recolonization processes in the natural environments of triatomines. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L; Harrison, Scott A

    2013-06-07

    ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius). The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  20. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Susan C.; Bryant, Joshua L.; Harrison, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius). The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations. PMID:26464388

  1. Apparent Covariation between Child Habit Disorders: Effects of Successful Treatment for Thumb Sucking on Untargeted Chronic Hair Pulling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Hove, Gayleen

    1987-01-01

    The study examined effects of aversive taste treatment of thumb sucking on untreated habitual hair pulling by two young males (ages 2 and 5). Concomitant with successful treatment of thumb sucking, hair pulling was also eliminated. Results suggest an efficient method for changing behaviors that are difficult to treat directly. (Author/JW)

  2. The mental health impact of bed bug infestations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Rachelle; Seko, Yukari; Chan, Lai Fong; Dere, Jessica; Kim, Jaemin; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mental health effects associated with bed bugs. We employed a five-stage scoping review framework, to systematically identify and review eligible articles. Eligibility criteria included a focus on bed bug infestations and reference to mental health impacts. Descriptive information was then extracted from each article, including the specific mental health effects cited. An initial search yielded 920 unique articles on the topic of bed bugs. Of these, 261 underwent abstract review, and 167 underwent full-text review. Full-text review and subsequent review of reference lists yielded a final sample of 51 articles. Numerous mental health effects were linked to bed bug infestations, including severe psychiatric symptoms. However, the majority (n = 31) of the articles were commentary papers; only five original research articles were identified. Although significant mental health effects are often linked to bed bugs, such discussions remain largely anecdotal. Despite recognition that the impact of bed bugs constitutes an important public health concern, little empirical evidence currently exists on this topic.

  3. Evaluation of the Potential for Secondary Kill for Ingested Insecticides in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby

    2017-06-01

    Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait. We first investigated whether blood-fed adults enhance nymph survivorship within aggregations by increasing the local relative humidity (RH) and providing fecal nutrients. Higher RH (50% and 95%) resulted in greater survivorship of first instars compared with 0% RH. Therefore, in subsequent experiments, we controlled RH to decouple its effect on nymph survivorship from effects of fecal nutrients. The presence of fed or unfed adults did not increase unfed first instar survivorship, suggesting that if nymphs ingested feces, its nutritional benefits were minimal. Nymph survivorship was unaffected by the presence of adult males fed fipronil or clothianidin, suggesting that unlike in cockroaches, highly effective insecticides might not be effective as secondary kill toxicants in bed bugs. To directly compare secondary kill in first-instar bed bugs and B. germanica, we exposed both to insecticide-laden adult B. germanica feces. Whereas first-instar B. germanica died in the presence of insecticide-laden feces, bed bugs did not. We, therefore, conclude that secondary kill with neuroactive insecticides will likely not be a significant factor in bed bug population suppression. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  5. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-11-02

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control.

  6. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  7. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    PubMed

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species.

  8. Vacuum characteristics of the sucking cycle and relationships with milk removal from the breast in term infants.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Anna Maria; Sakalidis, Vanessa Susanna; Lai, Ching Tat; Perrella, Sharon Lisa; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2016-05-01

    The importance of an infant's intra-oral vacuum in milk removal from the breast has been established. However, the relationship between the vacuum curve and milk transfer is not well understood. To investigate the parameters of the infant suck cycle in relation to the volume of milk removed from the breast. Cross-sectional study to elucidate the role of infant intra-oral vacuum in efficient milk removal from the breast. Nineteen fully breastfed term infants. Intra-oral vacuum was recorded during monitored breastfeeds using a pressure transducer. Ultrasound imaging (milk flow) and respiratory inductive plethysmography (swallowing) were used to determine the nutritive sucking (NS) portion of the feed. Milk intake was determined by weighing infants before and after feeds. Vacuum traces of the first and next 2min of NS from the first breast were analysed. The volumes of milk removed during both NS periods were negatively associated with peak vacuum (p<0.001) and rate of vacuum application (p<0.001), and positively related to area under first half of the suck cycle (p<0.001). Most parameters changed significantly from the first 2min of NS to the next 2min including significant reduction in peak vacuum and area under first half of the suck cycle. These results further support the role of intra-oral vacuum, specifically optimal peak vacuum, in effective and efficient milk removal during breastfeeding. It also appears that infants modify their sucking dynamics to adapt to changes in milk flow during milk ejection as the breast empties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Variability and Geographic Diversity of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations from the Midwest Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Narain, Ralph B; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Kamble, Shripat T

    2015-07-01

    With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions. Population dynamics, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance of 10 populations from the Midwest were analyzed in this study. The bed bug samples collected by pest control companies were genotyped using eight species-specific microsatellite markers. Results showed all eight markers were polymorphic, with 8-16 alleles per locus, suggesting high genetic diversity. The FST values were >0.25, signifying pronounced genetic differentiation. The G-test results also indicated high genetic differentiation among populations. The frequency of the most common allele across all eight loci was 0.42. The coefficient of relatedness between each of the populations was >0.5, indicative of sibling or parent-offspring relationships, while the FIS and its confidence interval values were statistically insignificant within the populations tested. The populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly because of high heterozygosity. The genetic distance analysis using a neighbor-joining tree showed that the populations from Kansas City, MO, were genetically separate from most of those from Nebraska, indicating a geographic pattern of genetic structure. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of using microsatellite markers to study bed bugs population structure, thereby improving our understanding of bed bug population dynamics in the Midwest. Overall, this study showed a high genetic diversity and identified several

  10. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  11. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  12. Susceptibilities of Tarnished Plant Bug and Stink Bug Nymphs to Various Insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the susceptibility of the nymphal stages and adult stage of the tarnished plant bug to a pyrethroid (permethrin), organophasphate (methamidophos), and neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam) insecticide. The susceptibilities of 5th instar and adult stages of th...

  13. Aggregation behavior of the southern chinch bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, forms dense, multigenerational aggregations in St. Augustinegrass lawns leading to grass death from sap feeding. We conducted several bioassays to better understand the signals responsible for the formation and maintenance of southern chinch bug ag...

  14. Neuropeptidomics of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Derst, Christian; Reinhardt, Klaus; Wegener, Christian

    2018-01-05

    The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a globally distributed human ectoparasite with fascinating biology. It has recently acquired resistance against a broad range of insecticides, causing a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations. The recent annotation of the bed bug genome revealed a full complement of neuropeptide and neuropeptide receptor genes in this species. With regard to the biology of C. lectularius, neuropeptide signaling is especially interesting because it regulates feeding, diuresis, digestion, as well as reproduction and also provides potential new targets for chemical control. To identify which neuropeptides are translated from the genome-predicted genes, we performed a comprehensive peptidomic analysis of the central nervous system of the bed bug. We identified in total 144 different peptides from 29 precursors, of which at least 67 likely present bioactive mature neuropeptides. C. lectularius corazonin and myosuppressin are unique and deviate considerably from the canonical insect consensus sequences. Several identified neuropeptides likely act as hormones, as evidenced by the occurrence of respective mass signals and immunoreactivity in neurohemal structures. Our data provide the most comprehensive peptidome of a Heteropteran species so far and in comparison suggest that a hematophageous life style does not require qualitative adaptations of the insect peptidome.

  15. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Wang, Changlu; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Gibb, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Multifamily housing facilities serving low-income populations have been at the forefront of bed bug outbreaks. Research conducted in the past 8 years has consistently proven that integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for successful suppression of bed bug infestations. Bed bug IPM in multifamily settings is especially dependent upon a collaborative community or building-wide effort involving residents, building staff and pest control technicians. Other components of a bed bug IPM program include regular monitoring to detect early-stage bed bug infestations and combined use of non-chemical and chemical interventions. Lastly, to reduce reinfestation rates and costs associated with bed bug control, it is critical to continue periodic monitoring and implement preventive control measures even after successful elimination of bed bugs has been achieved. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ineffectiveness of over-the-counter total-release foggers against the bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L

    2012-06-01

    Field-collected bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) showed little, if any, adverse effects after 2-h direct exposure to the aerosolized pyrethroid(s) from three over-the-counter total-release foggers ('bug bombs' or 'foggers'); Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger. One field-collected population, EPM, was an exception in that there was significant mortality at 5-7 d when bugs out in the open had been exposed to the Spectracide Fogger; mortality was low when these bugs had access to an optional harborage, a situation observed for all field-collected populations when exposed to the three foggers. Even the Harlan strain, the long-term laboratory population that is susceptible to pyrethroids and that served as an internal control in these experiments, was unaffected if the bugs were covered by a thin cloth layer that provided harborage. In residences and other settings, the majority of bed bugs hide in protected sites where they will not be directly contracted by the insecticide mist from foggers. This study provides the first scientific data supporting the position that total-release foggers should not be recommended for control of bed bugs, because 1) many field-collected bed bugs are resistant to pyrethroids, and they are not affected by brief exposure to low concentrations of pyrethrins and/or pyrethroids provided by foggers; and 2) there is minimal, if any, insecticide penetration into typical bed bug harborage sites. This study provides strong evidence that Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger were ineffective as bed bug control agents.

  17. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  18. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust). Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  19. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  20. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215

  1. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  2. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Saltzmann, Kurt; Bennett, Gary; Gibb, Timothy

    2012-04-02

    Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1) non-chemical methods only (n = 9); (2) insecticides only (n = 6); and (3) integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9). The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max) bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM) treatment were: 4 (1, 57), 19 (1, 250), and 14 (1, 219), respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks) median (min, max) bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134), 11.5 (0, 58), and 1 (0, 38), respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  3. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Saltzmann, Kurt; Bennett, Gary; Gibb, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1) non-chemical methods only (n = 9); (2) insecticides only (n = 6); and (3) integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9). The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max) bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM) treatment were: 4 (1, 57), 19 (1, 250), and 14 (1, 219), respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks) median (min, max) bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134), 11.5 (0, 58), and 1 (0, 38), respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments. PMID:26466533

  4. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  5. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01) insignificantly. Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  6. Effects of Ultralow Oxygen and Vacuum Treatments on Bed Bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2016-04-22

    Control of bed bugs is problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmentally friendly solution to kill bed bugs on infested items. ULO treatments were established by flushing sealed enclosures with nitrogen. All life stages of bed bugs were found to be susceptible to ULO and vacuum treatments, and efficacy of the treatments increased with reduced oxygen levels, increased treatment time, and temperature. In the ULO treatments, 100% mortality of bed bug nymphs and adults and >98% mortality of bed bug eggs were achieved in the 8-h treatment under 0.1% O 2 atmosphere at 30°C. Different levels of vacuum that yielded different oxygen levels were tested on all life stages of bed bugs. The susceptibility of different stages to vacuum treatments increased from nymphs to adults to eggs. Complete control of all life stages was achieved in 12 h under -982 mbar (-29.0 inHg) vacuum at 30°C. This study demonstrated that bed bugs were very susceptible to low oxygen stresses and ULO and vacuum treatments have potential to be used as effective and safe treatments to decontaminate bed bug-infested removable objects. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016.This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  7. Evaluation of a model community-wide bed bug management program in affordable housing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard A; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2016-01-01

    Low-income apartment communities in the United States are suffering from disproportionally high bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., infestations owing to lack of effective monitoring and treatment. Studies examining the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) for the control of bed bugs in affordable housing have been limited to small subsets of bed-bug-infested apartments, rather than at the apartment community level. We developed, implemented and evaluated a complex-wide IPM program for bed bugs in an affordable housing community. Proactive inspections and biweekly treatments using a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods until bed bugs were not detected for three biweekly monitoring visits were key elements of the IPM program. A total of 55 bed-bug-infested apartments were identified during the initial inspection. Property management was unaware of 71% of these infestations. Over the next 12 months, 14 additional infested apartments were identified. The IPM program resulted in a 98% reduction in bed bug counts among treated apartments and reduced infestation rates from 15 to 2.2% after 12 months. Adopting a complex-wide bed bug IPM program, incorporating proactive monitoring, and biweekly treatments of infested apartments utilizing non-chemical and chemical methods can successfully reduce infestation rates to very low levels. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Glynn

    2017-06-24

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say) eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  9. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Glynn

    2017-01-01

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say) eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly. PMID:28672808

  10. In vitro study of anti-suck-back ability by themselves on new high-speed air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshiko; Nakano, Masako; Arai, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    The anti-suck-back ability of five new high-speed air turbine handpiece models was evaluated in this study. First, suck-back pressure with water displacement within a glass tube was measured. Next, under three different conditions, how many on-off times it takes before fluorescent stains became visible on a piece of gauze at the exhaust vent was counted and the presence of fluorescent stains on the exhaust vents itself was examined. As a result, the water height for each part of one handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, was below 0 mm. Except for under full emersion, this model, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, did not have any visible fluorescence penetration to the exhaust vent even after 500 on-off switches under fume/mist conditions. Conversely, the other handpieces (Ti-Max X700L, T1 CONTROL, SYNEA TA-98CLED, GENTLE silence LUX 8000B) showed suck-back. In conclusion, the first mentioned new turbine handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, had a possibility of no suck-back by itself. However, full immersion of the whole head of the handpiece which is not completely sealed must be avoided to prevent liquid intake.

  11. Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... event of a bug bite or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ...

  12. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Richard G.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust). Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment. PMID:29432483

  13. Triatoma maculata colonises urban domicilies in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ricardo-Silva, Alice; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Silva, Silvano Pedrosa da; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Vargas, Nathalia Coelho; Freitas, Maria-Rosa Goreti

    2016-11-01

    During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission.

  14. The e-Bug project in France.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  15. Bed bug aggregation on dirty laundry: a mechanism for passive dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hentley, William T; Webster, Ben; Evison, Sophie E F; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2017-09-28

    Bed bugs have shown a recent and rapid global expansion that has been suggested to be caused by cheap air travel. How a small, flightless and anachoretic insect that hides within its host's sleeping area manages to travel long distances is not yet clear. Bed bugs are attracted to the odour of sleeping humans and we suggest that soiled clothing may present a similarly attractive cue, allowing bed bugs to 'hitch-hike' around the world after aggregating in the laundry bags of travellers. We show that (1) soiled clothing is significantly more attractive than clean clothing to active bed bugs moving within a bedroom sized arena and (2) elevation of CO 2 to a level that simulates human occupancy in the same arena appears to initiate search behaviour rather than direct it. Our results show, for the first time, how leaving worn clothing exposed in sleeping areas when travelling can be exploited by bed bugs to facilitate passive dispersal.

  16. Insects: Bugged Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete 16,345-bp mitochondrial genome of the agriculturally-destructive pod sucking pest, the giant coreid bug, Anoplocnemis curvipes (Hemiptera: Coreidae), was assembled from paired end next generation sequencing reads. The A. curvipes mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein coding genes...

  18. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  20. Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of bed bugs has always been problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmental friendly solution to bed bug infestations. ULO treatments were establishe...

  1. First Report of Colonies of Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, Using a Trained Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522

  2. Sustainability of vector control strategies in the Gran Chaco Region: current challenges and possible approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability has become a focal point of the international agenda. At the heart of its range of distribution in the Gran Chaco Region, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed, even in areas subject to intensive professional vector control efforts. Chagas disease control programs traditionally have been composed of two divorced entities: a vector control program in charge of routine field operations (bug detection and insecticide spraying) and a disease control program in charge of screening blood donors, diagnosis, etiologic treatment and providing medical care to chronic patients. The challenge of sustainable suppression of bug infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission can be met through integrated disease management, in which vector control is combined with active case detection and treatment to increase impact, cost-effectiveness and public acceptance in resource-limited settings. Multi-stakeholder involvement may add sustainability and resilience to the surveillance system. Chagas vector control and disease management must remain a regional effort within the frame of sustainable development rather than being viewed exclusively as a matter of health pertinent to the health sector. Sustained and continuous coordination between governments, agencies, control programs, academia and the affected communities is critical. PMID:19753458

  3. Triatoma maculata colonises urban domicilies in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo-Silva, Alice; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; da Silva, Silvano Pedrosa; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Vargas, Nathalia Coelho; Freitas, Maria-Rosa Goreti

    2016-01-01

    During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:27759767

  4. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0–5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433–14,291 at 4–7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd– 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st– 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings. PMID:26352145

  5. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Audience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Find materials for emergency and health facilities, hotels, housing authorities, landlords, schools, pest management professionals, and more.

  7. Children using Day Nurseries' Facilities can be Associated with more Risk to Nonnutritive Sucking Habits.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fabiana Bt; Wambier, Denise S; Alvarez, Jenny Ha; da Rocha, José Cf; Kummer, Thais R; de Castro, Vanessa C; Cabral, Howard; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the expression of nonnutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in children using day nurseries' facilities. The 195 children (7-40 months) attending 18 public day nurseries were evaluated clinically in Ponta Grossa, Brazil. Statistical package software was used for descriptive, univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regressions of the data about the socioeconomic condition, educational family status, malocclusions, and prevalence of nonnutritive sucking habits among the children. The pacifier users had a statistically significant, explanatory association with open bite [odds ratio (OR) = 10.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.95, 24.31; p < 0.0001]. The children older than 25 months had more open bite than younger children (OR = 6.07; 95% CI: 2.81, 13.11; p < 0.0001). Of the children examined, 35.4% had an anterior open bite, 0.51% had posterior cross-bite, and 1.03% showed finger-sucking habits. A high frequency of pacifier-sucking habits was found (52%), with a significant association between this habit and anterior open bite (p < 0.0001, OR = 7.49; 95% CI: 3.71, 15.15). The 126 children without open bite (36.5%) were pacifier users. There was suggestive, though nonsignificant, evidence of a difference in pacifier use by gender (males, 34%; females, 46%; p = 0.07). The 69 children with open bite (81.16%) were pacifier users and (18.84%) nonusers. The boys showed a slightly greater association with open bite (OR = 21.33; 95% CI: 6.12, 74.40; p < 0.0001) than girls (OR = 5.03; 95% CI: 1.26, 20.00; p = 0.02) in the age group of 25 to 40 months; however, it was not observed in younger children. Pacifier use is a predictor for open bite in children from the lower socioeconomic classes using day nurseries' facilities. The parents, guardians, and caregivers working in public day nurseries should be advised to monitor nonnutritive sucking habits in order to avoid or minimize the occurrence of malocclusion. It demonstrates that

  8. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation.

  9. Vision in the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): eye morphology and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    McNeill, C A; Allan, S A; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M; Weeks, E N I

    2016-12-01

    Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behaviour to improve management. While few studies have investigated the visual capabilities of bed bugs, the present study focused specifically on eye morphology and spectral sensitivity. A 3-D imaging technique was used to document bed bug eye morphology from the first instar through adult and revealed morphological characteristics that differentiate the common bed bug from the tropical bed bug as well as sex-specific differences. Electrophysiological measurements were used to evaluate the spectral sensitivity of adult bed bugs. Male bed bugs were more responsive than females at some wavelengths. Electrophysiological studies provided evidence for at least one photoreceptor with a spectral sensitivity curve peak in the green (λ max 520 nm) region of the spectrum. The broadened long wavelength portion of the spectral sensitivity curve may potentially indicate another photoreceptor in the yellow-green (λ max 550 nm) portion of the spectrum or screening pigments. Understanding more about bed bug visual biology is vital for designing traps, which are an important component of integrated bed bug management. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus.

  11. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug, (hemiptra: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control and their painful bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has a strong need for materials and methods ...

  12. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  13. Print a Bed Bug Card

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  14. Morphological and Behavioral Convergence in Extinct and Extant Bugs: The Systematics and Biology of a New Unusual Fossil Lace Bug from the Eocene

    PubMed Central

    Wappler, Torsten; Guilbert, Eric; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Wedmann, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae) occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae), and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well. PMID:26267108

  15. Towards a Phylogenetic Approach to the Composition of Species Complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, Vectors of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    de la Rúa, Nicholas M.; Bustamante, Dulce M.; Menes, Marianela; Stevens, Lori; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, William; Rizzo, Donna; Klotz, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Justin; Axen, Heather J.; Dorn, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of insect vectors of parasitic diseases are important for understanding the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits, and may be useful in vector control. The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) includes ~140 extant species arranged in five tribes comprised of 15 genera. The genus Triatoma is the most species-rich and contains important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Triatoma species were grouped into complexes originally by morphology and more recently with the addition of information from molecular phylogenetics (the four-complex hypothesis); however, without a strict adherence to monophyly. To date, the validity of proposed species complexes has not been tested by statistical tests of topology. The goal of this study was to clarify the systematics of 19 Triatoma species from North and Central America. We inferred their evolutionary relatedness using two independent data sets: the complete nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 ribosomal DNA (ITS-2 rDNA) and head morphometrics. In addition, we used the Shimodaira-Hasegawa statistical test of topology to assess the fit of the data to a set of competing systematic hypotheses (topologies). An unconstrained topology inferred from the ITS-2 data was compared to topologies constrained based on the four-complex hypothesis or one inferred from our morphometry results. The unconstrained topology represents a statistically significant better fit of the molecular data than either the four-complex or the morphometric topology. We propose an update to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, based on a phylogeny inferred from ITS-2 as a first step towards updating the phylogeny of the complexes based on monophyly and statistical tests of topologies. PMID:24681261

  16. Hybridization and adaptation to introduced balloon vines in an Australian soapberry bug.

    PubMed

    Andres, J A; Thampy, P R; Mathieson, M T; Loye, J; Zalucki, M P; Dingle, H; Carroll, S P

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary adaptation of plant feeding insects to introduced hosts provides clear cases of ecologically based population divergence. In most cases the mechanisms permitting rapid differentiation are not well known. Here we study morphological and genetic variation associated with recent shifts by the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus onto two naturalized Neotropical balloon vines, Cardiospermum halicacabum and C. grandiflorum that differ in time since introduction. Our results show that these vines have much larger fruits than the native hosts (Whitewood tree -Atalaya hemiglauca- and Woolly Rambutan -Alectryon tomentosus-) and that bugs living on them have evolved significantly longer beaks and new allometries. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial haplotypes and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers indicate that the lineage of bugs on the annual vine C. halicacabum, the older introduction, is intermediate between the two subspecies of L. tagalicus found on native hosts. Moreover, where the annual vine and Whitewood tree co-occur, the morphology and genomic composition of the bugs are similar to those occurring in allopatry. These results show that hybridization provided the genetic elements underlying the strongly differentiated 'Halicacabum bugs'. In contrast, the bugs feeding on the recently introduced perennial balloon vine (C. grandiflorum) showed no evidence of admixture, and are genetically indistinguishable from the nearby populations on a native host. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  18. An innovative approach to cessation of thumb-sucking in a child with epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Nidhi; Chhabra, Anuj; Bansal, Samriti

    2012-01-01

    The thumb-sucking habit is acquired in infancy, but if it persists beyond preschool age, it can have deleterious effects on facial growth, oral function, occlusal relationship, and aesthetics, leading to dental and skeletal deformities. This paper presents a clinical case history of using nonpunitive reminder therapy to intercept the thumb-sucking habits of an 8-year-old child with epilepsy. A modified Bluegrass appliance was used along with the positive reinforcement. The modified Bluegrass appliance utilized an acrylic roller and was very comfortable for the patient; it was also successful in eliminating the habit within a short period of time. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How to Find Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  20. How to Find Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-13

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  1. Selection of Soybean Pods by the Stink Bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Gonzalo A. R.; Trumper, Eduardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  2. Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Felicity R P; Bearn, David R; Innes, Nicola P T; Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah

    2015-03-31

    Comforting behaviours, such as the use of pacifiers (dummies, soothers), blankets and finger or thumb sucking, are common in babies and young children. These comforting habits, which can be referred to collectively as 'non-nutritive sucking habits' (NNSHs), tend to stop as children get older, under their own impetus or with support from parents and carers. However, if the habit continues whilst the permanent dentition is becoming established, it can contribute to, or cause, development of a malocclusion (abnormal bite). A diverse variety of approaches has been used to help children with stopping a NNSH. These include advice, removal of the comforting object, fitting an orthodontic appliance to interfere with the habit, application of an aversive taste to the digit or behaviour modification techniques. Some of these interventions are easier to apply than others and less disturbing for the child and their parent; some are more applicable to a particular type of habit.  The primary objective of the review was to evaluate the effects of different interventions for cessation of NNSHs in children. The secondary objectives were to determine which interventions work most quickly and are the most effective in terms of child and parent- or carer-centred outcomes of least discomfort and psychological distress from the intervention, as well as the dental measures of malocclusion (reduction in anterior open bite, overjet and correction of posterior crossbite) and cost-effectiveness. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 8 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 8 October 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014), PsycINFO via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 8 October 2014), the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (Clinical Trials.gov) (to 8 October 2014) and the WHO

  3. Species composition, monitoring, and feeding injury of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in blackberry.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S A; Liburd, O E; Eger, J E; Rhodes, E M

    2013-04-01

    Blackberry (Rubus spp.) production in Florida has increased > 100% within the past two decades. and several insect pests, including stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), have been observed feeding on this crop. The objectives for this study were to determine the stink bug species present in blackberry; to develop monitoring tools for stink bugs in blackberry; and to describe feeding injury to blackberries by Euschistus quadrator Rolston, a relatively new stink bug pest to Florida, that has spread throughout the state. In a field survey, E. quadrator was the most abundant stink bug species, followed by Euschistus servus Say, Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois), Thyanta custator (F.), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Podisus maculiventris Say. Yellow pyramid traps caught more stink bugs than tube traps with or without the addition of Euschistus spp. pheromone lures. There were no statistical differences between traps baited with a Trécé Pherocon Centrum lure, a Suterra Scenturion lure, and an unbaited trap. These results were supported by Y-tube olfactometer assays with E. quadrator where there were no differences between pheromone baited lures and a control. Injury to berries caused by E. quadrator adults and third instars was similar, and both adults and third instars fed more on green berries compared with turning berries. In addition, adults fed more on green berries compared with ripe fruit. The most common injury to green berries was discoloration. In contrast, misshapen drupelets were commonly seen on turning and ripe berries. The potential for managing stink bugs in blackberries to prevent them from reaching damaging levels is discussed.

  4. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Application of native prick test in diagnosis of bed bug allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Sokołowski, Lukasz; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was case report of the patient with systemic reaction after a bed bug (Cimex lectularius) bite. A 23-year-old female, previously healthy, reports systemic reaction, including rash on her corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, conciseness disorder, forcing her to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the bed bug occurs in the patient's apartment. A prick-by-prick test with bed bug excretion was made. The skin test with native allergen was strongly positive (histamine 5 mm/5 mm, prick-by-prick 12 mm/8 mm). The prick-by-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms.

  6. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  7. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Yasmin; Isman, Murray B

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor) bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient) bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51) was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  8. Molecular Basis of N,N-Diethyl-3-Methylbenzamide (DEET) in Repelling the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xia, Xiaoming; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius . While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants. High doses of DEET were required for activating the olfactory receptor neurons in the sensilla of bed bugs and at least three DEET-sensitive receptors were functionally deciphered. These DEET-sensitive receptors presented even more sensitive to certain botanical terpenes/terpenoids which also displayed repellency at varying levels for bed bugs. In addition, DEET produced a blocking effect on the neuronal responses of bed bugs to specific human odors and showed inhibitory effect on the function of odorant receptors in responding to certain human odors. Taken together, our results indicate that DEET may function as a stimulus that triggers avoidance behaviors and a molecular "confusant" for interrupting the host odor recognition in the odorant receptors of bed bugs. The receptors that coincidently responded to both synthetic DEET and botanical terpenes/terpenoids suggested that DEET probably target on receptors that originally responded to terpenes/terpenoids. This study gave novel insight into the mechanisms of DEET's repellency to bed bugs and also provided valuable information for developing new reagents for bed bug control.

  9. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences.

    PubMed

    Hottel, Benjamin A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2015-05-12

    Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  10. Bug Distribution and Statistical Pattern Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    The rule space model permits measurement of cognitive skill acquisition and error diagnosis. Further discussion introduces Bayesian hypothesis testing and bug distribution. An illustration involves an artificial intelligence approach to testing fractions and arithmetic. (Author/GDC)

  11. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M.; Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b) predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation) of Dubas bug infestations. PMID:28558069

  12. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b) predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation) of Dubas bug infestations.

  13. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-11-05

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  14. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:26462944

  15. Molecular Basis of N,N-Diethyl-3-Methylbenzamide (DEET) in Repelling the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Xia, Xiaoming; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants. High doses of DEET were required for activating the olfactory receptor neurons in the sensilla of bed bugs and at least three DEET-sensitive receptors were functionally deciphered. These DEET-sensitive receptors presented even more sensitive to certain botanical terpenes/terpenoids which also displayed repellency at varying levels for bed bugs. In addition, DEET produced a blocking effect on the neuronal responses of bed bugs to specific human odors and showed inhibitory effect on the function of odorant receptors in responding to certain human odors. Taken together, our results indicate that DEET may function as a stimulus that triggers avoidance behaviors and a molecular “confusant” for interrupting the host odor recognition in the odorant receptors of bed bugs. The receptors that coincidently responded to both synthetic DEET and botanical terpenes/terpenoids suggested that DEET probably target on receptors that originally responded to terpenes/terpenoids. This study gave novel insight into the mechanisms of DEET's repellency to bed bugs and also provided valuable information for developing new reagents for bed bug control. PMID:28676765

  16. [The use of semi-synthetic polymers in the formulation of sucking and chewable tablets containing sage extract and zinc gluconate].

    PubMed

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Golenia, Ewa; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Halitosis and gingivitis are most common pathologies (15-60% of population) which, if left untreated, lead to periodontal diseases and tooth loss. The aim of this study was to develop, based on polymers of dry sage extract and zinc gluconate, tablets intended for sucking and chewing that can be applied in the treatment of halitosis and gingivitis. Dried aqueous sage extract, zinc gluconate, Pharmagum M, Prosolv SMCC90 and SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102, sorbitol, mannitol, ludipress. Direct tableting. Testing pharmacopeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability (using basket and rotating disk methods) of tablets intended for sucking and chewing. Approximation of the obtained results. Grey and green color tablets were obtained with smooth and uniform surface, without stains, spalls or mechanical damage. The determined average mass (weight) of a tablet complied with the standard. The friability and crushing strength test revealed that tablets containing Prosolv SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102 and mannitol demonstrated the highest mechanical strength. Tablets containing these substances and intended for sucking had prolonged disintegration and release time. Tablets intended for chewing had a hardness at the level of 124 N.They demonstrated compressibility, low friability and prolonged release. The release profiles of tablets intended for sucking (v2) and those for chewing, obtained by basket and rotating disk methods, were similar. The addition of Prosolv SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102 and mannitol increased significantly the mechanical strength (higher hardness, lower friability), prolonged the disintegration time and slowed the release from the obtained tablets intended for sucking and chewing. The application of Prosolv SMCCHD90 in the formulation of tablets for chewing carries the risk for sorption of active components to the polymer structure. This process takes place in the early stage of the release. Rotating disk method used in pharmaceutical availability testing gives better results

  17. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-01-18

    The insect olfactory system plays an important role in detecting semiochemicals in the environment. In particular, the antennal sensilla which house single or multiple neurons inside, are considered to make the major contribution in responding to the chemical stimuli. By directly recording action potential in the olfactory sensillum after exposure to stimuli, single sensillum recording (SSR) technique provides a powerful approach for investigating the neural responses of insects to chemical stimuli. For the bed bug, which is a notorious human parasite, multiple types of olfactory sensillum have been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated neural responses of bed bug olfactory sensilla to two chemical stimuli and the dose-dependent responses to one of them using the SSR method. This approach enables researchers to conduct early screening for individual chemical stimuli on the bed bug olfactory sensilla, which would provide valuable information for the development of new bed bug attractants or repellents and benefits the bed bug control efforts.

  19. Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-01-01

    The insect olfactory system plays an important role in detecting semiochemicals in the environment. In particular, the antennal sensilla which house single or multiple neurons inside, are considered to make the major contribution in responding to the chemical stimuli. By directly recording action potential in the olfactory sensillum after exposure to stimuli, single sensillum recording (SSR) technique provides a powerful approach for investigating the neural responses of insects to chemical stimuli. For the bed bug, which is a notorious human parasite, multiple types of olfactory sensillum have been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated neural responses of bed bug olfactory sensilla to two chemical stimuli and the dose-dependent responses to one of them using the SSR method. This approach enables researchers to conduct early screening for individual chemical stimuli on the bed bug olfactory sensilla, which would provide valuable information for the development of new bed bug attractants or repellents and benefits the bed bug control efforts. PMID:26862929

  20. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  1. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  2. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  3. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Share Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Información relacionada disponible en español Can you treat ... all of the residents to participate. Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the ...

  4. Horizontal Transfer of Diatomaceous Earth and Botanical Insecticides in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Yasmin; Isman, Murray B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. Methodology/Results To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor) bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient) bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51) was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a ‘donor’ bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 ‘recipient’ bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. Conclusion/Significance Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest. PMID:24086593

  5. Preparing for Treatment Against Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whether hiring a pest management professional or trying to eliminate the bugs yourself, taking these first steps will increase effectiveness and speed: reduce clutter, use encasements on your mattress and box spring, vacuum and heat treat, and seal cracks.

  6. Digit Sucking, Age, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status as Determinants of Oral Hygiene Status and Gingival Health of Children in Suburban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, Hakeem O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Folayan, Morenike O; Onyejaka, Nneka K; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus A; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Oshomoji, Olusegun V

    2016-09-01

    This study determines prevalence of digit sucking and gingivitis, and association among age, sex, socioeconomic status, presence of digit-sucking habits, oral hygiene status (OHS), and gingivitis among a group of Nigerian children. Data of 992 children aged 1 to 12 years recruited through a household survey conducted in Osun State, Nigeria were analyzed. Information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and history of digit-sucking habits were collected. Children were assessed for OHS and severity of gingivitis using the simplified oral hygiene index and the gingival index, respectively. Predictors of presence of gingivitis and poor oral hygiene were determined using multivariate logistic regression. One (0.2%) and 454 (93.0%) children aged 1 to 5 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. Twenty-two (4.4%) and 361 (72.9%) children aged 6 to 12 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. The odds of having poor oral hygiene (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.35; P <0.001) and gingivitis (AOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.31; P <0.001) was significantly reduced for children aged 1 to 5 years. The odds of having gingivitis was increased in children with low socioeconomic status (AOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.31; P = 0.002). There was no significant relationship among sex, digit sucking, OHS, and presence of gingivitis. A digit-sucking habit did not increase chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis. Increasing age and low socioeconomic status were factors that significantly increased chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis.

  7. Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals.

    PubMed

    Aak, Anders; Rukke, Bjørn A; Soleng, Arnulf; Rosnes, Marte K

    2014-09-01

    A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO 2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO 2 , and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO 2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.

  8. Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals

    PubMed Central

    Aak, Anders; Rukke, Bjørn A; Soleng, Arnulf; Rosnes, Marte K

    2014-01-01

    A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8–9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods. PMID:26166936

  9. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L.; Vassena, Claudia V.; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instarnymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans. All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. PMID:28011736

  10. Control of experimental Triatoma infestans populations: effect of pour-on cypermethrin applied to chickens under natural conditions in the Argentinean Chaco region.

    PubMed

    Amelotti, I; Catalá, S S; Gorla, D E

    2014-06-01

    Among peridomestic structures, chicken coops are sites of major importance for the domestic ecology of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate in an experimental context the effects of a cypermethrin pour-on formulation applied to chickens on blood intake, moulting and mortality in T. infestans, under the natural climatic conditions of a region endemic for Chagas' disease. Experimental chicken huts were made of bricks and covered with plastic mosquito nets. Ninety fourth-instar nymphs were maintained in each hut. The study used a completely random design in which chickens in the experimental group were treated with a cypermethrin pour-on formulation. Five replicates (= huts) of the experimental and control groups were conducted. The number of live T. infestans, blood intake and moults to fifth-instar stage were recorded at 1, 5, 20, 35 and 45 days after the application of cypermethrin. Cumulative mortality was higher in nymphs exposed to treated chickens (> 71%) than in control nymphs (< 50%) (P < 0.01). Blood intake and moulting rate were lower in nymphs fed on treated chickens than in control nymphs (P < 0.05). Pour-on cypermethrin was able to cause significant mortality, although it did not eliminate the experimental population of T. infestans. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Maximal bite force, facial morphology and sucking habits in young children with functional posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Castelo, Paula Midori; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pereira, Luciano José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of normal conditions of the masticatory function is determinant for the correct growth and development of its structures. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of sucking habits on the presence of crossbite and its relationship with maximal bite force, facial morphology and body variables in 67 children of both genders (3.5-7 years) with primary or early mixed dentition. The children were divided in four groups: primary-normocclusion (PN, n=19), primary-crossbite (PC, n=19), mixed-normocclusion (MN, n=13), and mixed-crossbite (MC, n=16). Bite force was measured with a pressurized tube, and facial morphology was determined by standardized frontal photographs: AFH (anterior face height) and BFW (bizygomatic facial width). It was observed that MC group showed lower bite force than MN, and AFH/BFW was significantly smaller in PN than PC (t-test). Weight and height were only significantly correlated with bite force in PC group (Pearson's correlation test). In the primary dentition, AFH/BFW and breast-feeding (at least six months) were positive and negatively associated with crossbite, respectively (multiple logistic regression). In the mixed dentition, breast-feeding and bite force showed negative associations with crossbite (univariate regression), while nonnutritive sucking (up to 3 years) associated significantly with crossbite in all groups (multiple logistic regression). In the studied sample, sucking habits played an important role in the etiology of crossbite, which was associated with lower bite force and long-face tendency.

  12. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2013-11-28

    Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide-Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran). We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM) program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust), and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1-1,428 (median: 29) bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust) was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning). Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  13. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran). We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM) program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust), and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29) bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust) was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning). Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations. PMID:26462533

  14. Deep Sequencing of Pyrethroid-Resistant Bed Bugs Reveals Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance within a Single Population

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Zach N.; Kilcullen, Kathleen A.; Koganemaru, Reina; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Anderson, Troy D.; Miller, Dini M.

    2011-01-01

    A frightening resurgence of bed bug infestations has occurred over the last 10 years in the U.S. and current chemical methods have been inadequate for controlling this pest due to widespread insecticide resistance. Little is known about the mechanisms of resistance present in U.S. bed bug populations, making it extremely difficult to develop intelligent strategies for their control. We have identified bed bugs collected in Richmond, VA which exhibit both kdr-type (L925I) and metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Using LD50 bioassays, we determined that resistance ratios for Richmond strain bed bugs were ∼5200-fold to the insecticide deltamethrin. To identify metabolic genes potentially involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids, we performed deep-sequencing of the adult bed bug transcriptome, obtaining more than 2.5 million reads on the 454 titanium platform. Following assembly, analysis of newly identified gene transcripts in both Harlan (susceptible) and Richmond (resistant) bed bugs revealed several candidate cytochrome P450 and carboxylesterase genes which were significantly over-expressed in the resistant strain, consistent with the idea of increased metabolic resistance. These data will accelerate efforts to understand the biochemical basis for insecticide resistance in bed bugs, and provide molecular markers to assist in the surveillance of metabolic resistance. PMID:22039447

  15. Area-wide management approach for tarnished plant bug in the Mississippi Delta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the major insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-South region. From 2001 to 2012, the tarnished plant bug has been the number one insect pest of cotton in Louisiana and Mississippi in eleven and nine of those...

  16. Chagas disease vector control and Taylor's law

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Planes, Lucía I.; Gaspe, María S.; Cecere, María C.; Cardinal, Marta V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Large spatial and temporal fluctuations in the population density of living organisms have profound consequences for biodiversity conservation, food production, pest control and disease control, especially vector-borne disease control. Chagas disease vector control based on insecticide spraying could benefit from improved concepts and methods to deal with spatial variations in vector population density. Methodology/Principal findings We show that Taylor's law (TL) of fluctuation scaling describes accurately the mean and variance over space of relative abundance, by habitat, of four insect vectors of Chagas disease (Triatoma infestans, Triatoma guasayana, Triatoma garciabesi and Triatoma sordida) in 33,908 searches of people's dwellings and associated habitats in 79 field surveys in four districts in the Argentine Chaco region, before and after insecticide spraying. As TL predicts, the logarithm of the sample variance of bug relative abundance closely approximates a linear function of the logarithm of the sample mean of abundance in different habitats. Slopes of TL indicate spatial aggregation or variation in habitat suitability. Predictions of new mathematical models of the effect of vector control measures on TL agree overall with field data before and after community-wide spraying of insecticide. Conclusions/Significance A spatial Taylor's law identifies key habitats with high average infestation and spatially highly variable infestation, providing a new instrument for the control and elimination of the vectors of a major human disease. PMID:29190728

  17. Morphological and morphometric analysis of scutella of six species and two subspecies of Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Nancy; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Camacho, Alejandro D; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alejandro; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Morphological characters can be used to distinguish the vast majority of triatomine species, but the existence of high levels of phenotypic plasticity and recently diverged species can lead to erroneous determinations. To approach this problem, we analyzed the male and female morphologies of the scutella of Triatoma barberi, T. dimidiata, T. lecticularia, T. mexicana, T. recurva, T. rubida, and two sub-species, T. protracta protracta and T. protracta nahuatlae. Scutellum samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy and subjected to morphological analysis and morphometric investigation using a canonical discriminant analysis. The results revealed differences primarily in central depression shape, posterior process, and vestiture. We observed clear dimension-based differences in scutellum morphometry in all the taxa under study, providing sound evidence for species and subspecies differentiation. On the other hand, there is no difference between sexes in T. lecticularia, T. protracta protracta, and T. protracta nahuatlae. Our methodology can be implemented to differentiate species of the genus Triatoma. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  19. Monitoring Web Site Usage of e-Bug: A Hygiene and Antibiotic Awareness Resource for Children

    PubMed Central

    Rajapandian, Vijayamaharaj; Eley, Charlotte V; Hoekstra, Beverley A; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna AM

    2015-01-01

    Background e-Bug is an educational resource which teaches children and young people about microbes, hygiene, infection, and prudent antibiotic use. The e-Bug resources are available in over 22 different languages and they are used widely across the globe. The resources can be accessed from the e-Bug website. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the usage of the e-Bug website in order to understand how users access the website, where and when they access the site, and to review variation in use across the different areas of the site. Methods The usage statistics for the e-Bug website were monitored by Google Analytics between September 2010 and August 2013. Results The statistics show the website had over 324,000 visits during the three years, from just under 250,000 visitors, with the number of visitors increasing year after year. Visitors accessed the website from 211 different countries, with more than 267,000 documents downloaded. The majority of visitors were from the United Kingdom and visited the English website, although countries such as France and Portugal were also frequent visitors. Conclusions These website statistics confirm that e-Bug is frequently used across Europe and highlight that e-Bug use has expanded across the world. The findings from this report will be used to inform future modifications or updates to the materials, as well as the development of new educational resources. PMID:26567127

  20. Kissing Bugs in the United States: Risk for Vector-Borne Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species. PMID:25574143

  1. Overcoming health inequalities by using the Bug Busting 'whole-school approach' to eradicate head lice.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Joanna; Fry, Frances; Clarice, Wickenden; Olsen, Alice; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Lapeere, Hilde; Maryan, Jenner; Franks, Andrea; Smith, Jane L

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to illustrate the socially inclusive nature of the Bug Busting 'whole-school approach' to head louse eradication. In the UK, Belgium and Denmark, persistent head lice in families of all socio-economic status (SES) is a problem. Since 1995 in the UK and 1998 elsewhere, an educational programme intended to teach families how to detect and treat head lice by using the Bug Busting wet combing method has been organized in some areas. Local schools lead this community strategy for prevention, known as a 'whole-school approach' (UK). We describe five studies applying the Bug Busting approach, four set in districts where some disadvantaged families live (UK and Belgium) and a fifth set in Denmark. Feasibility and consumer satisfaction are examined. One UK study analyses data on area prescribing for head lice and the impact in a deprived locality of raising the profile of Bug Busting. We find parental education in Bug Busting enables families of all SES to participate in a 'whole-school approach' to head lice. Best results are obtained when each family has a Bug Buster Kit. This provides all the combs necessary with full instructions on their use with ordinary shampoo and conditioner to detect lice, eradicate an infestation mechanically, or to check the success of any treatment. In the UK, the promotion of the Bug Busting approach is reducing primary care expenditure on treatment for head lice and professional time spent with worried parents. As a result, healthcare providers can give time to the few families who require one-to-one guidance. Incorporation of the Bug Busting approach to head lice into clinical practice in school communities contributes to sustainable control whilst overcoming health inequalities in participating families.

  2. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Bed Bugs Appearance and Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Identify these bugs accurately, from egg to nymph to adult. Adults are about the size of an apple seed, brown and oval-shaped, and either flat or balloon-like depending on how recently fed. Nymphs are a bit smaller and translucent or whitish yellow.

  4. Bed Bugs Appearance and Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-13

    Identify these bugs accurately, from egg to nymph to adult. Adults are about the size of an apple seed, brown and oval-shaped, and either flat or balloon-like depending on how recently fed. Nymphs are a bit smaller and translucent or whitish yellow.

  5. Population density and distribution of wheat bugs infesting durum wheat in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m²), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m²). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread.

  6. Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

  7. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Temple, Joshua H; Davis, Jeffrey A; Hardke, Jarrod T; Price, Paul P; Leonard, B Rogers

    2016-06-17

    Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  8. Mental health effects from urban bed bug infestation (Cimex lectularius L.): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Susser, Stephanie Rebecca; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Jacques, Louis; Denis, Geoffroy; Tessier, François; Roberge, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether bed bug infestation was linked to sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Exploratory cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of tenants recruited in apartment complexes from Montreal, Canada. 39 bed bug-exposed tenants were compared with 52 unexposed tenants. The effect of bed bug-exposed tenants on sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression symptoms measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 5th subscale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item, respectively. In adjusted models, bed bug infestation was strongly associated with measured anxiety symptoms (OR (95% CI)=4.8 (1.5 to 14.7)) and sleep disturbance (OR (95% CI)=5.0 (1.3-18.8)). There was a trend to report more symptoms of depression in the bed bug-infested group, although this finding was not statistically significant ((OR (95% CI)=2.5(0.8 to 7.3)). These results suggest that individuals exposed to bed bug infestations are at risk of experiencing sleep disturbance and of developing symptoms of anxiety and possibly depression. Greater clinical awareness of this problem is needed in order for patients to receive appropriate mental healthcare. These findings highlight the need for undertaking of deeper inquiry, as well as greater collaboration between medical professionals, public health and community stakeholders.

  9. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Waller, Lance A.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Benzaquen, Eleazar Cordova; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2006-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru, vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans has become an urban problem. We conducted an entomologic survey in a periurban community of Arequipa to identify risk factors for triatomine infestation and determinants of vector population densities. Of 374 households surveyed, triatomines were collected from 194 (52%), and Trypanosoma cruzi–carrying triatomines were collected from 72 (19.3%). Guinea pig pens were more likely than other animal enclosures to be infested and harbored 2.38× as many triatomines. Stacked brick and adobe enclosures were more likely to have triatomines, while wire mesh enclosures were protected against infestation. In human dwellings, only fully stuccoed rooms were protected against infestation. Spatially, households with triatomines were scattered, while households with T. cruzi–infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment. PMID:17073082

  10. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Type of Resource

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These brochures, fact sheets, manuals, posters, checklists, videos, and more provide guidance such as hotel room inspection and pesticide safety.

  11. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  12. Maximal bite force, facial morphology and sucking habits in young children with functional posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    CASTELO, Paula Midori; GAVIÃO, Maria Beatriz Duarte; PEREIRA, Luciano José; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2010-01-01

    Objective The maintenance of normal conditions of the masticatory function is determinant for the correct growth and development of its structures. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of sucking habits on the presence of crossbite and its relationship with maximal bite force, facial morphology and body variables in 67 children of both genders (3.5-7 years) with primary or early mixed dentition. Material and methods The children were divided in four groups: primary-normocclusion (PN, n=19), primary-crossbite (PC, n=19), mixed-normocclusion (MN, n=13), and mixed-crossbite (MC, n=16). Bite force was measured with a pressurized tube, and facial morphology was determined by standardized frontal photographs: AFH (anterior face height) and BFW (bizygomatic facial width). Results It was observed that MC group showed lower bite force than MN, and AFH/ BFW was significantly smaller in PN than PC (t-test). Weight and height were only significantly correlated with bite force in PC group (Pearson’s correlation test). In the primary dentition, AFH/BFW and breast-feeding (at least six months) were positive and negatively associated with crossbite, respectively (multiple logistic regression). In the mixed dentition, breastfeeding and bite force showed negative associations with crossbite (univariate regression), while nonnutritive sucking (up to 3 years) associated significantly with crossbite in all groups (multiple logistic regression). Conclusions In the studied sample, sucking habits played an important role in the etiology of crossbite, which was associated with lower bite force and long-face tendency. PMID:20485925

  13. Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2018-04-02

    Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.

  14. Effectiveness of residual spraying of peridomestic ecotopes with deltamethrin and permethrin on Triatoma infestans in rural western Argentina: a district-wide randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Canale, Delmi M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Stariolo, Raúl; Salomón, Oscar D.; Blanco, Sonia; Segura, Elsa L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a single residual spraying of pyrethroids on the occurrence and abundance of Triatoma infestans in peridomestic ecotopes in rural La Rioja. METHODS: A total of 667 (32.8%) peridomestic sites positive for T. infestans in May 1999 were randomly assigned to treatment within each village, sprayed in December 1999, and reinspected in December 2000. Treatments included 2.5% suspension concentrate (SC) deltamethrin in water at 25 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/m(2) applied with: (a) manual compression sprayers (standard treatment) or (b) power sprayers; (c) 1.5% emulsifiable concentrate (EC) deltamethrin at 25 mg a.i./m(2); and (d) 10% EC cis-permethrin at 170 mg a.i./m(2). EC pyrethroids were diluted in soybean oil and applied with power sprayers. All habitations were sprayed with the standard treatment. FINDINGS: The prevalence of T. infestans 1-year post-spraying was significantly lower in sites treated with SC deltamethrin applied with manual (24%) or power sprayers (31%) than in sites treated with EC deltamethrin (40%) or EC permethrin (53%). The relative odds of infestation and catch of T. infestans 1-year post-spraying significantly increased with the use of EC pyrethroids, the abundance of bugs per site before spraying, total surface, and host numbers. All insecticides had poor residual effects on wooden posts. CONCLUSION: Most of the infestations probably originated from triatomines that survived exposure to insecticides at each site. Despite the standard treatment proving to be the most effective, the current tactics and procedures fail to eliminate peridomestic populations of T. infestans in semiarid rural areas and need to be revised. PMID:15112008

  15. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-02-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.

  16. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  17. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  18. Disintegrins from hematophagous sources.

    PubMed

    Assumpcao, Teresa C F; Ribeiro, José M C; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2012-05-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  19. AC-DC electropenetrography: a new diagnostic technology for study of feeding behavior of piercing-sucking insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studying feeding, plant damage, and transmission of plant pathogens by hemipteran insect pests is challenging. Hemipteran piercing-sucking mouthparts, the stylets, are probed into opaque plant tissues precluding direct observation. This challenge was overcome by the invention of electropenetrography...

  20. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua H.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Hardke, Jarrod T.; Price, Paul P.; Leonard, B. Rogers

    2016-01-01

    Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification. PMID:27322333

  1. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, J. Gordon; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  2. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  3. Adjacent Habitat Influence on Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Densities and the Associated Damage at Field Corn and Soybean Edges

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, P. Dilip; Coffey, Peter L.; Dively, Galen P.; Lamp, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields. PMID:25295593

  4. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  5. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  6. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerinić-Prodanović, Dušanka; Protić, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  7. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of vATPase Subunits Affects Survival and Reproduction of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Basnet, Sanjay; Kamble, Shripat T

    2018-05-04

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has resurged as one of the most troublesome household pests affecting people across the globe. Bed bug infestations have increased in recent years primarily due to the evolution of insecticide resistance and the insect's ability to hitchhike with travelers. vATPases are one of the most evolutionarily conserved holoenzymes in eukaryotes, which are mainly involved in proton transport across the plasma membranes and intracellular organelles. RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a promising tool for insect control. In this study, we used RNAi as an approach to knock down subunits A and E of the vATPase gene of bed bugs. Delivery of 0.2 µg/insect of dsRNA specific to vATPase-A and vATPase-E into female bed bugs dramatically impaired the laying and viability of eggs over time. Injection of the vATPase-E dsRNA decreased survival of the bed bugs over 30 d. Our results also showed that the knockdown of mRNA is highly effective and persistent up to 30 d post injection. This research demonstrated that silencing of the two vATPase subunits A and E offers a potential strategy to suppress bed bug populations.

  8. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  9. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF TRIATOMA INFESTANS POPULATIONS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, NORTHERN ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    Marcet, PL; Mora, MS; Cutrera, AP; Jones, L; Gürtler, RE; Kitron, U; Dotson, EM

    2008-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the genetic structure and dispersal dynamics of T. infestans populations, we analyzed the multilocus genotype of 10 microsatellite loci for 352 T. infestans collected in 21 houses of 11 rural communities in October 2002. Genetic structure was analyzed at the community and house compound levels. Analysis revealed that vector control actions affected the genetic structure of T. infestans populations. Bug populations from communities under sustained vector control (core area) were highly structured and genetic differentiation between neighboring house compounds was significant. In contrast, bug populations from communities with sporadic vector control actions were more homogeneous and lacked defined genetic clusters. Genetic differentiation between population pairs did not fit a model of isolation by distance at the microgeographical level. Evidence consistent with flight or walking bug dispersal was detected within and among communities, dispersal was more female-biased in the core area and results suggested that houses received immigrants from more than one source. Putative sources and mechanisms of re-infestation are described. These data may be use to design improved vector control strategies PMID:18773972

  10. Bug breakfast in the bulletin: human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Cate; Weisberg, Edith; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The Bug Breakfast topic for October was Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The presenters covered the epidemiology of HPV, the newly introduced HPV vaccine and social and psychological issues relating to HPV vaccination.

  11. Rearrangement of mitochondrial tRNA genes in flat bugs (Hemiptera: Aradidae).

    PubMed

    Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Shi, Aimin; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Zheng, Xiaorong; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-05-16

    The typical insect mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which contains a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (suborder Heteroptera). The arrangement of mt genes in these true bugs is usually the same as the ancestral mt gene arrangement of insects. Rearrangement of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, however, has been found in two subfamilies of flat bugs (Mezirinae and Calisiinae, family Aradidae). In this study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of four species from three other subfamilies (Aradinae, Carventinae and Aneurinae). We found tRNA gene rearrangement in all of these four species. All of the rearranged tRNA genes are located between the mitochondrial control region and cox1, indicating this region as a hotspot for gene rearrangement in flat bugs; the rearrangement is likely caused by events of tandem duplication and random deletion of genes. Furthermore, our phylogenetic and dating analyses indicated that the swap of positions between trnQ and trnI occurred ~162 million years ago (MYA) in the most recent common ancestor of the five subfamilies of flat bugs investigated to date, whereas the swap of positions between trnC and trnW occurred later in the lineage leading to Calisiinae, and the translocation of trnC and trnY occurred later than 134 MYA in the lineage leading to Aradinae.

  12. Rearrangement of mitochondrial tRNA genes in flat bugs (Hemiptera: Aradidae)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Shi, Aimin; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Zheng, Xiaorong; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The typical insect mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which contains a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (suborder Heteroptera). The arrangement of mt genes in these true bugs is usually the same as the ancestral mt gene arrangement of insects. Rearrangement of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, however, has been found in two subfamilies of flat bugs (Mezirinae and Calisiinae, family Aradidae). In this study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of four species from three other subfamilies (Aradinae, Carventinae and Aneurinae). We found tRNA gene rearrangement in all of these four species. All of the rearranged tRNA genes are located between the mitochondrial control region and cox1, indicating this region as a hotspot for gene rearrangement in flat bugs; the rearrangement is likely caused by events of tandem duplication and random deletion of genes. Furthermore, our phylogenetic and dating analyses indicated that the swap of positions between trnQ and trnI occurred ~162 million years ago (MYA) in the most recent common ancestor of the five subfamilies of flat bugs investigated to date, whereas the swap of positions between trnC and trnW occurred later in the lineage leading to Calisiinae, and the translocation of trnC and trnY occurred later than 134 MYA in the lineage leading to Aradinae. PMID:27180804

  13. Self-reported bed bug infestation among New York City residents: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2013-01-01

    Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants.

  14. Application of agriculture-developed demographic analysis for the conservation of the Hawaiian alpine wekiu bug.

    PubMed

    Eiben, Jesse; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Insects that should be considered for conservation attention are often overlooked because of a lack of data. The detailed information necessary to assess population growth, decline, and maximum range is particularly difficult to acquire for rare and cryptic species. Many of these difficulties can be overcome with the use of life table analyses and heat energy accumulation models common in agriculture. The wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola), endemic to the summit of one volcanic mountain in Hawaii, is a rare insect living in an environmentally sensitive alpine stone desert, where field-based population assessments would be inefficient or potentially detrimental to natural and cultural resources. We conducted laboratory experiments with the insects by manipulating rearing temperatures of laboratory colonies and made detailed observations of habitat conditions to develop life tables representing population growth parameters and environmental models for wekiu bug phenology and demographic change. Wekiu bugs developed at temperatures only found in its environment on sunny days and required the thermal buffer found on cinder cones for growth and population increase. Wekiu bugs required approximately 3.5 months to complete one generation. The bug developed optimally from 26 to 30 °C, temperatures that are much higher than the air temperature attains in its elevational range. The developmental temperature range of the species confirmed a physiological reason why the wekiu bug is only found on cinder cones. This physiology information can help guide population monitoring and inform habitat restoration and conservation. The wekiu bug was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and the developmental parameters we quantified were used to determine the species would not be listed as endangered or threatened. The use of developmental threshold experiments, life table analyses, and degree day modeling can directly inform otherwise unobservable habitat needs and

  15. The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on state of preterm, low birthweight infants experiencing heelstick.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the physiologic and behavioral effects of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking (NNS) for preterm, low birthweight (LBW) infants experiencing heelstick. Subjects were 60 infants, age 32 to 37 weeks post conceptional age in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: pacifier-activated lullaby (PAL), pacifier-only, and no-contact. Experimental infants were provided the Sondrex PAL System, which plays music contingent on infant sucking. Pacifier-only infants did not receive music reinforcement for sucking, and no-contact infants were not provided a pacifier or music at any point during the procedure. Stress level and behavior state were assessed continuously and heart, respiratory, and oxygen saturation rates were recorded at 15-second intervals for all infants. Most physiologic data results were inconclusive. However, analysis of behavior state and stress level revealed the following significant differences for the PAL and pacifier-only groups compared to the no-contact group, all of which were greatest between the PAL and no-contact groups: lower during-heelstick behavior state means, less time in undesirable behavior states, lower during- and post-heelstick stress level means, and smaller behavior state and stress level differences between intervals. In addition, the PAL group had a significantly lower pre-heelstick stress level mean than the no-contact group. Behavior state and stress level were also more stable across time for the PAL group than the other groups, and patterns of changes in oxygen saturation, behavior state, and stress level indicate that music-reinforced NNS may facilitate return to homeostasis.

  16. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Environmental Determinants of the Distribution of Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Cardona, Ángela Segura

    2016-04-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Colombia and represents an important epidemiological risk mainly in the central and oriental regions of the country where it occupies sylvatic, peridomestic, and intradomestic ecotopes, and because of this complex distribution, its distribution and abundance could be conditioned by environmental factors. In this work, we explored the relationship between T. dimidiata distribution and environmental factors in the northwest, northeast, and central zones of Colombia and developed predictive models of infestation in the country. The associations between the presence ofT. dimidiata and environmental variables were studied using logistic regression models and ecological niche modeling for a sample of villages in Colombia. The analysis was based on the information collected in field about the presence ofT. dimidiata and the environmental data for each village extracted from remote sensing images. The presence of Triatoma dimidiata(Latreille, 1811) was found to be significantly associated with the maximum vegetation index, minimum land surface temperature (LST), and the digital elevation for the statistical model. Temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, and vegetation index were the variables that most influenced the ecological niche model ofT. dimidiata distribution. The logistic regression model showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the Andean and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the known distribution of the species, but predicted suitable habitats in the Pacific and Orinoco regions proposing new areas of research. Improved models to predict suitable habitats forT. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Environmental Determinants of the Distribution of Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Cardona, Ángela Segura

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Colombia and represents an important epidemiological risk mainly in the central and oriental regions of the country where it occupies sylvatic, peridomestic, and intradomestic ecotopes, and because of this complex distribution, its distribution and abundance could be conditioned by environmental factors. In this work, we explored the relationship between T. dimidiata distribution and environmental factors in the northwest, northeast, and central zones of Colombia and developed predictive models of infestation in the country. The associations between the presence of T. dimidiata and environmental variables were studied using logistic regression models and ecological niche modeling for a sample of villages in Colombia. The analysis was based on the information collected in field about the presence of T. dimidiata and the environmental data for each village extracted from remote sensing images. The presence of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) was found to be significantly associated with the maximum vegetation index, minimum land surface temperature (LST), and the digital elevation for the statistical model. Temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, and vegetation index were the variables that most influenced the ecological niche model of T. dimidiata distribution. The logistic regression model showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the Andean and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the known distribution of the species, but predicted suitable habitats in the Pacific and Orinoco regions proposing new areas of research. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management. PMID:26856910

  19. Heterogeneities in the Ecoepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Rural Communities of the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, M. Victoria; Orozco, M. Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Triatoma infestans as well as dogs and cats in 327 households from a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina to test whether the household distribution of infection differed between local ethnic groups (Tobas and Creoles) and identify risk factors for host infection. Overall prevalence of infection of bugs (27.2%; 95% confidence interval = 25.3–29.3%), dogs (26.0%; 95% confidence interval = 23.3–30.1%), and cats examined (28.7%; 95% confidence interval = 20.2–39.0%) was similar. A multimodel inference approach showed that infection in dogs was associated strongly with the intensity and duration of local exposure to infected bugs and moderately with household ethnic background. Overall, Toba households were at a substantially greater risk of infection than Creole households. The strong heterogeneities in the distribution of bug, dog, and cat infections at household, village, and ethnic group levels may be used for targeted vector and disease control. PMID:24732461

  20. Protecting Yourself from Bed Bugs in Public Places

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Infestations in non-residential areas are rare, but may still present opportunities for hitchhiking bugs. So reduce clutter, stow belongings separately, monitor or inspect upholstered furniture, educate staff, and keep integrated pest management in mind.

  1. Evaluation of Health on the Net seal label and DISCERN as content quality indicators for patients seeking information about thumb sucking habit.

    PubMed

    Shital Kiran, D P; Bargale, Seema; Pandya, Parth; Bhatt, Kuntal; Barad, Nirav; Shah, Nilay; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Ramesh, K

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of websites on the thumb sucking habit using DISCERN instrument and Health on the Net (HON) seal code at a single moment in time. An Internet search engine (www.google.com) was used to identify websites comprising information on "thumb sucking habit." Of over 204,000 links for thumb sucking habit, the first 100 were analyzed in detail. After excluding discussion groups, news and video feeds, and removing carbon copy sites, only 36 relevant websites remained, which were then assessed using the DISCERN instrument and HON seal code. Using the 16 questions of DISCERN for assessing the reliability and quality of the consumer information which were scored from 1 to 5, an appropriate index of the quality of the information was generated. All the assessed websites were also checked for presence or absence of HON seal code. The maximum score attainable for an outstanding website is 80. Of the 36 websites that were scored the highest score obtained by one of the websites according to the DISCERN tool was 55 of 80, and the lowest score achieved was 16 of 80. The websites achieving the maximum and minimum score were children.webmd.com and thebehaviorsolution.com, respectively. The HON seal was displayed only in three websites, which were medicinenet.com, righthealth.com, and children.webmd.com. By directing patients to validated websites on the thumb sucking habit, clinicians can ensure patients find appropriate information.

  2. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

  3. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  4. Behavioral response of fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, R A; Zerba, E N

    2001-01-15

    The hyperactivity (an increase in locomotor activity) and repellency produced by eight pyrethroids, applied as films on filter paper, were evaluated on fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) using a video tracking technique. All the pyrethroids studied produced hyperactivity. As a trend, hyperactivity produced by cyanopyrethroids was higher than that produced by non-cyanopyrethroids. Hyperactivity was not observed when nymphs were pretreated with the sulphydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide before exposure to the pyrethroids. The eight pyrethroids failed to produce repellency. No repellency was also observed for the flowable formulation of deltamethrin at the concentration recommended for T. infestans control.

  5. Density and Egg Parasitism of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Elderberry and Dispersal Into Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, P. Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E.

    2016-01-01

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning their dispersal from noncrop hosts in woodlands into crops. This 2-yr study was conducted to investigate whether elderberry [Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli] in woodlands serves as a source of stink bugs dispersing into adjacent crops and to examine parasitism of C. hilaris and E. servus eggs on this plant. Elderberry was a reproductive host for each of the four stink bug species; females oviposited on plants with subsequent nymphs feeding on elderberry and developing into adults. Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh & Riley) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Anastatus reduvii (Howard), and Trissolcus edessae Fouts (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) were prevalent egg parasitoids of C. hilaris but A. reduvii was the prevalent parasitoid of E. servus. Newly developed stink bug adults were first detected on elderberry around mid-July. Then in late July and early August, as elderberry fruit senesced and cotton bolls became available, stink bugs began dispersing from elderberry into cotton based on recapture of stink bugs on cotton that had previously been marked on elderberry. In addition, in 2015, density of C. hilaris, E. servus, and E. tristigmus was higher in cotton with elderberry than in cotton without it. Over the study, economic threshold was reached for four of seven cotton fields. Elimination of elderberry in woodlands adjacent to cotton may be a viable management tactic for control of stink bugs in cotton. PMID:27773875

  6. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  7. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  8. Triatoma infestans Calreticulin: Gene Cloning and Expression of a Main Domain That Interacts with the Host Complement System.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Katherine; Collazo, Norberto; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen; Rosas, Carlos; Peña, Jaime; Pizarro, Javier; Maldonado, Ismael; Cattan, Pedro E; Apt, Werner; Ferreira, Arturo

    2017-02-08

    Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans , and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Learning Center: Introducing "Sherman" the Sow Bug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Beverly; Moore, Charlotte

    1982-01-01

    Offers suggestions for using sow bugs in the classroom, including maintenance, source (found virtually everywhere in damp soil), background information, bibliography, and bulletin board idea. Includes instructions and materials (clue cards) for a fact-finding and hypothesis-testing game in which students determine what kind of an animal…

  10. Eco-epidemiological study of an endemic Chagas disease region in northern Colombia reveals the importance of Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), dogs and Didelphis marsupialis in Trypanosoma cruzi maintenance.

    PubMed

    Cantillo-Barraza, Omar; Garcés, Edilson; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Cortés, Luis A; Pereira, André; Marcet, Paula L; Jansen, Ana M; Triana-Chávez, Omar

    2015-09-22

    In Colombia, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata are the main domestic triatomine species known to transmit T. cruzi. However, there are multiple reports of T. cruzi transmission involving secondary vectors. In this work, we carried out an eco-epidemiological study on Margarita Island, located in the Caribbean region of Colombia, where Chagas disease is associated with non-domiciliated vectors. To understand the transmission dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi in this area, we designed a comprehensive, multi-faceted study including the following: (i) entomological evaluation through a community-based insect-surveillance campaign, blood meal source determination and T. cruzi infection rate estimation in triatomine insects; (ii) serological determination of T. cruzi prevalence in children under 15 years old, as well as in domestic dogs and synanthropic mammals; (iii) evaluation of T. cruzi transmission capacity in dogs and Didelphis marsupialis, and (iv) genetic characterization of T. cruzi isolates targeting spliced-leader intergene region (SL-IR) genotypes. Out of the 124 triatomines collected, 94% were Triatoma maculata, and 71.6% of them were infected with T. cruzi. Blood-meal source analysis showed that T. maculata feeds on multiple hosts, including humans and domestic dogs. Serological analysis indicated 2 of 803 children were infected, representing a prevalence of 0.25%. The prevalence in domestic dogs was 71.6% (171/224). Domestic dogs might not be competent reservoir hosts, as inferred from negative T. cruzi xenodiagnosis and haemoculture tests. However, 61.5% (8/13) of D. marsupialis, the most abundant synanthropic mammal captured, were T. cruzi-positive on xenodiagnosis and haemocultures. This study reveals the role of peridomestic T. maculata and dogs in T. cruzi persistence in this region and presents evidence that D. marsupialis are a reservoir mediating peridomestic-zoonotic cycles. This picture reflects the complexity of the transmission dynamics of T

  11. A Scottish cost analysis of interceptive orthodontics for thumb sucking habits.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Felicity R P; Elouafkaoui, Paula; Bearn, David R

    2013-06-01

    There is a potential cost saving to be made within the NHS by providing simple interceptive treatment rather than comprehensive treatment at a later date. The focus of this study is to determine the size of this potential cost by looking at the cost to NHS Tayside for the provision of interceptive treatment for cessation of thumb sucking and where this has been unsuccessful (or not provided) the costs of correction of the associated malocclusion. A cost analysis is described, investigating the costs of treatment solely to the NHS, both in the primary and secondary setting. Three potential treatment pathways are identified with the costs calculated for each pathway. The actual cost of providing this treatment in NHS Tayside, and the potential cost saving in Tayside if there was a change in clinical practice are calculated. Both discounting of costs and a sensitivity analysis are performed. The cost to NHS Tayside of current practice was calculated to be between £123,710 and £124,930 per annum. Change in practice to replace use of a removable with a fixed habit breaker for the interceptive treatment of thumb sucking reduced the calculated cost to between £99,581 and £105,017. A saving could be made to the NHS, both locally and nationally, if the provision of a removable habit breaker was changed to a fixed habit breaker. In addition, increasing the proportion receiving active treatment, in the form of a fixed habit breaker, rather than monitoring, would appear to further reduce the cost to the NHS considerably.

  12. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosomatids Subvert Nitric Oxide Production in Rhodnius prolixus Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Senna, Raquel; Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Jablonka, Willy; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Nussenzveig, Roberto Henrique; Folly, Evelize; Romeiro, Alexandre; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José Osvaldo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-sucking bug vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. T. cruzi is transmitted by vector feces deposited close to the wound produced by insect mouthparts, whereas T. rangeli invades salivary glands and is inoculated into the host skin. Bug saliva contains a set of nitric oxide-binding proteins, called nitrophorins, which deliver NO to host vessels and ensure vasodilation and blood feeding. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) present in the epithelium of bug salivary glands. Thus, T. rangeli is in close contact with NO while in the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show by immunohistochemical, biochemical and molecular techniques that inositolphosphate-containing glycolipids from trypanosomatids downregulate NO synthesis in the salivary glands of R. prolixus. Injecting insects with T. rangeli-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tr GIPL) or T. cruzi-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tc GIPL) specifically decreased NO production. Salivary gland treatment with Tc GIPL blocks NO production without greatly affecting NOS mRNA levels. NOS protein is virtually absent from either Tr GIPL- or Tc GIPL-treated salivary glands. Evaluation of NO synthesis by using a fluorescent NO probe showed that T. rangeli-infected or Tc GIPL-treated glands do not show extensive labeling. The same effect is readily obtained by treatment of salivary glands with the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SO). This suggests that parasite GIPLs induce the inhibition of a salivary gland PTP. GIPLs specifically suppressed NO production and did not affect other anti-hemostatic properties of saliva, such as the anti-clotting and anti-platelet activities. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that trypanosomatids have overcome NO generation using their surface GIPLs. Therefore, these molecules ensure parasite survival and may ultimately enhance parasite transmission

  13. Relative differences in susceptibility of Pieris taxa (Ericaceae) to Stephanitis spp. lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    PubMed

    Nair, Shakunthala; Braman, S Kristine; Knauft, D A

    2012-10-01

    Over 60 Pieris taxa (Ericaceae) were measured for their susceptibility to the Andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, and the azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) based on leaf damage, adult survival on leaves, and emergence of nymphs in no-choice petri dish assays. Pieris phillyreifolia (Hook.) DC. and P. japonica (Thunb.) D.Don ex G.Don 'Variegata' were consistently resistant to both species of lace bugs, whereas P. japonica 'Cavatine' was consistently susceptible to both. Pieris japonica 'Temple Bells' was highly susceptible to S. takeyai, but resistant to S. pyrioides. Nymph emergence was noted only with S. takeyai, on 46 Pieris taxa, whereas S. pyrioides nymphs were not observed on any of the Pieris taxa. Choice assays (with 10 Pieris taxa) and whole plant assays (with five Pieris taxa) using S. takeyai alone also were conducted, confirming the resistance of P. phillyreifolia and susceptibility of P. japonica Temple Bells to lace bug feeding.

  14. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats.

  15. Anti-thrombosis Repertoire of Blood-feeding Horsefly Salivary Glands*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongying; Wang, Yipeng; Yang, Hailong; Wu, Jing; An, Shu; Gao, Li; Xu, Xueqing; Lai, Ren

    2009-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods rely heavily on the pharmacological properties of their saliva to get a blood meal and suppress immune reactions of hosts. Little information is available on antihemostatic substances in horsefly salivary glands although their saliva has been thought to contain wide range of physiologically active molecules. In traditional Eastern medicine, horseflies are used as anti-thrombosis material for hundreds of years. By proteomics coupling transcriptome analysis with pharmacological testing, several families of proteins or peptides, which exert mainly on anti-thrombosis functions, were identified and characterized from 60,000 pairs of salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus yao Macquart (Diptera, Tabanidae). They are: (I) ten fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes, which hydrolyze specially alpha chain of fibrin(ogen) and are the first family of fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes purified and characterized from arthropods; (II) another fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme, which hydrolyzes both alpha and beta chain of fibrin(ogen); (III) ten Arg-Gly-Asp-motif containing proteins acting as platelet aggregation inhibitors; (IV) five thrombin inhibitor peptides; (V) three vasodilator peptides; (VI) one apyrase acting as platelet aggregation inhibitor; (VII) one peroxidase with both platelet aggregation inhibitory and vasodilator activities. The first three families are belonging to antigen five proteins, which show obvious similarity with insect allergens. They are the first members of the antigen 5 family found in salivary glands of blood sucking arthropods to have anti-thromobosis function. The current results imply a possible evolution from allergens of blood-sucking insects to anti-thrombosis agents. The extreme diversity of horsefly anti-thrombosis components also reveals the anti-thrombosis molecular mechanisms of the traditional Eastern medicine insect material. PMID:19531497

  16. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-09-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

  17. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281

  18. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  19. Repellency of Naturally Occurring or Related Compounds, DEET, and Para-Menthane-3,8-Diol to Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; Ferrandino, Francis J; Vasil, Michael P; Bedoukian, Robert H; Maher, Marie; McKenzie, Karen

    2018-05-04

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), have become a major health nuisance in the past 20 ysin cities and elsewhere throughout many areas of the world. Few studies have reported on repellent compounds that could reduce their transport in luggage. We evaluated the repellency of six naturally occurring or related compounds used in flavor/fragrance applications or structurally related compounds, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) to bed bugs in a 183 × 183-cm arena . Repellency was assessed using soft-sided polyester lunch bags serving as surrogates of luggage and barrier cloth towels upon which rested untreated lunch bags. We report for the first time repellency of delta dodecalactone, 2-(3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-nonadien-1-yl)-cyclopentanone (a.k.a. 'methyl apritone'), gamma dodecalactone, and para-menthane-3,8-diol to bed bugs. Propyl dihydrojasmonate, 3-methyl-5-hexyl-2-cyclohexenone, gamma methyl tridecalactone, and DEET are also documented to be repellent to bed bugs. These compounds provided relatively long-term protection. Propyl dihydrojasmonate prevented bed bugs from seeking refuge in treated lunch bags 27 d after treatment, and when applied to cloth towels repelled harborage-seeking bed bugs for 146 d. Methyl apritone blended with 3-methyl-5-hexyl-2-cyclohexenone and delta dodecalactone as an individual compound applied to cloth towels repelled bed bugs for 190 and 276 d, respectively. The above-mentioned compounds, either individually or as blends, may reduce risk of bed bugs seeking harborage in treated suitcases or towels upon which untreated luggage is placed.

  20. Seasons, Searches, and Intentions: What The Internet Can Tell Us About The Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Barbu, Corentin M; Ngo, Michelle N; Wu, Yage; Sethuraman, Karthik; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is once again prevalent in the United States. We investigated temporal patterns in Google search queries for bed bugs and co-occurring terms, and conducted in-person surveys to explore the intentions behind searches that included those terms. Searches for "bed bugs" rose steadily through 2011 and then plateaued, suggesting that the epidemic has reached an equilibrium in the United States. However, queries including terms that survey respondents associated strongly with having bed bugs (e.g., "exterminator," "remedies") continued to climb, while terms more closely associated with informational searches (e.g., "hotels," "about") fell. Respondents' rankings of terms and nonseasonal trends in Google search volume as assessed by a cosinor model were significantly correlated (Kendall's Tau-b P = 0.015). We find no evidence from Google Trends that the bed bug epidemic in the United States has reached equilibrium. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Infrared detection without specialized infrared receptors in the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Lydia M; Lazzari, Claudio R; Tichy, Harald

    2014-10-01

    Bloodsucking bugs use infrared radiation (IR) for locating warm-blooded hosts and are able to differentiate between infrared and temperature (T) stimuli. This paper is concerned with the neuronal coding of IR in the bug Rhodnius prolixus. Data obtained are from the warm cells in the peg-in-pit sensilla (PSw cells) and in the tapered hairs (THw cells). Both warm cells responded to oscillating changes in air T and IR with oscillations in their discharge rates. The PSw cells produced stronger responses to T oscillations than the THw cells. Oscillations in IR did the reverse: they stimulated the latter more strongly than the former. The reversal in the relative excitability of the two warm cell types provides a criterion to distinguish between changes in T and IR. The existence of strongly responsive warm cells for one or the other stimulus in a paired comparison is the distinguishing feature of a "combinatory coding" mechanism. This mechanism enables the information provided by the difference or the ratio between the response magnitudes of both cell types to be utilized by the nervous system in the neural code for T and IR. These two coding parameters remained constant, although response strength changed when the oscillation period was altered. To discriminate between changes in T and IR, two things are important: which sensory cell responded to either stimulus and how strong was the response. The label warm or infrared cell may indicate its classification, but the functions are only given in the context of activity produced in parallel sensory cells. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Is the hibiscus harlequin bug aposematic? The importance of testing multiple predators

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, Scott A; Smith, Carolynn L

    2014-01-01

    Aposematism involves predators learning conspicuous signals of defended prey. However, prey species utilize a wide range of chemical (or physical) defenses, which are not likely to be equally aversive to all predators. Aposematism may therefore only be effective against a physiologically sensitive subset of potential predators, and this can only be identified through behavioral testing. We studied the emerging model organism Tectocoris diophthalmus (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), an aposematically colored but weakly defended shieldback stinkbug, to test the efficacy of its defenses against a suite of predator types. We predicted the bugs' defenses would be ineffectual against both experienced and naïve birds but aversive to predaceous insects. Surprisingly, the opposite pattern was found. Both habituated wild passerines and naïve chickens avoided the bugs, the chickens after only one or two encounters. To avian predators, T. diophthalmus is aposematic. However, praying mantids showed no repellency, aversion, or toxicity associated with adult or juvenile bugs after multiple trials. Comparison with prior studies on mantids using bugs with chemically similar but more concentrated defenses underscores the importance of dose in addition to chemical identity in the efficacy of chemical defenses. Our results also emphasize the importance of behavioral testing with multiple ecologically relevant predators to understand selective pressures shaping aposematic signals and chemical defenses. PMID:24558567

  3. Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economic injury level by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), on developing corn (Zea mays L.) ears was examined in 2005 and 2006. Stink bug infestations were initiated when ‘DKC6971’ (Bt-transgenic and roundup-ready) hybrid plants were at growth stages VT, ...

  4. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  5. Natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski as a chance of the specialized tourism development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznerczuk, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the most precious natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski (between Zaczopki and Gnojno). This area is protected as the landscape park - "Podlasie Bug Water Gap". The natural abiotic elements, among others geomorphological ones significantly conditioning unrepeatable charms of the Bug river valley landscape, are regarded as marginal in many papers concerning the unique values of this valley. The presented natural curiosities are arranged in genetic and chronological order. These main relief elements of the Bug river valley are associated with different morphogenetic processes, i.e. the gap formation, the Bug river metamorphosis and gully erosion. These elements can be a chance of the development of specialised tourism, which will influence the economic mobilization of this undeveloped region.

  6. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    PubMed

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  7. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  8. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins such as rabbit IgG and chicken IgY are markers that are easy to apply and analyze on insects for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective in research for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators used in biocontrol. To address t...

  9. Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Detection in Low-Income, High-Rise Apartments Using Four or Fewer Passive Monitors.

    PubMed

    Vail, K M; Chandler, J G

    2017-06-01

    Bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., management in low-income, high-rise housing for the elderly and disabled can be difficult. Early detection is key to slowing their spread, and reducing management cost and time needed for control. To determine the minimum number of passive monitors needed to detect low-level bed bug infestations in this environment, we evaluated three monitors placed one, two, or four per apartment in a 3 by 3 experimental design. One sticky monitor, The Bedbug Detection System, and the two pitfall monitors, ClimbUp Insect Interceptors BG and BlackOut BedBug Detectors, were evaluated. Bed bugs were trapped by the ClimbUp Insect Interceptors BG and the BlackOut BedBug Detector in 88% and 79% of apartments, respectively, but only in 39% of the apartments monitored with The Bedbug Detection System. The Bedbug Detection System required significantly longer time to detect bed bugs than either the ClimbUp Insect Interceptor BG or the BlackOut BedBug Detector. With the less effective Bedbug Detection System data removed from analyses, detection rates ranged from 80 to 90%, with no significant differences among one, two, or four monitors per apartment. Results indicate it is especially important to include a bed placement when only placing a few monitors. Future work should compare the combination of cursory visual inspections with various monitor numbers and placements per apartment to determine the most efficient, cost-effective system that will be accepted and implemented in low-income housing. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Do counts of salivary sheath flanges predict food consumption in herbivorous stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For Pentatomid stink bug agricultural pests, the number of salivary sheaths and sheath flanges—the portion of the sheath visible on the exterior surface of a food item—are good predictors of the loss of crop yield or quality from stink bug feeding. As the often assumed relationship between salivary ...

  11. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  12. Dying Star Shrouded by a Blanket of Hailstones Forms the Bug Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Release Date: May 3, 2004 A Dying Star Shrouded by a Blanket of Hailstones Forms the Bug Nebula (NGC 6302) The Bug Nebula, NGC 6302, is one of the brightest and most extreme planetary nebulae known. The fiery, dying star at its center is shrouded by a blanket of icy hailstones. This NASA Hubble Wide Field Plantery Camera 2 image shows impressive walls of compressed gas, laced with trailing strands and bubbling outflows. Object Names: NGC 6302, Bug Nebula Image Type: Astronomical Credit: NASA, ESA and A.Zijlstra (UMIST, Manchester, UK) To learn more about this image go to: hubblesite.org/gallery/album/nebula/pr2004046a/ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  14. Molecular characterization of genes encoding inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the bed bug (Cimex lectularius).

    PubMed

    Mamidala, Praveen; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Jones, Susan C; Piermarini, Peter M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-04-01

    The molecular genetics of inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in insects is poorly understood. To date, Kir channel genes have been characterized only from a few representative dipterans (i.e., fruit flies and mosquitoes). The goal of the present study was to characterize Kir channel cDNAs in a hemipteran, the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). Using our previously reported bed bug transcriptome (RNA-seq), we identified two cDNAs that encode putative Kir channels. One was a full-length cDNA that encodes a protein belonging to the insect 'Kir3' clade, which we designate as 'ClKir3'. The other was a partial cDNA that encodes a protein with similarity to both the insect 'Kir1' and 'Kir2' clades, which we designate as 'ClKir1/2'. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ClKir1/2 and ClKir3 exhibited peak expression levels in late-instar nymphs and early-instar nymphs, respectively. Furthermore, ClKir3, but not ClKir1/2, showed tissue-specific expression in Malpighian tubules of adult bed bugs. Lastly, using an improved procedure for delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to male and female bed bugs (via the cervical membrane) we demonstrate rapid and systemic knockdown of ClKir3 transcripts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the bed bug possesses at least two genes encoding Kir channels, and that RNAi is possible for at least Kir3, thereby offering a potential approach for elucidating the roles of Kir channel genes in bed bug physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs in Wild Triatoma infestans from Bolivia: Predominance of TcI

    PubMed Central

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Aliaga, Claudia; Waleckx, Etienne; Buitrago, Rosio; Salas, Renata; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Noireau, François

    2012-01-01

    Background The current persistence of Triatoma infestans (one of the main vectors of Chagas disease) in some domestic areas could be related to re-colonization by wild populations which are increasingly reported. However, the infection rate and the genetic characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi strains infecting these populations are very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Of 333 wild Triatoma infestans specimens collected from north to south of a Chagas disease endemic area in Bolivia, we characterized 234 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon multiplex PCR (MMPCR) and sequencing the glucose phosphate isomerase (Gpi) gene. Of the six genetic lineages (“discrete typing units”; DTU) (TcI-VI) presently recognized in T. cruzi, TcI (99.1%) was overdominant on TcIII (0.9%) in wild Andean T. infestans, which presented a 71.7% infection rate as evaluated by microscopy. In the lowlands (Bolivian Chaco), 17 “dark morph” T. infestans were analyzed. None of them were positive for parasites after microscopic examination, although one TcI stock and one TcII stock were identified using MMPCR and sequencing. Conclusions/Significance By exploring large-scale DTUs that infect the wild populations of T. infestans, this study opens the discussion on the origin of TcI and TcV DTUs that are predominant in domestic Bolivian cycles. PMID:22685616

  16. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. Knockdown of the Chromatin Remodeling Gene Brahma by RNA Interference Reduces Reproductive Fitness and Lifespan in Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Basnet, Sanjay; Kamble, Shripat T

    2018-05-04

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is a nuisance household pest causing significant medical and economic impacts. RNA interference (RNAi) of genes that are involved in vital physiological processes can serve as potential RNAi targets for insect control. Brahma is an ATPase subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex involved in transcription of several genes for cellular processes, most importantly the homeotic genes. In this study, we used a microinjection technique to deliver double stranded RNA into female bed bugs. Delivery of 0.05 and 0.5 µg/insect of brahma dsRNA directly into hemocele resulted substantial reduction in oviposition. Eggs laid by bed bugs receiving both doses of brahma dsRNA exhibited significantly lower hatching percentage as compared to controls. In addition, brahma RNAi in female bed bugs caused significant mortality. Our results disclosed the potential of brahma RNAi to suppress bed bug population through injection of specific dsRNA, suggesting a critical function of this gene in bed bugs' reproduction and survival. Based on our data, brahma can be a promising RNAi target for suppression of bed bug population.

  18. Vision in the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): eye morphology and spectral sensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behavior to improve management. While few studies have inves...

  19. Climbing ability of teneral and sclerotized adult bed bugs and assessment of adhesive properties of the exoskeletal fluid using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zungoli, Patricia A.; Bridges, William C.; Ellis, Brittany R.; Song, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    We observed that teneral adults (<1 h post-molt) of Cimex lectularius L. appeared more adept at climbing a smooth surface compared to sclerotized adults. Differences in climbing ability on a smooth surface based on sclerotization status were quantified by measuring the height to which bed bugs climbed when confined within a glass vial. The average maximum height climbed by teneral (T) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 4.69 cm) differed significantly (P< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (RS) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 1.73 cm at ~48 h post molt), sclerotized group 1 (S1) bed bugs (n = 30, S1 = 2.42 cm at >72 h), and sclerotized group 2 (S2) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 2.64 cm at >72 h post molt). When heights from all climbing events were summed, teneral bed bugs (650.8 cm climbed) differed significantly (P< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (82 cm climbed) and sclerotized (group 1 = 104.6 cm climbed, group 2 = 107.8 cm climbed) bed bugs. These findings suggested that the external surface of teneral bed bug exoskeletons possess an adhesive property. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that adhesion force of an exoskeletal (presumably molting) fluid decreased almost five-fold from 88 to 17 nN within an hour of molting. Our findings may have implications for laboratory safety and the effectiveness of bed bug traps, barriers, and biomimetic-based adhesives. PMID:29244819

  20. Climbing ability of teneral and sclerotized adult bed bugs and assessment of adhesive properties of the exoskeletal fluid using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Kevin R; Reukov, Vladimir; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Bridges, William C; Ellis, Brittany R; Song, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    We observed that teneral adults (<1 h post-molt) of Cimex lectularius L. appeared more adept at climbing a smooth surface compared to sclerotized adults. Differences in climbing ability on a smooth surface based on sclerotization status were quantified by measuring the height to which bed bugs climbed when confined within a glass vial. The average maximum height climbed by teneral (T) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 4.69 cm) differed significantly (P< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (RS) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 1.73 cm at ~48 h post molt), sclerotized group 1 (S1) bed bugs (n = 30, S1 = 2.42 cm at >72 h), and sclerotized group 2 (S2) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 2.64 cm at >72 h post molt). When heights from all climbing events were summed, teneral bed bugs (650.8 cm climbed) differed significantly (P< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (82 cm climbed) and sclerotized (group 1 = 104.6 cm climbed, group 2 = 107.8 cm climbed) bed bugs. These findings suggested that the external surface of teneral bed bug exoskeletons possess an adhesive property. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that adhesion force of an exoskeletal (presumably molting) fluid decreased almost five-fold from 88 to 17 nN within an hour of molting. Our findings may have implications for laboratory safety and the effectiveness of bed bug traps, barriers, and biomimetic-based adhesives.

  1. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  2. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  3. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in…

  4. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. © F. Jourdain et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  5. Could Carlos Chagas' assumption on the relationship between goiter and chronic Chagas heart disease be correct? A historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto; Restini, Carolina B A; Couto, Lucelio B

    2016-01-01

    In 1910, Chagas divided the clinical manifestations of the chronic form of Chagas disease according to heart, Central Nervous System, and thyroid involvement, particularly the presence of goiter. Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with poor houses infested with kissing bugs, the similarity of the clinical picture with that of patients underwent partial thyroidectomy, and with the presence of thyroid sclerosis (inflammation) on histological examination. In addition, Chagas observed that all people living in poor houses infested by sucking bugs had goiter, contrasting with persons who lived in the same region, drinking the same water, but living in good houses, which did not have goiter. Furthermore, Chagas stressed the fact that people without any evidence of thyroid disease that migrated to live in poor houses in areas infested by sucking bugs developed thyroid disease some time later. Finally, and more importantly, Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with cardiac abnormalities in 80% of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Despite this, other authors working in different regions did not confirm such an association. A reappraisal of data from a work published in 1949 clearly shows that the presence of goiter was statistically associated with chronic Chagas heart disease and with chronic Chagas disease. Our paper highlights once more the grandiosity of Chagas' work, which has been proved to be correct even in the history of goiter, and justifies our claim for a posthumous Nobel Prize inasmuch as his work was not perceived by the Karolinska Institute. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. A simple method to identify triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) feces in sensing devices used in vector surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Oneto, M L; Cecere, M C; Castañera, M B; Canale, D M

    2001-03-01

    We successfully applied the phenolphthalin (Kastle-Meyer) test used in forensic chemistry to distinguish between feces from triatomines and other domestic arthropods in sensing devices used for vector surveillance. All black or dark brown, but not white or yellow, fecal smears from laboratory-reared or field-collected Triatoma infestans Klug, Triatoma guasayana Wydgozinsky & Abalos, Triatoma sordida Ståhl (recently revalidated as Triatoma garciabesi Carcavallo, Cichero, Martínez, Prosen & Ronderos) tested positive, whereas dejecta from cockroaches and spiders, crickets, beetles, predatory bugs, and domestic flies tested negative. Black or dark brown dejecta from female Aedes aegypti L. and Cimex lectularius L. bedbugs also tested positive. In sellsing devices installed in bedrooms of 11 houses in Amamá, rural northwestern Argentina, where neither cimicid bedbugs nor argasid ticks had been found over the years, only 62% of the black or dark brown fecal smears attributed to triatomines by a skilled observer tested phenolphthalin-positive. After insecticidal spraying, when bedroom areas were not colonized by triatomines, only 33-40% of the black or dark brown fecal smears in sensor boxes attributed to triatomines by another skilled observer tested phenolphthalin-positive. Eleven (79%) ofthe 14 houses with dubious or nontypical triatomine feces tested phenolphthalin-positive at least once during 1993-1995. Our study introduces a low-cost, simple and effective procedure for the identification of triatomine feces. The test, as a helpful adjunct to sensing devices used in triatomine surveillance, will aid in the accurate detection of infestations and the determination of the need for insecticide application.

  7. SNIFFER: a System that Understands Bugs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    NUMBER •) A~ ATHO... S CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) I Daniel G..Shapiro ’ NO014-80-C-0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS .|O. PROGRAM...debugginoi knowledge in Sniffer is organized as a collectioni of indcpendent experts which understand spcciftc errors. Each expert fuinctions by...be organized , as opposed to representing them as differences from an established norm. This mechanism makes it possible for individual bug experts to

  8. Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk in lactating dairy cattle by feeding bug contaminated corn silage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the northeastern United States, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture. BMSB is a highly polyphagous plant pest but also has potentially negative impact to dairy industry through contamination of silage and potent...

  9. [Means of the formation of gonotrophic relations in blood-sucking Diptera].

    PubMed

    Tamarina, N A

    1987-01-01

    Gonotrophic relations in low and higher bloodsucking Diptera are fundamentally different that results from an initial type of feeding and trophic behaviour. Trophic behaviour of low dipterous hematophages and gonotrophic harmony peculiar to them can be traced from entomophagy, that is from the predatory mode of life on account of small insects. By the type of the trophic behaviour low bloodsucking Diptera are predators with a typical moment contact with the prey. More primitive is a type of gonotrophic harmony characteristic of hunters for diffusely spread prey (incomplete blood portion provides the maturation of incomplete portion of eggs). Hunting for diffusely spread prey is characteristic of entomophages too. The appearance of gregarious ruminants facilitates the possibility of repeated contacts with prey and blood satiation threshold increases. This is a higher type of gonotrophic harmony providing a maximum realization of potential fecundity. The initial saprophagy of higher Diptera is associated with another type of trophic behaviour (long contact with food substratum) that is a prerequisite for quite a different way of evolution of host-parasite relationships in higher Diptera. This leads to more close connections with the host and excludes gonotrophic harmony. Females were the first to begin the exploitation of vertebrate animals. This is connected with the peculiarities of their behaviour during egg laying such as the stay near animals for laying eggs into fresh dung. Autogeneity, nectarophagy and aphagia are homologous phenomena which reflect the loss of an animal component of food or both components at the level of non-specialized saprophagy rather than secondary loss of bloodsucking. The scheme of gonotrophic relations is given.

  10. Sex pheromone of the mirid bug, Adelphocoris suturalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous insect pests that damage many types of economically significant field crops. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the species, Adelphocoris suturalis, because of it outbreaks in Bt cotton. Our previous work showed that virgin A....

  11. Life table parameters for tarnished plant bug models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot De Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous insect that feeds on numerous wild and cultivated host plants. Previous papers have reported the survival and developmental times of immature stages of TPB and the fecundity and longevity of adults on various ho...

  12. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ

  13. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Balvín, Ondřej; Vargo, Edward L; Vilímová, Jitka; Schal, Coby

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e. host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia, it has been speculated that bed bugs extended their host range from bats to humans in their shared cave domiciles throughout Eurasia. C. lectularius that associate with humans have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas those associated with bats occur across Europe, often in human-built structures. We assessed genetic structure and gene flow within and among populations collected in association with each host using mtDNA, microsatellite loci and knock-down resistance gene variants. Both nuclear and mitochondrial data support a lack of significant contemporary gene flow between host-specific populations. Within locations human-associated bed bug populations exhibit limited genetic diversity and elevated levels of inbreeding, likely due to human-mediated movement, infrequent additional introduction events per infestation, and pest control. In contrast, populations within bat roosts exhibit higher genetic diversity and lower levels of relatedness, suggesting populations are stable with temporal fluctuations due to host dispersal and bug mortality. In concert with previously published evidence of morphological and behavioural differentiation, the genetic data presented here suggest C. lectularius is currently undergoing lineage divergence through host association. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Long-branch attraction and the phylogeny of true water bugs (Hemiptera: Nepomorpha) as estimated from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of morphological and molecular data have consistently supported the monophyly of the true water bugs (Hemiptera: Nepomorpha). An exception is a recent study by Hua et al. (BMC Evol Biol 9: 134, 2009) based on nine nepomorphan mitochondrial genomes. In the analysis of Hua et al. (BMC Evol Biol 9: 134, 2009), the water bugs in the group Pleoidea formed the sister group to a clade that consisted of Nepomorpha (the remaining true water bugs) + Leptopodomorpha (shore bugs) + Cimicomorpha (assassin bugs and relatives) + Pentatomomorpha (stink bugs and relatives), thereby suggesting that fully aquatic hemipterans evolved independently at least twice. Based on these results, Hua et al. (BMC Evol Biol 9: 134, 2009) elevated the Pleoidea to a new infraorder, the Plemorpha. Results Our reanalysis suggests that the lack of support for the monophyly of the true water bugs (including Pleoidea) by Hua et al. (BMC Evol Biol 9: 134, 2009) likely resulted from inadequate taxon sampling. In particular, long-branch attraction (LBA) between the distant outgroup taxa and Pleoidea, as well as LBA among taxa in the ingroup, made Nepomorpha appear to be polyphyletic. We used three complementary strategies to test and alleviate the effects of LBA: (1) the removal of distant outgroups from the analysis; (2) the addition of closely related outgroups; and (3) the addition of a mitochondrial genome from a second family of Pleoidea. We also performed likelihood-ratio tests to examine the support for monophyly of Nepomorpha with different combinations of taxa included in the analysis. Furthermore, we found that specimens of Helotrephes sp. were misidentified as Paraplea frontalis (Fieber, 1844) by Hua et al. (BMC Evol Biol 9: 134, 2009). Conclusions All analyses that included the addition of more taxa significantly and consistently supported the placement of Pleoidea within the Nepomorpha (i.e., supported the monophyly of the traditional true water bugs). Our

  15. Factors affecting captures of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in baited pyramid traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trapping experiments targeting brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal,) addressed the effects of; 1) a modification to the trap container of a commercial trap, 2) the age of methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate lures, and 3) the age of dichlorvos-impregnated kill strips on bug captures. In ...

  16. Genetic variation in field and laboratory populations of the spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is an economically important and high-valued biological control agent. There is substantial information on the biology, ecology, behavior and rearing of this stink bug. However, virtually nothing is known of its genetic variation, in natural...

  17. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  18. Toxicity of indoxacarb to the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera:Miridae), and the big-eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The toxicity of Steward, a formulation of indoxacarb, was studied for the tarnished plant bug [Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)], a pest of cotton, and the big-eyed insect [Geocoris punctipes (Say)], a predator of pests in cotton. Both insects responded similarly to Steward in topical, tarsal ...

  19. Stay Legal and Safe in Treating for Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Quick fix solutions may sound appealing, but they may not be legal, safe, or effective. To avoid adverse effects such as poisoning, buy EPA-registered pesticides labeled for bed bug control, and follow all label directions and precautions.

  20. Recolonization of bat roost by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli): could parasite load be a cause of bat roost switching?

    PubMed

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Růžičková, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Roost ectoparasites are believed to have a negative impact on fitness of their hosts as birds or mammals. Previous studies were mostly focussed on the synchronization between reproduction cycles of ectoparasites and hosts living in infested roosts. However, to date, it has not been examined how fast ectoparasites colonize new, non-infested roosts and thus increasing the impact on the local populations of hosts. The parasite-host model was studied, including bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli and soprano pipistrelles Pipistrellus pygmaeus, where bat behaviour was observed which tended to reduce the parasite load in bat roosts. We investigated (1) whether bats change their roosting behaviour when we discontinued synchronization of their reproduction and the life cycle of the bat bugs and (2) how fast and which stages of bat bugs reoccupy cleaned roosts. In a 3-year field experiment, we removed all bat bugs from six bat boxes in each spring. Pipistrelles bred young in all non-infested boxes during these 3 years. In addition, 8 years of regular observations before this experiment indicate that bats avoided breeding in the same bat boxes at all. Bat bugs were found again in clean boxes in mid-May. However, their densities did not maximise before the beginning of June, before parturition. A re-appearance of bugs was observed after 21-56 days after the first bat visit. Adult bugs, mainly females, colonised cleaned boxes first though at the same time there were a lot of younger and smaller instars in non-manipulated roosts in the vicinity.

  1. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  2. Functional genetic studies of the tarnished plant bug

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beuvois) has become a primary pest of cotton in the Mississippi Delta. To identify new techological and genetic methods to control TPB, studies have begun to focus on genes expressed by the insect. Initial studies on interference of transcr...

  3. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  4. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  5. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology. PMID:24473801

  6. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  7. Expression of insecticide resistance in immature life stages of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, Gonzalo; Picollo, María Inés; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility to the insecticide deltamethrin and the expression of resistance to this insecticide in developing eggs and neonate nymphs of Triatoma infestans from two areas of Argentina (Campo Largo) and Bolivia (Entre Ríos), where resistance to this pyrethroid is suspected. Both nymphal populations showed resistance to deltamethrin, with lower resistance ratio for Entre Ríos (173X) than Campo Largo (1108X). Efficacy of deltamethrin on 4-, 7-, and 12-d-old eggs for both field populations were significantly lower than efficacy on eggs of the susceptible strain. This is the first documented evidence of the expression of pyrethroid resistance during the embryonic development of Chagas Disease vectors.

  8. Morphology and proteome characterization of the salivary glands of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland ...

  9. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention.

  10. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  11. [Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia: Distribution, ecology and epidemiological importance].

    PubMed

    Quirós-Gómez, Óscar; Jaramillo, Nicolás; Angulo, Víctor; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Central America and countries of northern South America. In Colombia, it has a wide geographical distribution with reported presence in 14 departments in the Andean, Caribbean, Eastern plains and Upper Magdalena regions, where it occupies different natural and artificial ecotopes. The species is considered a secondary vector in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Its presence in wild, peridomestic and intradomiciliary habitats in the Andean region, coupled with its ability to move between them, has allowed it to escape the control based on pyrethroids spraying, highlighting its importance in maintaining transmission of the parasite through the potential reinfestation of homes.Understanding the relation of T. dimidiata and its habitats, as well as the empowerment of communities, will contribute to the development of effective and lasting control systems.The purpose of this review was to describe the distribution, risk factors, ecology, entomological features and habitats of T. dimidiata populations in Colombia, and to propose alternative interventions in agreement with the specific characteristics of the species.

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  13. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Froeschner (1988) records 23 species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) as occurring in Washington state. Based onmaterial primarily housed in the M.T. James Entomological Collection at Washington State University, the number of species is increased to 47. Species recorded by Froes...

  14. Toxicity to adult brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a glass-vial bioassay of selected insecticide mixture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) has become the predominant species among the stink bug complex on cotton in Central Texas. Control options to suppress the insect are largely dependent upon and limited to the use of insecticides. Data are needed to determine the toxicity of current...

  15. "The Bug Investigators": Assessment of a School Teaching Resource to Improve Hygiene and Prudent Use of Antibiotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Cliodna A. M.; Bowen, Jo; Gelb, David; Charlett, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the "Bug Investigators" pack in improving children's knowledge about micro-organisms, hygiene and antibiotics when it is used within the National Curriculum in junior schools. Design/methodology/approach: Teaching, using the "Bug Investigators" pack, was given by…

  16. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  17. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  18. Test Guideline Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products Now Available

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s final test guidelines, 810.3900 - Laboratory Product Performance Testing Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products, provides recommendations for the design and execution of laboratory studies to evaluate the performance of pesticide products.

  19. Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Zainuddin, Zainal Zahari; Marni, Wahap; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Ambu, Laurentius N; Payne, Junaidi

    2013-02-01

    To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was