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Sample records for blue mountains eye

  1. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians. PMID:26571356

  2. Visual Impairment, Hearing Loss and Cognitive Function in an Older Population: Longitudinal Findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Burlutsky, George; Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin

    2016-01-01

    The presence of visual impairment (VI) and hearing loss (HL) with may be a marker for subsequent cognitive decline over time in older people. A prospective, longitudinal population-based study of the 3654 participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study were assessed for the associations between VI and HL and a decline in mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores over a duration of 10 years from the 5-year (baseline of this report) to the 15-year follow-up visits. MMSE was assessed at the 5-, 10- and 15-year follow-up visits. A decline ≥3 scores from 5-year to 10- or 15-year visits indicated possible cognitive decline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity <6/12 in the worse-eye, HL was defined as pure-tone average >40 decibels in the worse-ear and dual sensory impairment (DSI) was defined by the co-presence of VI and HL, detected at 5-year follow-up (baseline of this report). Participants with no VI and HL over the same 5- or 10-year corresponding period were controls. Associations of VI, HL and DSI with possible cognitive decline were assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age and sex after excluding subjects with a stroke history. The presence of VI, HL or DSI was not associated with possible cognitive decline over 5 years (odds ratio (OR) 0.84, 95% confidence-intervals (CI) 0.40-1.79, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.61-1.70 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.54-3.72, respectively) or 10 years (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.52-2.30, OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65-1.82 and 1.15, 95% CI 0.28-4.73, respectively). There were no changes to these findings after adjustment for other potential confounders. Age was significantly associated with possible cognitive decline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for both periods). Neither visual impairment, hearing loss nor dual sensory impairment was independently associated with subsequent decline in cognition. PMID:26808979

  3. Blue Mountain Lake, New York, earthquake of October 7, 1983.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wendt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The October 7 earthquake near Blue Mountain Lake in the central Adirondack Mountains registered a preliminary Richter magnitude of 5.2. It was widely felt throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada and occurred in an area that has been periodically shaken by earthquakes throughout recorded history. Since 1737, at least 346 felt earthquakes have occurred in New York; an earthquake of similar magnitude last shook the Blue Mountain Lake area on June 9, 1975.    

  4. Folk Culture History of the Blue Ridge Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Gene, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The article covers the historic period between 1730 (the earliest proof of initial European settlement in the district) and 1800 (the closing of the pioneer stage of mountain development) of the Blue Ridge Mountains from Front Royal to Waynesboro, Virginia. (NQ)

  5. For Internet Knowledge, Should You Ask Ol' Blue Eyes or the Brown-Eyed Girl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Kolpakova, Yulia; Klinkhamer, Sooz

    2004-01-01

    The digital divide is generally thought to arise from socio-economic disparities. However, there is more to it. Eye colour is a factor. In this study, the 16 multiple-choice item Internet Quiz was administered to 3,208 respondents in the Lower Mainland (Vancouver) of British Columbia, Canada. Blue and hazel-eyed people knew significantly more…

  6. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  7. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Candles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on candles is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of candle making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  8. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    Module synopses and resource lists are provided for eight adult basic education modules on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts, each designed to utilize basic skills and develop avocational or vocational skills (see Note). Included are explanations of the skills incorporated in each module and a resource list, including local people and…

  9. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pottery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on pottery making is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of pottery, including terms to know; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  10. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  11. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and the... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...

  12. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-06-01

    Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might have a similar genetic basis. We addressed this by sequencing the homologous genetic region in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons; N = 4) and the closely-related black lemur (Eulemur macaco macaco; N = 4), which has brown eyes. We then compared a 166-bp segment corresponding to and flanking the human eye-color-associated region in these lemurs, as well as other primates (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, macaque, ring-tailed lemur, mouse lemur). Aligned sequences indicated that this region is strongly conserved in both Eulemur macaco subspecies as well as the other primates (except blue-eyed humans). Therefore, it is unlikely that this regulatory segment plays a major role in eye color differences among lemurs as it does in humans. Although convergent phenotypes can sometimes come about via the same or similar genetic changes occurring independently, this does not seem to be the case here, as we have shown that the genetic basis of blue eyes in lemurs differs from that of humans. PMID:19278018

  13. [Discovery and genetic analysis of blue-eyed mutant in the white rex rabbits].

    PubMed

    Pang, You-Zhi; Xu, Yong-Fei

    2013-06-01

    Using cross, backcross, and full-sib mating experiments, allelism test was conducted to study the genetic mechanism of blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits originated from the F1 generation from the cross American White rex rabbits(♂) × Chinchilla meat rabbits(♀). The study showed that the reason for the blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits was a recessive mutation in Vienna locus. When the V locus was homozygous for the recessive v gene, it was recessive epistatic to other loci (including A, B, C, D, and E), which also controlled the coat color. Regardless of the genotypes in other gene loci, the rabbits appeared blue eyes and white coat color as long as the genotype vv occurred at the Vienna locus. Thus, the combination of genotype vv and genotype rr will produce the blue-eyed and the white rex rabbits. As the blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits is a new finding in China's rabbit breeding program, it is significant to explain the genetic mechanism of the blue-eyed mutant for the breeding and production of rex rabbits.

  14. Application of LANDSAT MSS to elk habitat management. [Blue Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of information derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to estimate the impact of proposed timber harvests on potential elk use is briefly discussed. The evaluations were conducted in Northeastern Oregon where several herds of Rocky Mountain elk range in the Blue Mountains. The inventory product is a geographically referenced data base containing land cover types and habitat components (cover/forage).

  15. Combatant eye protection: an introduction to the blue light hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimore, Morris R.

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence of metabolic vulnerability to visible blue light is vitally important, as it is indicative of a scalable threshold effect. Added stressors (e.g., increased altitude or contact lens wear) could shift the wavelength effects toward a more damaging clinical picture. Recent reports have indicated rod photo-pigment damage resulting from solar blue-light exposures, adversely affecting unaided night vision, a militarily important performance decrement. The activation wavelength for the daily synchronous setting of the Circadian Clock, which regulates the synchronization of all hormonal and organ systems throughout the body, falls within this blue light perceptual range.

  16. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

  17. [A nine-year-old girl with a blue eye].

    PubMed

    Galteland, Pål; Skjelbred, Per

    2007-11-15

    We present a nine-year-old girl with fracture of the orbital floor and herniation of soft tissue and extraocular musculature into the maxillary sinus. A marked restriction of upward gaze was noted. Surgery was performed after two days. Herniated tissue was released and the orbital floor reconstructed. One week later she had normal eye motility. Orbital fractures of children are rare, but we stress the importance of careful clinical examination and early surgery. Due to the elasticity of the bone and lack of periorbital fat in children, extraocular musculature is more prone to entrapment in the orbital floor. The most important sign is limitation of gaze upwards. CT findings are of less importance. Early surgical management within 24 - 48 hours will reduce the risk of necrosis and fibrosis of extraocular musculature resulting in reduced eye motility. PMID:18046847

  18. Geologic implications of Paleozoic and Mesozoic paleontology and biostratigraphy, Blue Mountains province, Oregon and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, Tracy L.; Brooks, Howard C.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains, besides the present review, seven papers on the biostratigraphy of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Blue Mountains province. Geologic implications of the faunal data are discussed in the context of terrane analyses. Most of the authors agree that the pre-Tertiary rocks of this province were formed in a complex island arc within a low-latitude faunal realm and subsequently moved northward and accreted to the North American continent. The use of different terrane names for parts of the Blue Mountains province by different authors may lead to some confusion. We suggest that future authors use the term "Blue Mountains island arc" for the pre-Tertiary province and, if there is a need for subdivision, that they use the terrane names proposed by Silberling and others (1984).

  19. Teaching the Blue-Eyed Islanders Puzzle in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The blue-eyed islanders puzzle is an old and challenging logic puzzle. This is a narrative of an experience introducing a variation of this puzzle on the first day of classes in a liberal arts mathematics course for non-majors. I describe an exercise that was used to facilitate the class's understanding of the puzzle.

  20. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-Tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Professional Paper contains 14 chapters on the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. The authors discuss petrology and tectonic evolution of an island arc that formed in the ancestral Pacific Ocean during the Permian to Cretaceous interval. The island arc was accreted to cratonal North America in the Early Cretaceous and thereby became one of the several exotic terranes in western North America.

  1. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains, Corn Shuck Dolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on corn shuck dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of the dolls; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the…

  2. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  3. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This volume reports on the geology of the Blue Mountains region, consists of six chapters having various individual authorship. This book focuses on the stratigraphy, ages, structure, and chemical characteristics of terrestrial Cenozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the region and on the relation of the Cenozoic volcanism to tectonism.

  4. Blue Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 16 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Ecoregion encompasses approximately 65,461 km² (25,275 mi²) of land bordered on the north by the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion, on the east by the Northern Rockies Ecoregion, on the south by the Snake River Basin and the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions, and on the west by the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Most of the Blue Mountains Ecoregion is located within Oregon (83.5 percent); 13.8 percent is in Idaho, and 2.7 percent is in Washington. The Blue Mountains are composed of primarily Paleozoic volcanic rocks, with minor sedimentary, metamorphic, and granitic rocks. Lower mountains and numerous basin-and-range areas, as well as the lack of Quaternary-age volcanoes, distinguish the Blue Mountains from the adjacent Cascade Range (Thorson and others, 2003).

  5. Space-time modelling of lightning-caused ignitions in the Blue Mountains, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Peterson, D.L.; Alvarado, Ernesto; Ferguson, Sue A.; Besag, Julian E.

    2001-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the effect of vegetation cover, elevation, slope, and precipitation on the probability of ignition in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, and to estimate the probability of ignition occurrence at different locations in space and in time. Data on starting location of lightning-caused ignitions in the Blue Mountains between April 1986 and September 1993 constituted the base for the analysis. The study area was divided into a pixela??time array. For each pixela??time location we associated a value of 1 if at least one ignition occurred and 0 otherwise. Covariate information for each pixel was obtained using a geographic information system. The GLMMs were fitted in a Bayesian framework. Higher ignition probabilities were associated with the following cover types: subalpine herbaceous, alpine tundra, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), and grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.). Within each vegetation type, higher ignition probabilities occurred at lower elevations. Additionally, ignition probabilities are lower in the northern and southern extremes of the Blue Mountains. The GLMM procedure used here is suitable for analysing ignition occurrence in other forested regions where probabilities of ignition are highly variable because of a spatially complex biophysical environment.

  6. The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Warren E.; Appleton, Belinda R.

    2014-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study using KIT flanking and intragenic markers with 40 unrelated alpacas, of which 17 were BEW. Two microsatellite alleles at KIT-related markers were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the BEW phenotype (bew1 and bew2). In a larger cohort of 171 related individuals, we identify an abundance of an allele (bew1) in gray animals and the occurrence of bew2 homozygotes that are solid white with pigmented eyes. Association tests accounting for population structure and familial relatedness are consistent with a proposed model where these alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation or mutations that contribute to the BEW phenotype and to individual differences in fleece color. PMID:23144493

  7. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  8. Blue Mountain and The Gas Rocks: Rear-Arc Dome Clusters on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    Behind the single-file chain of stratovolcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, independent rear-arc vents for mafic magmas are uncommon, and for silicic magmas rarer still. We report here the characteristics, compositions, and ages of two andesite-dacite dome clusters and of several nearby basaltic units, all near Becharof Lake and 15 to 20 km behind the volcanic front. Blue Mountain consists of 13 domes (58-68 weight percent SiO2) and The Gas Rocks of three domes (62-64.5 weight percent SiO2) and a mafic cone (52 weight percent SiO2). All 16 domes are amphibole-biotite-plagioclase felsite, and nearly all are phenocryst rich and quartz bearing. Although the two dome clusters are lithologically and chemically similar and only 25 km apart, they differ strikingly in age. The main central dome of Blue Mountain yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 632?7 ka, and two of the Gas Rocks domes ages of 25.7?1.4 and 23.3?1.2 ka. Both clusters were severely eroded by glaciation; surviving volumes of Blue Mountain domes total ~1 km3, and of the Gas Rocks domes 0.035 km3. Three basaltic vents lie close to The Gas Rocks, another lies just south of Blue Mountain, and a fifth is near the north shore of Becharof Lake. A basaltic andesite vent 6 km southeast of The Gas Rocks appears to be a flank vent of the arc-front center Mount Peulik. The basalt of Ukinrek Maars has been called transitionally alkalic, but all the other basaltic rocks are subalkaline. CO2-rich gas emissions near the eponymous Gas Rocks domes are not related to the 25-ka dacite dome cluster but, rather, to intracrustal degassing of intrusive basalt, one batch of which erupted 3 km away in 1977. The felsic and mafic vents all lie along or near the Bruin Bay Fault where it intersects a broad transverse structural zone marked by topographic, volcanologic, and geophysical discontinuities.

  9. Damage to the forest ecosystem on Blue Mountain from zinc smelting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    Emissions from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, have caused widespread destruction of the forest on Blue Mountain. There have been striking changes in the species composition and structure of the community of vascular plants, as well as population reductions of lichens, mosses, arthropods inhabiting the letter, and amphibians. Reductions in the populations of decomposers of organic matter have led to an accumulation of litter on the forest floor. Zinc poisoning was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer, and lead poisoning was diagnosed in a shrew. White-tailed deer also contained high concentrations of cadmium.

  10. Boulder streams, debris fans, and Pleistocene climate change in the Blue Ridge Mountains of central Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Whittecar, G.R.; Ryter, D.W. )

    1992-07-01

    The west slope of the Blue Ridge mountains in central Virginia is a polygenetic landscape containing interglacial and periglacial features. This paper proposes a general model relating the distribution and origin of hillslope and toeslope Quaternary landforms to climatically influenced geomorphic processes. Two generations of interglacial debris fans in the study area differ in their degree of soil development and clast weathering. Boulder streams, which clog debris flow chutes for the upper debris fans, are interpreted as solifluction features formed during successive periglacial episodes. Growth of the boulder streams and associated talus slopes can influence the magnitude and frequency of debris flows and fan formation during interglacials.

  11. Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

  12. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; stratigraphy, physiography, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    PART 1: Stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of sedimentary sequences from the Wallowa terrane of northeastern Oregon has provided a unique insight into the paleogeography and depositional history of the terrane, as well as establishing important constraints on its tectonic evolution and accretionary history. Its Late Triassic history is considered here by examining the two most important sedimentary units in the Wallowa terrane-the Martin Bridge Limestone and the Hurwal Formation. Conformably overlying epiclastic volcanic rocks of the Seven Devils Group, the Martin Bridge Limestone comprises shallow-water platform carbonate rocks and deeper water, off-platform slope and basin facies. Regional stratigraphic and tectonic relations suggest that the Martin Bridge was deposited in a narrow, carbonate-dominated (forearc?) basin during a lull in volcanic activity. The northern Wallowa platform was a narrow, rimmed shelf delineated by carbonate sand shoals. Interior parts of the shelf were characterized by supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates and evaporites, which were deposited in a restricted basin. In the southern Wallowa Mountains, lithofacies of the Martin Bridge are primarily carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits, which accumulated on a carbonate slope apron adjacent to the northern Wallowa rimmed shelf from which they were derived. Drowning of the platform in the latest Triassic, coupled with a renewed influx of volcanically derived sediments, resulted in the progradation of fine-grained turbidites of the Hurwal Formation over the carbonate platform. Within the Hurwal, Norian conglomerates of the Excelsior Gulch unit contain exotic clasts of radiolarian chert, which were probably derived from the Bakei terrane. Such a provenance provides evidence of a tectonic link between the Baker and Wallowa terranes as early as the Late Triassic, and offers support for the theory that both terranes were part of a more extensive and complex Blue Mountains

  13. Traumatic injuries occurring in possums and gliders in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, S; Canfield, P

    1993-10-01

    Twenty common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), 23 ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) and five sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) from the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia were evaluated for traumatic injuries between 1989 and 1990. Ten brushtail possums and five ringtail possums were hit by motor vehicles with injuries primarily to the anterior of the body. Fifteen ringtail possums and all sugar gliders were attacked by cats. Four brushtail possums were attacked by dogs. The remaining nine possums had evidence of intraspecific fighting (n = 2) or other types of trauma. Brushtail and ringtail possums were presented primarily during their main breeding seasons. There was no sex predilection. More ringtail than brushtail possums were subadults and these were injured primarily at the time of dispersal.

  14. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIRD INTEGRITY INDEX: MEASURING AVIAN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINS OF OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bird Integrity Index (BII) presented here uses bird assemblage information to assess human impacts to 28 stream reaches in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Eighty-one candidate metrics were extracted from bird survey data for testing. The metrics represented aspects of ...

  16. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  17. Damage threshold in adult rabbit eyes after scleral cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light application.

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Körber, Nicole; Karl, Anett; Koch, Christian; Schuldt, Carsten; Penk, Anja; Liu, Qing; Huster, Daniel; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Francke, Mike

    2015-10-01

    Several scleral cross-linking (SXL) methods were suggested to increase the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue and therefore, to inhibit axial eye elongation in progressive myopia. In addition to scleral cross-linking and biomechanical effects caused by riboflavin and light irradiation such a treatment might induce tissue damage, dependent on the light intensity used. Therefore, we characterized the damage threshold and mechanical stiffening effect in rabbit eyes after application of riboflavin combined with various blue light intensities. Adult pigmented and albino rabbits were treated with riboflavin (0.5 %) and varying blue light (450 ± 50 nm) dosages from 18 to 780 J/cm(2) (15 to 650 mW/cm(2) for 20 min). Scleral, choroidal and retinal tissue alterations were detected by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Biomechanical changes were measured by shear rheology. Blue light dosages of 480 J/cm(2) (400 mW/cm(2)) and beyond induced pathological changes in ocular tissues; the damage threshold was defined by the light intensities which induced cellular degeneration and/or massive collagen structure changes. At such high dosages, we observed alterations of the collagen structure in scleral tissue, as well as pigment aggregation, internal hemorrhages, and collapsed blood vessels. Additionally, photoreceptor degenerations associated with microglia activation and macroglia cell reactivity in the retina were detected. These pathological alterations were locally restricted to the treated areas. Pigmentation of rabbit eyes did not change the damage threshold after a treatment with riboflavin and blue light but seems to influence the vulnerability for blue light irradiations. Increased biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue could be achieved with blue light intensities below the characterized damage threshold. We conclude that riboflavin and blue light application increased the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue at

  18. Characteristics of thrust fault imbrication near the frontal edge of the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, Buffalo Mountain, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, M.M.; Woodward, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Buffalo Mountain thrust sheet, located along the western margin of the Blue Ridge in northeastern Tennessee, provides an excellent opportunity to examine transitional structural styles and deformation mechanisms between the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge. Previous interpretation suggests that, because of pre-fault tilting, thrust faults within the Buffalo Mountain complex cut down stratigraphic section. Geometric data from the present study indicate, however, that the thrust faults cut up section with stratigraphic separations of up to 16,500'. Footwall and hanging wall bedding orientations reveal a stair-step thrust geometry; the Unicoi Fm. (basal Chilhowee Gp. quartzite) is a hanging wall flat, and the Knox Gp. (Cambro-Ordovician carbonate) is a footwall ramp. Ductile and brittle deformation mechanisms are represented by mesofabric elements. Important deformation mechanisms and elements include: flexural slip and flexural flow folding styles, pressure solution cleavage, extensional and contractional fractures, quartz filled tensional fractures and cataclastic fault zones. Although previous workers have determined that thrusting within the Blue Ridge occurs in an out-of-sequence pattern, the Buffalo Mountain thrust complex provides an example of in-sequence thrusting. Thus, based on this example, deformation styles and mechanisms within the Blue Ridge appear to be similar to Valley and Ridge deformation styles and mechanisms.

  19. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wynn K; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at least four times in primates and was subject to positive selection in humans, where 5' regulatory variation of OCA2 explains most of the brown/blue eye colour differences. We built a de novo genome assembly for E. flavifrons, providing the most complete lemur genome to date, and a high confidence consensus sequence for close sister species E. macaco, the (brown-eyed) black lemur. From diversity and divergence patterns across the genomes, we estimated a recent split time of the two species (160 Kya) and temporal fluctuations in effective population sizes that accord with known environmental changes. By looking for regions of unusually low diversity, we identified potential signals of directional selection in E. flavifrons at MITF, a melanocyte development gene that regulates OCA2 and has previously been associated with variation in human iris colour, as well as at several other genes involved in melanin biosynthesis in mammals. Our study thus illustrates how whole-genome sequencing of a few individuals can illuminate the demographic and selection history of nonmodel species.

  20. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wynn K; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at least four times in primates and was subject to positive selection in humans, where 5′ regulatory variation of OCA2 explains most of the brown/blue eye colour differences. We built a de novo genome assembly for E. flavifrons, providing the most complete lemur genome to date, and a high confidence consensus sequence for close sister species E. macaco, the (brown-eyed) black lemur. From diversity and divergence patterns across the genomes, we estimated a recent split time of the two species (160 Kya) and temporal fluctuations in effective population sizes that accord with known environmental changes. By looking for regions of unusually low diversity, we identified potential signals of directional selection in E. flavifrons at MITF, a melanocyte development gene that regulates OCA2 and has previously been associated with variation in human iris colour, as well as at several other genes involved in melanin biosynthesis in mammals. Our study thus illustrates how whole-genome sequencing of a few individuals can illuminate the demographic and selection history of nonmodel species. PMID:26198179

  1. Discovery of meteorites on a blue-ice field near the Frontier Mountains, North Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisle, G.; Hoefle, H. C.; Thierbach, R.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    A high concentration of meteorites were discovered on a blue ice field northeast of the Frontier Mountains. As a result of a systematic search, a total of 42 meteorites were recovered. The current glacial situation has evolved through various stages, which are discussed in relationship to the concentration of meteorites. Ice flow patterns are summarized. The chemical composition and terrestrial ages of the meteorites are discussed.

  2. Using blue-ice moraines to constrain elevation changes of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the southern Ellsworth Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, David; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart; Hein, Andy; Marrero, Shasta; Le-Brocq, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Observations in the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet have not yet allowed the dating of elevated glacier trimlines and associated deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains. This uncertainty limits the value of models of changing ice-sheet configuration, volume and, by extension, sea level during glacial cycles and earlier. Here we present the emerging results of a study into the origin and evolution of blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range, southern Ellsworth Mountains, and begin to unravel the long record of ice-sheet history they hold. Our findings so far are: (a) Ground Penetrating Radar shows that the blue-ice moraines are equilibrium forms bringing basal debris to the ice surface; the compressive ice flow is caused by enhanced ablation at the mountain foot. (b) Moraines are concentrated in embayments that focus katabatic winds and their location is largely controlled by topography. (c) The elevated blue-ice moraines in the southern Ellsworth Mountains hold a continuous record of West Antarctic Ice Sheet history going back 600,000 years; so far we have not found evidence of de-glacial intervals. (d) Thinning since the LGM (~40 ka?) is < 450 m and agrees with views of modest changes in the Weddell Sea sector during glacial cycles; most thinning occurred in the Holocene (6-3 ka). (e) Downslope flow of debris-covered ice in embayments follows ice surface lowering; it transports old clasts downslope and exposes fresh clasts, thus complicating the interpretation of exposure ages. We hope that a second field season in 2014 to re-measure 90 stakes for horizontal movement and ablation will help quantify the rate of blue-ice moraine formation.

  3. Evolution of color vision in pierid butterflies: blue opsin duplication, ommatidial heterogeneity and eye regionalization in Colias erate.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2009-04-01

    This paper documents the molecular organization of the eye of the Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow butterfly, Colias erate (Pieridae). We cloned four cDNAs encoding visual pigment opsins, corresponding to one ultraviolet, two blue and one long wavelength-absorbing visual pigments. Duplication of the blue visual pigment class occurs also in another pierid species, Pieris rapae, suggesting that blue duplication is a general feature in the family Pieridae. We localized the opsin mRNAs in the Colias retina by in situ hybridization. Among the nine photoreceptor cells in an ommatidium, R1-9, we found that R3-8 expressed the long wavelength class mRNA in all ommatidia. R1 and R2 expressed mRNAs of the short wavelength opsins in three fixed combinations, corresponding to three types of ommatidia. While the duplicated blue opsins in Pieris are separately expressed in two subsets of R1-2 photoreceptors, one blue sensitive and another violet sensitive, those of Colias appear to be always coexpressed.

  4. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400–490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health. PMID:26900325

  5. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology.

    PubMed

    Tosini, Gianluca; Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400-490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health.

  6. Damage to the forest ecosystem on Blue Mountain from zinc smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, emitted large amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and sulfur dioxide for more than 80 years. A review of the ecological studies done at Lehigh Gap on Blue Mountain yields a comprehensive picture of damage that may result from metal emissions. The most obvious effect has been the destruction of trees, caused by a combination of zinc toxicity and natural stresses. High zinc concentrations in soil inhibited seedling root growth, reducing the number of young trees and hindering regeneration. Effects on the vegetation include stunting, susceptibility to drought, and changes in species and age structure. Communities of lower plants have also been affected. Populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and arthropods in soil and litter were reduced. This has led to a reduced rate of litter decomposition and an increased thickness of the horizon. Some strains of microorganisms were tolerant to very high zinc concentrations. Some wild vertebrates, such as amphibians, were virtually absent from sites near to Lehigh Gap. Zinc poisoning was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer with an abnormally high renal zinc concentration and an articular lesion in a hind leg. There was some evidence of lead poisoning of wildlife; a short-tailed shrew had high tissue concentrations, depressed red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and renal nuclear inclusion bodies. Some songbirds had highly elevated hepatic lead concentrations. Although Lehigh Gap is extremely contaminated with cadmium, there was no evidence of pathological lesions that could be attributed to cadmium in any of the wild animals examined.

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate responses to increasing levels of cattle grazing in Blue Ridge Mountain streams, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Braccia, Amy; Voshell, J Reese

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and cattle density was assessed from fall 2002 through spring 2004 in five small streams that represented a gradient of cattle grazing intensity. All study stream reaches were in pasture with no woody riparian vegetation, but varied in the intensity of cattle grazing (0 cattle ha(-1) at site 1 to 2.85 cattle ha(-1) at site 5). Regression analysis indicated highly significant and strong macroinvertebrate metric responses to cattle density during most sampling periods. The majority of metrics responded negatively to increased grazing, while a few (total taxa richness, number of sensitive taxa, and % collector filterers) increased along the gradient before declining at the most heavily grazed sites. Total number of sensitive taxa and % Coleoptera had the strongest relationship with cattle density throughout the study period. During some sampling periods, nearly 80% of the variation in these metrics was explained by cattle density. The elmid beetle, Oulimnius, had a particularly strong negative response to the grazing gradient. Study site groupings based on taxa composition, using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), indicated that benthic samples collected from the reference site and light rotational grazing site were more similar in macroinvertebrate taxa composition than samples collected from the intermediate grazing and heavy grazing sites. Our findings demonstrate that biological integrity, as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate metrics and assemblage composition, is highly related to cattle density in small streams in the Blue Ridge mountains, Virginia, USA. This suggests that the degree of agricultural intensity should be given consideration in stream assessments, as well as land use planning and regulatory decisions.

  8. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wynn K; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at least four times in primates and was subject to positive selection in humans, where 5' regulatory variation of OCA2 explains most of the brown/blue eye colour differences. We built a de novo genome assembly for E. flavifrons, providing the most complete lemur genome to date, and a high confidence consensus sequence for close sister species E. macaco, the (brown-eyed) black lemur. From diversity and divergence patterns across the genomes, we estimated a recent split time of the two species (160 Kya) and temporal fluctuations in effective population sizes that accord with known environmental changes. By looking for regions of unusually low diversity, we identified potential signals of directional selection in E. flavifrons at MITF, a melanocyte development gene that regulates OCA2 and has previously been associated with variation in human iris colour, as well as at several other genes involved in melanin biosynthesis in mammals. Our study thus illustrates how whole-genome sequencing of a few individuals can illuminate the demographic and selection history of nonmodel species. PMID:26198179

  9. Don't it make my blue eyes brown: heterochromia and other abnormalities of the iris

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, I G

    2012-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most important characteristics in determining facial appearance. In this paper I shall discuss the anatomy and genetics of normal eye colour, together with a wide and diverse range of conditions that may produce an alteration in normal iris pigmentation or form. PMID:21979861

  10. Meteorites constrain the age of Antarctic ice at the Frontier Mountain blue ice field (northern Victoria Land)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Welten, K. C.; Jull, A. J. T.; Nishiizumi, K.; Zeoli, A.

    2006-08-01

    We show that meteorites can provide chronological constraints upon the age of the ice cropping out at the Frontier Mountain meteorite trap (Antarctica) when their terrestrial age is placed in a glaciological context. Amongst the over 700 meteorites found so far, Frontier Mountain (FRO) 84001, 99028, 93005 and 93054 were most likely not wind-drifted across the ice field, since their masses (772-1665 g) are much heavier than the local ˜ 200 g wind transport threshold. The four meteorites were found along a stretch of ice where a representative section of the Frontier Mountain blue ice crops out. Based on the bedding of englacial tephra layers, the structure of the ice along the section appears to be essentially an up-glacier dipping monocline. The 14C terrestrial age of FRO 8401, 99028 and 93005 are 13 ± 2, 21 ± 3 and 27 ± 2 ky, respectively; the 41Ca/ 36Cl age of FRO 93054 is 40 ± 10 ky. The terrestrial ages of the four meteorites increase from the top to the bottom layers of the monocline. This geographic distribution is best explained by delivery of meteorites at the ice surface through the "ice-flow model" (i.e., englacial transport from the snow accumulation zone and exhumation in the blue ice area through ablation) rather than direct fall. Since the effect of ablation in decoupling terrestrial ages of meteorites and the age of the ice on which they sit must have been minor (most likely ≤ 7 ky) based on the local ice dynamics, we conclude that the age of the bulk of the ice body currently under ablation at Frontier Mountain is up to ˜ 50 ky old. This result has implications on both the meteorite concentrations mechanism at Frontier Mountain and the regional ice dynamics.

  11. A dermoid of the eye in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Leber, A.C.; Bürge, T.

    1999-01-01

    A corneo-conjunctival dermoid is reported in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). After laminar keratectomy, histology showed the epidermis with feather follicles and dermal connective tissue with lymph follicles and sebaceous glands.

  12. Testosterone and prolactin in two songbirds that differ in paternal care: the Blue-headed Vireo and the Red-eyed Vireo.

    PubMed

    Van Roo, Brandi L; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sharp, Peter J

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that species differences in paternal care in birds may result from differences in concentrations of circulating testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL). Concentrations of plasma T and PRL were compared in breeding Blue-headed Vireos (Vireo solitarius) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), passerine congeners with biparental and maternal incubation, respectively. In male Blue-headed Vireos, plasma T remained low from prenesting to fledgling stages; whereas in male Red-eyed Vireos, plasma T was highest during prenesting and progressively decreased during incubation, nestling, and fledgling stages. In male Blue-headed Vireos, plasma PRL was similar to that in female Blue-headed Vireos and was higher than in male Red-eyed Vireos at all breeding stages. Plasma PRL increased in male Red-eyed Vireos at the incubation stage and remained moderately elevated through the nestling and fledgling stages. In male Blue-headed Vireos, the combination of high PRL and low T during the prenesting stage may promote brood patch formation and nest building, and, at later stages, incubation and feeding of young. In male Red-eyed Vireos, high PRL and low T during incubation and nestling stages may facilitate the feeding of young, as seen in males of other species. Our observations support the hypothesis that differences in paternal care reflect differences in circulating T and PRL. PMID:14644638

  13. A population estimate of blue-eyed black lemurs in Ankarafa Forest, Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Volampeno, M Sylviane N; Masters, Judith C; Downs, Colleen T

    2010-01-01

    The critically endangered blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) has one of the smallest distributions of any lemur, occurring only in the north-western forests of Madagascar. We report the results of a population estimate of this taxon in part of the Ankarafa Forest, Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park, a dry deciduous forest. We collected data between September 2007 and February 2008 using a total count method with marked individuals and known groups. In all, 228 individuals comprising 29 groups were counted. Group sizes ranged from 4 to 11 individuals with a mean of 8 ± 1.8. We estimated population density to be 1.0 individual/ha or 97.3 individuals/km(2) for our study area, which is higher than previous estimates reported for Ankarafa and other sites within the Sahamalaza Peninsula. Our mean group size, however, was similar to those determined in previous studies. Both group size and density of the blue-eyed black lemur were higher within the National Park than in previous studies outside the Park.

  14. Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly associated founder mutation in a regulatory element located within the HERC2 gene inhibiting OCA2 expression.

    PubMed

    Eiberg, Hans; Troelsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Annemette; Mengel-From, Jonas; Kjaer, Klaus W; Hansen, Lars

    2008-03-01

    The human eye color is a quantitative trait displaying multifactorial inheritance. Several studies have shown that the OCA2 locus is the major contributor to the human eye color variation. By linkage analysis of a large Danish family, we finemapped the blue eye color locus to a 166 Kbp region within the HERC2 gene. By association analyses, we identified two SNPs within this region that were perfectly associated with the blue and brown eye colors: rs12913832 and rs1129038. Of these, rs12913832 is located 21.152 bp upstream from the OCA2 promoter in a highly conserved sequence in intron 86 of HERC2. The brown eye color allele of rs12913832 is highly conserved throughout a number of species. As shown by a Luciferase assays in cell cultures, the element significantly reduces the activity of the OCA2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the two alleles bind different subsets of nuclear extracts. One single haplotype, represented by six polymorphic SNPs covering half of the 3' end of the HERC2 gene, was found in 155 blue-eyed individuals from Denmark, and in 5 and 2 blue-eyed individuals from Turkey and Jordan, respectively. Hence, our data suggest a common founder mutation in an OCA2 inhibiting regulatory element as the cause of blue eye color in humans. In addition, an LOD score of Z = 4.21 between hair color and D14S72 was obtained in the large family, indicating that RABGGTA is a candidate gene for hair color.

  15. New data on Tertiary tectonism in Blue Mountains region, north-central Oregon, as determined from 1 Kirkpatrick well

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.P.; Reidel, S.P.

    1987-08-01

    The Standard of California 1 Kirkpatrick well, near Condon, Oregon, penetrated 2440 ft of Columbia River Basalt (CRB), 4255 ft of John Day Formation-Clarno Formation(.), and was abandoned after penetrating 2031 ft of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The CRB section is entirely Grande Ronde Basalt, and probably contains all four magnetostratigraphic units. Prineville and Picture Gorge basalts, which crop out less than 15 mi away, are absent. Below the CRB are the volcanic rocks of the John Day Formation. Below the ash-flow tuff member A are 560 ft of either John Day or Clarno Formation which, on the basis of petrography, isotopic age dates, and flow compositions, they interpret as a previously unrecognized part of the John Day Formation. Part of a 28 m.y.-old rhyolitic intrusion is interpreted to occur in the Mesozoic rocks and lower John Day Formation-Clarno Formation(.) section. The Tertiary stratigraphy at the well appears to be controlled by uplift of the Blue Mountains and by local deformation. The John Day Member A occurs at about 2000 ft elevation near Fossil, Oregon, and in the well at about 3300 ft below MSL; this suggests that over 5300 ft of uplift occurred over the last 37 m.y. in the Blue Mountains, relative to the Kirkpatrick area. The area coincides with a steep gravity gradient along the north flank of the Blue Mountains (Riddihough, 1984), which suggests a fault. Uplift began during the Clarno as indicated by paleocurrent directions in pre-Clarno rocks near Heppner, Oregon, and continued beyond the Miocene, controlling the CRB and producing the north-dipping homocline.

  16. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  17. Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

  18. Middle Jurassic strata link Wallowa, Olds Ferry, and Izee terranes in the accreted Blue Mountains island arc, northeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.L. ); Vallier, T. ); Stanley, G.D. Jr. ); Ash, S.R. ); White, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Middle Jurassic strata atop the Wallowa terrane in northeastern Oregon link the Wallowa, Izee, and Olds Ferry terranes as related elements of a single long-lived and complex oceanic feature, the Blue Mountains island arc. Middle Jurassic strata in the Wallowa terrane include a dacitic ash-flow deposit and contain fossil corals and bivalves of North American affinity. Plant fossils in fluvial sandstones support a Jurassic age and indicate a seasonal temperate climate. Corals in a transgressive sequence traditionally overlying the fluvial units are of Bajocian age and are closely related to endemic varieties of the Western Interior embayment. They are unlike Middle Jurassic corals in other Cordilleran terranes; their presence suggests that the Blue Mountains island arc first approached the North American craton at high paleolatitudes in Middle Jurassic time. The authors consider the Bajocian marine strata and underlying fluvial volcaniclastic units to be a basin-margin equivalent of the Izee terrane, a largely Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) succession of basinal volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks known to overlie the Olds Ferry and Baker terranes.

  19. How can blue-ice moraines constrain elevation changes of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the southern Ellsworth Mountains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, D.; Woodward, J.; Marrero, S.; Hein, A.; Dunning, S.

    2013-12-01

    Observational data in the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet has not yet allowed the dating of elevated glacier trimlines and associated deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains. This uncertainty limits the value of models of changing ice-sheet configuration, volume and, by extension, sea level during glacial cycles and earlier. Here we present the first results of a study into the origin and evolution of blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range, southern Ellsworth Mountains and begin to unravel the long record of ice-sheet history they hold. Our findings so far are: (a) ground penetrating radar shows boulders and finer debris in the glacier ice and that they are related to ice structures and to basal debris emerging at the glacier surface, (b) exposure ages of surface debris reveals boulders both recently exposed and those pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (c) during the LGM the ice was thicker and the limit is marked by a zone of perched boulders and, in topographic hollows, by buried glacier ice, (d) weathered high elevation deposits with exposure ages in excess of 400 ka have been overridden by glacier ice and thus may represent deposits of much greater age, (e) the relationship between blue-ice moraines and deposits from local wind-drift glaciers makes it possible to constrain the date and duration of Holocene thinning. A forthcoming field season in 2013-2014 to re-measure 90 stakes for horizontal movement and ablation should help quantify the rate of blue-ice moraine formation. We will also obtain rock cores to establish rates of weathering of the older deposits and thus constrain their age more tightly.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes on moth-eye patterned sapphire substrate (MPSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Umeda, S.; Sowa, Mihoko; Kondo, T.; Kitano, T.; Mori, M.; Suzuki, A.; Naniwae, K.; Sekine, H.; Iwaya, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Kamiyama, S.; Akasaki, I.

    2013-03-01

    The fabrication procedure of a moth-eye patterned sapphire substrate (MPSS), which can enhance the light extraction efficiency of nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been examined. The optimization of surface morphology after the etching of the MPSS for high-quality GaN growth was also performed. Then, we fabricated MPSS samples with a fixed pitch of 460nm, and corn height ranging from 50 to 350nm. The light extraction efficiency of blue-LEDs grown on a series of MPSS was enhanced about 1.4 times compared with the devices grown on a flat sapphire substrate. We found that if corn height exceeds 150nm, the MPSS effect is sufficiently observed.

  1. Evaluation of the cumulative (repeated application) eye irritation and corneal staining potential of FD&C yellow no. 5, FD&C blue no. 1 and FD&C blue no. 1 aluminium lake.

    PubMed

    Gettings, S D; Blaszcak, D L; Roddy, M T; Curry, A S; McEwen, G N

    1992-12-01

    A protocol to evaluate the ocular irritation, staining, and embedding potential of FD&C colours (Yellow No. 5, Blue No. 1, Blue No. 1 Aluminium Lake) produced by repeated topical application to rabbit eyes is described. Test materials (3%, w/v in aqueous vehicle) were administered once daily, for a total of 21 days, to the conjunctival sac of the right eye of New Zealand White Rabbits (6 of each sex per group) at a dose volume of 30 microliters. Control animals (6 of each sex) received 30 microliters of the vehicle daily. All animals survived and were free of significant clinical signs of toxicity throughout the study. Ophthalmoscopic examinations revealed that all animals were free of abnormalities considered to be of clinical importance; all animals were free of significant signs of ocular irritation, staining and particle embedment. The results of this study support the safe use of these materials in consumer products intended for use in the eye area.

  2. Pleistocene glaciation in the blue ridge province, southern appalachian mountains, north Carolina.

    PubMed

    Berkland, J O; Raymond, L A

    1973-08-17

    Glacial polish, grooves, and striations discovered at an elevation of 1370 meters in the headwaters of Boone Fork on Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina, indicate the former, existence of alpine glaciation at a latitude of 36 degrees 07'N. The Boone Fork glacier was located 890 kilometers south of the previously recognized southern limit of alpine glaciation in the Appalachian Mountains, and 350 kilometers southeast of the nearest point on the Laurentide ice sheet. This find has significant implications for studies of Pleistocene geomorphology, paleobiology, and paleoclimatology in the eastern United States.

  3. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Baseflows in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current understanding of watershed hydrology does not provide insight into prediction of low-flow response to land-use change in developing regions like the Blue Ridge of north Georgia and western North Carolina. To address this problem, three separate but complementary stud...

  4. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  5. Uveal spindle cell tumor of blue-eyed dogs: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zarfoss, M K; Klauss, G; Newkirk, K; Kiupel, M; Jones, Y; Colitz, C M H; Dubielzig, R R

    2007-05-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the origin of a spindle cell tumor in the anterior uveal tract of dogs and the influence of ultraviolet radiation on the development of this tumor. Thirteen tumors were identified from the 4,007 canine ocular samples examined at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin between 1978 and 2005. Siberian Husky and Siberian Husky mix dogs were overrepresented (10/13 dogs, overall median age 10 years). Light microscopic evaluation (all dogs) and electron microscopy (2 dogs) were performed. Immunohistochemical staining included alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin, S-100, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Melan A, microphthalmic transcription factor (MITF-1), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), laminin, gadd45, p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-UVssDNA (antibody for detection of (6-4)-dipyrimidine photoproducts), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). All tumors occurred in the iris with or without ciliary body involvement and were composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles and whorls (variable Antoni A and B behavior). All tumors were positive when immunostained for vimentin and S-100. Nine of 13 tumors exhibited GFAP immunopositivity. All tumors were negative for SMA, desmin, Melan A, and MITF-1. Tumors were variably positive for PGP 9.5, laminin, gadd45, p53, PCNA, anti-UVssDNA, and TERT. Electron microscopy revealed intermittent basal laminae between cells. These tumors are morphologically and immunohistochemically most consistent with schwannoma. The relationship between spindle cell tumors of the anterior uvea of dogs, altered neural crest, blue iris color, and ultraviolet radiation has not yet been fully elucidated.

  6. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Minako

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Methods Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23–43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20–49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. Results The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the baseline starting VA (P > 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P < 0.05), while there were no significant changes with and without the glasses in the control group (P > 0.05), Conclusions Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE. PMID:27045760

  7. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  8. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  9. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: A plant ecologist`s perspective on ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.G.

    1994-09-01

    Natural disturbances are important to ecosystem processes. Disturbances historically have occurred in the vegetation of the Blue Mountain area of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The primary modifying events that historically have cycled through most of its plant communities are fire, grazing and browsing, insect and disease epidemics, windthrow, flooding, and erosion. Knowledge of plant successional pathways enables managers to predict the probable course of community development for a disturbance regime. Recommendations for restoring the Blue Mountains area are to reintroduce fire into the ecosystem, restore rangeland, and enhance biological diversity by practicing landscpe ecological management and by emulating natural patterns on the landscape. Periodic and timely sampling after these activities is critical to assessing the results by adaptive management needs.

  10. Metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere from the Chunky Gal Mountain complex, Blue Ridge province, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ranson, W.A.; Garihan, J.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Closely associated dunite and layered troctolite, gabbro, and anorthosite from the Chunky Gal Mountain mafic-ultramafic complex suggest a related ocean floor origin for these lithologies, with regional emplacement by the pre-metamorphic Hayesville-Fries thrust of Taconic age. Anhydrous mineral assemblages of dunitic and troctolitic rocks were more resistant to granulite and upper amphibolite metamorphic episodes, retaining much of their original mineralogy. Dunite consists of fresh polycrystalline olivine with local development of anthophyllite, serpentine, and talc along fractures. Dunite adjacent to mafic amphibolites of the complex contains distinctive cm-scale bands or layers of recrystallized plagioclase( ) of uncertain affinity, possibly veins or rhythmic layers. Troctolitic rocks display reaction textures around fresh olivine and plagioclase. Orthopyroxene growing normal to olivine grain boundaries forms an inner corona, in turn surrounded by a complex symplectite of Cpx + Plag [+-] Grt [+-] Spl. Gabbroic rocks show nearly complete replacement of original mafic minerals. Orthopyroxene survives in a few gabbros but mostly has been replaced by emerald green alumino-magnesio-hornblende. Calcic plagioclase is abundant as subhedral crystals or as oval, polycrystalline clots and pink corundum constitutes an accessory phase. A possible reaction resulting in the observed aluminous assemblage is: Na-Plag + Opx + Di + Spl + fluid = Mg-Hbl + Crn + Ca-Plag. Anorthosites occur as layers 10--50 cm in width within layered troctolites and consist of beautifully recrystallized plagioclase with seriate texture and minor amounts of alumino-magnesio hornblende occurring as fine-grained clots. Contacts between anorthosite and troctolite display the same sort of symplectite formed as an outer corona around olivine in the troctolite.

  11. Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, S.E. . Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

  12. Concentrating Antarctic Meteorites on Blue ice Fields: The Frontier Mountain Meteorite Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The collection of meteorites in Antarctica has greatly stimulated advancement in the field of meteoritics by providing the community with significant numbers of rare and unique meteorites types and by yielding large numbers of meteorites that sample older infall epochs (Grady et al., 1998). The majority of Antarctic meteorites are found on blue ice fields, where they are thought to be concentrated by wind and glacial drift (cf. Cassidy et al., 1992). The basic "ice flow model" describes the concentration of meteorites by the stagnation or slowing of ice as it moves against a barrier located in a zone with low snow accumulation. However, our limited knowledge of the details of the actual concentration mechanisms prevents establishing firm conclusions concerning the past meteorite flux from the Antarctic record (Zolensky, 1998). The terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites indicate that their concentration occurs on time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years (Nishiizumi et al., 1989). It is a challenge to measure a mechanism that operates so slowly, and since such time scales can span more than one glacial epoch one cannot assume that the snow accumulation rates, ice velocities and directions, etc. that are measured today are representative of those extant over the age of the trap. Testing the basic "ice flow model" therefore requires the careful measurement of meteorite locations, glacialogical ice flow data, ice thicknesses, bedrock and surface topology, ice ablation and snow accumulation rates, and mass transport by wind over an extended period of time in a location where these quantities can be interpreted in the context of past glacialogical history.

  13. Petrogenesis of Garnet-bearing Rocks in the Grandfather Mountain Window, Blue Ridge Province, Western North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frushour, A. M.; Abbott, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Grandfather Mountain Window in western North Carolina exposes the lowest structural level in the Blue Ridge Province. Rocks in the window constitute a Late Proterozoic basement-cover sequence. The basement consists mainly of Blowing Rock Gneiss (sic, porphyroblastic schist) and Wilson Creek Gneiss, both overlain unconformably by the Grandfather Mountain Formation. All of these rocks have been pervasively overprinted by greenschist facies metamorphism. The typical greenschist mineral assemblage involves combinations of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, actinolite, epidote, calcite, quartz, albite and K-feldspar. Garnet discovered in basement rock calls into question the metamorphic grade. The average garnet (core-rim) is (Fe1.63-1.71Mn0.64-0.77Ca0.52-0.37Mg0.10-0.12)Al1.98-1.96Si3.06-3.04O12; the average biotite is (K0.96Na0.06Ca0.02)(Fe1.73Mg0.87Mn0.02Ti0.04Al0.23)(Si2.83Al1.17)O10(OH)2; the average muscovite is (K1.03Na0.02Ca0.02)(Al1.57Fe0.26Mg0.16Ti0.01)(Si3.31Al0.69)O10(OH)2. Thermometry involving Fe-Mn-Mg components in these minerals gives 766°C (+/- 91°C) at 13.6 kbars (+/- 1.4 kbar), respectively. There are at least four explanations for garnet in these rocks: (1) Garnet may have been stabilized in the greenschist facies by non-AFM components (esp. Mn), but the compositions are not unusual for metamorphic garnet, biotite and muscovite, and the calculated temperatures are too high for greenschist facies. (2) The garnet may be relict from earlier contact metamorphism, but the garnet is not spatially related to otherwise common metamorphosed (greenschist facies) mafic dikes. (3) The garnet is a product of heating during mylonitization. Finally, and most likely, (4) the garnet may be relict from an earlier episode of regional metamorphism. Samples of porphyroblastic schist and greenstone from the same outcrop give low temperature, greenschist facies conditions.

  14. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, David

    2016-04-01

    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  15. Groundwater residence times in Shenandoah National Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, USA: A multi-tracer approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Böhlke, J.K.; Nelms, D.L.; Michel, R.L.; Schlosser, P.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic properties of water discharging from springs and wells in Shenandoah National Park (SNP), near the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains, VA, USA were monitored to obtain information on groundwater residence times. Investigated time scales included seasonal (wet season, April, 1996; dry season, August-September, 1997), monthly (March through September, 1999) and hourly (30-min interval recording of specific conductance and temperature, March, 1999 through February, 2000). Multiple environmental tracers, including tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), sulfur-35 (35S), and stable isotopes (??18O and ??2H) of water, were used to estimate the residence times of shallow groundwater discharging from 34 springs and 15 wells. The most reliable ages of water from springs appear to be based on SF6 and 3H/3He, with most ages in the range of 0-3 years. This range is consistent with apparent ages estimated from concentrations of CFCs; however, CFC-based ages have large uncertainties owing to the post-1995 leveling-off of the CFC atmospheric growth curves. Somewhat higher apparent ages are indicated by 35S (> 1.5 years) and seasonal variation of ??18O (mean residence time of 5 years) for spring discharge. The higher ages indicated by the 35S and ??18O data reflect travel times through the unsaturated zone and, in the case of 35S, possible sorption and exchange of S with soils or biomass. In springs sampled in April, 1996, apparent ages derived from the 3H/3He data (median age of 0.2 years) are lower than those obtained from SF6 (median age of 4.3 years), and in contrast to median ages from 3H/3He (0.3 years) and SF6 (0.7 years) obtained during the late summer dry season of 1997. Monthly samples from 1999 at four springs in SNP had SF6 apparent ages of only 1.2 to 2.5 ?? 0.8 years, and were consistent with the 1997 SF6 data. Water from springs has low excess air (0-1 cm3 kg-1) and N2-Ar temperatures that vary

  16. Historical patterns of western spruce budworm and douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the northern Blue Mountains, Oregon, since a.d. 1700. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Swetnam, T.W.; Wickman, B.E.; Paul, H.G.; Baisan, C.H.

    1995-10-01

    Tree-ring samples from 21 mixed-conifer stands in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon were analyzed for evidence of past western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks. Comparison of host and nonhost tree-ring growth provided an objective basis for distinguishing climatic effects from insect defoliation effects. Our reconstruction shows that since ca. A.D. 1700 at least eight regional budworm outbreaks occurred at intervals of about 21 to 53 years. Reduced radial growth periods caused by defoliation lasted from 13 to 17 years. Two regional budworm out-breaks occurred in the 19th century (ca. 1806 to 1822 and ca. 1851 to 1867), three outbreaks occurred in the northern Blue Mountains in the 20th century (ca. 1898 to 1910, ca. 1946 to 1958, and ca. 1980 to present), and an additional outbreak occurred in the Eagle Cap Wilderness (ca. 1925 to 1939). These findings generally lend support to the hypothesis that budworm outbreaks have increased in frequency and severity in the 20th century in northeastern Oregon.

  17. Exploring Elongation-Inclination Relationships in Datasets from Plutons and Remagnetized Sediments: Examples from the North Cascades and the Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic applications of paleomagnetism rely upon establishment of paleohorizontal at the time of magnetization. Paleohorizontal can be established in sedimentary rocks and volcanics, but is poorly constrained in plutonic rocks and areas that have experienced regional remagnetizations. This study will explore another latitudinal-dependent property of the geomagnetic field- elongation of elliptical distributions of directional data- to evaluate whether the combination of elongation and inclination can be used to constrain effects of tilt or other paleohorizontal uncertainties in paleomagnetic datasets. This work is inspired by the application of the E-I relationship proposed by Tauxe and Kent (2004) to evaluate effects of inclination error in sedimentary rocks. The first example is from the Blue Mountains of eastern OR. Remagnetized Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks (Hillhouse et al, 1982, Harbert et al, 1995, Housen, 2007, Kalk, 2008) have magnetizations that match those of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutons (Wilson and Cox, 1980, Housen, 2007). Directions from 64 sites of these rocks yields a mean of D = 33°, I = 64°, k= 26, α95 = 3.7°. The E-I method can be used to determine the effects of calculated paleohorizontal errors by finding an optimal paleohorizontal error that results in the best agreement between E and I for a set of data. For the Blue Mountains rocks, the optimal E-I relationship yields a corrected inclination of I = 65° (+7°/-4°), and estimated paleolatitude of 47°N (42° to 57°). The second example is from the Cretaceous Mt Stuart batholith in the North Cascades of central WA- these 95-88 Ma plutonic rocks have well defined magnetizations (Housen et al, 2003). Directions from 89 samples have a mean of D = 350°, I=44°, k=50, α95 = 2.1°. The E-I relationship suggests a corrected mean inclination of I=46° (+12°/-3°), and estimated paleolatitude of 27°N (25° to 39°). For the Blue Mountains, this comparison indicates that the

  18. 75 FR 17430 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... condor, its habitat, and other wildlife resources. The refuge encompasses 2,471 contiguous acres owned in... for California condors. The refuge encompasses nearly 14,097 acres owned in fee title by the U.S. Fish... condor. Blue Ridge NWR encompasses 897 acres owned in fee title by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  19. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: Science perspectives. A management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, R.W.; Arno, S.F.; Brown, J.K.; Carlson, C.E.; Ottmar, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. The composition of the forest at lower elevations has shifted from historically open-growth stands of primarily ponderosa pine and western larch to stands with dense understories of Douglas-fir and grand fir. Epidemic levels of insect infestations and large wildfires adversely affect visual quality, wildlife habitat, stream sedimentation, and timber values. A management strategy to restore forest health at lower elevations will require that the seral ponderosa pine and western larch stands be managed for much lower tree densities and a more open coniferous understory. A combination of silvicultural partial cutting and prescribed fire on a large scale will be needed to produce the desired future condition of healthy, open, and park-like forests.

  20. Early Mesozoic paleogeography and tectonic evolution of the western United States: Insights from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMaskin, T.A.; Vervoort, J.D.; Dorsey, R.J.; Wright, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses early Mesozoic provenance linkages and paleogeographic-tectonic models for the western United States based on new petrographic and detrital zircon data from Triassic and Jurassic sandstones of the "Izee" and Olds Ferry terranes of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon. Triassic sediments were likely derived from the Baker terrane offshore accretionary subduction complex and are dominated by Late Archean (ca. 2.7-2.5 Ga), Late Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2-1.6 Ga), and Paleozoic (ca. 380-255 Ma) detrital zircon grains. These detrital ages suggest that portions of the Baker terrane have a genetic affinity with other Cordilleran accretionary subduction complexes of the western United States, including those in the Northern Sierra and Eastern Klamath terranes. The abundance of Precambrian grains in detritus derived from an offshore complex highlights the importance of sediment reworking. Jurassic sediments are dominated by Mesozoic detrital ages (ca. 230-160 Ma), contain significant amounts of Paleozoic (ca. 290, 380-350, 480-415 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 675-575 Ma), and Mesoproterozoic grains (ca. 1.4-1.0 Ga), and have lesser quantities of Late Paleoproterozoic grains (ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga). Detrital zircon ages in Jurassic sediments closely resemble well-documented age distributions in transcontinental sands of Ouachita-Appalachian provenance that were transported across the southwestern United States and modified by input from cratonal, miogeoclinal, and Cordilleran-arc sources during Triassic and Jurassic time. Jurassic sediments likely were derived from the Cordilleran arc and an orogenic highland in Nevada that yielded recycled sand from uplifted Triassic backarc basin deposits. Our data suggest that numerous Jurassic Cordilleran basins formed close to the Cordilleran margin and support a model for moderate post-Jurassic translation (~400 km) of the Blue Mountains Province. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. The Rocky Mountain Epidemic of Bark Beetles and Blue Stain Fungi Cause Cascading Effects on Coupled Water, C and N cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Norton, U.; Reed, D.; Franks, J.; Aston, T.; Whitehouse, F.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Angstmann, J.; Massman, W. J.; Williams, D. G.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J.; Edburg, S. L.; Meddens, A. J.; Gochis, D. J.; Hicke, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing epidemic of bark beetles and their associated xylem blocking blue-stain fungi is unprecedented in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests. As this epidemic continues, we seek to improve our predictive understanding of coupled water, C and N cycles by quantifying how these cycles may become uncoupled in response to the outbreak. Our specific questions are 1) how does the rapid drop in individual tree transpiration impact the temporal and spatial extent of evapotranspiration and 2) how does the subsequent increase in soil moisture and lower C inputs and N uptake impact soil C and N fluxes? We address these questions in two forest ecosystems using eddy covariance, sap flux, leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic conductance, vegetation characteristics and soil trace gas measurements. We applied two sampling designs 1) subdivide the lodgepole pine forest spatially into varying degrees of bark beetle and blue stain infection and 2) follow the fluxes as the outbreak continues at a point in space encompassing the range of spatial variability in mortality. The first order impact of the bark beetle and blue stain fungi is dramatic in all tree species with a greater than 50% reduction in transpiration per tree within a month of infection. This change occurs even before the characteristic red tinge occurs in the needles or before the sapwood is stained blue. Leaf stomatal conductance declines more than either the biochemical or light harvesting components of photosynthesis immediately after infestation. The annual C sink at the spruce/fir forest has declined from -2.88 to -0.57 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 from 2006 to 2009. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) over the last five years at the spruce/fir forest now has an inverse relationship with precipitation because the last two years have seen a dramatic decrease (from 73 to 59 cm/year) in ET while precipitation has increased (from ~100 to 140 cm/year). Soil moisture in both forests has increased up to 100% within one growing season in

  2. Field evidence for fault controlled intrusion of blue-schist-bearing melange into an accretionary wedge, Island Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lamons, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two lithologic units of the Franciscan are well exposed along a loop of the Eel River at Island Mountain. They are 1) zeolite or lower grade lithic graywackes, and 2) a 0.5 km wide band of black shaly melange containing blueschist, chert, greenstone, metagraywacke, and a graywacke-hosted copper deposit. Sedimentary features were not observed in the melange. The graywacke was subdivided on the basis of presence or absence of sodium-cobaltonitrate stained K-spar. Field relationships suggest that the blueschist-bearing melange was emplaced along steep NW-dipping faults in an accretionary wedge. Mapping of S. Jewett Rock and SW Lake Mountain quadrangles show narrow anastomosing bands of the melange following NW-trending faults. East of this band, graywackes without K-spar are folded along NW/SE axes. No folds were found to the west. Other Melange bands pinch out into faults which juxtapose graywackes of different facies. The sheared melange bands are not folded and shale beds in the graywacke show little shear so the melange bands are unlikely to be sheared olistostromes. The areal extent of graywacke is about ten times that of melange shales. Assuming this pattern continues laterally and at depth, the amount of ductile material in the melange is far less than that assumed by Cloos (1982) in his flow model for melange. The ductile melange may have been forced upward by metamorphically produced volatiles, or as a result of relative plate motion. It originated at depth, moved up along the top of a subducting slab, plucking clasts, then splayed upward into pre-existing faults in the accretionary wedge.

  3. Blue Ribbon Commission, Yucca Mountain Closure, Court Actions - Future of Decommissioned Reactors, Operating Reactors and Nuclear Power - 13249

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2013-07-01

    Issues related to back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle continue to be difficult for the commercial nuclear power industry and for the decision makers at the national and international level. In the US, the 1982 NWPA required DOE to develop geological repositories for SNF and HLW but in spite of extensive site characterization efforts and over ten billion dollars spent, a repository opening is nowhere in sight. There has been constant litigation against the DOE by the nuclear utilities for breach of the 'standard contract' they signed with the DOE under the NWPA. The SNF inventory continues to rise both in the US and globally and the nuclear industry has turned to dry storage facilities at reactor locations. In US, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future issued its report in January 2012 and among other items, it recommends a new, consent-based approach to siting of facilities, prompt efforts to develop one or more geologic disposal facilities, and prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. In addition, the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident had a severe impact on the future growth of nuclear power. The nuclear industry is focusing on mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events and in the US, the industry is in the process of implementing the recommendations from NRC's Near Term Task Force. (authors)

  4. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  5. Erosion Rates of Volcanic-ash Derived Soils in the Blue Mountains of Eastern Oregon, USA: A Comparison Across Sales in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondzell, S. M.; Clifton, C. F.; Harris, R. M.; Ritchie, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We examined present day rates of erosion in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon to quantify background erosion rates to provide standards for assessing possible accelerated rates of erosion resulting from wild fire or from land-management activities such as prescribed fire. The Skookum Creek watersheds, where stream discharge and sediment yield have been recorded continuously since the watersheds were gauged in 1992, provided a watershed-scale estimate of erosion rates. We installed hillslope erosion plots on north- and south- facing slopes within the watersheds in 2002 and collected data for three years to estimate short-term, hillslope- scale erosion rates. We also collected soil samples and analyzed them for 137Cs to get a 40-yr time- integrated estimate of hillslope erosion rates. Our results showed large differences between whole-watershed sediment yields and hillslope erosion rates measured from plots, suggesting that episodic processes dominated sediment production and transport and therefore controlled watershed-scale sediment budgets. At the hillslope-scale, short-term erosion resulted primarily from digging by small mammals and trampling by elk. Visual observations at the plots suggested that annual down-slope sediment movement was usually less than one meter. There were no significant difference among slope positions, but erosion rates were significantly higher on south-facing aspects and positively correlated to the amount of bare ground. In contrast, the 137Cs data suggested that erosion rates differed with slope position. Higher erosion rates were measured in toe- and mid-slope positions, with little erosion occurring on upper slopes and ridge tops. We examine these results in light of the present-day pattern of surface soils resulting from redistribution of volcanic ash from upper- slope to lower-slope positions and the effects of disturbance, including wildfire and the preferential grazing of riparian and lower-slope positions by domestic livestock.

  6. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 30, 2014 Everyone ... photosensitivity, though the reaction is rare. People with light-colored eyes Have blue or green eyes? Cover ...

  7. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  8. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Low Flows During Severe Drought Conditions in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mo...

  9. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  10. Growth and mortality of ponderosa pine poles thinned to various densities in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, P.H.; Barrett, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Growth and mortality in relation to density were investigated for 24 years. High mortality rates from mountain pine beetle occurred on some plots where values for stand-density index exceeded 140. Periodic annual increments of gross basal area and cubic volume increased curvilinearly with increasing stand density, whereas periodic annual diameter increments decreased curvilinearly with increasing stand density. Mean annual increments of board-foot volume have not culminated at age 84 years.

  11. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  12. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  13. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue-green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K; Horváth, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference in the paths of the ordinary and extraordinary rays is less than the diameter of the receptor cells. Another point, not discussed hitherto, is that calcite fluoresces when illuminated with UV-A. Here we show experimentally that calcite lenses fluoresce, and we discuss why fluorescence does not diminish the optical quality of these lenses and the image formed by them. In the environments in which the trilobites lived, UV-A would not have been a relevant factor, and thus fluorescence would not have disturbed or confused their visual system. We also argue that whatever the reason that calcite was never again used successfully in the visual systems of aquatic arthropods, it was not fluorescence. PMID:26713243

  14. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  15. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  16. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  17. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  19. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  1. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  3. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  4. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  5. 36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  7. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  8. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  9. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  10. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  11. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  12. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Methods Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Results Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P < 0.03, all) and on temporal frequency (P < 0.03, all). In the presence of blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change −0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>−0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P < 0.003). Overall, neonatal astigmatism was reduced with blue light. Conclusions Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work. PMID:26393671

  13. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting worse? What other symptoms do you have? A slit-lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. Artificial tears may be given to lubricate the eye.

  14. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  15. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Supervise children carefully. Teach them how to be safe. Always wear protective eye gear when: Using power tools, hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and dusty ...

  16. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  17. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  18. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  19. Scanning technique for tracking small eye-movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, D. H.; Crane, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Scanning technique images spot of blue light on fundus, measures variations in reflectance of spot and compares reflectance pattern with a stored reference pattern. Method then converts the difference from stored pattern into infrared eye motion.

  20. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  1. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  2. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  3. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  4. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  5. Visually guided eye growth in the squid.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Philip R K; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John R

    2015-09-21

    Eyes with refractive error have reduced visual acuity and are rarely found in the wild. Vertebrate eyes possess a visually guided emmetropisation process within the retina which detects the sign of defocus, and regulates eye growth to align the retina at the focal plane of the eye's optical components to avoid the development of refractive error, such as myopia, an increasing problem in humans. However, the vertebrate retina is complex, and it is not known which of the many classes of retinal neurons are involved. We investigated whether the camera-type eye of an invertebrate, the squid, displays visually guided emmetropisation, despite squid eyes having a simple photoreceptor-only retina. We exploited inherent longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) to create disparate focal lengths within squid eyes. We found that squid raised under orange light had proportionately longer eyes and more myopic refractions than those raised under blue light, and when switched between wavelengths, eye size and refractive status changed appropriately within a few days. This demonstrates that squid eye growth is visually guided, and suggests that the complex retina seen in vertebrates may not be required for emmetropisation.

  6. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  7. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  10. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  11. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  12. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  13. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-11-30

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered.

  14. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  15. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1–2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

  16. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  17. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  18. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  19. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  20. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  1. Eye regionalization and spectral tuning of retinal pigments in insects.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, D G

    1992-06-01

    The spatial and spectral properties of an eye can often be directly linked to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. In a honey bee (Apis mellifera) society, the drones use the well-developed dorsal part of the eye to detect the queen against the sky during her nuptial flight. Recently it has become clear that the dorsal area of the drone's eye serves its task by cleverly combining a number of optical mechanisms, thus achieving a high spatial acuity as well as a high sensitivity precisely in the wavelength range of interest--the ultraviolet to blue range. Since the various optical specializations in the drone eye have now been recognized, they can be traced in the eyes of other species: thus, the drone eye serves as a model to give a better understanding of the relationship between structure and function of compound eyes in particular, but also of visual systems in general.

  2. Billie's eyes.

    PubMed

    Dunning, S E

    1993-03-01

    The author, a nurse, is personally opposed to abortion; however, her earlier encounter with a victim of an illegal abortion has prevented her from joining campaigns to reinstate bans on abortion rights. The woman, "Billie," presented to an inner-city Chicago hospital in 1970 with hemorrhaging. She had delayed going for treatment because she feared being imprisoned for having obtained an abortion. She rapidly entered septic shock, with hypotension, confusion, and hallucinations. Physicians removed her infected uterus and ovaries. Subsequent kidney failure necessitated the transfer of this young woman to another hospital where she could receive dialysis. The author was unable to obtain follow-up information on whether Billie survived. She remains haunted by the memory of Billie's wide, frightened eyes as she was placed in the ambulance. It is this memory, and the knowledge that desperate women like Billie will find someone, somewhere to perform an illegal abortion, that is behind the author's reluctant support for the right to choose.

  3. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information > Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific ...

  4. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  5. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision science and eye health fun with videos, optical illusions, and more. View the site Request for ... español NEI FAQs Eye Health Resources Studies, print materials and more. National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) ...

  6. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  7. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  8. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  9. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  10. 77 FR 59517 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Mount Charleston Blue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants (56 FR 58804, November 21, 1991; 59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994). The Mt. Charleston blue butterfly was formerly referred to as the Spring Mountains blue (butterfly) (56 FR 58804, November 21, 1991; 59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994), but this common name is no longer used to...

  11. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  12. Our Changing Land: Stone Mountain State Park. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivette, Larry

    Stone Mountain State Park's environmental education learning experience, Our Changing Land, introduces the student to the geology of the Blue Ridge Mountains, with emphasis on Stone Mountain, through a series of hands-on activities. The learning experience is designed for grades 4-6 and meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study…

  13. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian spots; Congenital dermal melanocytosis; Dermal melanocytosis ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. The color ...

  14. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  15. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  16. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  17. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  18. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  19. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  20. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  1. 88. Groundhog Mountain. View of the log fire lookout constructed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Groundhog Mountain. View of the log fire lookout constructed by the Virginia State Forest service in the summer of 1942. A buck or Yankee fence crosses the foreground with a snake fence in the background. Civilian public service employees began erecting the rail fences in April 1939. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  3. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  4. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  5. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  6. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - care ... until the problem is very bad. Your health care provider can catch problems early if you get ... doctor (ophthalmologist). Choose an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes. Your eye exam may ...

  7. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  8. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  9. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ...

  11. Eye Colour and Reaction Time: An Opportunity for Critical Statistical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This author was surprised to read a short article in "The Mercury" newspaper in Hobart about blue-eyed people being more intelligent and brown-eyed people having faster reaction times. Such an article invites immediate scepticism from the statistically literate. The lack of data in the article should lead the interested reader to a search for…

  12. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  13. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  14. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of

  15. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  16. Investigation of eye-catching colors using eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Mokryun; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Kyungah

    2013-03-01

    An eye tracking experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between eye gazing movements and the color attributes to support the creation of effective communication and increase aesthetic satisfaction. With consideration to the context of smart phones, the study focused on icon arrays, and thus each stimulus set was composed of 25 color square patches arrayed in the format of a 5 by 5 grid. The experiment was divided into three parts, each examining one specific attribute of color, while controlling its other attributes. Fifteen college students were recruited, among whom all partook in all three parts. In Part I, hue difference was examined. Each stimulus set contained 25 hues under a fixed tone. It was revealed that subjects were more attentive to warm colors than to cool colors, particularly when warm colors were arranged along the horizontal and vertical axes; In Part II, the experiment dealt with tone difference. 25 tone variations for red, green and blue were provided as stimulus sets. However, the result indicated that changes in tone does not have a significant influence on subjects' initial attention; Lastly, in Part III, combinations of colors were examined to determine whether color contrast influenced participants' attention in a manner different from that of single colors. Among them, icons with complementary contrast gained the greatest attention. Throughout the experiments, the background was applied with either black or white; however a contrast effect between background and foreground was not noticeable.

  17. Anticipatory Effects of Intonation: Eye Movements during Instructed Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R.

    2008-01-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed prerecorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses…

  18. Pulmonary blue bodies.

    PubMed

    Koss, M N; Johnson, F B; Hochholzer, L

    1981-03-01

    Pulmonary blue bodies are intra-alveolar laminated basophilic concretions of uncertain etiology. Blue bodies were studied in lung biopsy specimens from 10 patients. The patients ranged in age from 47 to 69 years and were predominantly men. Three had a history of overt exposure to environmental dusts such as sawdust and asbestos, and two showed occasional ferruginous bodies in the lung, raising the possibility of pneumoconiosis. In eight cases there was interstitial pneumonitis, which resembled desquamative interstitial pneumonia by light microscopy but which was often seen to be patchy and asymmetrically distributed in the lung by chest x-ray examination. Of two other patients, one had xanthogranulomatous inflammation and the other, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Light and electron microscopic, histochemical, microchemical, and x-ray diffraction studies of blue bodies were also performed. Calcium carbonate is a major component of blue bodies and is responsible for their birefringence in unstained sections and ready solubility in acid solutions. Blue bodies also contain a mucopolysaccharide matrix and iron. We offer the hypothesis that blue bodies (calcium carbonate) are a product of histiocytic catabolism.

  19. Which lamp will be optimum to eye? Incandescent, fluorescent or LED etc

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency flicker, high frequency flicker, strong light, strong blue light, infrared, ultraviolet, electromagnetic radiation, ripple flicker and dimming flicker produced by different lamps have negative impact on vision, eyes and health. Negative impact on eyes resulting in myopia or cataract etc: the solution is to remove all the negative factors by applying upright lighting technology and that is optimum to vision, eyes and health. PMID:24634884

  20. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  1. Chick eyes compensate for chromatic simulations of hyperopic and myopic defocus: evidence that the eye uses longitudinal chromatic aberration to guide eye-growth.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Frances J; Wallman, Josh

    2009-07-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) causes short wavelengths to be focused in front of long wavelengths. This chromatic signal is evidently used to guide ocular accommodation. We asked whether chick eyes exposed to static gratings simulating the chromatic effects of myopic or hyperopic defocus would "compensate" for the simulated defocus. We alternately exposed one eye of each chick to a sine-wave grating (5 or 2 cycle/deg) simulating myopic defocus ("MY defocus": image focused in front of retina; hence, red contrast higher than blue) and the other eye to a grating of the same spatial frequency simulating hyperopic defocus ("HY defocus": blue contrast higher than red). The chicks were placed in a drum with one eye covered with one grating, and then switched to another drum with the other grating with the other eye covered. To minimize the effects of altered eye-growth on image contrast, we studied only the earliest responses: first, we measured changes in choroidal thickness 45 min to 1 h after one 15-min episode in the drum, then we measured glycosaminoglycans (GAG) synthesis in sclera and choroid (by the incorporation of labeled sulfate in tissue culture) after a day of four 30-min episodes in the drum. The eyes compensated in the appropriate directions: The choroids of the eyes exposed to the HY simulation showed significantly more thinning (less thickening) over the course of the experiment than the choroids of the eyes exposed to the MY simulation (all groups mean:-17 microm; 5 c/d groups: -24 microm; paired t-test (one-tailed): p=0.0006). The rate of scleral GAG synthesis in the eye exposed to the HY simulation was significantly greater than in the eye exposed to the MY simulation (HY/MY ratio=1.20; one sample t-test (one-tailed): p=0.015). There was no significant interaction between the sign of the simulated defocus and either the spatial frequency or the presence of a +3 D lens used to compensate for the 33 cm distance of the drum. Although previous

  2. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present the Löffler’s alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. Method The Löffler’s alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Results Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Conclusions Löffler’s alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes. PMID:27784986

  3. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  4. Multiple orbital venous malformations presenting with enophthalmos in a patient with presumed blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Samuray; Peksayar, Gonul; Tefekli, Esra Guney; Ayranci, Ozen; Demirci, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    A 27-year-old white woman presented with enophthalmos in the right eye. The visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. External examination showed 7 mm of enophthalmos of the right eye with deepened superior palpebral sulcus compared with the left eye. After Valsalva maneuver, the right eye became 4-mm exophthalmic compared with the left eye. Extraocular movements were full. There was no palpable orbital mass or diplopia. MRI showed diffuse enhancing intraconal orbital and nasopharyngeal masses consistent with venous malformations in the right orbit. Systemic evaluation revealed bluish vascular lesions on the hard and soft palates, and the pretibial area of her right leg. These findings were suggestive of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. The patient was observed, and her clinical findings remained stable for 12 months. Enophthalmos can be a rare initial presentation of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome and patients with ophthalmic involvement should undergo systemic evaluation including gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and otorhinolaryngologic examination. PMID:18645452

  5. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  6. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  7. Role of the iridescent eye in stickleback female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Flamarique, Iñigo Novales; Bergstrom, Carolyn; Cheng, Christiana L; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    Many vertebrates exhibit prominent body colours that are used in courtship and territorial communication. Some fishes also have an eye whose iris becomes iridescent during the mating season, as in the threespine stickleback. Behavioural studies in this species have focused on the redness of the throat/jaw as the primary determinant of female mate choice. Unlike the iridescent eye, however, the red throat/jaw is not present in all stickleback populations, suggesting that the colour of the eye may be equally important for female mate choice. Here, we used data on photoreceptors and environmental light to assess body conspicuousness and the colour contrast of courtship signals for stickleback populations living in a range of waters, from clear (mesotrophic) to red light shifted (dystrophic). This analysis indicated that the redness of the throat/jaw is expressed to enhance the contrast of the eye. To test the importance of eye colour as a courtship signal, we carried out mate choice experiments in which females were presented with identical videos of a courting male but for the colour of the eye and/or the throat/jaw. Females did not choose based on differences in throat/jaw redness between videos, but preferred males with the highest contrast between the eye and the throat/jaw. This result points to the blue iridescent eye as a primary courtship signal in stickleback female mate choice.

  8. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks can be seen to the left and center. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  9. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. A warm and dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow stands out to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  10. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  11. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  12. A comparison of visual function tests in eyes with maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Fish, G E; Birch, D G; Fuller, D G; Straach, R

    1986-09-01

    Several recently developed tests of visual function, including the Potential Acuity Meter (PAM), laser interferometer (LI), white-light interferometer (WLI), blue field entoptic phenomenon, and focal electroretinogram (ERG) were compared in 81 eyes with clear media and known macular disease. The results indicate that the PAM, the LI, and the WLI overread relative to Snellen acuity. Laser interferometric acuity values differed from Snellen acuity by at least 1.5 octaves in approximately 40% of all eyes, regardless of stimulus size (2, 5, or 8 degrees). Similar results were obtained with the WLI. Agreement with Snellen acuity was better for the PAM, with 91% of eyes falling within 1.5 octaves of Snellen acuity. Blue field and focal ERG results were categorized as normal or abnormal. While not producing Snellen equivalents, abnormal results from the blue field and focal ERG corresponded with poor Snellen acuity (less than 20/40) in 65% and 91% of eyes, respectively. Assuming that media opacities do not prevent adequate retinal stimulation, the present results suggest that the PAM and focal ERG are the most reliable for evaluating macular function when maculopathy is present.

  13. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  14. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  15. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  16. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  17. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  18. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  19. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy and a…

  20. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  1. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  2. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  3. Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of low energy lighting and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to light. Occasional claims that the light sources with emissions containing blue light may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times.

  4. Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of low energy lighting and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to light. Occasional claims that the light sources with emissions containing blue light may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times. PMID:26768920

  5. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  6. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  7. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  8. The Convergent Evolution of Blue Iris Pigmentation in Primates Took Distinct Molecular Paths

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wynn K; Zhang, Sidi; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Imai, Hiroo; Przeworski, Molly

    2013-01-01

    How many distinct molecular paths lead to the same phenotype? One approach to this question has been to examine the genetic basis of convergent traits, which likely evolved repeatedly under a shared selective pressure. We investigated the convergent phenotype of blue iris pigmentation, which has arisen independently in four primate lineages: humans, blue-eyed black lemurs, Japanese macaques, and spider monkeys. Characterizing the phenotype across these species, we found that the variation within the blue-eyed subsets of each species occupies strongly overlapping regions of CIE L*a*b* color space. Yet whereas Japanese macaques and humans display continuous variation, the phenotypes of blue-eyed black lemurs and their sister species (whose irises are brown) occupy more clustered subspaces. Variation in an enhancer of OCA2 is primarily responsible for the phenotypic difference between humans with blue and brown irises. In the orthologous region, we found no variant that distinguishes the two lemur species or associates with quantitative phenotypic variation in Japanese macaques. Given the high similarity between the blue iris phenotypes in these species and that in humans, this finding implies that evolution has used different molecular paths to reach the same end. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:398–407, 2013.© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23640739

  9. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  10. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  11. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on ...

  12. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  13. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  14. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Once you have eye disease caused by diabetes, you need to see an ophthalmologist. ... feel stinging when the drops are first placed. You may have a ... using a bright light. The doctor can then see areas that may ...

  15. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  16. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  17. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  19. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  20. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  1. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  2. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  3. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  4. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  5. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  6. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  7. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  8. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  9. Reconstructing the ancestral butterfly eye: focus on the opsins.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Adriana D

    2008-06-01

    The eyes of butterflies are remarkable, because they are nearly as diverse as the colors of wings. Much of eye diversity can be traced to alterations in the number, spectral properties and spatial distribution of the visual pigments. Visual pigments are light-sensitive molecules composed of an opsin protein and a chromophore. Most butterflies have eyes that contain visual pigments with a wavelength of peak absorbance, lambda(max), in the ultraviolet (UV, 300-400 nm), blue (B, 400-500 nm) and long wavelength (LW, 500-600 nm) part of the visible light spectrum, respectively, encoded by distinct UV, B and LW opsin genes. In the compound eye of butterflies, each individual ommatidium is composed of nine photoreceptor cells (R1-9) that generally express only one opsin mRNA per cell, although in some butterfly eyes there are ommatidial subtypes in which two opsins are co-expressed in the same photoreceptor cell. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of opsin cDNAs from the five butterfly families, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, and comparative analysis of opsin gene expression patterns from four of the five families, I propose a model for the patterning of the ancestral butterfly eye that is most closely aligned with the nymphalid eye. The R1 and R2 cells of the main retina expressed UV-UV-, UV-B- or B-B-absorbing visual pigments while the R3-9 cells expressed a LW-absorbing visual pigment. Visual systems of existing butterflies then underwent an adaptive expansion based on lineage-specific B and LW opsin gene multiplications and on alterations in the spatial expression of opsins within the eye. Understanding the molecular sophistication of butterfly eye complexity is a challenge that, if met, has broad biological implications.

  10. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  11. Eye color: A potential indicator of alcohol dependence risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Sulovari, Arvis; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel; Li, Dawei

    2015-07-01

    In archival samples of European-ancestry subjects, light-eyed individuals have been found to consume more alcohol than dark-eyed individuals. No published population-based studies have directly tested the association between alcohol dependence (AD) and eye color. We hypothesized that light-eyed individuals have a higher prevalence of AD than dark-eyed individuals. A mixture model was used to select a homogeneous sample of 1,263 European-Americans and control for population stratification. After quality control, we conducted an association study using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and genetic ancestry). We found evidence of association between AD and blue eye color (P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 1.83 (1.31-2.57)), supporting light eye color as a risk factor relative to brown eye color. Network-based analyses revealed a statistically significant (P = 0.02) number of genetic interactions between eye color genes and AD-associated genes. We found evidence of linkage disequilibrium between an AD-associated GABA receptor gene cluster, GABRB3/GABRG3, and eye color genes, OCA2/HERC2, as well as between AD-associated GRM5 and pigmentation-associated TYR. Our population-phenotype, network, and linkage disequilibrium analyses support association between blue eye color and AD. Although we controlled for stratification we cannot exclude underlying occult stratification as a contributor to this observation. Although replication is needed, our findings suggest that eye pigmentation information may be useful in research on AD. Further characterization of this association may unravel new AD etiological factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Laser Induced Blue Luminescence Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Yaoju; Yang, Fugui

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced strange blue luminescence in several Raman crystals has been investigated. The blue luminescence at about 473 nm has the characteristic of no orientation and only produced in the crystal where the fundament laser oscillated. The experimental results show that the blue luminescence must result from the fundamental laser around 1.0 µm rather than Stokes-shifting. The spectrum detected is similar for different crystals. This blue luminescence is obviously strange and inconsistent with traditional luminescence theories, which maybe a brand-new luminescence theory.

  13. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2008-02-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to 'anticipatory' fixations, and demonstrated a "garden path" effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners' sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as 'And then,' and those assigned to the target object noun phrase.

  14. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2008-02-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to 'anticipatory' fixations, and demonstrated a "garden path" effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners' sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as 'And then,' and those assigned to the target object noun phrase. PMID:19190719

  15. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2007-01-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as “Next, hang the blue ball” to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to ‘anticipatory’ fixations, and demonstrated a “garden path” effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners’ sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as ‘And then,’ and those assigned to the target object noun phrase. PMID:19190719

  16. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution.

  17. Despeckling fly's eye homogenizer for single mode laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Mizuyama, Yosuke; Harrison, Nathan; Leto, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    A novel fly's eye homogenizer for single mode laser diodes is presented. This technology overcomes the speckle problem that has been unavoidable for fly's eye homogenizers used with coherent light sources such as single mode laser diodes. Temporal and spatial coherence are reduced simultaneously by introducing short pulse driving of the injection current and a staircase element. Speckle has been dramatically reduced to 5% from 87% compared to a conventional system and a uniform laser line illumination was obtained by the proposed fly's eye homogenizer with a single mode UV-blue laser diode for the first time. A new spatial coherence function was mathematically formulated to model the proposed system and was applied to a partially coherent intensity formula that was newly developed in this study from Wolf's theory to account for the results. PMID:23571997

  18. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  19. Eye-popping 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover shows an extreme close-up of round, blueberry-shaped grains on the crater floor near the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum called Stone Mountain. Scientists are studying these curious formations for clues about the soil's history. The observed area is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  20. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  1. Verification of eye and skin color predictors in various populations.

    PubMed

    Pneuman, Amanda; Budimlija, Zoran M; Caragine, Theresa; Prinz, Mechthild; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2012-03-01

    Validation of testing methods is an essential feature in all scientific endeavors, but it is particularly important in forensics. Due to the sensitive nature of these investigations and the limited sample size it is crucial to validate all employed procedures. This includes novel forensic phenotypic DNA tests, to learn more of their capabilities and limitations before incorporating them as routine methods. Ideally, validations are performed on large sample sets that mimic real cases. Recently, three phenotypic predictors, two for eye colors and one for skin color have been published (Spichenok et al., 2011; Walsh et al., 2011). These predictors are well-defined by a selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and unambiguous instructions on how to interpret the genotypes. These standardized approaches have the advantages that they can be applied in diverse laboratories leading to the same outcome and offer the opportunity for validation. For these tests to be used on the characterization of human remains, they should be validated on various populations to perform reliably without prior knowledge of ethnic origin. Here, in this study, these eye and skin color predictors were validated on new sample sets and it could be confirmed that they can be applied in various populations, including African-American, South Asian (dark), East Asian (light), European, and mixed populations. The outputs were either predictive or inconclusive. Predictions were then compared against the actual eye and skin colors of the tested individuals. The error-rates varied; they were low for the predictors that describe the eye and skin color exclusively (non-brown or non-blue and non-white or non-dark, respectively) and higher for the predictor that describes individual eye colors (blue, brown, and intermediate/green), because of uncertainties with the green eye color prediction. Our investigation deepens the insight for these predictors and adds new information.

  2. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  3. Eye Movements and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Kenneth

    An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

  4. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  5. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  6. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  7. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    PubMed

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  8. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  9. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  10. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  11. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  12. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  13. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Neiman, Paul J

    2003-01-20

    We use Fraunhofer diffraction theory and meterological data to determine the nature of cloud-particle distributions and the mean particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds. Traditional descriptions of coronas and iridescence usually explain these optical phenomena as diffraction by droplets of liquid water. Our analysis shows that the photographed displays have mean particle sizes from 7.6 to 24.3 microm, with over half the cases requiring diffraction by small (approximatley 20 microm) quasispherical ice particles rather than liquid water droplets. Previous documentation of coronas produced by ice particles are limited to observations in cirrus clouds that appear to be composed of small ice crystals, whereas our observations suggest that coronas and iridescence quite often can be created by tiny quasispherical ice particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Furthermore, we see that the dominant colors in mountain wave-cloud coronas are red and blue, rather than the traditionally described red and green.

  14. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  15. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek medical attention. In case of a chemical burn to the eye: Immediately flush the eye ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  16. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials ...

  17. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks stand out to the left, and a warm, dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow can be seen to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  18. Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Radebaugh, Jani; Brown, Robert H.; Wall, Steve; Soderblom, Laurence; Lunine, Jonathan; Burr, Devon; Sotin, Christophe; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger; Baines, Kevin H.; Jaumann, Ralf; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lopes, Rosaly; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Mitchell, Karl; Wood, Charles A.

    2007-11-01

    We investigate the spectral reflectance properties of channels and mountain ranges on Titan using data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtained during the T9 encounter (26 December 2005). We identify the location of channels and mountains using synthetic aperture radar maps obtained from Cassini's RADAR instrument during the T13 (30 April 2006) flyby. Channels are evident even in VIMS imaging with spatial resolution coarser than the channel size. The channels share spectral characteristics with Titan's dark blue terrain (e.g., the Huygens landing site) that is consistent with an enhancement in water ice content relative to the rest of Titan. We use this fact to measure widths of ~1 km for the largest channels. Comparison of the data sets shows that in our study area within the equatorial bright spectral unit east of Xanadu, mountains are darker and bluer than surrounding smooth terrain. These results are consistent with the equatorial bright terrain possessing a veneer of material that is thinner in the regions where there are mountains and streambeds that have likely undergone more recent and extensive erosion. We suggest a model for the geographic relationship of the dark blue, dark brown, and equatorial bright spectral units based on our findings.

  19. Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, J.W.; Radebaugh, J.; Brown, R.H.; Wall, S.; Soderblom, L.; Lunine, J.; Burr, D.; Sotin, C.; Le, Mouelic S.; Rodriguez, S.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.; Baines, K.H.; Jaumann, R.; Nicholson, P.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R.D.; Mitchell, Ken; Wood, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the spectral reflectance properties of channels and mountain ranges on Titan using data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtained during the T9 encounter (26 December 2005). We identify the location of channels and mountains using synthetic aperture radar maps obtained from Cassini's RADAR instrument during the T13 (30 April 2006) flyby. Channels are evident even in VIMS imaging with spatial resolution coarser than the channel size. The channels share spectral characteristics with Titan's dark blue terrain (e.g., the Huygens landing site) that is consistent with an enhancement in water ice content relative to the rest of Titan. We use this fact to measure widths of ???1 km for the largest channels. Comparison of the data sets shows that in our study area within the equatorial bright spectral unit east of Xanadu, mountains are darker and bluer than surrounding smooth terrain. These results are consistent with the equatorial bright terrain possessing a veneer of material that is thinner in the regions where there are mountains and streambeds that have likely undergone more recent and extensive erosion. We suggest a model for the geographic relationship of the dark blue, dark brown, and equatorial bright spectral units based on our findings. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-11-01

    Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to "conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle." However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. "We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain," the draft report states.

  1. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  2. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  3. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  4. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  6. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  7. ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

    2008-01-01

    We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than λ/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

  8. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  9. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  10. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  11. A deep water turbidity origin for the Altuda Formation (Capitanian, Permian), Northwest Glass Mountains, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haneef, Mohammad; Rohr, D.M.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Altuda Formation (Capitanian) in the northwestern Glass Mountains is comprised of thin, even bedded limestones, dolostones, mixed clastic-carbonates, and silt/sandstones interbedded with basin-ward dipping wedge-shaped clinoforms of the Captian Limestone. The formation is characterized by graded bedding, planar laminations, flame structures, contorted/convolute bedding, horizontal branching burrows, and shelf-derived normal marine fauna. A detailed study of the Altuda Formation north of Old Blue Mountain, Glass Mountains, reveals that the formation in this area was deposited by turbidity currents in slope to basinal settings.

  12. A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.

  13. A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beaven, C. Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention. PMID:24282477

  14. Thrombosis at mountain altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cucinell, S A; Pitts, C M

    1987-11-01

    Victims of high-altitude pulmonary edema often have clots obstructing the pulmonary vessels. This, together with an apparent high incidence of thrombophlebitis and cerebral emboli at altitude suggests that mountain travel may predispose to hypercoagulability. A critical analysis of the available data suggests that, although thrombosis may be a late event complicating various forms of mountain sickness, the laboratory techniques of characterizing hypercoagulability are not sufficient to define and characterize the mechanism.

  15. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Perfluorinated compound concentrations in great blue heron eggs near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, in 1993 and 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.; Custer, Christine M.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette

    2013-01-01

    A great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colony on Pig's Eye Island on the Mississippi River near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, is located near several potential perfluorinated compound (PFC) sources. The PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs reported from a 1993 collection from the Pig's Eye colony were among the highest measured in bird eggs worldwide. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs at the Pig's Eye colony have changed since 1993. Total PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs collected at the Pig's Eye colony in 2010 and 2011 (geometric mean = 340 and 492 ng/g wet wt) were 60% lower than the 1993 collection (1,015 ng/g wet wt). Among PFCs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonate concentrations were lower and perfluoroalkyl carboxylate concentrations were higher in the 2010 and 2011 collections. Two of 20 (10%) of the eggs analyzed from Pig's Eye in 2010 and 2011 were >1,000 ng PFCs/g wet weight and the maximum PFC value (2,506 ng PFCs/g wet wt) measured in 2010 and 2011 was among the highest PFC concentration reported in bird eggs. These high concentrations are at levels associated with physiological and neurological effects in birds.

  17. Rocky Mountain acidification study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

  18. The perception of isoluminant coloured stimuli of amblyopic eye and defocused eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumina, Gunta; Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis

    2008-09-01

    In routine eye examination the visual acuity usually is determined using standard charts with black letters on a white background, however contrast and colour are important characteristics of visual perception. The purpose of research was to study the perception of isoluminant coloured stimuli in the cases of true and simulated amlyopia. We estimated difference in visual acuity with isoluminant coloured stimuli comparing to that for high contrast black-white stimuli for true amblyopia and simulated amblyopia. Tests were generated on computer screen. Visual acuity was detected using different charts in two ways: standard achromatic stimuli (black symbols on a white background) and isoluminant coloured stimuli (white symbols on a yellow background, grey symbols on blue, green or red background). Thus isoluminant tests had colour contrast only but had no luminance contrast. Visual acuity evaluated with the standard method and colour tests were studied for subjects with good visual acuity, if necessary using the best vision correction. The same was performed for subjects with defocused eye and with true amblyopia. Defocus was realized with optical lenses placed in front of the normal eye. The obtained results applying the isoluminant colour charts revealed worsening of the visual acuity comparing with the visual acuity estimated with a standard high contrast method (black symbols on a white background).

  19. An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jie; Cartwright, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth. There may be a progressive evolution to melanoma from a blue nevus.   PMID:27699140

  20. An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jie; Cartwright, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth. There may be a progressive evolution to melanoma from a blue nevus.  

  1. Nutrition and the eye.

    PubMed

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  2. [STD in the eye].

    PubMed

    Usui, Masahiko; Minoda, Hirosi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STD) involving the eye. Recently conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in children and adults is increasing, and that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to multiple antibiotics has attracted special attention in our country. Syphilis has many ocular manifestations such as keratitis, iridocyclitis, retinochorioiditis, and neuritis, etc. Ocular complications related to HIV infection, including HIV retinopathy, cytomegalovirus retinitis, zoster ophthalmics, and Kaposi s sarcoma in conjunctiva are increasing in Japan. Phthirus pubis infection of the eye lid, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated uveitis are occasionally reported. Furthermore conjunctival tumor associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, acute retinal necrosis(ARN) due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), as well as hepatitis B virus (HVB) and hepatitis C virus (HVC) retinopathy are also mentioned in this review. PMID:19177759

  3. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  4. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease.

  5. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  6. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  7. Dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  8. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  9. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  10. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  11. Pediatric Eye Screening Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.

    2001-11-01

    Computational evaluations are presented for binocular eye screening using the off-axis digital retinascope. The retinascope, such as the iScreen digital screening system, has been employed to perform pediatric binocular screening using a flash lamp and single-shot camera recording. The digital images are transferred electronically to a reading center for analysis. The method has been shown to detect refractive error, amblyopia, anisocoria, and ptosis. This computational work improves the performance of the system and forms the basis for automated data analysis. For this purpose, variouis published eye models are evaluated with simulated retinascope images. Two to ten million rays are traced in each image calculation. The poster will present the simulation results for a range of eye conditions of refractive error of -20 to +20 diopters with 0.5- to-1 diopter resolution, pupil size of 3 to 8 mm diameter (1-mm increment), and staring angle of 2 to 12 degree (2-degree increment). The variation of the results with the system conditions such as the off-axis distance of light source and the shutter size of camera are also evaluated. The quantitative analysis for each eye’s and system’s condition is then performed to obtain parameters for automatic reading. The summary of the system performance is given and performance-enhancement design modifications are presented.

  12. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  13. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  14. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  15. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  16. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation). PMID:26185113

  17. Dry eye, blepharitis and chronic eye irritation: divide and conquer.

    PubMed

    Gilbard, J P

    1999-01-01

    Dry eye and posterior blepharitis are the two most common causes for chronic eye irritation. Dry eye is caused by loss of water from the tear film resulting from either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. The resultant increase in tear film osmolarity causes the changes on the eye surface responsible for the symptoms of dry eye. Posterior blepharitis causes eye irritation from inflammation, and leads to the development of meibomian gland dysfunction. The patient history is a powerful tool in narrowing the differential diagnosis of chronic eye irritation or even establishing the diagnosis. The exam adds power to the history, and sorts out the mechanisms causing dry eye symptoms. The primary goal of dry eye treatment is to lower elevated tear film osmolarity. This can be achieved with TheraTears treatment, either with or without punctal plugs. The primary goal of meibomitis treatment is to reduce inflammation. This can be achieved by hot compresses and lid massage and, when necessary, systemic treatment with low dose doxycycline. By determining the cause or causes of chronic eye irritation, effective treatments can be employed.

  18. A nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy for detection of Salmonella infection based on blue silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2015-10-22

    A novel nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy was for the first time designed and utilized for sensitive detection of antibody to Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum (S. pullorum and S. gallinarum) in serum. The optical immunoassay strategy was based on blue silica nanoparticles (Blue-SiNps) and magnetic beads (MB). To construct such an optical immunoassay system, the Blue-SiNPs were first synthesized by inverse microemulsion method, characterized by SEM, Zeta potential and FTIR. Two nanostructures including Blue-SiNPs and MB were both functionalized with antibody against S. pullorum and S. gallinarum (anti-PG) without using enzyme labeled antibody. Anti-PG functionalized blue silica nanoparticles (IgG-Blue-SiNps) were used as signal transduction labels, while anti-PG functionalized magnetic beads (IgG-MB) were selected to separate and enrich the final sandwich immune complexes. In the process of detecting negative serum, a sandwich immunocomplex is formed between the IgG-MB and IgG-Blue-SiNPs. With the separation of the immunocomplex using an external magnetic field, the final plaque displayed bright blue color. While in the detection of infected serum, IgG-MB and anti-PG formed sandwich immunocomplexes, IgG-Blue-SiNPs were unable to bind to the limited sites of the antigen, and a light brown plaque was displayed in the bottom of microplate well. Stable results were obtained with an incubation time of 60 min at room temperature, and different colors corresponding to different results can be directly detected with naked eye. The reaction of IgG-Blue-SiNPs with S. pullorum was inhibited by 1:100 dilution of positive chicken serum. Such a simple immunoassay holds great potential as sensitive, selective and point-of-care (POC) tool for diagnosis of other biological molecules.

  19. Saccadic eye movements and eye-head coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Anderson, M E

    1977-04-01

    The eye and head movements of nine children, ages 6 through 10, were measured in order to establish quantitative characteristics of eye movements and eye-head corrdination patterns of children with normal vision and reading levels. The relationship between saccade amplitude and duration was linear, but the slope of this relationship indicated that saccades in children may have higher velocities than they do in adults. One of three temporal patterns of head and saccadic eye movement occurred during shifts of gaze to visual targets, depending on the temporal and spatial predictability of the target. It is suggested that quantitative measurements such as these could be used to examine developmental characteristics of eye and eye-head movement control.

  20. Four Eyes Are Better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    VLT Interferometer Passes Another Technical Hurdle Summary During the nights of September 15/16 and 16/17, 2002, preliminary tests were successfully carried out during which the light beams from all four VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) at the ESO Paranal Observatory were successively combined, two by two, to produce interferometric fringes . This marks a next important step towards the full implementation of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) that will ultimately provide European astronomers with unequalled opportunities for exciting front-line research projects. It is no simple matter to ensure that the quartet of ANTU, KUEYEN, MELIPAL and YEPUN , each a massive giant with a suite of computer-controlled active mirrors, can work together by sending beams of light towards a common focal point via a complex system of compensating optics. Yet, in the span of only two nights, the four VLT telescopes were successfully "paired" to do exactly this, yielding a first tantalizing glimpse of the future possibilities with this new science machine. While there is still a long way ahead to the routine production of extremely sharp, interferometric images, the present test observations have allowed to demonstrate directly the 2D-resolution capacity of the VLTI by means of multiple measurements of a distant star. Much valuable experience was gained during those two nights and the ESO engineers and scientists are optimistic that the extensive test observations with the numerous components of the VLTI will continue to progress rapidly. Five intense, technical test periods are scheduled during the next six months; some of these with the Mid-Infrared interferometric instrument for the VLTI (MIDI) which will soon be installed at Paranal. Later in 2003, the first of the four moveable VLTI 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) will be put in place on the top of the mountain; together they will permit regular interferometric observations, also without having to use the large UTs. PR Photo 22a/02

  1. Blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade.

    PubMed

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wetcharungsri, Jutaphet; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara; Ajayan, Pulickel Madhavapanicker; Tang, I-Ming; Asanithi, Piyapong

    2016-12-01

    Carbon-based photoluminescent nanodot has currently been one of the promising materials for various applications. The remaining challenges are the carbon sources and the simple synthetic processes that enhance the quantum yield, photostability and biocompatibility of the nanodots. In this work, the synthesis of blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade via a single-step hydrothermal carbonization process is presented. Lime carbon nanodot (L-CnD), whose the quantum yield exceeding 50% for the 490nm emission in gram-scale amounts, has the structure of graphene core functionalized with the oxygen functional groups. The micron-sized flake of the as-prepared L-CnD powder exhibits multicolor emission depending on an excitation wavelength. The L-CnDs are demonstrated for rapidly ferric-ion (Fe(3+)) detection in water compared to Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) ions. The photoluminescence quenching of L-CnD solution under UV light is used to distinguish the Fe(3+) ions from others by naked eyes as low concentration as 100μM. Additionally, L-CnDs provide exceptional photostability and biocompatibility for imaging yeast cell morphology. Changes in morphology of living yeast cells, i.e. cell shape variation, and budding, can be observed in a minute-period until more than an hour without the photoluminescent intensity loss. PMID:27612786

  2. Evaluation of the IrisPlex DNA-based eye color prediction assay in a United States population.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Gina M; Picard, Christine J

    2014-03-01

    DNA phenotyping is a rapidly developing area of research in forensic biology. Externally visible characteristics (EVCs) can be determined based on genotype data, specifically based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs are chosen based on their association with genes related to the phenotypic expression of interest, with known examples in eye, hair, and skin color traits. DNA phenotyping has forensic importance when unknown biological samples at a crime scene do not result in a criminal database hit; a phenotypic profile of the sample can therefore be used to develop investigational leads. IrisPlex, an eye color prediction assay, has previously shown high prediction rates for blue and brown eye color in a Dutch European population. The objective of this work was to evaluate its utility in a North American population. We evaluated six SNPs included in the IrisPlex assay in population sample collected from a USA college campus. We used a quantitative method of eye color classification based on (RGB) color components of digital photographs of the eye taken from each study volunteer so that each eye was placed in one of three eye color categories: brown, intermediate, or blue. Objective color classification was shown to correlate with basic human visual determination making it a feasible option for use in future prediction assay development. Using these samples and various models, the maximum prediction accuracies of the IrisPlex system after allele frequency adjustment was 58% and 95% brown and blue eye color predictions, respectively, and 11% for intermediate eye colors. Future developments should include incorporation of additional informative SNPs, specifically related to the intermediate eye color, and we recommend the use of a Bayesian approach as a prediction model as likelihood ratios can be determined for reporting purposes.

  3. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  4. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  5. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  6. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  7. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  8. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  9. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  10. Optics of arthropod compound eye.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S R

    1969-07-01

    The extent to which light can escape from one ommatidium into its neighbors in the compound eye has been examined by recording from single receptors during stimulation of single facets. In the "apposition" eye of the drone honeybee and locust, optical interaction is extremely small. In the "superposition" eye of the crayfish, more than half the light captured by the average cell gets in through neighboring facets, even when screening pigments are in the fully lightadapted position.

  11. The Photobiology of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joan E.; Dennison, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are antioxidants found in the human retina and macula. Recent clinical trials have determined that age- and diet-related loss of lutein and zeaxanthin enhances phototoxic damage to the human eye and that supplementation of these carotenoids has a protective effect against photoinduced damage to the lens and the retina. Two of the major mechanisms of protection offered by lutein and zeaxanthin against age-related blue light damage are the quenching of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species and the absorption of blue light. Determining the specific reactive intermediate(s) produced by a particular phototoxic ocular chromophore not only defines the mechanism of toxicity but can also later be used as a tool to prevent damage. PMID:26798505

  12. Automatic dry eye detection.

    PubMed

    Yedidya, Tamir; Hartley, Richard; Guillon, Jean-Pierre; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2007-01-01

    Dry Eye Syndrome is a common disease in the western world, with effects from uncomfortable itchiness to permanent damage to the ocular surface. Nevertheless, there is still no objective test that provides reliable results. We have developed a new method for the automated detection of dry areas in videos taken after instilling fluorescein in the tear film. The method consists of a multi-step algorithm to first locate the iris in each image, then align the images and finally analyze the aligned sequence in order to find the regions of interest. Since the fluorescein spreads on the ocular surface of the eye the edges of the iris are fuzzy making the detection of the iris challenging. We use RANSAC to first detect the upper and lower eyelids and then the iris. Then we align the images by finding differences in intensities at different scales and using a least squares optimization method (Levenberg-Marquardt), to overcome the movement of the iris and the camera. The method has been tested on videos taken from different patients. It is demonstrated to find the dry areas accurately and to provide a measure of the extent of the disease. PMID:18051131

  13. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  14. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  15. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  16. Aging and dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A

    2012-07-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD.

  17. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  18. Bonney's blue cystitis: a warning.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Payne, S D; Milroy, E J; Warwick, R T

    1989-03-01

    The instillation of diluted Bonney's blue into the bladder during gynaecological operations has been quite common practice over the last 50 years. Bonney's blue is composed of a 1:1 mixture of brilliant green and crystal violet dissolved in ethanol (90%) or industrial methylated spirit. Before insertion into the bladder this solution must be diluted with water to a 0.5% solution. Failure to do this will result in a severe inflammatory reaction within the bladder. The degree of resultant damage depends upon the duration of exposure. Persistent pain is a feature of this condition, although the other symptoms (frequency and urgency) may settle in time. Two cases of chemical cystitis resulting from the use of undiluted Bonney's blue are described to illustrate the possible consequences. Both patients were awarded 6-figure sums as compensation.

  19. What eye fixations tell us about phonological recoding during reading.

    PubMed

    Daneman, M; Reingold, E

    1993-06-01

    Evidence for phonological recoding during reading has depended on paradigms requiring readers to make some response in addition to reading (e.g., proofreading, concurrent speaking). Our subjects simply read text for comprehension, and their eye movements were monitored for spontaneous disruptions when encountering homophonic errors (e.g., He wore blew jeans.) versus nonhomophonic errors (e.g., He wore blow jeans.). Eye fixation behaviour revealed that readers initially experienced as much difficulty when encountering a homophonic error as a nonhomophonic one; however homophony facilitated the recovery process, at least for homophones that shared the same length as their context correct mates (e.g., blew/blue but not war/wore). The results support a theory of lexical access in which phonological sources of activation and influence are delayed relative to orthographic sources, rather than a theory in which phonological codes predominate.

  20. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  1. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus.

  2. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  3. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  4. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  5. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  6. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  7. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  8. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  9. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  10. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  11. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  12. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  13. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  14. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  15. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  16. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology.

  17. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology. PMID:26563659

  18. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  19. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  20. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  1. Further evidence for population specific differences in the effect of DNA markers and gender on eye colour prediction in forensics.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Karłowska-Pik, Joanna; Ziemkiewicz, Bartosz; Kukla, Magdalena; Skowron, Małgorzata; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Branicki, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    The genetics of eye colour has been extensively studied over the past few years, and the identified polymorphisms have been applied with marked success in the field of Forensic DNA Phenotyping. A picture that arises from evaluation of the currently available eye colour prediction markers shows that only the analysis of HERC2-OCA2 complex has similar effectiveness in different populations, while the predictive potential of other loci may vary significantly. Moreover, the role of gender in the explanation of human eye colour variation should not be neglected in some populations. In the present study, we re-investigated the data for 1020 Polish individuals and using neural networks and logistic regression methods explored predictive capacity of IrisPlex SNPs and gender in this population sample. In general, neural networks provided higher prediction accuracy comparing to logistic regression (AUC increase by 0.02-0.06). Four out of six IrisPlex SNPs were associated with eye colour in the studied population. HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407 and SLC24A4 rs12896399 were found to be the most important eye colour predictors (p < 0.007) while the effect of rs16891982 in SLC45A2 was less significant. Gender was found to be significantly associated with eye colour with males having ~1.5 higher odds for blue eye colour comparing to females (p = 0.002) and was ranked as the third most important factor in blue/non-blue eye colour determination. However, the implementation of gender into the developed prediction models had marginal and ambiguous impact on the overall accuracy of prediction confirming that the effect of gender on eye colour in this population is small. Our study indicated the advantage of neural networks in prediction modeling in forensics and provided additional evidence for population specific differences in the predictive importance of the IrisPlex SNPs and gender.

  2. Further evidence for population specific differences in the effect of DNA markers and gender on eye colour prediction in forensics.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Karłowska-Pik, Joanna; Ziemkiewicz, Bartosz; Kukla, Magdalena; Skowron, Małgorzata; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Branicki, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    The genetics of eye colour has been extensively studied over the past few years, and the identified polymorphisms have been applied with marked success in the field of Forensic DNA Phenotyping. A picture that arises from evaluation of the currently available eye colour prediction markers shows that only the analysis of HERC2-OCA2 complex has similar effectiveness in different populations, while the predictive potential of other loci may vary significantly. Moreover, the role of gender in the explanation of human eye colour variation should not be neglected in some populations. In the present study, we re-investigated the data for 1020 Polish individuals and using neural networks and logistic regression methods explored predictive capacity of IrisPlex SNPs and gender in this population sample. In general, neural networks provided higher prediction accuracy comparing to logistic regression (AUC increase by 0.02-0.06). Four out of six IrisPlex SNPs were associated with eye colour in the studied population. HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407 and SLC24A4 rs12896399 were found to be the most important eye colour predictors (p < 0.007) while the effect of rs16891982 in SLC45A2 was less significant. Gender was found to be significantly associated with eye colour with males having ~1.5 higher odds for blue eye colour comparing to females (p = 0.002) and was ranked as the third most important factor in blue/non-blue eye colour determination. However, the implementation of gender into the developed prediction models had marginal and ambiguous impact on the overall accuracy of prediction confirming that the effect of gender on eye colour in this population is small. Our study indicated the advantage of neural networks in prediction modeling in forensics and provided additional evidence for population specific differences in the predictive importance of the IrisPlex SNPs and gender. PMID:27221533

  3. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  4. [Gunshot into the eye].

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P

    1996-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was found dead sitting at his work-bench. A pistol Parabellum 1908 (9 mm Luger) was disassembled on the work-table. A pack of 9 mm Luger full metal jacket ammunition was opened. The left side of his glasses and the left eye were injured. The autopsy proved the death from air embolism. Radiography of the head revealed metallic fragments along the bullet path. The bullet had lost the jacket and the core was fragmented. Gunshot residues on the hands of the deceased and on the left side of the face indicated that the lethal injury was self inflicted. The function of the pistol "08" explicated that a shot could be fired from the isolated barrel which formed a unit with the bolt. The bullet showed traces of manipulation. In the house there were found other self-made dumdum-bullets. Death could be explained as an accident while cleaning the pistol.

  5. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  6. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  7. [Eye and sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Weber, M

    1999-11-15

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, of unknown cause, characterised by non-caseating granulomas. The most common organs involved are the lung, thoracic lymph nodes, skin and eyes. Ophthalmic involvement occurred in approximately 30% of the patients and could be the first manifestation of the disease and preceding pulmonary involvement for many years. If anterior uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, the posterior segment involvement (intermediate uveitis, vasculitis, choroidal granuloma, macular oedema...) is less common but more visually disabling. The non specific ocular manifestations of the disease make it as a difficult diagnosis. The "suspected sarcoidosis" diagnosis is made with regards to clinical, radiological and (or) biological criteria and the "definitive diagnosis" require the demonstration of a non-caseating, granulomatous, non-infectious inflammation process on biopsy.

  8. Pregnancy and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Küçümen, Raciha Beril

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. PMID:27800235

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  11. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  12. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  13. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  14. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  15. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  16. Analysis of water quality in the Blue River watershed, Colorado, 1984 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Miller, Lisa D.; Yacob, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of streams, reservoirs, and groundwater in the Blue River watershed in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado has been affected by local geologic conditions, historical hard-rock metal mining, and recent urban development. With these considerations, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Summit Water Quality Committee, conducted a study to compile historical water-quality data and assess water-quality conditions in the watershed. To assess water-quality conditions, stream data were primarily analyzed from October 1995 through December 2006, groundwater data from May 1996 through September 2004, and reservoir data from May 1984 through November 2007. Stream data for the Snake River, upper Blue River, and Tenmile Creek subwatersheds upstream from Dillon Reservoir and the lower Blue River watershed downstream from Dillon Reservoir were analyzed separately. (The complete abstract is provided in the report)

  17. Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

    PubMed

    Pflipsen, Matthew; Massaquoi, Mariama; Wolf, Suzanne

    2016-06-15

    Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis. PMID:27304768

  18. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  3. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  4. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  5. Yucca Mountain repository approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    At a quiet White House ceremony on 23 July, U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law House Joint Resolution 87, which approves the site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the development of a repository for disposing of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.White House spokesman Ari Fleischer called the signing “an important step forward on the way to a comprehensive policy for dealing with our nation's nuclear waste.”

  6. Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes, Cornrows, and Curls: Building on Books to Explore Physical Diversity with Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Lopez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Children notice physical characteristics of others and develop attitudes toward human diversity at a very young age. High-quality children's literature is a helpful springboard to encourage their awareness of differences and to develop their appreciation of uniqueness. Children's books can be an important avenue for shaping how children perceive…

  7. Detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images using machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebi, M. E.; Kingravi, Hassan A.; Aslandogan, Y. A.; Stoecker, William V.

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the advances in skin imaging technology and the development of suitable image processing techniques, during the last decade, there has been a significant increase of interest in the computer-aided diagnosis of skin cancer. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the useful features in dermoscopic diagnosis is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white "ground-glass" film) which is mostly associated with invasive melanoma. In this preliminary study, a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images is presented. The method involves pixel classification based on relative and absolute color features using a decision tree classifier. Promising results were obtained on a set of 224 dermoscopy images.

  8. The Time Course of Plausibility Effects on Eye Movements in Reading: Evidence from Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head…

  9. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    PubMed

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Great Blue Heron Eggs from Three Colonies on the Mississippi River, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Yun, S.-H.; Trowbridge, A.

    2010-01-01

    Archived Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 16) collected in 1993 from three colonies on the Mississippi River in Minnesota were analyzed in 2007 for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the three colonies, Pig's Eye, was located near a presumed source of PFCs. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of nine PFC concentrations differed significantly between Pig's Eye and the upriver (P = 0.002) and downriver (P = 0.02) colonies; but not between the upriver and downriver colonies (P = 0.25). Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a major PFC compound, were significantly higher at the Pig's Eye colony (geometric mean = 940 ng/g wet weight) than at upriver (60 ng/g wet weight) and downriver (131 ng/g wet weight) colonies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations from the Pig's Eye colony are among the highest reported in bird eggs. Concentrations of PFOS in Great Blue Heron eggs from Pig's Eye were well below the toxicity thresholds estimated for Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for White Leghorn Chickens (Gallus domesticus). The pattern of six PBDE congener concentrations did not differ among the three colonies (P = 0.08). Total PBDE concentrations, however, were significantly greater (P = 0.03) at Pig's Eye (geometric mean = 142 ng/g wet weight) than the upriver colony (13 ng/g wet weight). Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in two of six Great Blue Heron eggs from the Pig's Eye colony were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).

  11. Dermocystidium sp. Infection in Blue Ridge Sculpin Captured in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Blazer, Vicki S; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Snyder, Craig D; Snook, Erin L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2016-09-01

    Raised pale cysts were observed on Blue Ridge Sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum during stream fish community surveys in Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland. When examined histologically, preserved sculpin exhibited multiple cysts containing spherical endospores with a refractile central body characteristic of Dermocystidium spp. Cysts were not observed on the gills or internally. The portion of the watershed in which affected sculpin were observed contained lower than expected numbers of sculpin, raising concerns about the population effects of this infection. A nearby stream lacked sculpin even though they are common in this region, further suggesting the possibility of regional effects. This is the first report of a Dermocystidium infecting any fish species in the eastern United States. Received October 16, 2015; accepted February 14, 2016. PMID:27455037

  12. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  13. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  15. Blue Shield Plan Physician Participation

    PubMed Central

    Yett, Donald E.; Der, William; Ernst, Richard L.; Hay, Joel W.

    1981-01-01

    Many Blue Shield Plans offer participation agreements to physicians that are structurally similar to the participation provisions of Medicaid programs. This paper examines physicians' participation decisions in two such Blue Shield Plans where the participation agreements were on an all-or-nothing basis. The major results show that increases in the Plans' reasonable fees or fee schedules significantly raise the probability of participation, and that physicians with characteristics associated with “low quality” are significantly more likely to participate than are physicians with characteristics associated with “high quality.” In this sense the results highlight the tradeoff that must be faced in administering governmental health insurance policy. On the one hand, restricting reasonable and scheduled fees is the principal current tool for containing expenditures on physicians' services. Yet these restrictions tend to depress physicians' willingness to participate in government programs, thereby reducing access to high quality care by the populations those programs were designed to serve. PMID:10309468

  16. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  17. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  18. Collaborative EDNAP exercise on the IrisPlex system for DNA-based prediction of human eye colour.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Walsh, Susan; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Ansell, Ricky; Ballantyne, Kaye; Ballard, David; Banemann, Regine; Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bento, Ana Margarida; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capal, Tomas; Clarisse, Lindy; Gross, Theresa E; Haas, Cordula; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Kiesler, Kevin M; Kohler, Priscila; Kupiec, Tomasz; Linacre, Adrian; Minawi, Anglika; Morling, Niels; Nilsson, Helena; Norén, Lina; Ottens, Renée; Palo, Jukka U; Parson, Walther; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Phillips, Chris; Porto, Maria João; Sajantila, Antti; Schneider, Peter M; Sijen, Titia; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Tillmar, Andreas; Turanska, Martina; Vallone, Peter M; Zatkalíková, Lívia; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    The IrisPlex system is a DNA-based test system for the prediction of human eye colour from biological samples and consists of a single forensically validated multiplex genotyping assay together with a statistical prediction model that is based on genotypes and phenotypes from thousands of individuals. IrisPlex predicts blue and brown human eye colour with, on average, >94% precision accuracy using six of the currently most eye colour informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, SLC45A2 (MATP) rs16891982, TYR rs1393350, and IRF4 rs12203592) according to a previous study, while the accuracy in predicting non-blue and non-brown eye colours is considerably lower. In an effort to vigorously assess the IrisPlex system at the international level, testing was performed by 21 laboratories in the context of a collaborative exercise divided into three tasks and organised by the European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG). Task 1 involved the assessment of 10 blood and saliva samples provided on FTA cards by the organising laboratory together with eye colour phenotypes; 99.4% of the genotypes were correctly reported and 99% of the eye colour phenotypes were correctly predicted. Task 2 involved the assessment of 5 DNA samples extracted by the host laboratory from simulated casework samples, artificially degraded, and provided to the participants in varying DNA concentrations. For this task, 98.7% of the genotypes were correctly determined and 96.2% of eye colour phenotypes were correctly inferred. For Tasks 1 and 2 together, 99.2% (1875) of the 1890 genotypes were correctly generated and of the 15 (0.8%) incorrect genotype calls, only 2 (0.1%) resulted in incorrect eye colour phenotypes. The voluntary Task 3 involved participants choosing their own test subjects for IrisPlex genotyping and eye colour phenotype inference, while eye photographs were provided to the organising

  19. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  20. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  1. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  2. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  3. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The importance of vision screening There are many eye conditions and diseases ... child’s vision. Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision If any of the following conditions is suspected, ...

  4. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  5. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  6. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  7. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  8. Head and eye Echoencephalogram (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to test for abnormalities in the eye. The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

  9. The Glowing Eye of NGC 6751

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have obtained images of the strikingly unusual planetary nebula, NGC 6751. Glowing in the constellation Aquila like a giant eye, the nebula is a cloud of gas ejected several thousand years ago from the hot star visible in its center. The Hubble observations were obtained in 1998 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) by a team of astronomers led by Arsen Hajian of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. The Hubble Heritage team, working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, has prepared this color rendition by combining the Hajian team's WFPC2 images taken through three different color filters that isolate nebular gases of different temperatures. The nebula shows several remarkable and poorly understood features. Blue regions mark the hottest glowing gas, which forms a roughly circular ring around the central stellar remnant. Orange and red show the locations of cooler gas. The cool gas tends to lie in long streamers pointing away from the central star, and in a surrounding, tattered-looking ring at the outer edge of the nebula. The origin of these cooler clouds within the nebula is still uncertain, but the streamers are clear evidence that their shapes are affected by radiation and stellar winds from the hot star at the center.

  10. Metamorphic Mountain: Mount Jefferson State Park. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, George K., II

    This activity packet was designed to introduce students in grades 5-7 to the geology of the Blue Ridge Mountains through hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Jefferson State Park (Jefferson, North Carolina). Previsit activities introduce students to the different rock types: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.…

  11. Metamorphic Mountain, Mount Jefferson State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, George K., II; Hubbard, William F.; Lambert, Michael D.; Beazley, Lea J.

    Mount Jefferson State Natural Area is located in the southern Blue Ridge highlands of North Carolina and covers 489 acres, which includes peaks and upper slopes to the Mount Jefferson mountain. This document introduces students to the geology of Mount Jefferson State Park and focuses on the geologic processes and rocks and minerals of Mount…

  12. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  13. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  14. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7-C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  15. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  16. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  17. Blue laser system for photo-dynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabu, R.; Carstocea, B.; Blanaru, C.; Pacala, O.; Stratan, A.; Ursu, D.; Stegaru, F.

    2007-03-01

    A blue laser system for eye diseases (age related macular degeneration, sub-retinal neo-vascularisation in myopia and presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome - POHS) photo-dynamic therapy, based on riboflavin as photosensitive substance, has been developed. A CW diode laser at 445 nm wavelength was coupled through an opto-mechanical system to the viewing path of a bio-microscope. The laser beam power in the irradiated area is adjustable between 1 mW and 40 mW, in a spot of 3-5 mm diameter. The irradiation time can be programmed in the range of 1-19 minutes. Currently, the laser system is under clinic tests.

  18. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  19. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  20. Opsin evolution and expression in Arthropod compound Eyes and Ocelli: Insights from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opsins are key proteins in animal photoreception. Together with a light-sensitive group, the chromophore, they form visual pigments which initiate the visual transduction cascade when photoactivated. The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. Studies on the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins have received considerable attention, but our knowledge about insect visual opsins is still limited. Up to now, researchers have focused on holometabolous insects, while general conclusions require sampling from a broader range of taxa. We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Results Phylogenetic analyses place all identified cricket sequences within the three main visual opsin clades of insects. We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue (445 nm) and UV (332 nm) spectral range. Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1) the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2) a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3) the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. In addition, we provide evidence for two ocellar photopigments with peak absorbances in the green (511 nm) and UV (350 nm) spectral range, and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Conclusions Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more specialized than has previously been assumed, suggesting that similar adaptations in other insect species might have been overlooked. The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally accepted pattern found in holometabolous insect taxa and awaits a

  1. Use digital subtraction images of blue-light and near-infrared autofluorescence for the assessment of irregular foveal contour.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Gangwani, Rita; Liu, Limin; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to generate subtraction images of blue-light autofluorescence (BL-AF) and near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) from normal eyes, eyes with full thickness macular holes, and eyes with irregular foveal contour, and to compare their autofluorescence patterns. This retrospective study included 44 normal eyes of 22 health individuals, 32 eyes with full thickness macular holes of 32 patients, and 36 eyes with irregular foveal contour of 36 patients. BL-AF and NIR-AF were obtained from all patients and used to generate subtraction images using the Image J software. The decreased signal of central patch was recorded. The central foveal thickness (CFT) and outer nucleus layer (ONL) thickness of fovea were measured to calculate the ONL thickness/CFT ratio. The subtraction images showed regularly increased signal in the central macula of all normal eyes. In contrast, decreased signal of central patch was detected in all full thickness macular holes eyes and 26 out of 36 eyes with irregular foveal contour. No significant difference of the ONL thickness/CFT ratio (F = 2.32, P = 0.113) was observed between normal and irregular foveal contour eyes with or without decreased signal of central patch. Both regularly increased signal and decreased signal of central patch were detected in the eyes with irregular foveal contour. Our results suggest that subtraction images are useful for the assessment of certain macular conditions by providing supplementary information to the green-light autofluorescence and BL-AF.

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  3. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  4. Mountain Weather and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piaget, A.

    As Barry says in his preface, this is the first book dealing with mountain weather and climate worldwide and represents a review of all publications on the subject. As a matter of fact, this approach is not the best because information is not always extensively presented. It looks like a colorful stone mosaic, where a lot of stones are missing. Barry says in his introduction that the studies were ‘often viewed only in the context of a particular local problem.’

  5. Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    Hydropower regulations, particularly those which must be met during the pre-construction phase, have become considerably more extensive and complicated over the last few years. This article, which outlines the pre-construction phase of the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project, provides a good example of the steps developers should be prepared to take before construction commences. The Department of Energy is funding $750,000 of the project's $1,200,000 budget to gain meaningful and reliable information for the public regarding the development and operation of an inexpensive, low head, domestically manufactured cross-flow turbine. To satisfy their requirements several studies and reports are being prepared for the DOE.

  6. 14 CFR 67.103 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.103 Section 67.103 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.103 Eye. Eye standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye separately,...

  7. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  13. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  14. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  15. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  16. Effects of eye color on frisbee toss.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P

    1988-04-01

    Light-eyed individuals generally perform better at self-paced activities while dark-eyed individuals perform better at reactive activities. Using multiple regression it was found that dark-eyed students hit a target with a frisbee more times than did light-eyed students.

  17. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  18. Io Through Different 'Eyes'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage demonstrates New Horizons' ability to observe the same target in complementary ways using its diverse suite of instruments. Previously released views taken at visible and slightly longer infrared wavelengths with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), New Horizons' high-resolution black-and-white camera, and the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), its color camera, are here compared with a nearly simultaneous view from the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), which observes its targets in more than 200 separate wavelengths of infrared light. This color LEISA view of Io (bottom right) combines three wavelength ranges, centered at 1.80, 2.04, and 2.31 micrometers.

    The LORRI image (left) shows fine details on Io's sunlit crescent and in the partially sunlit plume from the Tvashtar volcano, and reveals the bright nighttime glow of the hot lavas at the source of the Tvashtar plume. The MVIC image (top right) shows the contrasting colors of the red lava and blue plume at Tvashtar, and the sulfur and sulfur dioxide deposits on Io's sunlit surface. The LEISA image shows that the glow of the Tvashtar volcano is even more intense at infrared wavelengths and reveals the infrared glow of at least 10 fainter volcanic hot spots on the moon's nightside. The brightest of these, Amirani/Maui, which is visible to the lower right of Tvashtar, is less than 4% as bright as Tvashtar. All of these are long-lived hot spots that have been observed previously by the Galileo orbiter. Further analysis of the LEISA data will provide information on the volcanoes' temperatures, and data on the sunlit crescent of Io will reveal details of Io's surface composition.

    The LORRI, MVIC and LEISA images were taken March 1, 2007, at 00:35, 00:25 and 00:31 Universal Time, respectively, from a range of 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles). The images are centered at Io coordinates 4 degrees south, 164 degrees west.

  19. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  20. Meteorites and Microbes: Meteorite Collection and Ice Sampling at Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition, sponsored by the Planetary Studies Foundation, meteorites and ice microbiota were collected from the Patriot Hills, and Thiel Mountains of Antarctica and snow samples were at the South Pole. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota were obtained from blue ice, cryoconite and ice-bubble systems. Twenty frozen meteorites were collected using aseptic techniques from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85 S, 94 W) and from the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80 S, 81 W) Ellsworth Mountains. These ice and meteorite samples are of potential significance to Astrobiology. They may help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers and refine characteristics of microbial life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. We discuss the Antarctica 2000 Expedition and provide preliminary results of the investigation of the meteorites and ice microbiota recovered.

  1. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  2. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  3. Spatial Resolution Effects of Remote Sensing Informed Soil Nutrient Models Based on Landsat 8, RapidEye, WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Grunwald, S.; Smith, S. E.; Abd-Elrahman, A.; Clingensmith, C. M.; Wani, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil nutrient storage is essential and important to maintain food security and soil security in smallholder farm settings. The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in Kothapally, India. We utilized Bayesian kriging (BK) to characterize the spatial pattern of total nitrogen (TN) and exchangeable potassium (Kex) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30m), RapidEye (5m) and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1 images (2m). The band ratio of red to green, red to blue and green to blue, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images generally had high linear correlations with TN and Kex. The BK model of TN based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 attained the highest model fit (R2=0.41) and lowest prediction error (RMSE=171.35 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of TN based on Landsat 8 (R2=0.30; RMSE=182.26 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.28; RMSE=183.52 mg kg-1). The BK model of Kex based on Landsat 8 had the highest model fit (R2=0.55) and the second lowest prediction error (RMSE=79.57 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of Kex based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 (R2=0.52; RMSE=79.42 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.47; RMSE=83.91 mg kg-1). The lowest prediction fit and highest prediction error of soil TN and Kex models based on RapidEye suggest that the effect of fine spatial remote sensing spectral data inputs do not always lead to an increase of model fit. Soil maps based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 have significant advantages in characterizing the variation of soil TN and Kex spatial pattern in smallholder farm settings compared with coarser maps. This research suggests that Digital Soil Mapping utilizing remote sensing spectral data from WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 has high potential to be widely applied in smallholder farm settings and help smallholder farmers manage their soils and attain soil

  4. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  5. [Incidence of sports-related eye injuries].

    PubMed

    Pikkel, J; Gelfand, Y; Miller, B

    1995-10-01

    The incidence of sports-related eye injuries was analyzed retrospectively for 1991-1993. It was fairly steady at about 2% of all eye casualties annually. 21% of those with sports-related eye injuries required hospitalization. The commonest pathological findings were corneal erosion (32%), eye lid injuries (27%), hyphema (19%) and macular edema (3%). Most eyes were injured during soccer (37%) and basketball (27%) games, the most popular sports in Israel.

  6. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-12-12

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  7. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns. PMID:9112193

  8. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns.

  9. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  10. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michele M.; Jamieson, Christopher G.; Lal, Geeta

    1996-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, an uncommon condition, is manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas and gastrointestinal hemorrhage causing anemia. The authors report a unique case of the syndrome in association with a congenital cardiac malformation. A 26-year-old woman presented with iron-deficiency anemia after the birth of her first child. She had a history of skin and gastrointestinal hemangiomas and tetralogy of Fallot. Endoscopy revealed multiple new intestinal hemangiomas, which were removed through enterotomies with resolution of the anemia. Iron therapy was prescribed, and her condition was stable at follow-up 5 years later. PMID:8599795

  11. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  12. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  14. Three dimensional perspective view of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit, April 13, 1994. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar iamage on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation Map. Vertical exaggeration is 2X. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-Band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-Band VV to C-Band HV. Blue areas are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. Crowley Lake is in the foreground and Highway 395 crosses in the middle of the image. Mammoth Mountain is shown in the upper right. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43933.

  15. Eye shape illusions induced by eyebrow positions.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Mitsuzane, Saya; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the position of the eyebrows influences the perceived shape of the eyes by employing psychophysical measurements. Experiment 1 used arched and straight eyebrows at five different inclinations as stimuli and measured the perceived inclination of the eyes. The results demonstrated that the eyes are perceived to be somewhat inclined in the same direction as the eyebrows. Experiment 2 measured the perceived eye size by manipulating the distance between the eyes and the eyebrows and the curvature of the eyebrows across three levels. The results showed that the lower eyebrows (ie closer to eyes) made the eyes appear larger and the higher eyebrows made the eyes appear smaller, while eyebrow curvature had no effect on perceived eye size. Experiment 3 examined the role of the eye-eyebrow distance in the eye inclination illusion shown in experiment 1. The eye inclination illusion was unaffected by the eye-eyebrow distance, suggesting that the eye inclination illusion and the eye size illusion may involve different kinds of assimilation. These illusions are discussed in terms of face perception and possible practical applications.

  16. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  17. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. PMID:27638066

  18. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  19. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  20. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  1. Best practice eye care models

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  2. Influence of Light Emitting Diode-Derived Blue Light Overexposure on Mouse Ocular Surface

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Seok; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Choi, Joo-Hee; Li, Zhengri; Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of overexposure to light emitting diode (LED)-derived light with various wavelengths on mouse ocular surface. Methods LEDs with various wavelengths were used to irradiate C57BL/6 mice at an energy dose of 50 J/cm2, twice a day, for 10 consecutive days. The red, green, and blue groups represented wavelengths of 630 nm, 525 nm, and 410 nm, respectively. The untouched group (UT) was not exposed to LED light and served as the untreated control. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in the cornea and conjunctiva using a multiplex immunobead assay at day 10. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry, 2’7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, histologic analysis, immunohistochemistry with 4-hydroxynonenal, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were also performed. Results TBUT of the blue group showed significant decreases at days 7 and 10, compared with the UT and red groups. Corneal fluorescein staining scores significantly increased in the blue group when compared with UT, red, and green groups at days 5, 7, and 10. A significant increase in the corneal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed in the blue group, compared with the other groups. The blue group showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species production in the DCF-DA assay and increased inflammatory T cells in the flow cytometry. A significantly increased TUNEL positive cells was identified in the blue group. Conclusions Overexposure to blue light with short wavelengths can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis to the cornea, which may manifest as increased ocular surface inflammation and resultant dry eye. PMID:27517861

  3. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-01-01

    The report includes a glossary to explain geologic terms used in the text, and numerous photos, maps, and diagrams illustrate the geologic principles discussed. References for further reading are also included. 

  5. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-02-10

    The report includes a glossary to explain geologic terms used in the text, and numerous photos, maps, and diagrams illustrate the geologic principles discussed. References for further reading are also included. 

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  7. The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2010-10-01

    The Blue Dots initiative (a grassroot effort to build a scientific community in Europe around the exoplanet theme) is introduced. The Blue Dots activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets, a summary of which is presented here. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  8. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  9. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  10. Genetics of eye colours in different rural populations on the Silk Road.

    PubMed

    Ulivi, Sheila; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Eye colour is a highly transmissible and discernible trait in humans. A genome-wide association scan for variants associated to eye pigmentation was carried out on a large group of individuals coming from the Silk Road. Significant associations were detected not only with HERC2 (P-value=4.99 × 10(-37)) and OCA2 (P-value=4.51 × 10(-9)) genes but also with CTNNA2 gene (P-value=4.06 × 10(-8)). Moreover, the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis clearly showed the effect of HERC2 haplotype over OCA2 mostly associated with SNP, thus enabling a highly accurate eye-colour prediction. Finally, the regression tree analysis showed that individuals carrying a given combination of haplotypes have a significant probability to show a blue or green/grey iris colour as compared with brown, with a gradient from west to east.

  11. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  12. Red eyes in renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1992-01-01

    Of 57 patients with chronic renal failure who all had deposition of calcium salts in the conjunctival and corneal tissue two developed a brief episode of painful irritation and redness of the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva. This hyperaemia was adjacent to erosions of the corneal epithelium of the eye as a consequence of exfoliation of calcium concretions from the superficial corneal epithelium. Eight patients showed inflammatory reactions of the conjunctivae that were clinically identical to inflamed pingueculae. Three patients showed an inflammatory reaction of the eye that was characterised by a waxy red, more or less diffuse, episcleral and conjunctival hyperaemia extending beyond the palpebral fissure. The average value of the serum calcium concentration in these patients was particularly high and statistically significantly higher than in patients with calcification but without inflammatory signs and also higher than in patients who showed pingueculitis. We propose to reserve the term 'red eye of renal failure' for the latter group of patients. Images PMID:1390507

  13. Moving Ahead With Eye Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

  14. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs.

  15. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  16. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  17. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  18. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  19. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  20. More Eye-popping 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover shows an extreme close-up of round, blueberry-shaped grains on the crater floor near the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum called Stone Mountain. Scientists are studying these curious formations for clues about the soil's history. The observed area is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  1. Comparative avian phylogeography of Cameroon and equatorial Guinea mountains: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Smith, T B; Holder, K; Girman, D; O'Keefe, K; Larison, B; Chan, Y

    2000-10-01

    We illustrate the use of Faith's 'Phylogenetic Diversity' measure to compare the phylogeographic structure of two bird species with patterns of avian endemism across six mountains in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Mountain Greenbul and Cameroon Blue-headed Sunbird showed phylogeographic patterns that together defined three biogeographic regions: Bioko, Mt. Cameroon, and the northern mountains of Cameroon. In contrast, the distributions of endemic species were largely a function of geographical distance, with close mountains sharing more endemic species than distant mountains. Moreover, for both species, populations on Mt. Cameroon were distinctive with respect to the ecologically relevant character bill size. Our results, while preliminary, illustrate the utility of a comparative approach for identifying geographical regions that harbour evolutionarily distinct populations and caution against using only the distributional patterns of endemics to prioritize regions for conservation. Results show that patterns of endemism may not be concordant with patterns of phylogenetic diversity nor morphological variation in a character important in fitness. While incorporation of additional species from unrelated taxa will be necessary to draw definitive conclusions about evolutionarily distinct regions, our preliminary results suggest a conservation approach for the Afromontane region of the Gulf of Guinea that would: (i) emphasize protection of both Bioko and Mt. Cameroon, thereby maximizing preservation of within-species phylogenetic and morphologic diversity; (ii) emphasize protection within the northern mountains to further conserve intraspecific phylogenetic diversity and maximize protection of endemic species.

  2. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  3. Blue angioedema of eyelip after patent blue injection for lymphatic mapping procedure.

    PubMed

    Weng, P-W; Hsu, H-M; Chen, T-W; Hsieh, C-B; Chang, T-M; Chen, V T K; Yu, J-C

    2007-07-01

    Sentinel node biopsy using patent blue dye in breast cancer is a well-documented procedure to assess the axillary status. We presented an unusual and previously unreported complication of simple blue angioedema over bilaterally periorbital tissue after blue dye injection.

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  8. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  9. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  10. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  11. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  12. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  16. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  17. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  20. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  1. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  2. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  3. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  4. Blue moons and large fires.

    PubMed

    Porch, W M

    1989-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of simulations of optical effects from the 1950 Canadian forest fires has revealed what conditions are necessary for large fires to cause blue moons and suns. This study shows how large fires can be used to improve our understanding of long range pollution transport on a global scale as well as the evolution of aerosol radiative effects so important to global climate studies. The most important aerosol characteristics are the initial submicron smoke particle concentration and areal extent of the fire and its effect on fire plume dispersion. Capping clouds above the fire and near saturation humidity effects are simulated and found to help establish anomalous optical effects. Data are included showing probable anomalous extinction events associated with concentrated fire plumes.

  5. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  6. A unique apposition compound eye in the mesopelagic hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis.

    PubMed

    Baldwin Fergus, Jamie L; Johnsen, Sönke; Osborn, Karen J

    2015-02-16

    The mesopelagic habitat is a vast space that lacks physical landmarks and is structured by depth, light penetration, and horizontal currents. Solar illumination is visible in the upper 1,000 m of the ocean, becoming dimmer and spectrally filtered with depth-generating a nearly monochromatic blue light field. The struggle to perceive dim downwelling light and bioluminescent sources and the need to remain unseen generate contrasting selective pressures on the eyes of mesopelagic inhabitants. Hyperiid amphipods are cosmopolitan members of the mesopelagic fauna with at least ten different eye configurations across the family-ranging from absent eyes in deep-living species to four enlarged eyes in mesopelagic individuals. The hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis has a pair of bi-lobed apposition compound eyes, each with a large upward-looking portion and a small lateral-looking portion. The most unusual feature of the P. gracilis eye is that its upward-looking portion is resolved into a discontinuous retina with 12 distinct groups, each serving one transverse row of continuously spaced facets. On the basis of eye morphology, we estimated spatial acuity (2.5° ± 0.11°, SEM; n = 25) and optical sensitivity (30 ± 3.4 μm(2) ⋅ sr, SEM; n = 25). Microspectrophotometry showed that spectral sensitivity of the eye peaked at 516 nm (±3.9 nm, SEM; n = 6), significantly offset from the peak of downwelling irradiance in the mesopelagic realm (480 nm). Modeling of spatial summation within the linear retinal groups showed that it boosts sensitivity with less cost to spatial acuity than more typical configurations.

  7. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  8. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  9. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications.

  10. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  11. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  12. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Great blue heron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.; Cooper, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The great blue heron is the largest, most widely distributed, and best known of the American herons (Henny 1972). Great blue herons occur in a variety of habitats from freshwater lakes and rivers to brackish marshes, lagoons, mangrove areas, and coastal wetlands (Spendelow and Patton in prep.).

  14. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... million. Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive ultramarine blue may be safely used for coloring salt intended for animal feed subject to the restriction that the quantity of ultramarine blue does not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the salt. (d)...

  15. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  16. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.

    PubMed

    Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  17. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  18. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  19. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  20. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.